5 ecology and ecosystem


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5 ecology and ecosystem

  1. 1. Ecology :- is the study of organisms in their natural habitat. It is concerned with the study of organisms in various habitats like land, oceans, fresh water and air.
  2. 2. Ecology • The word ecology comes from the Greek Oikos, meaning house or place to live. • It refers to the study of organisms in their natural habitat. • or the study of the structure and function of nature. • It is a science which investigates organisms in relation to their environment. • study of the relationships that living organisms have with each other and with their natural environment
  3. 3. Ecologists seek to explain: • Life processes and adaptations • Distribution and abundance of organisms • The movement of materials and energy through living communities • The step by step development of ecosystems, and • The abundance and distribution of biodiversity in the context of the environment.
  4. 4. Ecology proceeds at three levels 1. The individual organism At the individual level of organism ecology deals with how individuals are affected by and how they affect their environment
  5. 5. 2. The population consisting of individuals of the same species. At the level of population, ecology deals with the presence and absence of particular species and with trends and fluctuations in their numbers
  6. 6. 3. The community consisting of number of populations. Community ecology deals with the composition or structure of communities and with the natural resources affected by them
  7. 7. • An ecosystem is a complex set of relationships among living resources, habitat and residents of a region. • And Ecology is the scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter.
  8. 8. Ecosystem “An ecosystem may be defined as - a system formed by the interaction of a group of organisms and their environment .
  9. 9. Ecosystem: The collection of all living organisms in a geographic area, together with all the living and non-living things with which they interact. · Aquatic Ecosystems (water-based) ecosystems · Terrestrial Ecosystems (land-based) ecosystems
  10. 10. concepts of ecology 1. Ecosystem 2. Cycles & its imbalance 3. Community 4. Food Chain 5. Carrying Capacity 6. Limiting factor 7. Habitat 8. Biological clock
  11. 11. Ecosystem: consists of population & communities of organisms and their interdependence. It emphasis relationship & interdependence. E.g. forest, sea
  12. 12. Ecosystem- dynamic system  Ecosystem is at a constant state of change.  Change can be in its structure and process of living beings over time. Or changes can be in its physical environment.  These changes leads to the formation of different or other ecosystem  Ecosystem is capable of self maintenance and self regulation.
  13. 13. Human intervention has being the main cause of imbalance in the ecosystem.  E.g. industrial revolution, green revolution (intense farming) etc.  Goal for higher rate of productivity has lead to conflict within the ecosystem.  Our country has a variety of ecosystems
  14. 14. 2. Cycles & its imbalance • Cycles Refers to circulation of elements like water or carbon in the atmosphere. This is from environment to organism & back. E.g. carbon cycle. • Human activities can upset this cycle • Recycling & its process is also a part of cycle. E.g. battery.
  15. 15. Community • Community where organisms of different species live together. • Imbalance is caused when the principle of interdependence is disrupted. E.g. Extinction of Dinosaurs or Breeding of Mosquito.
  16. 16. Food Chain Transfer of food energy from plants through a series of organisms where eating & being eaten occurs. Pollutants can also be transferred E.g. ban of DDT
  17. 17. Carrying Capacity • Every ecosystem has limits in terms of various populations it can support • The same concept is applicable to air and water . • If the carrying capacity is exceeded by pollutants it will affect the quality
  18. 18. Limiting factor • E.g. factors such as temperature, light and water in greater amount than required can inhibit organisms development • Government and industry should focus on the impact of a project on these factors
  19. 19. Habitat Habitat refers to place where an organism, population or community lives. Land Water aerial
  20. 20. Biological clock • The internal clock operates through signals arising with in the organism or from the environment like temperature, light, or other seasonal changes. • Changing environmental conditions can disturb the biological clock
  21. 21. ECOLOGICAL SERVICES • Resources like oxygen, water, food & other materials • Cyclic mechanism like water, carbon & nutrient cycle • Regulatory services like flood, disease & climate control, temperature regulation & pollination Any disturbance in ecosystem would lead to breakdown of ecological services  For sustainability we have to redesign both our industrial and economic models
  22. 22. Industrial ecology • Means application of ecosystem concepts to industry • It is based on minimization of raw material usage, waste production and optimization of energy. • The concept of closed loop manufacturing system must be adopted. • It is a system that integrate profitability with social and environmental responsibilities Eg:-many countries in Europe require manufacturers to follow life cycle thinking
  23. 23. • In Germany under law manufacturers has to use their products for ever • E.g. :- INTERFACE worlds largest American company in manufacturing carpets and other flooring materials • selenium
  24. 24. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), • where producers have a responsibility for their entire product life cycle including the post consumer phase of their product, is one politically feasible way to promote closed loop systems. • EPR holds product designers responsible for the environmental and public health impacts of their products.
  25. 25. The factors affecting ecosystem are • Population growth • Human activities • Resources availability • Climatic factors
  26. 26. Population growth • Population growth mainly affects ecosystem balance, if the number of population increases, than there exists a resource shortage. • Population growth is the number of individuals present in each species of ecosystem.
  27. 27. Resources availability • Two kinds of resources • Renewable Resources: These types of resources can be renewed. • Non- renewable: These types of resources cannot be renewed, once used it will not be produced back. • These resources can be utilized by different species in the ecosystem, if the population size increases, there exists a resource shortage.
  28. 28. Climatic factors: • Climatic factors such as temperature, rainfall, etc play the main role in ecological balance. • Certain animals will exist only in moderate temperature; if there is high temperature these species can’t survive leads to extinction. • Factors such as heavy rainfall, floods, cyclones and hurricanes lead death to many species
  29. 29. Human Activities: • Human activities like deforestation and urbanization greatly destroys the habitats of animals and plants. So that they can’t get the sufficient resources to exist. They migrate to other places and some of the species will die .
  30. 30. STRUCTURE OF ECOSYSTEMS Biotic and Abiotic components Every ecosystem is composed of two basic units: a) Biotic components: the living organisms - all plant & animals, human beings and microbes b) Abiotic: the non-living physical and chemical component consisting of wind, temperature, water, soil, precipitation etc
  31. 31. Major biological (Biotic) components of eco system 1. PRODUCERS- Autotrophic components 2. CONSUMERS – Heterotrophic components 3. DECOMPOSERS- saprophytes
  32. 32. 1. PRODUCERS: Autotrophic components includes Green plants, bacteria , algae, and other organisms that carry on photosynthesis. Producers are self-nourished – they do not depend on other species to feed. During photosynthesis, plants capture light energy with their chlorophyll and use it to convert carbon dioxide and moisture (absorbed from air) into carbohydrates, protein etc. Oxygen is released as a by-product Every major ecosystem has its particular green plants that carry on photosynthesis and release chemical energy ,on which non-producers feed.
  33. 33. 2. CONSUMERS: Heterotrophic components All other organisms which cannot convert solar energy into food and depends on autotrophs to obtain their energy for survival  Consumers are subdivided into groups according to their food source. Primary consumers: Species that feed directly on producers (plant-eating species). They are also called Herbivores. E.g. elephants, cattle, insects and grasshoppers
  34. 34. Secondary Consumers: Species that feed on the flesh of primary consumers. Secondary and higher order consumers are called Carnivores. E.g. fox, cat. Tertiary and higher level Consumers: Species that obtain their nourishment by eating other meat- eating species. E.g. tiger, lion Multiple level Consumers: Species that obtain their nourishment from eating both plants and animal species. Also called Omnivores
  35. 35. Plant • Autotrophs (producer) Insect • Herbivors Frog • Primary consumer Snale • Secondary consumer Eagle • Topcarnivor e
  36. 36. 3. DECOMPOSERS: • They are the final link in the food chain. • Comprise of organisms that feed on dead matter and break it down to release chemical energy back into the soil for plants to re-use them. • E.g. fungi, bacteria, insects, worms and others. • Also called scavengers.
  37. 37. Abiotic components of ecosystem • All the non-living components of the environment such as light, temperature, humidity, moisture, solar radiation and salinity of soil as well as inorganic and organic compounds constitute the abiotic components of the ecosystem.
  38. 38. • The variation in physical factors that a population can withstand and continue to thrive in an environment is termed Range of Tolerance. • The quality of abiotic materials present in an ecosystem is known as the ‘standing stage’. • All biotic organisms interact only with the abiotic components of the environment.
  39. 39. Major Abiotic factors are Climatic factors- light ,temperature, rainfall, wind, humidity Topographical factors-altitude, slope and direction of mountain Edaphic factors-structure, formation and nature of soils
  40. 40. These factors are considered as resources and conditions. • Resources are those factors that can be consumed or directly utilized by the organism like nitrogen, potassium etc. • Environmental conditions are factors that are not directly utilized by the organism but affect the growth and survival of the organism
  41. 41. Types of ecosystem 1. Terrestrial ecosystem- includes forest ecosystem, desert ecosystem, grass land ecosystem, tree ecosystem, etc. 2. Marine ecosystem e.g.- seas, oceans. 3. Fresh water ecosystem e.g.- ponds, streams, rivers and lakes. 4. Man-engineered ecosystem:- agriculture and aquaculture
  42. 42. Terrestrial ecosystems are-
  43. 43. Forest ecosystem- • Depending on annual rain fall and its distribution avrg monthly temperature, annual dry and wet periods, humidity etc Indian forests can be classified into 16 different types. • Different components of the all forest ecosystems are the same – abiotic components (Inorganic and organic substances minerals present in the atmosphere ),biotic components (producers consumers and decomposers.
  44. 44. Grassland ecosystem • Continental interiors with law rainfall are dominated by grasses • Grassland comes under terrestrial ecosystem and occupy about 19% of the earths total surface. • The abiotic components of grassland ecosystems are the nutrients of the environment- supplied by carbon dioxide, water, nitrates, phosphates and sulphates present in the air and soil of the area • Biotic components includes producers, consumer sand decomposers in the grassland
  45. 45. Desert ecosystem • Continental interiors with very law rainfall and with very law humidity are converted to deserts. • The species composition is quite different because of the extreme climatic conditions.
  46. 46. Aquatic ecosystem
  47. 47. Fresh water ecosystem • Fresh water ecosystem can be two types 1. Lotic – having flowing water eg streams and rivers 2. Lentic- having stagnant or still water eg ponds and lakes  The components of a fresh water ecosystem are self regulating and self sufficient.
  48. 48.  The components of an aquatic system can also be classified into biotic and abiotic.  Abiotic components are carbon dioxide, oxygen, calcium, nitrogen, phosphorous, amino acids and water  Biotic components consists of producers consumers and decomposers.
  49. 49. Marine (ocean) eco system • Marine ecosystem can be devided into 1. Littoral zone 2. Neritic 3. Pelagic 4. Benthic zone
  50. 50. • Littoral zone- the shore line between the land and open sea is termed as littoral zone. waves and tides have the maximum effect in this zone. • Just above the continental shelf lies the Neritic zone- this zone is rich in nutrients washed from land and hence rich in species too. Sunlight also penetrates the neritic zone. Hence the productivity of this zone is high. Pollutions affect this zone first
  51. 51. • Pelagic zone- the open sea constituting 90% of the total ocean surface forms the pelage zone . • Photosynthesis is carried out by phytoplankton's are present in this zone. • This zone is very large in area, it is low in nutrients and productivity. • fin and blue whale are present here
  52. 52. • Benthic zone- the floor of the ocean constitutes the benthic zone. It streches from the edge of the continental shelf to the deepest ocean trenches. Organisms present here are heterotrophic