11 16 Apples
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11 16 Apples

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11 16 Apples 11 16 Apples Presentation Transcript

  • Pomology Plant: Apple Tree Term: Pomes
  • Apple tree: Malus domestica
    • Deciduous Tree
    • Requires full light
    • Mature size is 10 – 40 ft, but many dwarf and columnar varieties are available
    • Grows in any slightly acidic, well-drained soil
    • USDA zones: 4 – 9
    • Blooms in Mid-spring, fruit production mid-summer to mid fall depending on variety
    • Primary usage: fruit production
  • Pome:
    • A fleshy fruit, such as an apple, pear, or quince, having several seed chambers and an outer fleshy part largely derived from the hypanthium
    View slide
  • Varieties (Cultivars)
    • How many can you think of
      • Red delicious
      • Golden delicious
      • Gala
      • Fuji
    View slide
  • Most common Virginia Apples
    • McIntosh, Empire, Rome,
    • Red Delicious, Cortland, Gala,
    • Golden Delicious, Paula Red, Crispin,
    • Jonagold Jonamac, Jonathan
    • Winesap, Lodi, Fuji,
    • Arkansas Black York, Redfree,
    • Ginger Gold Early Crisp
  • Forms
    • Dwarf
    • Semi-dwarf
    • Columnar
    • Full Size
    • Espalier
  • Rootstock 2-3 Good 4 – 8 35% Mark or M9 2-4 Poor 8-12 50 M26 3-4 Fair 10-14 70 M7a 3-4 Excellent 12-16 80 MM.106 4-6 Excellent 14-18 85 MM.111 6 - 10 Excellent 15-18 100 Seedling Years to production Anchorage Spacing Tree size % Rootstock
  • Central Leader Form
  • Open form
    • Pruned to
  • Growing Apples
    • Apple blossoms form in Spring
    • Cross pollinated by bees.
    • The bee drops pollen from the stamens of one blossom onto the pistils of another blossom.
    • The pollen travels from the sticky tips of the pistils - called the stigma - down a long tube known as the style and enters the ovary.
    • Ovules within the ovary become apple seeds.
    • The petals from the blossoms fall off & the ovary starts growing.
    • The ovary is surrounded by a thin protective layer. This layer eventually becomes the apple core.
    • The outer layer surrounding the ovary becomes the exocarp, or the eating part of the apple.
    • The calyx, stamens, and pistils become the dry, hairy part at the bottom of the apple.
  • Botany
  • Flower Parts
  • Apple Growers Calendar
    • January
      • Order trees from nurseries.
      • Begin pruning apple trees.
    • February
      • Continue pruning.
      • Apply fertilizer 4 to 6 weeks before bloom.
    • March
      • Finish pruning.
      • Plant new trees.
    • April
      • Apply dormant oil spray, green tip, prepink, and pink sprays for insects and diseases.
      • Measures to control weeds should begin early in the season.
    • May
      • Install rodent guards around trunk of newly planted trees.
      • Thin fruit with chemicals or by hand.
      • Apply petal fall and first cover spray.
      • Remove fireblight strikes.
      • Discourage deer from eating young shoots by using commercially available repellents.
    • June
      • Apply second and third cover sprays.
      • Continue weed control.
      • Irrigate if soil is dry.
    • July
      • Harvest early summer varieties.
      • Apply forth & fifth cover sprays.
      • Irrigate when soil is dry
    • August
      • Harvest summer varieties.
      • Continue weed control.
      • Apply sixth & seventh cover spray.
      • Irrigate when soil is dry.
    • September
      • Harvest early fall varieties.
      • Take soil samples to determine next year's fertilizer needs.
    • October
      • Harvest late varieties.
      • Remove fruit as they fall to ground. Remove and dispose of decaying, hanging fruit.
      • Check the ground around trees for mouse activity and take control measures
    • November
      • Apply lime if soil tests indicate a need.
      • Cover trunks and lower branches of young trees with white latex paint to reduce winter injury.
    • December
      • Update your record book for application dates for fertilizer and pesticides.
  • Pruning
    • Apple trees are normally pruned as central leader trees
  • Types of pruning cuts
    • Heading:
    • Thinning
  • Heading cuts
    • Cut just above a bud
    • Get new growth at the tips
  • Thinning cuts
    • Cut whole branches to the stem or trunk
    • Get more vigorous growth on the remaining branches
  • Where to cut
  • How to cut large branches