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  • Waste cooking oil – from fast food Algae

Transcript

  • 1. Natural Resources Biofuels intro Biodiesel
  • 2. Term: Biofuel
    • Google: Biofuels Pros & Cons
      • http://environment.about.com/od/fossilfuels/a/biofuels.htm
      • List 3 pros
      • List 3 cons
  • 3. Fuel
    • http:// www.almostfreefuel.com/index.html
  • 4. Biofuels
    • Biofuel is defined as solid, liquid or gas fuel derived from relatively recently dead biological material
      • (Distinguished from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material)
    • Pros:
      • Renewable
      • Produce domestically
      • Less Pollution
      • No increase in Carbon
    • Cons:
      • Engine modification
      • Hard to find
      • Requires energy to produce
      • Diverts materials from food supply
  • 5. Biodiesel
    • Made from fats & oils
    • Very simple process
    • Oil + Alcohol esters + glycerol
    • The remaining esters make Biodiesel
    • Glycerol – in the form of glycerin is a byproduct
    • Blends - mix of biodiesel and petrodiesel
    Strong Base (Lye)
  • 6. Ethanol – Gasoline substitute
    • Made from starches & sugars
    • Sugar Alcohol +CO 2
    • Distillation separates alcohol from solution
    • Sugars & starches are valuable as human & livestock food
    • Cellulistic ethanol uses the cellulose part of the plant that is not readily digestible
    • Use as a blend in gasoline engines - 10%
    Yeast
  • 7. Gasification
    • Made from any Biomass or carbon source
    • Carbon material CO & H (syngas)
    • Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines
    • Syngas can be used to produce methanol and hydrogen, or converted into synthetic fuel.
    Steam
  • 8. Methane
    • Form of LP gas
    • Produced by microbial anaerobic digestion
    • Most landfills recover methane
    • Ruminants produce significant amounts
    • Research in animal waste recovery and utilization
  • 9. Diesel vs Gas Engines Emissions Fuel Availability Fuel Cost Power Efficiency
  • 10. Biodiesel
    • Made from fats & oils
    • What products/byproducts could be cheap sources of fat or oil?
  • 11. Biodiesel
    • What is B20 biodiesel?
    • The cetane number is a purity rating for diesel fuel (like octane for gas). How does biodiesel compare to standard diesel?
    • What biodiesel levels can be used according to ASTM specifications?
    • How does biodiesel perform in cold weather?
    • Has biodiesel production led to a diversion of soybeans from food production?
    • Does biodiesel contribute to food shortages?
  • 12. Disadvantages
    • Bacteria can grow in biodiesel & clog fuel lines & injectors
    • Diesel doesn’t evaporate – spills are hard to clean up
  • 13. Synthetic diesel
    • Wood, hemp, straw, corn, garbage, food scraps, and sewage-sludge may be dried and gasified to synthesis gas.
    • Such processes are often called biomass-to-liquids or BTL.
    • Synthetic diesel may also be produced out of natural gas in the gas-to-liquid (GTL) process
    • Synthetic diesel may also be produced out of coal in the coal-to-liquid (CTL) process.
  • 14. Vegetable Oil
    • Can be used in diesel engines if pre-warmed
    • Limited use in cold climates
    • Can only be used in older-style engines
  • 15. Homemade Biodiesel
    • Uses very toxic chemicals
    • Must use goggles & gloves
    • Make methoxide:
      • extremely toxic
      • & corrosive
      • & exothermic
    • Add methoxide to warm vegetable oil.
    • Mix every 5 minutes for 30 minutes
    • Let settle overnight