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PRESENTED BY,
SHIJI MARGARET
FINAL BDS
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATIVE
DENTISTRY AND ENDODONTICS
OPERATIVE INSTRUMENTS
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Classifications of
instruments
 Instrument parts
 Instrument
nomenclature
 Instrument formula...
CLASSIFICATION
GV BLACKS classification
1.Cutting instruments
a. Handcutting instruments
-hatchets
-chisels
-hoes
-excavat...
 2. Condensing instruments
a. pluggers
-hand
-mechanical
 3. Plastic instruments
-plastic filling instruments
-cement ca...
HAND
 Orangewood sticks
 Polishing points
 Finishing strips
ROTARY
 Finishing burs
 Mounted brushes
 Mounted stones
...
5. Isolation instruments
 Rubber dam
 Saliva ejector
 Cotton roll holder
 Evacuating tips and equipment
6. Miscellaneous instruments
 mouth mirrors
 explorers
 probes
 scissors
 pliers
 others
MARZOUCK CLASSIFICATION
Exploring instruments
- tweezers
- Retractors
- Probes
- Separators
Instruments for tooth
structur...
INSTRUMENT PARTS.
a. blade.
b. shank.
c. handle
.
SHAFT
Used as a handle , is straight without
variations in size.
It may be serrated to increase friction for
hand gri...
SHANK
It connects the handle to the blade.
It is here where any angulation in the
instrument can be given.
BLADE
It is the functional end of the
instrument.It is connected to the handle
by the shank.
The blade ends in cutting e...
 CUTTING EDGE .
 It is the working part of the
instrument . It is usually in
the form of a bevel with
different shapes
...
INSTRUMENT NOMENCLATURE
G. V Black described dental instruments as
follows.
The order denotes the purpose of the
instrum...
INSTRUMENT FORMULA
 The width of the blade in
tenths of millimeters.
 The primary cutting edge
angle formed between cutt...
EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS
 MOUTH MIRRORS
TYPES OF MIRROR SURFACES
1 a. front surface reflecting mirror
b. rear surface reflec...
USES
 Direct vision
 Indirect illuminaton
 Transillumination
 Retraction
EXPLORER
 Diagnostic aid in evaluating condition of teeth especially
in pits and fissures
PARTS
 Straight explorer
 She...
TWEEZERS
 They have angled tip and available in different sizes.
They are used to place and remove cotton rolls and
other...
INSTRUMENT DESIGN.
1. Direct cutting and lateral
cutting instruments.
2. Contrangling.
3. Right and left
instruments.
4. S...
A direct cutting instrument :
The force applied in the same plane as that of
the blade and handle ; it is called single ...
 Lateral cutting instruments:
The force applied at a right angle to the
plane of blade and handle.
Are called double pl...
 Have one or more angles
in shank placing the
working point within 3mm
from the axis of handle.
 This principle of desig...
 Direct instruments are made either right or
left by placing a bevel on one side of the
blade.
 If the the cutting edge ...
SINGLE ENDED AND DOUBLE ENDED
INSTRUMENTS.
Double ended instruments incorporating the right and
left or the mesial and di...
EXCAVATORS
THESE ARE DESIGNED FOR EXCAVATION REMOVAL OF CARIOUS DENTIN AND FOR THE
SHAPING OF THE INTERNAL PARTS OF CAVITI...
SPOON EXACAVATORS.
A
B
C
A.bin-angle spoon
B.Triple angle spoon
C.spoon
 Used for cutting mesial and distal walls of
premolars and molars.
HOE EXCAVATOR.
DISCOID EXCAVATOR
 These are disc like .
 Have a blade which is circular in shape.
 Cutting edge extending around the p...
 It resembles a claw
,hence the name
“cleoid”.
 It is essentially a spoon
excavator except the
blade comes to a point.
...
CHISEL
THESE ARE INTENDED FOR CUTTING ENAMEL. IT USUALLY BEVELLED ON ONE SIDE .
STRAIGHT CHISEL.
MONO ANGLE CHISELS.
BI AN...
STRAIGHT CHISELS.
 Have a straight blade in line
with the handle and shank.
 The cutting edge is on one side
only, with ...
ENAMEL
HATCHET.
 The shank has one or more angles
or curves.
 The blade is in same plane ,parallel
with the shaft.
 Cut...
SPECIAL FORMS OF CHISELS
These designed to perform specific functions.
ENAMEL HATCHETS.
GINGIVAL MARGIN TRIMMERS.
ANGLE FO...
GINGIVAL MARGINAL TRIMMERS.
 Similar to spoon excavators and
the cutting edge similar to single
bevelled hatchets.
 2 ty...
RESTORATIVE INSTRUMENTS
CEMENT SPATULAS
 Several types of spatulas are available in the market
differing in shape and siz...
PLASTIC FILLING INSTRUMENT
 These instruments have a small metal ball at the working
end. They are used to mix, carry and...
AMALGAM CARRIERS
 To pack amalgam material in to the tooth preparation,
amalgam carriers are used.
 They carry the fresh...
BURNISHERS
 For final condensation of amalgam
 Initial shaping of occlusal anatomy of amalgam
COMPOSITE RESIN INSTRUMENT...
ROTARY CUTTING INSTRUMENTS Those instruments which rotate on an axis to do the work
of abrading and cutting on tooth stru...
TYPES OF HAND PIECE
Contra-angle hand piece
 Head of handpiece is first angled away from
and then back towards the long a...
Micromotor handpiece
 In straight handpiece long axis of the bur lies in
same plane as long axis of handpiece.
DENTAL BURS
 It is a rotary cutting instrument which has bladed
cutting edge.
 They are used to remove tooth structure e...
CLASSIFICATION OF BURS
According to mode of
attachment
 latch type
 friction grip
According to their
composition
 stain...
According to their use
 cutting burs
 finishing burs
 polishing burs
According to their
shape
 round bur
 inverted co...
BUR DESIGN
BUR BLADE
 It is the projection on the bur head which forms a
cutting edge.it has two surfaces
 rake face-sur...
RAKE ANGLE -angle between rake face and radial
line
 Positive rake angle-when rake face trails the
radial line.
 Negativ...
RADIAL LINE
 It is the line connecting center of the bur and the
blade.
LAND
 It is the plane surface immediately follow...
BLADE ANGLE
 it is the angle between the rake face and the
clearance face.
CONCENTRICITY
 it is a direct measurement of ...
REFERENCE
 1. Sturdevants art and science of operative
dentistry.
 2. Marzouk.
 3. Nisha Garg
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Transcript of "operative instruments"

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY, SHIJI MARGARET FINAL BDS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY AND ENDODONTICS OPERATIVE INSTRUMENTS
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Classifications of instruments  Instrument parts  Instrument nomenclature  Instrument formula  Exploring instruments  Instrument design  Restorative instruments  Classification  Types  Dental burs  Classification of burs  Bur design  conclusion  Reference
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION GV BLACKS classification 1.Cutting instruments a. Handcutting instruments -hatchets -chisels -hoes -excavators b. Rotary instruments - burs -stone -discs
  4. 4.  2. Condensing instruments a. pluggers -hand -mechanical  3. Plastic instruments -plastic filling instruments -cement cariers - carvers - burnishers - spatulas
  5. 5. HAND  Orangewood sticks  Polishing points  Finishing strips ROTARY  Finishing burs  Mounted brushes  Mounted stones  Rubber cups 4. Finishing and polishing instruments
  6. 6. 5. Isolation instruments  Rubber dam  Saliva ejector  Cotton roll holder  Evacuating tips and equipment
  7. 7. 6. Miscellaneous instruments  mouth mirrors  explorers  probes  scissors  pliers  others
  8. 8. MARZOUCK CLASSIFICATION Exploring instruments - tweezers - Retractors - Probes - Separators Instruments for tooth structure removal a. hand cutting -excavators - chisels -special form of chisel b. handpiece -burs - ultrasonic
  9. 9. INSTRUMENT PARTS. a. blade. b. shank. c. handle
  10. 10. . SHAFT Used as a handle , is straight without variations in size. It may be serrated to increase friction for hand gripping.
  11. 11. SHANK It connects the handle to the blade. It is here where any angulation in the instrument can be given.
  12. 12. BLADE It is the functional end of the instrument.It is connected to the handle by the shank. The blade ends in cutting edge.
  13. 13.  CUTTING EDGE .  It is the working part of the instrument . It is usually in the form of a bevel with different shapes  BLADE ANGLE.  It is defined as the angle between the long axis of the blade and long axis of the shaft  CUTTING EDGE ANGLE.  It is defined as angle between the margin of the cutting edge and the long axis of the shaft.
  14. 14. INSTRUMENT NOMENCLATURE G. V Black described dental instruments as follows. The order denotes the purpose of the instrument ,eg excavator , scaler . The suborder denotes the position or manner of use of the instrument ,e.g. push or pull. The class describes the form of the blade ,e.g. hatchet, chisel. The subclass denotes the angle or shape of the shank.e.g straight- no angle
  15. 15. INSTRUMENT FORMULA  The width of the blade in tenths of millimeters.  The primary cutting edge angle formed between cutting edge and central axis of shaft.  The length of the blade in millimeters.  The blade angle in centigrade.
  16. 16. EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS  MOUTH MIRRORS TYPES OF MIRROR SURFACES 1 a. front surface reflecting mirror b. rear surface reflecting mirror 2. a. plane or flat surface b. concave surface 3. a. one sided b. two sided
  17. 17. USES  Direct vision  Indirect illuminaton  Transillumination  Retraction
  18. 18. EXPLORER  Diagnostic aid in evaluating condition of teeth especially in pits and fissures PARTS  Straight explorer  Shephered’s crrok or curved explorer  Interproximal explorer
  19. 19. TWEEZERS  They have angled tip and available in different sizes. They are used to place and remove cotton rolls and other small materials. PERIODONTAL PROBES  They are used for measuring pocket depth.
  20. 20. INSTRUMENT DESIGN. 1. Direct cutting and lateral cutting instruments. 2. Contrangling. 3. Right and left instruments. 4. Single bevelled instruments. 5. Bibevelled instrument. 6. Triple bevelled instruments. 7. Circumferentially bevelled instruments. 8. Single ended and double ended instruments.
  21. 21. A direct cutting instrument : The force applied in the same plane as that of the blade and handle ; it is called single planed instrument. Have 2 or more curves or angles in their shanks ,and in the same plane as the handle.  Used in direct or lateral cutting. 1.DIRECT CUTTING AND LATERAL CUTTING INSTRUMENTS.
  22. 22.  Lateral cutting instruments: The force applied at a right angle to the plane of blade and handle. Are called double planed instruments Have an angle or curve in a plane at a right angle to that of handle. Used in lateral cutting.
  23. 23.  Have one or more angles in shank placing the working point within 3mm from the axis of handle.  This principle of design is called contrangling.  A short blade and small blade angle requires only bi angle- contrangling .  While longer blade and greater blade angles requires triple angle contrangling . 2.CONTRANGLING.
  24. 24.  Direct instruments are made either right or left by placing a bevel on one side of the blade.  If the the cutting edge down and pointing away from the operator and the bevel is on the right side ,it will be’ right’ instrument.  If the bevel is on the left ,it will be a left instrument.  These are all single planed instruments. . 3 .RIGHT AND LEFT INSTRUMENTS.
  25. 25. SINGLE ENDED AND DOUBLE ENDED INSTRUMENTS. Double ended instruments incorporating the right and left or the mesial and distal form of the instrument in the same handle. Single ended instrument have only one specific function.
  26. 26. EXCAVATORS THESE ARE DESIGNED FOR EXCAVATION REMOVAL OF CARIOUS DENTIN AND FOR THE SHAPING OF THE INTERNAL PARTS OF CAVITIES. HOE EXCAVATOR. SPOON EXCAVATOR. DISCOID EXCAVATOR. CLEIOD EXCAVATOR. HATCHET EXCAVATOR.
  27. 27. SPOON EXACAVATORS. A B C A.bin-angle spoon B.Triple angle spoon C.spoon
  28. 28.  Used for cutting mesial and distal walls of premolars and molars. HOE EXCAVATOR.
  29. 29. DISCOID EXCAVATOR  These are disc like .  Have a blade which is circular in shape.  Cutting edge extending around the periphery except where it is joined to the shank.  It is used for the same purpose and in the same manner as a spoon excavator.  It is double –planed instrument right or left cutting movements.
  30. 30.  It resembles a claw ,hence the name “cleoid”.  It is essentially a spoon excavator except the blade comes to a point. It is double –planed instrument with lateral cutting movements. Used in carving amalgam and excavating decay. CLEOID EXCAVATOR.
  31. 31. CHISEL THESE ARE INTENDED FOR CUTTING ENAMEL. IT USUALLY BEVELLED ON ONE SIDE . STRAIGHT CHISEL. MONO ANGLE CHISELS. BI ANGLE CHISELS. TRIPLE ANGLE CHISELS.
  32. 32. STRAIGHT CHISELS.  Have a straight blade in line with the handle and shank.  The cutting edge is on one side only, with the bevel of the hand running at a right angle to the shaft.  They are single planed instruments with 5 possible cutting movements.
  33. 33. ENAMEL HATCHET.  The shank has one or more angles or curves.  The blade is in same plane ,parallel with the shaft.  Cutting edge is in the form of a bevel parallel to the shaft; either paired or may be bibevelled.  These are single planed instruments with vertical, push, pull, and either right or left lateral cutting.  Smaller size for anterior teeth, and larger size for posterior teeth
  34. 34. SPECIAL FORMS OF CHISELS These designed to perform specific functions. ENAMEL HATCHETS. GINGIVAL MARGIN TRIMMERS. ANGLE FORMERS. WEDELSTEADT CHISELS. OFFSET HATCHETS. TRIANGULAR CHISELS. HOE CHISELS. HATCHETS OR OFFSET HATCHETS.
  35. 35. GINGIVAL MARGINAL TRIMMERS.  Similar to spoon excavators and the cutting edge similar to single bevelled hatchets.  2 types are; 1. Distal gingival margin trimmers. 2. Mesial gingival margin trimmers.  They are used for creating the proper bevel of the gingival floors and also for forming sharp angles in internal parts of cavity preparations.  They are also used in pull and push motions.
  36. 36. RESTORATIVE INSTRUMENTS CEMENT SPATULAS  Several types of spatulas are available in the market differing in shape and size.  On the basis of size, cement spatula can be classified into: - large - small
  37. 37. PLASTIC FILLING INSTRUMENT  These instruments have a small metal ball at the working end. They are used to mix, carry and place cements. CONDENSER  It is used to deliver the restoration to the tooth preparation and for proper condensation
  38. 38. AMALGAM CARRIERS  To pack amalgam material in to the tooth preparation, amalgam carriers are used.  They carry the freshly prepared restorative material in to the tooth. CARVERS  They are used to contour the restoration.  Sharp cutting edges present in carvers are used to sharpen and form tooth anatomy from a restoration.
  39. 39. BURNISHERS  For final condensation of amalgam  Initial shaping of occlusal anatomy of amalgam COMPOSITE RESIN INSTRUMENT  A wide range of double ended instruments are used to transport and place resins  They are made up of plastic or titanium coating
  40. 40. ROTARY CUTTING INSTRUMENTS Those instruments which rotate on an axis to do the work of abrading and cutting on tooth structure. TYPES : - Handpiece - Bur HANDPIECES  The first rotary instruments were drill or bur heads that were twisted with the fingers for crude cutting of the tooth tissue
  41. 41. TYPES OF HAND PIECE Contra-angle hand piece  Head of handpiece is first angled away from and then back towards the long axis of the handle  a.Airoter contraangle handpiece-it gets power from the compressed air supplied by the compressor. It has high speed and low torque.
  42. 42. Micromotor handpiece  In straight handpiece long axis of the bur lies in same plane as long axis of handpiece.
  43. 43. DENTAL BURS  It is a rotary cutting instrument which has bladed cutting edge.  They are used to remove tooth structure either by chipping or grinding.
  44. 44. CLASSIFICATION OF BURS According to mode of attachment  latch type  friction grip According to their composition  stainless steel  tungston carbide  combination According to their motion  right bur  left bur According to the length of their head  long  short  regular
  45. 45. According to their use  cutting burs  finishing burs  polishing burs According to their shape  round bur  inverted cone bur pear-shaped wheel shaped tapering fissure straight fissure end cutting bur
  46. 46. BUR DESIGN BUR BLADE  It is the projection on the bur head which forms a cutting edge.it has two surfaces  rake face-surface of bur lade on the leading edge  clearance face-surface of bur blade on the trailing edge
  47. 47. RAKE ANGLE -angle between rake face and radial line  Positive rake angle-when rake face trails the radial line.  Negative rake angle-when rake face is ahead of radial line.  Zero rake angle-when rake face and radial line coincide each other.
  48. 48. RADIAL LINE  It is the line connecting center of the bur and the blade. LAND  It is the plane surface immediately following the cutting edge. CLEARANCE ANGLE  This is the angle between the clearance face and the work.
  49. 49. BLADE ANGLE  it is the angle between the rake face and the clearance face. CONCENTRICITY  it is a direct measurement of symmetry of the bur head. RUN-OUT  it measures the accuracy with which all the tip of blades pass through a single point when bur is moving.
  50. 50. REFERENCE  1. Sturdevants art and science of operative dentistry.  2. Marzouk.  3. Nisha Garg
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