• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
4 22 soil fertility & texture
 

4 22 soil fertility & texture

on

  • 2,096 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,096
Views on SlideShare
2,095
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
99
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

https://online.fvtc.edu 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    4 22 soil fertility & texture 4 22 soil fertility & texture Presentation Transcript

    • Soil Fertility
      • Measure of the nutrients in a soil available for plant life;
      • Macronutrients: N-P-K
        • Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
      • Secondary:
        • Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur
      • Micronutrients:
        • BORON (B)  -IRON (Fe)
        • CHLORINE (Cl)  -MANGANESE (Mn)
        • COPPER (Cu)    -MOLYBDENUM (Mo)
        • ZINC (Zn)
    • Fertilizers: N-P-K
      • N is for % Nitrogen
      • P is for % Phosphorus
      • K is for % Potassium
      • If a fertilizer is 10 – 10 – 10. It is a Balanced fertilizer for general purpose use. It has 10% each of the macronutrients and 70% filler to make application easier
      • Lawn fertilizer would have a balance like 16 - 4 - 4.
    • Soil testing
      • Test kit for NPK
      • Send off samples to extension service for micronutrients
      • New testing for biological activity
      • Applying fertilizer with out a soil test is a potential waste of money and harmful to the environment
    • Nitrogen
      • Start-up fertilizer
      • Green growth
      • Need most for grasses
      • Don’t add to fruiting plants except at initial planting
        • Get green growth & no flowers & fruit
      • Nitrogen deficiency – yellow color
    • Soil Amendments Nitrogen
      • Nitrate of Soda: Inorganic, Soluble & quickly available. Lowers acidity. 16% N
      • Ammonium nitrate: Inorganic, Not as soluble. 33%N
      • Ammonium sulfate: Inorganic, Lower solublilty. Makes soil acidic. 21% N
      • Urea formaldehyde: Organic, available more slowly, 38%N
    • Leaching
      • The more soluble a fertilizer is
        • The quicker it is available to plants
        • The faster it washes (leaches out of the soil)
      • Insoluble fertilizers
        • Also called slow release fertilizer – releases throughout the growing season.
        • Some fertilizers are coated to slow their release
    • Phosphorus amendments
      • Superphosphate: 20% P
      • Treble superphosphate: 46% P
      • Rock phosphate: 25 – 35% P
      • Ammonium phosphate: 48% P
      • Held tightly by soil so does not leach
      • Excess application does the most damage to lakes & streams
    • Potassium Amendments
      • Muriate of potash: 60% K
      • Sulfate of potash: 49% K
      • Nitrate of potash: 44% K
    • pH
      • Lime is added to increase the pH.
      • Sulfur or iron sulfate or Mg Sulfate is added to decrease the pH for acid loving plants.
      • Acid favoring plants;
        • Hollies, Camellias, Azaleas, Rhododendrons,
        • Hydrangeas – blooms change color based on pH.
        • Vegetables: egg plant, potatoes, & watermelon
      • Lime also supplements calcium (minor nutrient). Piedmont Virginia soils are frequently calcium deficient
    • Organic Amendments
      • Compost – adds tilth, ?-?-?, relatively low
      • Cottonseed meal: 7-3-2
      • Fish emulsion: 5-1-1
      • Bonemeal: 4-12-0
      • Bloodmeal: 11-0-0
      • Manure: 1-1-1
      • Sewage sludge: 2-1-1*
        • *May not be eligible for organic certification
    • Soil texture
      • Mineral material - different sizes
        • Sand
        • Silt
        • Clay
    • Types of Soils
      • Particle Size
        • Sand
        • Silt
        • Clay
      • Soil Classification
        • Sandy Soil
        • Clayey Soil
        • Loamy Soil
    • Soil Texture Test
      • Sand – largest & heaviest particles
        • Sinks to bottom
        • Forms bottom layer
      • Silt – lighter than sand
        • Sinks slower
        • Forms 2 nd layer
      • Clay – Small particles – hold e- charge
        • Stay in suspension
    • Soil Texture Test
      • Need 2 values
        • Clay
        • Silt
      • The 3 rd is the remainder from 100
      Bottom Original Fill Line 60% 30%
    • Sand + Silt + Clay = 100% Texture = Sandy Loam 60 % Sand 30 % Silt 10 % Clay
    • Sandy soils:
      • Low in organic matter content and native fertility,
      • Low in ability to retain moisture and nutrients,
      • Low in cation exchange and buffer capacities,
      • Rapidly permeable
      • Sandy soils usually have high bulk densities
      • Resist compaction
    • Loamy Soils
      • More fertile:
        • more organic matter,
        • have higher cation exchange and buffer capacities,
      • Are better able to retain moisture and nutrients
      • Moderate movement of air and water.
      • Moderate resistance to compaction
    • Clayey Soils
      • Drain poorly
      • Hold nutrients tightly
      • Very high cation exchange capacity
      • Compact easily & dry very hard
      • Very plastic - can shrink & swell
    • What is the best soil?
      • "Best for what?"
      • Growing Crops?
      • Stable Buildings?
      • Building Ponds?
      • Good Drainage?