3 8 Soil Introduction


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3 8 Soil Introduction

  1. 1. Soil Introduction Tilthe Plant: Pansy
  2. 2. Pansy Viola x wittrockiana <ul><li>Plant type: Annual, Biennial*, Perennial* </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Hardiness Zones: 7b - 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Height: 6&quot; to 12”, Spread: 6 - 12&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure: full sun, *part shade </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Color: Blue, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White, Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Time: Early to late spring, not summer, Mid fall to Early winter </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: Bedding plants, containers </li></ul><ul><li>*Pansies are cool season flowers. They may or may not survive summer heat or winter cold. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tilthe <ul><ul><li>Physical condition of soil , especially in relation to its suitability for planting or growing a crop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of the soil to form stable aggregates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved by the addition of organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves both moisture holding and drainage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves the microbial balance of the soil </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Tilthe <ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><li>Bad </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is soil made of? <ul><li>Mineral material - different sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decayed remains of plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil microbes – especially fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  6. 6. How much? <ul><li>Mineral – less than ½ </li></ul><ul><li>Organic – only 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Most is pore space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the soil is compacted, how would the percentages change? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Soil Particle Size
  8. 8. Compaction <ul><li>Why do you sink in a ball pit? </li></ul>
  9. 9. All particles are the same size <ul><li>Cannot compact </li></ul><ul><li>Pore space is always the same </li></ul><ul><li>Readjust position </li></ul>
  10. 10. If particles were different sizes: <ul><li>Small particles are forced into pore spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Compaction </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Soils <ul><li>Particle Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandy Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clayey Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loamy Soil </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Drainage <ul><li>The ability to hold just the right amount of water is the soils drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage is measured by percolation tests </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy soils don’t hold enough water </li></ul><ul><li>Clay soils hold too much </li></ul>
  13. 13. Water – what is available for plants? <ul><li>Percolating water </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary water </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesive (bound) </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water </li></ul>
  14. 14. Soil Improvement <ul><li>Drainage & Aeration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Aggregates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lime & gypsum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add earthworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moisture Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mulches </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Tillage?? <ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break up clumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix in soil amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove rocks & roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raised bed or furrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can hurt soil aggregates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clay soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can disrupt earthworm and fungi </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. When can soil be worked in Spring? <ul><li>Must crumble when worked </li></ul><ul><li>Dig about 6” down </li></ul><ul><li>If a hand-full of soil forms a tight ball after releasing pressure, it needs to dry more </li></ul><ul><li>Working soil too soon in spring causes compaction </li></ul>
  17. 17. Soil texture testing <ul><li>Need samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay area behind greenhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandy soil mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture test </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension Test </li></ul>