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12 3 Wildlife Ecology
 

12 3 Wildlife Ecology

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    12 3 Wildlife Ecology 12 3 Wildlife Ecology Presentation Transcript

    • Natural Resources Wildlife Ecology
    • KEYSTONE SPECIES
      • A species in the environment that has a disproportionate impact relative to its abundance in the ecosystem
      • Usually predators but could be a common prey species
      • Example:
        • Prey: - Rabbits
        • Predator: - Wolves
        • Beavers: - Modify habitat
    • Example
      • What happens when a family of beavers dams a creek?
      • What habitat changes take place?
      • What species can no longer survive there?
      • What species might migrate in?
    • Wildlife Management
      • Reductionist – concentrates on management and research of single populations
      • Holistic – concentrates on management of the entire ecosystem
    • Ecological Scale
      • Individual Organisms
      • Populations
        • Group of interbreeding individuals of the same species
      • Communities
        • Interacting Populations of different species
      • Ecosystem
        • Living and non-living factors in a given area
    • Holistic Management
      • All organisms within an ecosystem are interdependent on the other organisms and species for their existence
      • Example:
        • When wolves are present in Yellowstone Park, the abundance and diversity of songbirds increases. Why?
    • Ripple Effect
      • Each organism has a niche in its environment
      • When the role is not fulfilled, there are repercussions & adjustments throughout the ecosystem
    • Yellowstone Study
      • When wolves are present, moose and elk do not graze in the streams and streambanks
      • When moose don’t graze on streambanks, the plant diversity and abundance increases
      • When the plant diversity and abundance increases, the bird habitat is improved
      • When the bird habitat is improved, the abundance and diversity of songbirds increases
    • Over Population Problems
      • Suburban areas have severe over-population of White-tailed deer
      • Nuisance to home-owners
      • Danger to drivers
      • Risk of disease & damage
      • Hunting is not an option
    • Non-lethal control
      • Strategy A . Identify, evaluate and use effective non-lethal deer management techniques.
      • Non-lethally in suburban habitats.
        • Those designed to manage herd size, such as fertility controls;
        • Those intended to control movement or other behavior, such as fencing and repellents.
      • Where traditional methods are not practical or desirable.
      • Deer fertility control is being studied
    • Lethal Control
      • Strategy B . Identify, evaluate and use effective lethal deer management techniques.
      • Currently, lethal control is the only viable means to control deer populations on the large scale.
      • Regulated hunting will remain a cornerstone of deer population control effort
      • Use of sharpshooters and trap and euthanize efforts
    • Special Harvest Practices
      • Quota Hunts – Pre-apply to hunt in areas with too many hunters for the animal population
      • Managed Hunts – Hunting in usually restricted areas to reduce the population. Must pre-apply and be selected – may have to attend training
      • Earn a Buck (EAB) – In over-populated counties