Systematic exploration of activities involved in a job.
A systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and
responsibilities necessary to do a job.
Identification of the job
To identify the operations and tasks involved
Characteristics of the job
Duties involved in the job
Materials , methods and equipments used in the job
How the job is performed
Human resource planning
Placement and orientation
Job design and redesign
Selection of representative jobs/position to be
Collection of job analysis data
Preparation of job description
Preparation of job specification
Preparation of job evaluation
Implementing and monitoring the development
Observing and noting the physical activities of
employees as they go about their jobs
Provides first-hand information
Reduces distortion of information
Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle
Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity
The three types of interviews managers use to
collect job analysis data are:
Individual (to get the employee's perspective on the
job's duties and responsibilities)
Group (when large numbers of employees perform
the same job), and
Supervisor (to get his/her perspective on the job's
duties and responsibilities).
Direct way to find overlooked information required.
Exaggeration or depreciation of importance of job
In case of supervisor, he may not be interesting in the
JD of the subordinates.
Attitude may not be supportive.
Difference in perception, attitude and aptitude of the
Lack of communication.
Analyst’s caliber should match employee’s caliber.
The job analyst and supervisor should work
together to identify the workers who know the job
It is advisable to quickly establish rapport with the
Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists
open-ended questions and provides space for
Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of
importance and frequency of occurrence.
After completing the interview, review and verify
Employees fill out questionnaires to describe their
job-related duties and responsibilities.
Questionnaires format:job analysis questionnaire
format.docx,Job Analysis -Questionnaire.docx
Structured checklist.( to identify the task
Open ended questions
Quick and efficient way to gather information from
large numbers of employees
Expensive and time is consumed in preparing and
testing the questionnaire.
Becomes less useful where the employees lack
A job analysis technique that involves extensive input
from the employee’s supervisor/ experts. The
method does not allow having the employee’s
perception of the task.
Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what
they do and the time spent on each activity.
Produces a more complete picture of the job
Maintained on daily basis.
Distortion of information
Depends upon employees to accurately recall their
The job analyst actually performs the job in question
thus giving a first hand information of the job in
terms of physical effort, hazards, emotional
pressures, social demands and mental
Job analysis method by which job tasks are
identified that are critical to job success.
A written document of what the job holder does, how it
is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is
It gives the purpose and scope of the job
Contents of Job description
Tools, machinery and equipments needed if any
Title Compensation Manager
Department Human Resource Department
Summary Responsible for the design and
administration of employee
Duties •Conduct job analysis
•Prepare job description for current
and projected positions
•Evaluate job description and act as
chairman of job evaluation
•Relate salary to the performance of
•Develop and administer performance
Working condition Normal. Eight hours per day. 5 days a
Report to Director, HR Department
helps the supervisors in assigning work to the
subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their
It helps in recruitment and selection procedures.
It assists in manpower planning.
It is also helpful in performance appraisal.
It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide
about rate of remuneration for a specific job.
It also helps in chalking out training and
A statement which tells us minimum acceptable
human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job
specification translates the job description into
human qualifications so that a job can be performed
in a better manner.
Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate
person for an appropriate position.
The contents are :
Job title and designation
Educational qualifications for that title
Physical and other related attributes
Physique and mental health
Special attributes and abilities
Maturity and dependability
Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
Job Specification of Compensation Manager.docx
Advantages of Job Specification
It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection
It helps in giving due justification to each job.
It also helps in designing training and development
It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring
performance of employees.
It helps in job evaluation.
It helps the management to take decisions regarding
promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the
Job analysis is considered to be the
primary tool of personnel management.
Job evaluation is the process of determining the
worth of one job in relation to that of the other jobs
in a company.
Is a process of determining the relative worth of a
An effort to determine the relative value of every job
in an organization.
A practical technique to judge the size of one job
relative to others.
To gather data and information relating to JD, job
specification and employee specifications of various
jobs in an organization.
To compare the duties, responsibilities and
demands of a job with that of other jobs.
To determine the hierarchy /rank based on jobs in
To ensure equal wages are fixed to the jobs of equal
worth or value.
To minimize wage discrimination based on sex, age,
caste, region, religion etc.
Rate the job but not the employee.
Elements / tasks selected should be easily understood,
defined clearly and properly selected.
Employee concerned and supervisors should be educated
and convinced about the program.
Supervisors should be encouraged to participate in rating
Encourage employee cooperation to participate in the
Consensus with the supervisors and employees on rating.
Should be a collective effort, chance for equal
representation from all departments
Reduction in inequalities in salary structure
Helps in selection of employees
Harmonious relationship between employees and
Relevance of new jobs
Human resources planning is the process by which an
organization ensures that it has the right number &
right kind of people at the right place and at the
right time , capable of effectively and efficiently
completing those tasks that help the organization
achieve its overall objectives..
Human Resource Planning is ‘the process for ensuring
that the human resource requirements of an
organization are identified and plans are made for
satisfying those requirements’.
Bulla and Scott (1994),
HR Planning is also called Employment planning or
Man power planning
Important, since people are most important and the
most valuable asset of the organisation
Forecast personnel requirements: determine
future manpower needs
Cope with changes effectively: market conditions,
technology, products, government regulations etc.
Use existing manpower productively
Promote employees in a systematic manner.
Reservoir of talent :
Prepare people for future – employees trained and
motivated in advance to meet future requirements
Meet the needs of expansion and downsizing
Meet manpower shortages due to labour turnover.
Cut cost- prevent over manning/ surplus employees
Nature of the job
growth cycle and
Type and quality
Type and strategy
1. Assessing current human resources.
a. Human Resources inventory
i. HR inventory
iii. Succession planning
b. Job Analysis
2. Assessing the demands for human resources
3. Implication of future demand
4. Implication of future supply
a. Increasing supply
b. Decreasing supply
5. Matching demand and supply
HR planning starts – preparation of profile of current human
resources in an organization.
I. Human Resource Inventory & Job Analysis
Human Resource Inventory Includes
a) HR Inventory – Collecting and keeping the details of the
employees presently working in the organization utilizing
the computer technology.
c) HRIS – Human Resource Information System: A data base
system: A method by which an organization collects, analyses
and reports information about people and job.
c) Succession Planning: A type of inventory report:
It is a process for identifying and developing internal people
with the potential to fill key business leadership positions in
the company that may come in the future.
(retirement, death, resignation, promotion, transfer etc)
II. Job Analysis: Systematic exploration of activities involved
in a job.
The future plans, direction of the organisation in
terms of revenue forecast etc
Here projection of future human needs can be
Heterogeneous group of people has to be identified
Both the quality and quantity of demand is important
Factors affecting the supply
Transfers in, returns from leave
Transfers out, retirement, death, dismissal, lay off.
i. Lack of understanding of rationale of planning
ii. Insufficient top management’s support
iii. Insufficient initial effort
iv. Lack of coordination with other functions
v. Lack of integration with organizational plans
vi. Non-cooperation of operating managers.
Process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to
apply for existing or anticipated job openings.
“Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective
employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the
Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given
to the jobs available in the organization and interested
candidates are encouraged to submit applications for the
purpose of selection
Need arises due to the following reasons / situation:
Vacancies due to promotions, transfer, retirement,
termination, permanent disability, death and labour
Creation of new vacancies due to the growth, expansion
and diversification of business activities of an enterprise.
Determine the present and future requirements of the organization.
Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
Help increase the success rate of the selection process - by reducing
under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected,
leaving the organization within a short period of time.
Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the
composition of its work force.
Identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be
Increase organizational and individual effectiveness
Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and
sources for all types of job applicants.
Conservative internal policies
Limited budgetary support
Restrictive policies of government.
Persons who are already working
in the organization
•Dependents of deceased employees
Vacancies are filled- upgrading,
transferring. Promoting or
demoting the existing work force
Recruiting persons from
outside the organization
•Employees in other organizations
•Students from reputed
•Respondents of advertisements
Non traditional Sources
National blind association
National organization for women
Association for the handicapped
Discourages entry of
talented people from
Bone of contention.
Injection of fresh blood
Long term benefits
a) Internal Methods
◦ Promotions and Transfers:
◦ Job Posting – In office bulletin, notice board. Electronic
◦ Employee referrals
b) Direct Methods
◦ Campus recruitment
c) Indirect Methods
◦ Advertisements ( Newspaper, Television and radio ads)
d) Third Party Methods
• Private employment search firms (recruitment
• Employment exchanges
• Labour contractors
f) Gate hiring
g) Unsolicited applicants- walk ins
h) Internet recruiting (job portals)
◦ The factories Act, 1948
◦ The Apprentices Act,1961
◦ The Employment Exchanges Act,1959
◦ The Contract labour Act,1970
◦ Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976
◦ The Child Labour Act,1986
“Right man at the right job” is
the basic principle in selection.
Selection is the process of picking individuals who
have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an
organization. The basic purpose is to choose the
individual who can most successfully perform the
job from the pool of qualified candidates.
Basis Recruitment Selection
Meaning Activity of establishing contact
between employers and
Process of picking up
more competent and
Objective Encourages large number of
Candidates to apply for a job.
Create a pool of candidates
Attempts at rejecting
Process Simple process. Complicated process.
Hurdles The candidates have not to
cross over many hurdles.
Many hurdles have to be
Approach Positive approach. Negative approach.
Time Less time is required. More time required.
Economy economical method Expensive method
Final Approval/Hiring decision
Communicating to rejected candidates about their rejection
Skill and Abilities
Temperament and Character
1. Intelligence tests
2. Ability tests -determine
how well one can perform his
3. Aptitude Test - determine
a persons potential to learn
in a given area
4. Personality tests - To
measure an individual’s
◦ Projective tests
◦ Interest tests
◦ Preference tests
5. Achievement Test
6. Simulation tests
7. Assessment centre
7. Graphology test
8. Polygraph test- lie
9. Integrity tests
Helps to identify talents of individuals
Reduce cost-large candidates at minimum time
Measure aptitude and predict success
Healthy basis for comparing applicants
Analysis of job
Selection of test procedure
Preliminary tryout and refinement
Validation of test procedure –experiment
Combination of tests
Administration of tests
Reliability- Refers to the consistency – Reliability is
tested by giving the same test to the same person at
two different points in time
Validity- the extend to which the test measures
what it intends to measure
Suitability – Suitable for the group on which it is
Usefulness – Exclusive reliance on single test
should be avoided
Preparation - Test should be well prepared
Standardization - Should follow prescribed
methods and procedures for conducting the test
Formal, in depth conversation conducted to evaluate the
Face to face interaction between
two persons for a particular process.
Two-way exchange of information, the interviewers learn
about the applicant, and the applicant learns about the
It can be formal or informal
Interview is deliberate listening for the purpose of
drawing the other persons out to discover, what he
want to say and give him a chance to express
Purpose of interview
Size up the interviewee’s agreeableness
Ask questions that are not covered in tests
Obtain as much relevant information as possible
Make assessment on interviewee’s enthusiasm and
Pass information to candidate about the company
Non – directive interview (Unstructured interview) – No
specific format followed, broad, open ended questions.
Directive (Structured interview) – Uses predetermined
set of questions. Easy to compare two candidates, increased
reliability, eliminate biases but put restrictions on the
freedom of interviewer.
Situational interview- applicants are confronted with a
hypothetical(imaginary) incident (situation)
Behavioural Interview- Focuses on actual work incidents
in the applicants past.
Stress Interview: to find response of candidates to
aggressive, embarrassing, rude and insulting questions and
putting them in a difficult situation.
Panel interview: Interviewee meets with three or five
interviewers. Limits the chances of personal biases of any
Depth interview: To evaluate the subject knowledge of the
Phone Interviews - Interview conducted over the phone
Video/Web Assisted Interviews – video conferencing
Exit interview – Interview conducted at the the time of
leaving (resignation)the organization
Structure the interview- helps to increase reliability
Fixed set of questions to all applicants- for easy
Train the interviewer
Understand the job
Avoid other unnecessary information's
Standardize the evaluation forms
Avoid short interviews
Halo effect – Reflection based on ones
characteristic either correctly or
incorrectly (appearance. Communication etc.)
Stereotyping – Assuming that particular
characteristics are typical of members of a particular
group and take decisions base on that.
Projective type- Expecting that all the qualities of the
interviewers should be with the candidates
Leniency – lenient in evaluating everyone
Conservative – just opposite to being lenient
Adjusting the HR policies (hiring freeze, salary freeze,
salary reduction, early retirement, mandatory holiday)
Reducing Recruitment costs (Negotiating discount on
recruitment contracts with recruitment sites and agencies,
Approaching one stop career centers for all types of job
Conducting the screening interviews over the
internet( Web cam conferencing)/telephonic
Sending employees to free training alternatives
Cutting back salary increases and merit pay (high
performing employees- offered- long term equity grants
and retention bonuses)
Extended health care benefits for separated
Preparing for lay offs
Adopt Cost cutting Strategies (reducing accidents,
migrate from expensive training to less expensive online
training, diligently reviewing compensation claims, diligent
safety checks and audits)
Managing effectively the overall compensation