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3 8 Soil Introduction
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3 8 Soil Introduction

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    3 8 Soil Introduction 3 8 Soil Introduction Presentation Transcript

    • Soil Introduction Tilthe Plant: Pansy
    • Pansy Viola x wittrockiana
      • Plant type: Annual, Biennial*, Perennial*
      • USDA Hardiness Zones: 7b - 11
      • Height: 6" to 12”, Spread: 6 - 12"
      • Exposure: full sun, *part shade
      • Bloom Color: Blue, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White, Yellow
      • Bloom Time: Early to late spring, not summer, Mid fall to Early winter
      • Uses: Bedding plants, containers
      • *Pansies are cool season flowers. They may or may not survive summer heat or winter cold.
    • Tilthe
        • Physical condition of soil , especially in relation to its suitability for planting or growing a crop.
        • The ability of the soil to form stable aggregates
        • Improved by the addition of organic matter
        • Improves both moisture holding and drainage.
        • Improves the microbial balance of the soil
    • Tilthe
      • Good
      • Bad
    • What is soil made of?
      • Mineral material - different sizes
        • Sand
        • Silt
        • Clay
      • Organic matter
        • decayed remains of plants and animals
        • Soil microbes – especially fungi
      • Air
      • Water
    • How much?
      • Mineral – less than ½
      • Organic – only 5%
      • Most is pore space
        • Water
        • Air
      • If the soil is compacted, how would the percentages change?
    • Soil Particle Size
    • Compaction
      • Why do you sink in a ball pit?
    • All particles are the same size
      • Cannot compact
      • Pore space is always the same
      • Readjust position
    • If particles were different sizes:
      • Small particles are forced into pore spaces
      • Compaction
    • Types of Soils
      • Particle Size
        • Sand
        • Silt
        • Clay
      • Soil Classification
        • Sandy Soil
        • Clayey Soil
        • Loamy Soil
    • Drainage
      • The ability to hold just the right amount of water is the soils drainage
      • Drainage is measured by percolation tests
      • Sandy soils don’t hold enough water
      • Clay soils hold too much
    • Water – what is available for plants?
      • Percolating water
      • Capillary water
      • Adhesive (bound)
      • Ground water
    • Soil Improvement
      • Drainage & Aeration:
        • Create Aggregates
          • Lime & gypsum
          • Organic Matter
        • Add earthworms
        • Raised beds
      • Moisture Retention
        • Organic Matter
        • Mulches
    • Tillage??
      • Good
        • Break up clumps
        • Mix in soil amendments
        • Remove rocks & roots
        • Shape the soil
          • Raised bed or furrow
        • Remove weeds
      • Bad
        • Increased erosion
        • Can hurt soil aggregates
          • Wet soil
          • Clay soil
        • Can disrupt earthworm and fungi
    • When can soil be worked in Spring?
      • Must crumble when worked
      • Dig about 6” down
      • If a hand-full of soil forms a tight ball after releasing pressure, it needs to dry more
      • Working soil too soon in spring causes compaction
    • Soil texture testing
      • Need samples
        • Clay area behind greenhouse
        • Sandy soil mixed
        • Garden soil
      • Texture test
      • Suspension Test