The Human Cosmos
       in powers of ten


                   0

         10 km
0
< 500 BC Ancient World
           10 km ?




1
200 BC Greek Astronomy
           4.5 million km




    Aristarchus - estimates relative distances and size of earth,
   ...
14th Century
                             Ibn al-Shatir
                                141 million km


                 ...
Tycho Brahae
the 1572 supernova
Copernican system
    the orbit of Saturn
     1.52 x 109 miles




9
1780 Herschel
 estimates size of the Milky Way by counting
            stars in each direction
               9000 light y...
1838 - Friedrich Bessel
Measures distance to nearby stars by
             Parallax
More accurate size of Milky
           Way
     91,500 light years




17
1923 Edwin Hubble
     “Nebulae” are other galaxies
             Andromeda Galaxy
            2,900,000 light years




  ...
Hubble constant (H)
     Shows Universe is Expanding
         1/H 13 billion light years




23
Most distant Galaxies
     1975 Dark Matter
        13 billion light years




                    1995 Hubble Telescope
2...
2002 Acceleration of universal expansion
             Dark Energy
          15,000,000,000 light years




23
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0: The Universe over Time

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This introduction to our course draws an illustration of how our understanding evolves over time and with it, how we see the universe.

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0: The Universe over Time

  1. 1. The Human Cosmos in powers of ten 0 10 km 0
  2. 2. < 500 BC Ancient World 10 km ? 1
  3. 3. 200 BC Greek Astronomy 4.5 million km Aristarchus - estimates relative distances and size of earth, moon and sun from watching the shadow of the earth on the moon during eclipse. 6 Eratosthenes - measured the size of the earth from the angle the sun cast on a well at summer solstice (6100 km vs 6378 km).
  4. 4. 14th Century Ibn al-Shatir 141 million km Stronger geometric proofs revise QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. the estimates of the distance to the sun 8
  5. 5. Tycho Brahae the 1572 supernova
  6. 6. Copernican system the orbit of Saturn 1.52 x 109 miles 9
  7. 7. 1780 Herschel estimates size of the Milky Way by counting stars in each direction 9000 light years 16
  8. 8. 1838 - Friedrich Bessel Measures distance to nearby stars by Parallax
  9. 9. More accurate size of Milky Way 91,500 light years 17
  10. 10. 1923 Edwin Hubble “Nebulae” are other galaxies Andromeda Galaxy 2,900,000 light years QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 19 Discovery of the expansion of space
  11. 11. Hubble constant (H) Shows Universe is Expanding 1/H 13 billion light years 23
  12. 12. Most distant Galaxies 1975 Dark Matter 13 billion light years 1995 Hubble Telescope 21-23 Deep Field Pictures
  13. 13. 2002 Acceleration of universal expansion Dark Energy 15,000,000,000 light years 23

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