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  • 1. Efficient Deployment & Management of ASP.NET 2.0 Applications on IIS 6.0 Alexis Eller Program Manager Internet Information Services Microsoft Corporation
  • 2. Agenda
    • What is ASP.NET?
    • .NET Framework Concepts
      • Global Assembly Cache (GAC)
      • Configuration Layout
      • Code Access Security (CAS)
    • Versioning
    • Deployment & Management
    • Running x64 on ASP.NET 2.0 solutions
    • Summary / Q&A
  • 3. What is ASP.NET?
    • Part of the .NET Framework
      • IIS 6.0: v2.0, v1.1 in Worker Process Isolation Mode
      • IIS 6.0: v1.0 in IIS 5.0 Compatibility Mode
      • IIS 5.0: only run one version at a time
    • Builds significantly on the power of ASP
    • ASP.NET is “managed” code - the .NET Framework manages memory, not the application (reduces the risk of memory leaks)
  • 4. .NET Framework Concepts Global Assembly Cache (GAC)
    • “ Registry” for .NET assemblies
    • Add an assembly to the GAC:
      • Generate a strong name, assembly: 1) name, 2) version, 3) 64 bit public key hash - sn.exe , 4) culture
      • Add to the GAC - gacutil.exe , .NET Configuration x.x (MMC Snap-in)
    • Viewing the contents of the GAC:
      • gacutil /l
      • start explorer %windir%assembly
      • .NET Configuration x.x (MMC Snap-in)
    • Cannot XCOPY deploy GAC’ed assemblies
    • Security : all GAC’ed assemblies (for ASP.NET apps):
      • Run as Full Trust
      • Are accessible to all ASP.NET apps
  • 5. Adding an assembly to the GAC
  • 6. .NET Framework Concepts Configuration Layout root configuration files machine.config root web.config web.config .NET Framework ASP.NET ASP.NET + .NET Framework web.config files WindowsMicrosoft.NETFrameworkv2.0.50727configweb.config WindowsMicrosoft.NETFrameworkv2.0.50727configmachine.config Inheritance…
  • 7. .NET Framework Concepts Code Access Security (CAS)
    • Constrains managed code, including ASP.NET
      • Do you trust your content providers?
      • Do you trust that your applications can’t be exploited?
    • Control access to: file system, registry, printers
    • ASP.NET Trust Levels
      • Full, High, Medium, Low, Minimal (can define custom)
      • Defined by policy files: %windir%Microsoft.NETFrameworkv2.0.50727CONFIGweb*trust.config
      • Full trust by default
    • GAC’ed assemblies run as Full trust always
  • 8. .NET Framework Concepts ASP.NET Medium Trust
    • Access SQL Server
    • Send e-mail via SMTP
    • Access certain common environment variables
    • Access files within the application's directory
    • Access files outside the application's directory
    • Use reflection
    • Use sockets
    • Access unmanaged code
    Can... Cannot... How to Use Medium Trust in ASP.NET 2.0: http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnpag2/html/PAGHT000020.asp
  • 9. Setting and customizing ASP.NET Trust Levels
  • 10. ASP.NET Request Processing
    • IIS maps request to ASP.NET, forwards to aspnet_isapi.dll
    • ASP.NET ISAPI creates appdomain
    Send Response Log Compress NTLM Basic Determine Handler CGI Static File ISAPI Authentication Anon … … Authentication Forms Windows Map Handler ASPX Trace … … … aspnet_isapi.dll
  • 11. Deployment and Management Getting started...
    • Manual:
      • MMC snap-in (in IIS Manager)
      • aspnet_regiis.exe command line tool
      • Edit web.config files using Notepad or Visual Studio
    • Automated:
      • Call aspnet_regiis.exe in a batch file
      • Program against the ASP.NET configuration API (System.Configuration)
  • 12. Deployment and Management aspnet_regiis.exe
    • Provides more functionality than MMC snap-in
      • Enumerate all ASP.NET script map settings
      • Install / uninstall ASP.NET
      • Enable / disable ASP.NET ISAPI extension
    • Unique version in each framework directory:
      • C:WindowsMicrosoft.NETFramework64v2.0.50727
    • Use in batch files for deployment / management
      • Combine with other utilities to create batch files for deploying applications, content and configurations
  • 13. Deployment and Management aspnet_regiis.exe (2)
    • Combine aspnet_regiis.exe with other utilities for automating deployment
      • Adsutil.vbs to create application pool adsutil.vbs CREATE W3SVC/AppPools/BusyPool "IIsApplicationPool"
      • IISweb.vbs to create the Web site in app pool IISweb.vs /create C:MySource "MySite" /ap BusyPool /dontstart
      • Aspnet_regiis.exe to install ASP.NET 2.0 change the IIS scriptmap to 2.0 C:WINDOWSMicrosoft.NETFrameworkv2.0.50727apsnet_regiis.exe –enable -ir C:WINDOWSMicrosoft.NETFrameworkv2.0.50727apsnet_regiis.exe –s W3SVC/<metabase path>
  • 14. .NET Framework Versioning
    • Can run one version per application pool
    • Each framework version has it’s own version of aspnet_regiis.exe
    • Different IIS scriptmap behavior depending on existing ASP.NET
    Initial ASP.NET Configuration Scriptmap Behavior Location of Aspnet_regiss.exe ASP.NET not previously installed IIS Scriptmap defaults to 2.0 C:WINDOWSMicrosoft.NETFrameworkv2.0.50727 ASP.NET 1.1 previously installed Existing scriptmaps unchanged IIS Scriptmap continues to default to 1.1 C:WINDOWSMicrosoft.NETFrameworkv1.1.4322 C:WINDOWSMicrosoft.NETFrameworkv2.0.50727
  • 15. Running ASP.NET 1.1 and 2.0 Side-by-Side
  • 16. Deployment and Management ASP.NET 2.0 MMC Snap-In
    • Overview of the ASP.NET user interface
    • Configuration tabs
    • Understanding the behavior of the MMC snap-in
  • 17. Deployment and Management Overview of ASP.NET MMC Snap-in
    • ASP.NET configuration is:
      • hierarchical and distributed
      • complex enough to warrant a user interface
    • The ASP.NET MMC Snap-in uses Microsoft® Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager’s extensibility
  • 18. Deployment and Management Overview of ASP.NET MMC Snap-in
    • Prevents typo’s, incorrect XML tags
    • Manages versioning information
    • Indicates file and virtual path
    • Indicates the date file last modified
  • 19. Deployment and Management Configuration Tabs
    • General
      • Connection strings, Application data
    • Custom Errors
    • Authorization
    • Authentication
      • Authentication settings
      • Membership provider
      • Role Manager provider and enable/disable
    • Application
      • Compilation, Globalization, Identity
    • State Management
      • Session State settings
    • Locations
      • User-defined settings entered as <location> tags in configuration
  • 20. Deployment and Management Configuration Tab - General
    • What can be modified?
      • Database Connections
      • Application Settings
    • Which web.config file is edited? Depends on the object selected in IIS Manager...
      • Server (Web Sites)
      • Web Site
      • Virtual Directory / Folder
  • 21. Deployment and Management Configuration Tab – Custom Errors
    • What can be modified?
      • Enabling local or remote- only custom errors
      • Redirect URLs for specific status codes
      • Default redirect URL
    • What cannot be modified?
      • IIS’s custom errors configuration in the metabase
  • 22. Deployment and Management Configuration Tab – Auth’N and Auth’Z
    • What can be modified?
      • Authentication:
        • Forms vs. Windows
        • Forms authentication settings
        • Membership and Roles providers
      • Authorization Rules: only apply to content handled by the ASP.NET 2.0 ISAPI
    • What cannot be modified?
      • IIS Authentication: Anonymous, Basic, Integrated, etc.
      • IIS does access checks, not authorization rules per URL
      • IIS 6.0 ships with Authorization Manager ISAPI (urlauth.dll) - this is different than ASP.NET authorization
  • 23. Deployment and Management Configuration Tab – Application
    • What can be modified?
      • Compilation and runtime settings
        • Assign a theme to specific page or master page
      • Debugging options
        • Used for development purposes
        • Should be used only in non-production environments (performance considerations)
          • Tip: <deployment retail=&quot;true|false&quot; />
      • Globalization options
        • Setting the Code Page, etc.
      • Identity settings
        • Use IIS’s impersonated token -or- override with a specified user identity
  • 24. Deployment and Management Configuration Tab – State Management
    • What can be modified?
      • Enable ASP.NET Session State Server
      • Enable ASP.NET Session State in SQL Server
      • State management connection strings
    • ASP.NET Session State Server vs. ASP.NET Session State in SQL Server
      • ASP.NET State Server stores state in a process separate from the ASP.NET application
      • ASP.NET Session State in SQL Server stores applicationsession data in SQL
  • 25. Deployment and Management Configuration Tab – Locations
    • What can be done with the Locations Tab?
      • Lockdown of features at a granular level
      • Examples:
        • “ AllowOverride=false” with a relative path
    • Advanced concept - requires a thorough understanding of configuration
    <configuration> <location path=“Default Web Site/App/Login.aspx” allowOverride=“false”> <authorization> ... </location> <configuration>
  • 26. Configuring Forms Auth in the ASP.NET MMC Snap-in
  • 27. Deployment and Management Understanding the MMC Snap-in Behaviour
    • Multiple configuration editors (such as administrators and developers) can cause errors in the configuration files
      • Configuration errors in the files will cause errors in the user interface
      • User interface cannot read invalid configuration files
      • Updates to web.config files reload the application’s appdomain – loses in process session state, caches, etc.
  • 28. Running ASP.NET 2.0 on x64
    • ASP.NET 1.1 – Requires WOW64
      • 32 bit IIS worker processes on 64 bit OS
      • Virtual memory from 2 GB to 4 GB
      • Enable, from %systemdrive%InetpubAdminScripts, run cscript.exe adsutil.vbs set W3SVC/AppPools/Enable32BitAppOnWin64 “true”
    • ASP.NET 2.0 – Runs native 64 bit or WOW64
      • Virtual memory practically unlimited in native 64 bit
    • MMC Snap-in not supported on x64
  • 29. Summary
    • Global Assembly Cache (GAC)
      • All GAC'ed assemblies run in Full trust
      • GAC'ed assemblies cannot be xcopy deployed
    • ASP.NET Trust Levels (CAS Permission Sets)
      • Full trust is not secure enough, Medium is recommended
      • Trust levels can be customized
    • aspnet_regiis.exe: automated deployment and management
    • ASP.NET 2.0 MMC snap-in:
      • provides a safe way to edit configuration
      • writes to hierarchical and distributed web.config
    • ASP.NET v1.1 and v2.0 run side by side on IIS 6.0
  • 30. [email_address]
  • 31. Resources
    • ASP.NET &quot;Whidbey&quot; Documentation Center on MSDN
      • http://msdn.microsoft.com/asp.net/whidbey/default.aspx
    • ASP.NET user interface
      • http://msdn.microsoft.com/asp.net/articles/ui/
    • ASP.NET 2.0 Fundamentals
      • http://msdn.microsoft.com/asp.net/articles/fundamentals/
    • .NET Blog: When is ReflectionPermission needed?
      • http://blogs.msdn.com/shawnfa/archive/2005/03/08/389768.aspx
    • IIS Webcast Series: [email_address]
      • http://www.iiswebcastseries.com