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11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
11 17 Ethanol
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11 17 Ethanol

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  • 1. Alternative Fuels Ethanol
  • 2. Ethanol <ul><li>Ethyl Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Grain alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Solution with water – 95% alcohol fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation produces a mash </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol has a lower boiling point than water </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporates & condensed in a coil </li></ul>
  • 3. Term: Ethanol <ul><li>Wheat or corn kernels are ground in a hammermill to expose the starch. </li></ul><ul><li>The ground grain is mixed with water, cooked briefly and enzymes are added to convert the starch to sugar using a chemical reaction called hydrolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast is added to ferment the sugars to ethanol. </li></ul><ul><li>The ethanol is separated from the mixture by distillation and the water is removed from the mixture using dehydration </li></ul>
  • 4. Economic Problems with Ethanol <ul><li>Major bankruptcies in largest producers </li></ul><ul><li>Cost more to produce than it sells for even with subsidized corn </li></ul><ul><li>Corn-based ethanol is a transition to cellulosic ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>60% less energy dense than gasoline </li></ul>
  • 5. Engine Problems with ethanol <ul><li>Ethanol alcohol is an excellent SOLVENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolves rubber, certain types of fiberglass. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many engine hoses of older engines are not resistant to alcohol. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethanol will ABSORB WATER </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol ignites at a higher temperature, compared to conventional non-alcohol gasoline, causing damage to pistons. </li></ul><ul><li>E10 can not be added to a tank or pump that contains oyxygenators MTBE or ETBE. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 10% ethanol will cause damage to most conventional engines. </li></ul>
  • 6. Carbohydrate Review <ul><li>Sugar needed for ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose or Lignin </li></ul><ul><li>Very difficult to break the bond between the glucose molecules – requires expensive pretreatments </li></ul>
  • 7. Cellulysis <ul><li>Breaking the bonds that connect the individual glucose molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solving this step is where the research and the money is right now. </li></ul>
  • 8. Sources of Cellulose <ul><li>Switchgrass – grows on poor quality soil </li></ul><ul><li>Corn stover – leftover corn stalks from corn grain harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Waste paper </li></ul><ul><li>Yard wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Timber waste </li></ul>
  • 9. Crops grown for cellulose <ul><li>Switch grass, Poplar trees, etc </li></ul><ul><li>The US uses 142 billion gallons of gas/year = 200 billion gallons of ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>1 acre of poplar trees can produce 650 gal of ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Would take 307 million acres to grow enough cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>3X larger than the entire corn crop </li></ul>
  • 10. Solutions? <ul><li>Where will our motor fuel come from in 10 to 20 years? </li></ul>
  • 11. Today <ul><li>Start biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow - Clean the biodiesel </li></ul>
  • 12. Homemade Biodiesel <ul><li>Uses very toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Must use goggles & gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Make methoxide: methanol (Heet) & lye (NaOH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& corrosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& exothermic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add methoxide to warm vegetable oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Shake for 5 seconds every 10 minutes for 1 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Let settle overnight </li></ul><ul><li>Clean & separate it tomorrow </li></ul>

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