3 8 Soil Introduction
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Transcript

  • 1. Soil Introduction Tilthe Plant: Pansy
  • 2. Pansy Viola x wittrockiana
    • Plant type: Annual, Biennial*, Perennial*
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 7b - 11
    • Height: 6" to 12”, Spread: 6 - 12"
    • Exposure: full sun, *part shade
    • Bloom Color: Blue, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White, Yellow
    • Bloom Time: Early to late spring, not summer, Mid fall to Early winter
    • Uses: Bedding plants, containers
    • *Pansies are cool season flowers. They may or may not survive summer heat or winter cold.
  • 3. Tilthe
      • Physical condition of soil , especially in relation to its suitability for planting or growing a crop.
      • The ability of the soil to form stable aggregates
      • Improved by the addition of organic matter
      • Improves both moisture holding and drainage.
      • Improves the microbial balance of the soil
  • 4. Tilthe
    • Good
    • Bad
  • 5. What is soil made of?
    • Mineral material - different sizes
      • Sand
      • Silt
      • Clay
    • Organic matter
      • decayed remains of plants and animals
      • Soil microbes – especially fungi
    • Air
    • Water
  • 6. How much?
    • Mineral – less than ½
    • Organic – only 5%
    • Most is pore space
      • Water
      • Air
    • If the soil is compacted, how would the percentages change?
  • 7. Soil Particle Size
  • 8. Compaction
    • Why do you sink in a ball pit?
  • 9. All particles are the same size
    • Cannot compact
    • Pore space is always the same
    • Readjust position
  • 10. If particles were different sizes:
    • Small particles are forced into pore spaces
    • Compaction
  • 11. Types of Soils
    • Particle Size
      • Sand
      • Silt
      • Clay
    • Soil Classification
      • Sandy Soil
      • Clayey Soil
      • Loamy Soil
  • 12. Drainage
    • The ability to hold just the right amount of water is the soils drainage
    • Drainage is measured by percolation tests
    • Sandy soils don’t hold enough water
    • Clay soils hold too much
  • 13. Water – what is available for plants?
    • Percolating water
    • Capillary water
    • Adhesive (bound)
    • Ground water
  • 14. Soil Improvement
    • Drainage & Aeration:
      • Create Aggregates
        • Lime & gypsum
        • Organic Matter
      • Add earthworms
      • Raised beds
    • Moisture Retention
      • Organic Matter
      • Mulches
  • 15. Tillage??
    • Good
      • Break up clumps
      • Mix in soil amendments
      • Remove rocks & roots
      • Shape the soil
        • Raised bed or furrow
      • Remove weeds
    • Bad
      • Increased erosion
      • Can hurt soil aggregates
        • Wet soil
        • Clay soil
      • Can disrupt earthworm and fungi
  • 16. When can soil be worked in Spring?
    • Must crumble when worked
    • Dig about 6” down
    • If a hand-full of soil forms a tight ball after releasing pressure, it needs to dry more
    • Working soil too soon in spring causes compaction
  • 17. Soil texture testing
    • Need samples
      • Clay area behind greenhouse
      • Sandy soil mixed
      • Garden soil
    • Texture test
    • Suspension Test