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4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
4 22 soil fertility & texture
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4 22 soil fertility & texture

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  • 1. Soil Fertility <ul><li>Measure of the nutrients in a soil available for plant life; </li></ul><ul><li>Macronutrients: N-P-K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BORON (B)  -IRON (Fe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHLORINE (Cl)  -MANGANESE (Mn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COPPER (Cu)    -MOLYBDENUM (Mo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZINC (Zn) </li></ul></ul>
  • 2. Fertilizers: N-P-K <ul><li>N is for % Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>P is for % Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>K is for % Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>If a fertilizer is 10 – 10 – 10. It is a Balanced fertilizer for general purpose use. It has 10% each of the macronutrients and 70% filler to make application easier </li></ul><ul><li>Lawn fertilizer would have a balance like 16 - 4 - 4. </li></ul>
  • 3. Soil testing <ul><li>Test kit for NPK </li></ul><ul><li>Send off samples to extension service for micronutrients </li></ul><ul><li>New testing for biological activity </li></ul><ul><li>Applying fertilizer with out a soil test is a potential waste of money and harmful to the environment </li></ul>
  • 4. Nitrogen <ul><li>Start-up fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Green growth </li></ul><ul><li>Need most for grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t add to fruiting plants except at initial planting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get green growth &amp; no flowers &amp; fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen deficiency – yellow color </li></ul>
  • 5. Soil Amendments Nitrogen <ul><li>Nitrate of Soda: Inorganic, Soluble &amp; quickly available. Lowers acidity. 16% N </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium nitrate: Inorganic, Not as soluble. 33%N </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium sulfate: Inorganic, Lower solublilty. Makes soil acidic. 21% N </li></ul><ul><li>Urea formaldehyde: Organic, available more slowly, 38%N </li></ul>
  • 6. Leaching <ul><li>The more soluble a fertilizer is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quicker it is available to plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The faster it washes (leaches out of the soil) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insoluble fertilizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called slow release fertilizer – releases throughout the growing season. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some fertilizers are coated to slow their release </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Phosphorus amendments <ul><li>Superphosphate: 20% P </li></ul><ul><li>Treble superphosphate: 46% P </li></ul><ul><li>Rock phosphate: 25 – 35% P </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium phosphate: 48% P </li></ul><ul><li>Held tightly by soil so does not leach </li></ul><ul><li>Excess application does the most damage to lakes &amp; streams </li></ul>
  • 8. Potassium Amendments <ul><li>Muriate of potash: 60% K </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfate of potash: 49% K </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate of potash: 44% K </li></ul>
  • 9. pH <ul><li>Lime is added to increase the pH. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur or iron sulfate or Mg Sulfate is added to decrease the pH for acid loving plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Acid favoring plants; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollies, Camellias, Azaleas, Rhododendrons, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrangeas – blooms change color based on pH. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables: egg plant, potatoes, &amp; watermelon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lime also supplements calcium (minor nutrient). Piedmont Virginia soils are frequently calcium deficient </li></ul>
  • 10. Organic Amendments <ul><li>Compost – adds tilth, ?-?-?, relatively low </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed meal: 7-3-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fish emulsion: 5-1-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Bonemeal: 4-12-0 </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodmeal: 11-0-0 </li></ul><ul><li>Manure: 1-1-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage sludge: 2-1-1* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*May not be eligible for organic certification </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Soil texture <ul><li>Mineral material - different sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Types of Soils <ul><li>Particle Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandy Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clayey Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loamy Soil </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Soil Texture Test <ul><li>Sand – largest &amp; heaviest particles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinks to bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms bottom layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silt – lighter than sand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinks slower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms 2 nd layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clay – Small particles – hold e- charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay in suspension </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Soil Texture Test <ul><li>Need 2 values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 3 rd is the remainder from 100 </li></ul>Bottom Original Fill Line 60% 30%
  • 15. Sand + Silt + Clay = 100% Texture = Sandy Loam 60 % Sand 30 % Silt 10 % Clay
  • 16. Sandy soils: <ul><li>Low in organic matter content and native fertility, </li></ul><ul><li>Low in ability to retain moisture and nutrients, </li></ul><ul><li>Low in cation exchange and buffer capacities, </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly permeable </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy soils usually have high bulk densities </li></ul><ul><li>Resist compaction </li></ul>
  • 17. Loamy Soils <ul><li>More fertile: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more organic matter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have higher cation exchange and buffer capacities, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are better able to retain moisture and nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate movement of air and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate resistance to compaction </li></ul>
  • 18. Clayey Soils <ul><li>Drain poorly </li></ul><ul><li>Hold nutrients tightly </li></ul><ul><li>Very high cation exchange capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Compact easily &amp; dry very hard </li></ul><ul><li>Very plastic - can shrink &amp; swell </li></ul>
  • 19. What is the best soil? <ul><li>&amp;quot;Best for what?&amp;quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Crops? </li></ul><ul><li>Stable Buildings? </li></ul><ul><li>Building Ponds? </li></ul><ul><li>Good Drainage? </li></ul>

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