4 22 soil fertility & texture
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4 22 soil fertility & texture

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4 22 soil fertility & texture 4 22 soil fertility & texture Presentation Transcript

  • Soil Fertility
    • Measure of the nutrients in a soil available for plant life;
    • Macronutrients: N-P-K
      • Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
    • Secondary:
      • Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur
    • Micronutrients:
      • BORON (B)  -IRON (Fe)
      • CHLORINE (Cl)  -MANGANESE (Mn)
      • COPPER (Cu)    -MOLYBDENUM (Mo)
      • ZINC (Zn)
  • Fertilizers: N-P-K
    • N is for % Nitrogen
    • P is for % Phosphorus
    • K is for % Potassium
    • If a fertilizer is 10 – 10 – 10. It is a Balanced fertilizer for general purpose use. It has 10% each of the macronutrients and 70% filler to make application easier
    • Lawn fertilizer would have a balance like 16 - 4 - 4.
  • Soil testing
    • Test kit for NPK
    • Send off samples to extension service for micronutrients
    • New testing for biological activity
    • Applying fertilizer with out a soil test is a potential waste of money and harmful to the environment
  • Nitrogen
    • Start-up fertilizer
    • Green growth
    • Need most for grasses
    • Don’t add to fruiting plants except at initial planting
      • Get green growth & no flowers & fruit
    • Nitrogen deficiency – yellow color
  • Soil Amendments Nitrogen
    • Nitrate of Soda: Inorganic, Soluble & quickly available. Lowers acidity. 16% N
    • Ammonium nitrate: Inorganic, Not as soluble. 33%N
    • Ammonium sulfate: Inorganic, Lower solublilty. Makes soil acidic. 21% N
    • Urea formaldehyde: Organic, available more slowly, 38%N
  • Leaching
    • The more soluble a fertilizer is
      • The quicker it is available to plants
      • The faster it washes (leaches out of the soil)
    • Insoluble fertilizers
      • Also called slow release fertilizer – releases throughout the growing season.
      • Some fertilizers are coated to slow their release
  • Phosphorus amendments
    • Superphosphate: 20% P
    • Treble superphosphate: 46% P
    • Rock phosphate: 25 – 35% P
    • Ammonium phosphate: 48% P
    • Held tightly by soil so does not leach
    • Excess application does the most damage to lakes & streams
  • Potassium Amendments
    • Muriate of potash: 60% K
    • Sulfate of potash: 49% K
    • Nitrate of potash: 44% K
  • pH
    • Lime is added to increase the pH.
    • Sulfur or iron sulfate or Mg Sulfate is added to decrease the pH for acid loving plants.
    • Acid favoring plants;
      • Hollies, Camellias, Azaleas, Rhododendrons,
      • Hydrangeas – blooms change color based on pH.
      • Vegetables: egg plant, potatoes, & watermelon
    • Lime also supplements calcium (minor nutrient). Piedmont Virginia soils are frequently calcium deficient
  • Organic Amendments
    • Compost – adds tilth, ?-?-?, relatively low
    • Cottonseed meal: 7-3-2
    • Fish emulsion: 5-1-1
    • Bonemeal: 4-12-0
    • Bloodmeal: 11-0-0
    • Manure: 1-1-1
    • Sewage sludge: 2-1-1*
      • *May not be eligible for organic certification
  • Soil texture
    • Mineral material - different sizes
      • Sand
      • Silt
      • Clay
  • Types of Soils
    • Particle Size
      • Sand
      • Silt
      • Clay
    • Soil Classification
      • Sandy Soil
      • Clayey Soil
      • Loamy Soil
  • Soil Texture Test
    • Sand – largest & heaviest particles
      • Sinks to bottom
      • Forms bottom layer
    • Silt – lighter than sand
      • Sinks slower
      • Forms 2 nd layer
    • Clay – Small particles – hold e- charge
      • Stay in suspension
  • Soil Texture Test
    • Need 2 values
      • Clay
      • Silt
    • The 3 rd is the remainder from 100
    Bottom Original Fill Line 60% 30%
  • Sand + Silt + Clay = 100% Texture = Sandy Loam 60 % Sand 30 % Silt 10 % Clay
  • Sandy soils:
    • Low in organic matter content and native fertility,
    • Low in ability to retain moisture and nutrients,
    • Low in cation exchange and buffer capacities,
    • Rapidly permeable
    • Sandy soils usually have high bulk densities
    • Resist compaction
  • Loamy Soils
    • More fertile:
      • more organic matter,
      • have higher cation exchange and buffer capacities,
    • Are better able to retain moisture and nutrients
    • Moderate movement of air and water.
    • Moderate resistance to compaction
  • Clayey Soils
    • Drain poorly
    • Hold nutrients tightly
    • Very high cation exchange capacity
    • Compact easily & dry very hard
    • Very plastic - can shrink & swell
  • What is the best soil?
    • "Best for what?"
    • Growing Crops?
    • Stable Buildings?
    • Building Ponds?
    • Good Drainage?