3 10 Soil Amendments


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3 10 Soil Amendments

  1. 1. Growing Environment Plant: Saucer Magnolia Term: Soil Amendments
  2. 2. Saucer Magnolia Magnolia x loebneri <ul><li>Plant type: Tree, deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Hardiness Zones: 4b to 8a </li></ul><ul><li>Height: 25-30’, </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure: full sun </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Color: White, pink </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Time: spring </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape Uses: Espalier, Specimen </li></ul><ul><li>Special Features: Fragrant flowers, </li></ul><ul><li>Blooms are very showy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Soil Amendment <ul><li>A material that you add to the soil to improve its chemical or physical properties. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Compost <ul><li>A mixture of decaying organic matter, as from leaves and manure, used to improve soil structure and provide nutrients </li></ul>
  5. 5. Soil Fertility <ul><li>Measure of the nutrients in a soil available for plant life; </li></ul><ul><li>Macronutrients: N-P-K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BORON (B)  -IRON (Fe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHLORINE (Cl)  -MANGANESE (Mn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COPPER (Cu)    -MOLYBDENUM (Mo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZINC (Zn) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fertilizers: N-P-K <ul><li>N is for % Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>P is for % Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>K is for % Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>If a fertilizer is 10 – 10 – 10. It is a Balanced fertilizer for general purpose use. It has 10% each of the macronutrients and 70% filler to make application easier </li></ul><ul><li>Lawn fertilizer would have a balance like 16 - 4 - 4. </li></ul>Write this down
  7. 7. Soil testing <ul><li>Test kit for NPK </li></ul><ul><li>Send off samples to extension service for micronutrients </li></ul><ul><li>New testing for biological activity </li></ul><ul><li>Applying fertilizer with out a soil test is a potential waste of money and harmful to the environment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nitrogen <ul><li>Start-up fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Green growth </li></ul><ul><li>Need most for grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t add to fruiting plants except at initial planting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get green growth & no flowers & fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen deficiency – yellow color </li></ul>
  9. 9. Soil Amendments Nitrogen <ul><li>Nitrate of Soda: Inorganic, Soluble & quickly available. Lowers acidity. 16% N </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium nitrate: Inorganic, Not as soluble. 33%N </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium sulfate: Inorganic, Lower solublilty. Makes soil acidic. 21% N </li></ul><ul><li>Urea formaldehyde: Organic, available more slowly, 38%N </li></ul>
  10. 10. Leaching <ul><li>The more soluble a fertilizer is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quicker it is available to plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The faster it washes (leaches out of the soil) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insoluble fertilizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called slow release fertilizer – releases throughout the growing season. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some fertilizers are coated to slow their release </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Phosphorus amendments <ul><li>Superphosphate: 20% P </li></ul><ul><li>Treble superphosphate: 46% P </li></ul><ul><li>Rock phosphate: 25 – 35% P </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium phosphate: 48% P </li></ul><ul><li>Held tightly by soil so does not leach </li></ul><ul><li>Excess application does the most damage to lakes & streams </li></ul>
  12. 12. Potassium Amendments <ul><li>Muriate of potash: 60% K </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfate of potash: 49% K </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate of potash: 44% K </li></ul>
  13. 13. pH <ul><li>Lime is added to increase the pH. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur or iron sulfate or Mg Sulfate is added to decrease the pH for acid loving plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Acid favoring plants; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollies, Camellias, Azaleas, Rhododendrons, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrangeas – blooms change color based on pH. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables: egg plant, potatoes, & watermelon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lime also supplements calcium (minor nutrient). Piedmont Virginia soils are frequently calcium deficient </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organic Amendments <ul><li>Compost – adds tilthe ?-?-?, relatively low </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed meal: 7-3-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fish emulsion: 5-1-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Bonemeal: 4-12-0 </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodmeal: 11-0-0 </li></ul><ul><li>Manure: 1-1-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage sludge: 2-1-1* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*May not be eligible for organic certification </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Fertilizer Calculation <ul><li>Get the dilution factor from the injector </li></ul><ul><li>The desired concentration will be different for different plants </li></ul><ul><li>The % N will be on the fertilizer bag </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the answer by the number of gallons that the stock tank holds </li></ul>Lbs of fertilizer To make 1 gallon = Of stock solution Desired conc. X Dilution in PPM factor % N in Fert. X 1200
  16. 16. Soil Texture Test <ul><li>Gather samples </li></ul><ul><li>Sample should be just soil – no plants </li></ul>
  17. 17. Today <ul><li>Soil Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Plugs? </li></ul>