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高等管理理論研討作業 陳世輝

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  • 1. 高等管理理論研討 期末作業 授課老師:李元德教授 學生:陳世輝 學號: R78062021
  • 2. What Constitutes a Theoretical Contribution?
    • 作者: David A. Whetten ( Illinois University )
    • 大意:
    • Since becoming editor of AMR, I have tried to find a simple way to communicate the necessary ingredients of a theoretical contribution. There are several excellent treatises on the subject, but they typically involve terms and concepts that are difficult to incorporate into everyday communications with authors and reviewers. My experience has been that available frameworks are as likely to obfuscate, as they are to clarify, meaning. Besides exposure to the works of Kaplan, Dubin, and others varies widely across the Academy.
      • AMR 的編輯試圖找到一種簡單的方式進行一個理論貢獻的必要成分的溝通。
      • 有些優秀論文的談到這些問題,但它們通常涉及術語和概念,很難將其納入與作者和審稿者的日常溝通。 作者 的經驗是,現有的框架容易混淆,因為他們要澄清,這意味著。除了曝光卡普蘭,杜賓,和其他的作品有很大差異。
  • 3.
    • This article is a rudimentary effort to fill this gap: The intent is not to create a new conceptualization of theory, but rather to propose several simple concepts for discussing the theory development process It is a personal reflection, which has emerged out of my daily editorial activities. My motivation is to ease the communication problems regarding expectations and standards, which result from the absence of a broadly accepted framework for discussing the merits of conceptual writing in the organizational sciences.
    • 本文目的是提出幾個討論理論發展過程簡單的概念,動機是為了緩解期望和標準 方面溝通 的問題。
    • This article is organized around three key questions (a) What are the building blocks of theory development? And (b) What is a legitimate value-added contribution to theory development and (C) What factors are considered in judging conceptual papers? The first section describes the constituent elements of a theory. The second section uses this framework to establish standards for the theory development process. The third section summarizes the expectations of reviewers regarding the substantive contribution and appropriateness of AMR papers
    • 本 文圍繞三個關鍵問題(一)什麼是理論發展的基石?( b )什麼是理論發展合法的增值貢獻 ? ( C )判斷概念 性論 文考慮的因素是什麼?
    • 第一部分介紹理論的構成要素。第二部分使用這個框架,建立標準, 做 為理論發展 的過程。 第三部分總結了評論 者對論文 貢獻和適當 性 的期望。
  • 4.
    •   a complete theory must contain four essential elements, which are described in the following paragraphs.
    • What: Which factors (variables, constructs, concepts) logically should be considered as part of the explanation of the social or individual phenomena of interest two criteria exist for judging the extent to which we have included the “right” factors comprehensiveness (i.e,, are all relevant factors included?) and parsimony (i.e., should some factors be deleted because they add little additional value to our understanding?)
    • 一個完整的理論必須包含四個基本要素述
      • What :哪些因子(變項,構念,構想)在邏輯上可解釋現象?判斷這些因子是否為正確有兩個要件:週全( comprehensiveness )及簡要( parsimony)
  • 5.
    • Why, What are the underlying psychological, economic, or social dynamics that justify the selection of factors and the proposed causal relationships? This rationale constitutes the theory’s assumptions- the theoretical glue that welds the model together. (Like Dubin, I do not distinguish between a model and a theory.)
      • Why :提出因果關係下所隱含的意涵必須提出假設,把因與果做合理的連結
    • How. Having identified a set of factors, the researcher’s next question is, How are they related to. Operationally this involves using “arrows” to Connect the “boxes”. such a step adds order to the conceptualization by explicitly delineating patterns. In addition, it typically introduces causality. Although the researcher may be unable to adequately test these. links, restrictions in methods do not invalidate the inherent causal nature of theory,
      • How :用箭頭及框框來說明因果次序。 What 及 How 構成理論主題的主要部分,可行成模式
      • Why research is conducted has important implications for the link between theory development and empirical research. Combining the Hows and the Whats produces the typical model, from which testable propositions can be derived.(The primary difference between propositions and hypotheses is that propositions involve concepts, whereas hypotheses require measures.) Why research 是理論發展和實證研究之間的 連結 具有重要意義。結合 How 和 What 產生的典型模式,從中可以得出可檢驗的命題(命題和假設之間的主要區別在於,命題涉及的 是 概念,而假設需要的 是量測 。)
  • 6. To summarize thus far What and How describe: only Why explains, What and How, provide a framework for interpreting patterns, or discrepancies, in our empirical observations. This is an important distinction because data, Whether qualitative or quantitative, Characterize: theory supplies the explanation for the characteristics. Therefore, We must make sure that what is passing as good theory includes a plausible, cogent explanation for why we should expect certain relationships in our data. Together these three elements provide the essential ingredients of a simple theory. description and explanation. 總結 : What 和 How 描述: Why 用於 解釋, What 和 How 在實證觀察提供解釋模式,或差異的框架。這是一個重要的區別。因此,確保什麼是好的理論, 需要 包括一個合理的 、 有說服力的解釋 及 為什麼我們應該期望在我們的某些數據關係。這三個要素結合起來,提供一個簡單的理論的基本要素 , 說明和解釋。  
  • 7. An additional comment about the use of propositions is in order. Not all bona fide theoretical contributions require propositions, and all papers need not follow the same format. However, when the purpose of a paper is to present a new theoretical position or to call into question the fundamental structure of an existing theory, researchable propositions are very useful. They force the author to think about the concrete applications of new or revised thinking, and they increase the likelihood that subsequent research will constitute valid tests of the author’s core arguments. If propositions are used, they should be limited to specifying the logically deduced implications for research of a theoretical argument. (Some authors mistakenly use propositions to summarize a body of literature.) 並非所有真正的理論貢獻 都 要求命題, 論 文不必遵循相同的格式。然而,當 論 文的目的是提出新的理論,或質疑現有理論的基本結構, 提出 可研究的命題是非常有用的。 Sensitivity to Context is especially important for theories based on experience. According to the contextualist perspective (Gergen, 1982), meaning is derived from context. That is, we understand what is going on by appreciating where and when it is happening. Observations are embedded and must be understood within a context. Therefore, authors of inductively generated theories have a particular responsibility for discussing limits of generalizability. 建構在 經驗 的 基礎理論 論文對 上下文的敏感性是特別重要的。我們 必須清楚的知道 怎麼欣賞 論文 的地方
  • 8. Most Organizational scholars are not going to generate a new theory from scratch, Instead, they generally work on improving what already exists. In that context, it is often difficult to judge What constitutes enough of a contribution to warrant publication in a theory journal like AMR. Nevertheless, the constituent elements of social theories described in the preceding section Suggest a set of criteria for making editorial judgments. 大多數組織的學者都不會從頭 提出 一個新的理論,相反 的 ,他們 所從事的在於對 已經存在一般 的理論提出 改進。在這種情況下,往往很難判斷什麼構成了 什麼有價值的 貢獻。 One way to demonstrate the value of a proposed change in a list of factors is identify how this change affects the accepted relationships between the variables(Hows). Just as a list of variables does not constitute a theory, so the addition of a new variable to an existing list should not be mistaken as a theoretical contribution. Relationships, not lists, are the domain of theory. As Poincare(1983) so aptly noted, “Science is facts, just as houses are made of stone, . . But a pile of stones not a house, and a collection or facts is not necessarily science.” Therefore, theoretical insights come from demonstrating how the addition of a new variable significantly, alters our understanding of the phenomena by reorganizing our causal maps. For example, the addition of “growth-need strength” to job-design theories transformed extant views and altered research practice(Hackman & Lawler,1971). 建議在多種因素清單的變化 下 ,展示價值的方法之一是確定這 些 變化是如何影響 被 接受的變 數 ( Hows )之間的關係。正如一個變 數 列表,並不構成理論,因此, 將 一個新的變 數放入 現有列表 中 不應被視為一個理論貢獻。 Poincare(1983) 便指出,“科學是事實,就像房子是石頭 所組成 。但一堆石頭不是房子,和一個集合或事實不一定是科學。”
  • 9. Who, When, Where. Generally, it is insufficient to point out limitations in current Conceptions of a theory’s range of application. Who, When, Where 一般來說,在目前概念理論應用範圍的限制是不夠的 Conversely, applying an old model to a new setting and showing that it works as expected is not instructive by itself. This conclusion has theoretical merit only if something about the new setting suggests the theory shouldn’t work under those conditions. 相反 地 ,舊模式應用到一個新的設置,並顯示出它的工作原理如預期的本身的啟發。這一結論具有理論價值
  • 10. Three broad themes underlie this section. First, proposed improvements addressing only a single element of an existing theory are seldom judged to be sufficient. Therefore, a general rule of thumb is that critiques should focus on multiple elements of the theory. This approach adds the qualities of completeness and thoroughness to theoretical work. Second, theoretical critiques should marshal compelling evidence. This evidence can be logical(e.q., the theory is not internally consistent), empirical(its predictions are inconsistent with the data accumulated from several studies), or epistemological(its assumptions are invalid.-given information from another field). Third, in general, theoretical critiques should propose remedies or alternatives. Although we can think of classic critiques in the history of science that stood on their own merits, the typical debate in our field is less clear cut. Consequently, critics should share responsibility for crafting improved conceptualizations. Otherwise, it is difficult to know whether the original is indeed inferior, or simply the best we can do in a very complex world. 三大主題 : 一、 只 提出 解決現有理論的單一元素的改善建議,很少 被 判斷 是 足夠 的 。因此,一般的經驗法則是, 批判者 應著眼於理論的多個元素。這種方法增加了理論工作的完整性和徹底的素質。 二 、 理論批評應該 提出 令人信服的證據。這方面的證據,可以 是 邏輯 、 經驗或認識論 。 三 、 一般來說,理論批評 要 提出補救措施或替代方案。批 判 者應該分享具特色改善概念化的責任。否則,就很難知道是否原來確實是 缺陷 ,或只是在一個非常複雜的的世界中最好的
  • 11. What Factors Are Considered in judging Conceptual Papers? l. What’s new? Does the paper make a significant, value-added contribution to current thinking. Reviewers are not necessarily looking for totally new theories. However, modifications or extensions of current theories should alter scholars’ extant views in important ways. Proposed changes can be calibrated in terms of scope and degree. Scope tends to reflect the level of theorizing(general versus middle level), while degree reflects the radicalness of the proposal. In general, scope (how much of the field is impacted) is less important in determining the merits of a contribution than is degree(how different is this from current thinking). 判斷概念性論文需具備哪些因素可從以下 七個關鍵問題 來看: 1. 有什麼新 的 ?是否作出顯著,增值的貢獻。 2.So what? Will the theory likely change the practice of organizational science in this area? Are linkages to research evident(either explicitly laid out, or easily, reliably deduced). Does the paper go beyond making token statements about the value of testing or using these ideas? Are solutions proposed for remedying alleged deficiencies in current theories? These questions are less appropriate for the rare, highly conceptual papers aimed at changing the way organizational scholars think, in general. However, the purpose of the standard theoretical paper should be to alter research practice, not simply to tweak a conceptual model in ways that are of little consequence. 2. 那有怎樣 ?可能改變這一領域的組織科學的實踐?該 論 文是否超越有關的測試或使用這些想法的價值?標準的理論文章應該是改變的研究實踐, 而 不是簡單地調整一個無關緊要的概念模型。
  • 12. 3. Why so? Are the underlying logic and supporting evidence compelling? Are the author’s assumptions explicit? Are the author’s views believable? Theory development papers should be built on a foundation of convincing argumentation and grounded in reasonable, explicit views of human nature and organizational practice. 3. 為什麼會這樣?背後的邏輯和支持的證據令人信服嗎?作者的假設是否明確?作者的觀點是否可信?理論發展的論文應建立 在 一個令人信服 、 合理 、 人性化和組織實踐 具 明確意見的基礎上。 4. Well done? Does the paper reflect seasoned thinking, conveying completeness and thoroughness? Are multiple theoretical elements (What, How, Why, When-Where-Who) covered, giving the paper a conceptually well-rounded, rather than a superficial, qualify? Do the arguments reflect a broad, current under. standing of the subject? If propositions are included, are they used properly? Does the argument have any glaring logical flaws? Does it appear that the author has developed these thoughts over an extended period of time, in formed by extensive peer input? 4. 做的很 好 了嗎 ?該 論 文反映了經驗豐富的想 法 ,傳達的完整性和徹底? 有 多個理論要素(什麼,如何,為什麼,何時,在哪裡誰)覆蓋,而不是膚淺的?
  • 13. 5. Done well? Is the paper well written? Does it flow logically? Are the central ideas easily accessed? Is it enjoyable to read? Is the paper long enough to cover the subject but short enough to be interesting? Does the paper’s appearance reflect high professional standards? Are the paper’s format and Content consistent with the specifications in the Notice to Contributor? 6. Why now? Is this topic of contemporary interest to scholars in this area? Will it likely advance current discussions, stimulate new discussions, or revitalize old discussions? Reviewers give low marks to papers they perceive are redundant, unconnected, or antiquated. 5. 做得 令人滿意嗎 ?是寫得很好的 論 文?它 是否符合 邏輯?中心思想是否 容易取用 ?是愉快的閱讀? 內文 足夠長的時間討論該問題,但 如果 短,很有趣嗎?紙張的外觀是否反映了較高的專業水平?論文的格式和內容與在通知中所提供的規格一致嗎? 6. 為什麼是現在?這是 否為 當代這方面學者關心的話題?它目前的討論有可能 加速 刺激新的討論,或振興 舊有的 討論?審稿人給予論文 評價低 , 原因是 他們認為 內容 是多餘的,無關的,或過時。
  • 14. 7. Who cares? What percentage of academic readers are interested in this topic? A paper may be technically adequate but inherently uninteresting to most of our broad audience. Papers written on topics with narrow appeal are typically held to higher standard for criteria 1 and 2, that is, they are expected to make a more significant contribution to current thinking and research practice. In general, even highly specialized papers should be linked to core management or organizational concepts and problems. Otherwise, they are more appropriate for a discipline-based journal. 7. 誰在乎呢?在這個主題有興趣的學術讀者中有多少百分比?一 篇論 文,可能在技術上足夠,但本質上 對 廣大 讀者是 無趣 的 。吸引力 較低 的論文主題通常 被 以更高的標準為標準 (如: 1 和 2 ) ,也就是說,它們有望使當前的想 法 和實踐研究 有 更顯著的貢獻 In conclusion, the theory development process and criteria for judging theoretical contributions need to be broadly understood and accepted so that editors and contributors can communicate effectively. Hopefully, this brief article will facilitate that process. I urge readers to assist in the further development of frameworks for describing and enhancing these important scholarly activities. Papers on the process of building new and improving current theories are always welcome. 總之,理論的發展過程和理論貢獻的判斷標準需要得到廣泛的理解和接受,可以使編輯和貢獻者有效的溝通。