4 8 livestock health

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4 8 livestock health

  1. 1. Livestock Health
  2. 2. Healthy Animals <ul><li>Are a large investment in time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Grow faster and produce more profit for their owners </li></ul><ul><li>Better able to resist disease and stress </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sick animals <ul><li>Usually display outward signs of illness </li></ul><ul><li>Sick animals may be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listless, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go off feed and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be restless, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a dull coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emaciated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feverish </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why do animals get sick <ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous plants </li></ul>
  5. 5. Parasites <ul><li>Worms </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodworms </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks </li></ul><ul><li>Lice </li></ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul><ul><li>Mange </li></ul>
  6. 6. Worms <ul><li>Internal parasites, common in all livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Live in intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Damage intestinal wall </li></ul><ul><li>Drink animals blood or </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent absorption of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>May kill sheep & goats </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals are bloated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emaciated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low energy </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Worm Treatments <ul><li>Deworming every 3-6 mos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious cases: 2 doses given 10-14 days apart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rotate pastures after deworming </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t feed on ground – use trough </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate worming products </li></ul>
  8. 8. External Parasites <ul><li>Skin/coat parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Lice, Ticks & Mites are Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Treat with dips, sprays, rubs </li></ul><ul><li>Mange & Ringworm are fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Treat with fungicides </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flies <ul><li>Cause infection in eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Uses sprays and masks </li></ul>
  10. 10. Immunity <ul><li>Ability of body to fight off disease by the development of antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Colostrum – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st milk after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers antibodies are passed to baby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby’s intestinal tract will only allow absorption in the first hours after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babies make their own antibodies in about two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations – allows animals to make anitbodies to fight common diseases </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vaccinations <ul><li>All species have a recommended vaccination plan </li></ul><ul><li>Additional vaccinations needed for pregnant animals </li></ul><ul><li>Many vaccinations cannot be given within a specified period of slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Never inject into a prime cut in a meat animal </li></ul><ul><li>Keep refrigerated </li></ul>
  12. 12. Vaccinations <ul><li>Intravenous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinch skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intramuscular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In large neck muscles </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. GUIDELINES FOR PROPER VACCINATION OF ANIMALS <ul><li>Use a clean syringe in good working order </li></ul><ul><li>Use only the dose directed </li></ul><ul><li>Use proper method and proper route </li></ul><ul><li>Keep vaccine bottles refrigerated </li></ul><ul><li>Do not expose live biologicals to sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Observe slaughter withdrawal time </li></ul><ul><li>Do not inject in primal cuts; use shoulder of neck muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect or change needles for each different animal </li></ul><ul><li>Follow all manufacturer’s directions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diseases <ul><li>Many diseases can be prevented by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive Care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some diseases are not easily preventable </li></ul><ul><li>Some are deadly </li></ul><ul><li>Some cause lower reproductive rates and poor growth </li></ul>
  15. 15. Foot & Mouth Disease <ul><li>One of the most feared diseases in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly contagious </li></ul><ul><li>Affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs and goats. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blisters in the mouth and on feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>salivation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lameness and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased milk production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If detected, the whole herd must be destroyed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hoof & Mouth Disease <ul><li>Outbreak in UK & Ireland in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Million animals destroyed to contain the disease </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism industry crippled </li></ul><ul><li>Many farms never recovered </li></ul>
  17. 17. Avian Flu <ul><li>Highly Contagious virus </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially devastating to Va. Poultry industry </li></ul><ul><li>All poultry must be checked before slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>2007 antibodies detected </li></ul><ul><li>Major outbreaks in 1983 & 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 million birds destroyed to contain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: coughing, sneezing, ruffled feathers, swollen heads, nervous signs such as depression, and diarrhea </li></ul>
  18. 18. Biosecurity on Farms <ul><li>Keep a “closed herd” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarantine & test animals coming in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No shows or fairs, breeding animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good fences & buffer zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limit visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Footbaths/wheel baths </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of dead animals quickly </li></ul>
  19. 19. Calf Scours <ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Dried-out mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by bacteria, protozoa, or viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Primary cause of calf loss </li></ul>
  20. 20. Colic <ul><li>Colic is a disease that affects a horse’s Gastro-intestinal tract(GI tract). </li></ul><ul><li>Generally caused by obstruction in the digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by worms </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently fatal </li></ul>
  21. 21. Foundering <ul><li>Laminitis </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the feet </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by eating too rich a diet </li></ul><ul><li>Very common in ponies </li></ul><ul><li>Very common in springtime </li></ul>
  22. 22. Poisoning <ul><li>Pasture plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>palatability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biggest problem in early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a problem during drought </li></ul><ul><li>Hay – harder for animals to separate </li></ul><ul><li>Provide salt/mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Spray or pull weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Buttercups </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry trees </li></ul><ul><li>Milkweed </li></ul><ul><li>Jimson Weed </li></ul><ul><li>Pokeberries </li></ul><ul><li>Pigweed </li></ul><ul><li>Skunk cabbage </li></ul>
  23. 23. Herd Health Plan <ul><li>Provide adequate nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain adequate livestock facilities; avoid overcrowding. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep facilities clean and disinfected. </li></ul><ul><li>Use proper immunization. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop procedure for parasite control. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Isolate new or returning animals for 3-4 weeks before combining with herd. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate pastures. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep animal stress to a minimum. </li></ul><ul><li>Control possible disease spread by visiting humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Work closely with veterinarian in developing prevention programs as well as treating diseases. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Herd Health Plan <ul><li>Drain lots so that they will remain dry and free of stagnant water </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate all animals known to have contagious infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat open wounds and navels of newborn calves with reliable disinfectant. </li></ul><ul><li>If cows calve in places other than clean pastures, be sure area is well-bedded and disinfected. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide plenty of clean, fresh water </li></ul>
  26. 26. Upcoming Events <ul><li>Livestock Species Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete PowerPoint TODAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monday – Handout & Quiz due - FFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuesday – Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wednesday – Food For America Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thursday – Food for America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friday – Guest Speaker – Poultry Farmer </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Food for America <ul><li>Need stations & guides </li></ul><ul><li>24 groups </li></ul><ul><li>24 stations </li></ul><ul><li>Go to advisory, then come to the FFA field </li></ul><ul><li>Kids arrive 10, eat 12:30, leave at 1. </li></ul><ul><li>High school students clean up & eat after kids leave </li></ul><ul><li>Permission Slips soon - signed by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>NO SHORTS ALLOWED! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sample Class <ul><li>Chickens </li></ul>

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