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3 10 Soil Amendments
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  • 1. Growing Environment Plant: Saucer Magnolia Term: Soil Amendments
  • 2. Saucer Magnolia Magnolia x loebneri
    • Plant type: Tree, deciduous
    • USDA Hardiness Zones: 4b to 8a
    • Height: 25-30’,
    • Exposure: full sun
    • Bloom Color: White, pink
    • Bloom Time: spring
    • Landscape Uses: Espalier, Specimen
    • Special Features: Fragrant flowers,
    • Blooms are very showy
  • 3. Soil Amendment
    • A material that you add to the soil to improve its chemical or physical properties.
  • 4. Compost
    • A mixture of decaying organic matter, as from leaves and manure, used to improve soil structure and provide nutrients
  • 5. Soil Fertility
    • Measure of the nutrients in a soil available for plant life;
    • Macronutrients: N-P-K
      • Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
    • Secondary:
      • Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur
    • Micronutrients:
      • BORON (B)  -IRON (Fe)
      • CHLORINE (Cl)  -MANGANESE (Mn)
      • COPPER (Cu)    -MOLYBDENUM (Mo)
      • ZINC (Zn)
  • 6. Fertilizers: N-P-K
    • N is for % Nitrogen
    • P is for % Phosphorus
    • K is for % Potassium
    • If a fertilizer is 10 – 10 – 10. It is a Balanced fertilizer for general purpose use. It has 10% each of the macronutrients and 70% filler to make application easier
    • Lawn fertilizer would have a balance like 16 - 4 - 4.
    Write this down
  • 7. Soil testing
    • Test kit for NPK
    • Send off samples to extension service for micronutrients
    • New testing for biological activity
    • Applying fertilizer with out a soil test is a potential waste of money and harmful to the environment
  • 8. Nitrogen
    • Start-up fertilizer
    • Green growth
    • Need most for grasses
    • Don’t add to fruiting plants except at initial planting
      • Get green growth & no flowers & fruit
    • Nitrogen deficiency – yellow color
  • 9. Soil Amendments Nitrogen
    • Nitrate of Soda: Inorganic, Soluble & quickly available. Lowers acidity. 16% N
    • Ammonium nitrate: Inorganic, Not as soluble. 33%N
    • Ammonium sulfate: Inorganic, Lower solublilty. Makes soil acidic. 21% N
    • Urea formaldehyde: Organic, available more slowly, 38%N
  • 10. Leaching
    • The more soluble a fertilizer is
      • The quicker it is available to plants
      • The faster it washes (leaches out of the soil)
    • Insoluble fertilizers
      • Also called slow release fertilizer – releases throughout the growing season.
      • Some fertilizers are coated to slow their release
  • 11. Phosphorus amendments
    • Superphosphate: 20% P
    • Treble superphosphate: 46% P
    • Rock phosphate: 25 – 35% P
    • Ammonium phosphate: 48% P
    • Held tightly by soil so does not leach
    • Excess application does the most damage to lakes & streams
  • 12. Potassium Amendments
    • Muriate of potash: 60% K
    • Sulfate of potash: 49% K
    • Nitrate of potash: 44% K
  • 13. pH
    • Lime is added to increase the pH.
    • Sulfur or iron sulfate or Mg Sulfate is added to decrease the pH for acid loving plants.
    • Acid favoring plants;
      • Hollies, Camellias, Azaleas, Rhododendrons,
      • Hydrangeas – blooms change color based on pH.
      • Vegetables: egg plant, potatoes, & watermelon
    • Lime also supplements calcium (minor nutrient). Piedmont Virginia soils are frequently calcium deficient
  • 14. Organic Amendments
    • Compost – adds tilthe ?-?-?, relatively low
    • Cottonseed meal: 7-3-2
    • Fish emulsion: 5-1-1
    • Bonemeal: 4-12-0
    • Bloodmeal: 11-0-0
    • Manure: 1-1-1
    • Sewage sludge: 2-1-1*
      • *May not be eligible for organic certification
  • 15. Fertilizer Calculation
    • Get the dilution factor from the injector
    • The desired concentration will be different for different plants
    • The % N will be on the fertilizer bag
    • Multiply the answer by the number of gallons that the stock tank holds
    Lbs of fertilizer To make 1 gallon = Of stock solution Desired conc. X Dilution in PPM factor % N in Fert. X 1200
  • 16. Soil Texture Test
    • Gather samples
    • Sample should be just soil – no plants
  • 17. Today
    • Soil Texture
    • Soil fertility
    • Plugs?