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Best recruitment strategies Best recruitment strategies Document Transcript

  • BEST RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES 1
  • ACCENTURE: Type Founded Headquarters Public (NYSE: ACN, ISIN: BMG1150G1116) 1989 as Andersen Consulting Accenture Ltd. Hamilton, Bermuda (registered) Key people William (Bill) D. Green, Chief Executive Officer Industry Management consulting, technology services and outsourcing Revenue ▲ $19.7 billion (2007) Net income ▲ $1.24 billion (2007) Employees About 178,000 (2008) Slogan Website High performance. Delivered. www.accenture.com History: Formation and early years Accenture originated as the consulting division of Arthur Andersen, which Arthur Andersen and Clarence DeLany founded in 1913 as Andersen, DeLany & Co. Accenture's origins are in a 1953 feasibility study for General Electric. GE asked Arthur Andersen about the feasibility of automating payroll processing and manufacturing at GE's Appliance Park facility near Louisville, Kentucky. Arthur Andersen recommended installation of a UNIVAC I computer and printer, and GE agreed, which is the start of what became the first-ever commercial computer in the United States. Joe Glickauf was Arthur Andersen's project leader for the GE engagement and was responsible for the payroll processing automation, launching commercial data processing in the United States. Considered to be the father of 2
  • computer consulting, Glickauf headed Arthur Andersen's Administrative Services division for 12 years Emergence of Accenture On January 1, 2001 Andersen Consulting adopted its current name, "Accenture". The word "Accenture" is derived from "Accent on the future". Although a marketing consultancy was tasked with finding a new name for the company, the name "Accenture" was chosen by an employee from the Oslo office named Kim Petersen, as a result of an internal competition. Accenture felt that the name should represent its will to be a global consulting leader and high performer, and also intended that the name should not be offensive in any country in which Accenture operates. The choice of name also means that the company appears closer towards the top of any alphabetized lists, and retains the AC letter sequence of its previous identity. It is also rumored that while the idea came from someone in the Oslo office, the thought that started that idea came from the training regime that almost all new employees to AC were put through, where many of the classes were called "Accent on C", a reference to the C programming language. 3
  • HR STRATEGIES Accenture is the world's leading management consulting and technology services company. Committed to delivering innovation, Accenture collaborates with its clients to help them realize their visions and create tangible value. With deep industry expertise, broad global resources and proven experience in consulting and outsourcing, Accenture can mobilize the right people, skills, alliances and technologies. Great Place to Work for Women Multinational companies face unique challenges in addressing the importance of women in the workplace. Since they go to market globally and share people across borders, they need to develop global leadership strategies to address the women‘s issues in a complex organization, while allowing for customized implementation at the local level. Accenture is one company that has learned how to successfully meet these challenges. The company developed and implemented the Great Place to Work for Women global strategy to create a culture in which all employees, regardless of geography, can achieve their personal career aspirations. To ensure the strategy‘s success, the company has implemented a variety of innovative people management processes. These processes include metrics, such as geographic scorecards, a Global Leadership Survey, Global People Survey, and performance appraisals. It also includes programs such as career counseling, mentoring programs for women, and events that foster networking and relationship building. Although the initiative is managed globally, local offices focus on the diversity issues most relevant to them. Accenture likens its approach to a spider web, with global leadership at the center, linked to the operating groups and geographies in a complex set of interrelationships. Managers share initiative results by unit and geography throughout the company. In addition, in a unique approach for a professional services company, Accenture has made flexibility an integral part of doing business. At Accenture, going 4
  • part-time or working a modified workweek are not career limiting moves. All of these efforts have resulted in increased success for women at Accenture. History and Launch of the Initiative The global initiative grew out of Accenture‘s US Diversity program, which was created in 1994. The US Diversity umbrella includes nine programs, one of which is the US Women‘s Initiatives program. Developed in 1995, it focuses on four areas: 1) External relationship building; 2) Building program awareness; 3) Customized mentoring programs 4) Work balance initiatives, such as the US Working Parent‘s Discussion database and back-up dependent care. The success of the US Diversity program paved the way for Accenture to expand its diversity work to the United Kingdom in 1999, and then to the global level, where the Great Place to Work for Women initiative was born. In 2000, Accenture Chairman and CEO Joe Forehand specifically endorsed global women‘s initiatives as critical to Accenture‘s ongoing success. Accenture‘s Strategy The Great Place to Work for Women initiative focuses on four key areas: 1. Provide global direction, vision, and coordination; customize and implement locally. 2. Aggressively and proactively attract women to the organization. 3. Develop women over the course of their career lifecycles, and create an inclusive work environment that maximizes commitment and retention. 4. Help women advance in the organization. Detail on Global Strategy and Local Customization 5
  • Accenture‘s global women‘s initiative operates worldwide in twelve geographic units and five operating groups, and is accessible to all 75,000 employees. Key elements of the global strategy, with examples of local customization, include: 1. Provide global direction, vision, and coordination; customize and implement locally. Accenture‘s initiative is co-sponsored by the company‘s Chairman and CEO, Joe W. Forehand, and Gill Rider, Chief Leadership Officer and Managing Partner-Human Resources, who also manages the program globally. Ms. Rider and her team provide the direction and vision for the initiative and coordinate the global network of women‘s initiative leaders in each of the company‘s operating groups and geographic units. Using the global initiative as a template, each operating group and geogra phic unit is responsible for creating a local action plan, which is reviewed twice yearly by Accenture‘s Executive Committee. Examples of Local Strategy Development and Oversight Approaches Japan: In December 2001, all Accenture women in Japan were surveyed to determine what needs women had. Based on the survey results, the women‘s initiatives team put in place action plans that included increased access to mentoring opportunities, improved welfare programs, quarterly meetings for women and men, and more external events for networking. Japan has also created a confidential dialogue database for all employees to use in discussing how Accenture can provide a better place to work for women. 2. Aggressively and proactively attract women to the organization. These efforts begin at the campus level but also focus on experienced hires. Global Strategy: Establish strong relationships with colleges and universities by developing and teaching courses, delivering presentations, serving on discussion panels, 6
  • and participating in campus women‘s associations, such as the Society of Women Engineers. Create recruiting campaigns targeting both campus and experienced hires. Profile Accenture‟s top female executives in the media and in the careers section of accenture.com. Anticipate, shape, and stay current on trends affecting women in the workforce to put Accenture at the forefront of these issues, through involvement in such forums as the World Economic Forum and Women Future Main Event—an empowering daylong series of discussions among the world's leading business and thought leaders exploring the topic of leadership—sponsored by Accenture. Examples of Local Customization: United States: “Sisters Supporting Sisters Day” at Spellman College, a historically black college in Atlanta, Georgia. Austria, Switzerland, and Germany: Accenture sponsored the ―World Women Work‖ conference in Berlin in February 2002, during which company leaders presented a research study on executive women in Europe, entitled ―Women and Power.‖ Keynote attendees included Federal Minister Dr. Christine Bergmann, leader of the Federal German State of Schleswig-Holstein, as well as numerous representatives from politics, science, and the media. 3. Develop women over the course of their career lifecycles, and create an inclusive work environment that maximizes commitment and retention. Accenture works with women to proactively address issues that may lead them to drop out of the workforce, move to different parts of the company, or leave Accenture. Global Strategy: 7
  • Create, support, and provide opportunities for flexible work arrangements across multiple career levels. These flexible arrangements are often innovative and have been a significant factor in the retention and promotion of women. Opportunities are provided for part time, flextime, job sharing, modified or compressed workweeks, telecommuting, and leaves of absence. Innovations include: o The 3, 4, 5 Schedule allows consultants to be away from the client site for three nights, work four days at the client site, and spend the fifth day either at the office, working from home, or off. o The Part-time Partner Policy allows partners to work part time. There are currently 14 partners on part-time schedules. In addition, employees on part time schedules have been promoted to partner. o Sponsor local women‟s development forums, which create a sense of community and enable women to share ambitions and achievements in an informal setting. o Promote continuous learning opportunities through formal training and on-the-job experiences. o Leverage performance appraisals and partner selection/evaluation criteria to emphasize the importance of employees and managers becoming ―People Developers.‖ To be considered a successful ―People Developer,‖ Accenture leaders must be able to work with a diverse group of people, help their team members address work/life balance issues, build an open and collaborative team, and understand how to use the unique perspectives of a diverse workforce to the fullest extent possible. Partners at Accenture are required to embrace diversity, create an environment that is respectful and accepting, and be a leader that others will want to emulate. Examples of Local Customization: 8
  • Working Parents‟ Discussion Databases are in place in several geographies. This tool gives individuals the opportunity to exchange information, resources, and stories about parenting in the interest of balancing the demands of parenting with a career at Accenture. “Career Pause”/Balanced Workforce Programme – This UK- and Irelandbased program allows managers who need greater work/life balance than that typically afforded by the traditional ―up or out‖ consulting work style to take a ―career pause‖ of up to three years. This ―career pause‖ helps employees continue to work at their current level without assuming the more intense activities (selling/thought leadership, among others) required to reach partner level. This pause can help employees facilitate the transition to parenting, cope with elderly parent care, or deal with other family issues. When the ―pause‖ is complete, the employee can resume the full scale of responsibilities needed to advance to the next career level. Accumulated Work Model – Developed in the Austria, Switzerland, Germany region of Accenture, this model allows employees to work full time for a mutually agreed upon reduced salary (70 to 90 percent of their full salary). They can then take an extended leave, while still drawing on the ―saved up‖ portion of the salary (the 10 to 30 percent remaining). Networking Forums – Accenture in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands pioneered monthly large group discussions for women facilitated by three senior women and focused on defined themes. Norway created a ―women in technology‖ initiative that provides a forum for discussing the challenges and benefits of working in a male-dominated environment. These discussions also provide an arena for personal and professional growth. Community of Interest Groups – Grassroots groups have come together to provide support and information for and among their members. The groups 9
  • develop around a particular topic of shared interest—for example, a Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Community of Interest Group. 4. Help women advance in the organization. Efforts to move women into leadership roles include: Global Strategy: Provide career counselors. Each Accenture employee is assigned a career counselor who advises his/her assignee on career growth opportunities, areas of development, and future career goals and objectives. Create and implement the Visible Career Progression Model. Critical information on what it takes to advance at Accenture, every step of the way, is shared with each employee from day one at the company. Institute the Global Leadership Development Seminar. The inaugural seminar, led by Joe Forehand and members of the Executive and Management Committees, was a three-day event designed to further train Accenture‘s topperforming women for senior leadership roles. The seminar is now being delivered to a larger audience, which includes men, with guidelines in place to ensure a diverse group of attendees. Assign HR representatives/engagement schedulers to match staff with appropriate projects based on relevant skill sets and experience. An employee can initiate the staffing process by presenting her profile. Examples of Local Customization: Mentoring Program for Women – This program was developed in the US to improve the advancement and retention of Accenture‘s experienced female managers by pairing them with partner and associate partner mentors (male or female) outside their direct reporting relationships. In 2001, the program was 10
  • transitioned to the global operating groups and now has a presence around the world. Minority Mentoring Program – Originally launched in the US in 1996, this program facilitates mentoring relationships with senior executives to improve the retention and advancement of minorities—defined as individuals of African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, and Native American descent. Accenture‘s business units are responsible for customizing the Minority Mentoring Program to their unique challenges and may make the program more inclusive and expand eligibility where applicable. Catalyst Award Criteria: Change Drivers Accenture‘s approach also includes components that address the criteria Catalyst has identified as necessary for a successful initiative. 1. Integrate the Initiative with the Business Strategy. The Great Place to Work for Women global initiative is part of one of three strategic priorities for Accenture. Accenture has articulated a concise business case that links its diversity efforts directly to its business strategy, as follows: ―We are an organization of ideas, and recognize that the best idea creation comes in teams rich with diversity of opinion and perspective. It is imperative that Accenture nurture and develop all top talent in order to achieve business objectives, lead in innovation, and truly differentiate ourselves in the market. We believe that promoting an inclusive work environment will: Generate creativity and innovation Increase productivity Foster stronger employee commitment Meet/exceed client expectations on diversity and gender issues Reflect Accenture‘s stature and standing as an organization of ―best people‖ 11
  • 2. Demonstrate the Commitment of Senior-Level Leadership. Great Place to Work for Women is the only company-wide initiative sponsored by Chairman and CEO Joe W. Forehand. The initiative is co-sponsored by Gill Rider, Chief Leadership Officer and Managing Partner-Human Resources, who manages the program with the Global Women‘s Initiative Team. Mr. Forehand asked members of his leadership team, chairs of geographic units and chief executives of operating groups to spearhead the initiative in their respective geographies and organizations. Ms. Rider led the development of a formal leadership statement, which was sent to all employees to formalize the role of leadership at Accenture. The leadership statement articulates, ―The sum of the whole is greater than its individual parts;‖ supporting a diverse work environment is explicitly defined in the document. 3. Effectively Communicate the Strategy. Programs and communications are tailored for three target audiences: women at the consultant through senior manager levels, all executives, and all women. Accenture communicates its commitment to the initiative through a variety of channels, including a home page on Accenture‘s main intranet portal. Any employee can access information about both global and local women‘s activities via this portal. Other communication channels include the global online newsletter Dialogue, the HR-focused online newsletter Horizons, orientation programs for all new employees, and two-day new executive seminars for all newly promoted managers. 4. Create Accountability Systems. Global Accountability Business results are not the sole measure of success at Accenture. The chairs of each of 12 geographic councils are accountable for progress on the Measures and Metrics Package. This includes a detailed breakdown of headcount, recruitment, attrition, performance, chargeability rates, and associate partner/partner promotions by gender, level, business organization, and geographic region. These results are shared during the quarterly updates presented at Management and Executive Committee meetings. 12
  • Geography/Operating Unit Accountability: Geographic Scorecard A scorecard is used to measure each geographic unit on a variety of metrics including net revenue, sales growth, supply demand gap, etc. This scorecard has now been expanded to measure the percentage of women at the senior manager, associate partner, and partner levels. Accountability through Performance Management The Global Leadership Survey was designed to provide those in leadership roles with a self-assessment tool and upward feedback for performance management purposes. In order to advance, senior leaders must score well on the section of the Global Leadership Survey that indicates a manager‘s ability to embrace diversity. In the ―People Developer‖ section of the performance appraisal, both partners and prospective partners are evaluated on their ability to successfully manage a diverse workforce and develop their people. Because being a good ―People Developer‖ is a core evaluation priority, poor performance in this area affects compensation. 5. Create Tools to Measure Progress. In addition to the quarterly review of measures and metrics described above, Accenture has also instituted an annual electronic Global People Survey that helps measure the success of the overall initiative. The Impact of the Initiative Together, these efforts have resulted in increased success for women at Accenture. The percentage of female partners has increased globally from 5.8 percent in 1994 to 10 percent in 2002. In 2002, women comprised 14.1 percent of all promotions to partner globally and 19.0 percent of all promotions to partner in the United States. Women currently comprise 17 percent of Accenture's Management Committee, the company's senior leadership group. Furthermore, women represented 41.3 percent of U.S. promotions in 2001, an increase since 1994 when women represented 31.3 13
  • percent. Finally, in 2001, women of color represented 23.8 percent of U.S. promotions, up from 10.5 percent in 1994. Learning while working and earning One of the key challenges faced by organizations in today‘s dynamic world is to keep pace with changing technologies and systems. Further to this, it is vital that the Intellectual Capital that differentiates one organization from the other is kept abreast of these changes to retain a competitive advantage. Organizations these days are investing heavily into skilling needs of employees by imparting training of various kinds. The concept of training as a serious business is underlined that it is not limited to inhouse organization efforts, but includes tie-ups as well. For instance Tesco Hindustan Service Center‘s (HSC) ―Tesco Retail Certification programme‖. This is aimed at developing knowledge of contemporary retail management issues among the employees of Tesco HSC. The Indian Institute of Management Bangalore will provide academic input and integrated retail management consulting will conduct workshops to reinforce the learning. Accenture - XLRI HR Academy It is the first of its kind training academy dedicated to the human capital management needs of the growing information technology and business process outsourcing industries. This is a 24-month programme for recent university graduates who have joined Accenture as trainees in the HR department. Trainees who complete the programme will receive the ―Accenture and XLRI Certification in Human Capital Management.‖ ―We also have a partnership with LIBA and run a two year PG programme, a prerequisite for graduate engineers to join Maveric,‖ adds Ranga Reddy, CEO, Maveric Systems. In fact most organizations organize two types of training programmes that can be broadly classified as technical and non-technical. Yahoo offers programmes in 4 key development arenas to hone technical, professional, life and leadership skills. ―We 14
  • have internally designed a leadership programme ‗Leading Big‘ as well as a variety of coaching, mentoring and executive development programmes in conjunction with leading Indian Business Schools,‖ explains Phil Quigley, Manager, Talent Development, Yahoo! India R&D. Specifics These courses are both instructor facilitated classroom courses and on the job (OJT) delivered by a manager in the form of coaching. Kotak Mahindra does refresher courses for the mandatory training for product knowledge and positioning, enhancing selling skills, recruitment and selection, goal setting and train the trainer programmes. At Perot Systems, employee training is done through ‗Perot Academy‘ that primarily looks into technical and domain specific training, learning and development training, soft skills, compliance and performance management programmes. Says Ashok Waran, Senior VP, Perot Systems and Head, Perot Academy, ―These are of various levels to best suit the needs of our associates. Depending on the participant profile and nature of the programme, some are offered in classrooms, while some can be taken through e-learning.‖ “my Learning” Accenture uses an internet-based tool called ―myLearning‖, serving as a starting point for employee‘s professional development. Infinite‘s mandate is that every employee needs to complete 8 days of training in a year. ―Infinite has tied up with various training institutes in line with its requirements and also invites external speakers or industry experts to conduct special sessions on a regular basis,‖ says Prashanth L J, AVP & Global Marketing Head, Infinite Computer Solutions. The Training and Development activities at Infinite involve both the on-the-job as well as the classroom training. As part of classroom training, we have the ―Hire-Train-Deploy‖ model where individuals undergo extensive training for a couple of months on generic skill sets. ―Our comprehensive training in Monsanto called ‗Building Excellence‘ aims at enabling employees with skills and competencies required to compete,‖ says Ernest Louis, HR Director, India Region. 15
  • The training and capacity building at CRY provides opportunities to individuals to realize their full potential. ―Experiential training on the other hand helps an individual gain hands on experience. Employees get involved working in a specific area or a project and learn the job better. In exploratory learning individuals explore their current personal dissimilarities,‖ stances, says ideologies, values and iron out Shehkar Manelkar, Director, and similarities and HR & ADMIN. Locations Trainers first do the training in classrooms. Subsequently, the reporting managers along with the trainers do on the job coaching (not training). This is the only combination that works explains Arun Patil, Head - Sales Training & Management Development, Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual life insurance Company Ltd. Mumbai. At Yahoo, teambuilding and specialty courses are also held in offsite locations like Goa, Mumbai and Singapore. In fact sessions out of office have a positive effect, advocates Pramod Jajoo, MD, Xora Software Systems Private Ltd. ―These sessions help in bonding of the team and recognize each other's strengths,‖ he added. Most organizations use a combination of on the job training and classroom sessions. Says Ravi Shankar, Director, Natural Search Internet Solutions; ―The Company‘s target is to see to it that every employee is involved in training for at least two days every quarter. The resource persons interact with the target group a week before the session and elicit information on the areas that needs to be specifically addressed.‖ Classroom sessions are an effective method to introduce a new subject to a participant while on the job training gives the learner the flexibility of exploring any facet of the subject in depth at one's own pace and requirement. Team building types of programmes as well as leadership that are generally outbound. ―We have a program called ‗Triumph Through Teamwork‘ which is a two day residential programme conducted in the outskirts, places like Banerghatta jungle resort in Bangalore or Corbett Park for Delhi associates,‖ explains Mr Waran. ―CSR has been driving its training initiatives on both technical and behavioral front. CSR engineers also attend trainings on other sites like for technical seminars given in the UK,‖ says Saritha Radhakrishnan - Manager HR, CSR. 16
  • ―We also find outbound training to be very effective when it comes to building better teams or enhancing the interpersonal skills and to empower people to face challenges and increase their risk taking capability,‖ says G S Ramesh, Sr. VP - HR, Hyundai Motor India Limited. Adds Shankar Narasimhan, Director - HR, Ajuba International, ―We have found that classroom training is highly effective when we have to transfer knowledge. Various tools and methodologies such as, Computer Based Training, instructor led workshops and intranet supplements this. We have our own in-house intranet training portal called Skillworx.‖ 17
  • COGNIZANT Type Public (NASDAQ: CTSH) Founded 1994 Headquarters Teaneck, New Jersey Lakshmi Narayanan, Vice chairman Key people FranciscoD'Souza, CEO Chandra Sekaran, President and MD Industry IT Services Revenue 2.14 Billion USD (Dec 2007) Employees 55400(Dec 2007) Slogan Passion for building stronger businesses www.cognizant.com Website History Cognizant started in 1994, as Dun & Bradstreet Satyam Software (by Sushant Gupta) - the in-house technology development center for the Dun & Bradstreet Corporation (D&B) and its operating units. Initially a joint venture between Dun & Bradstreet (76%) and Satyam Computer Services Ltd. (24%), it soon became a 100% subsidiary 18
  • of D&B Corp. In 1996, the company became a division of the Cognizant Corporation, after the split-up of Dun & Bradstreet Corporation. In June 1998, Cognizant Corporation was again split into independent companies, and Cognizant Technology Solutions was formed as a division of IMS Health, a provider of information solutions to the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. The same year, the company completed its initial public offering and was listed on the NASDAQ. In November 2002, IMS Health divested its majority interest in Cognizant through a tax-free split-off. Operations Although it is headquartered in New Jersey, USA, most of Cognizant Technology Solutions' employees are based in the city of Chennai, India. It also has offices in Bangalore, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune and Cochin and development centres in Shanghai, China and Amsterdam. Cognizant has over 55,000 employees. It became the first company in the world to be certified for CMMI-Level5 per the latest model.[3] Cognizant has aligned its businesses vertically and has clients in Banking & Financial Services Healthcare Manufacturing & Logistics Information,Media & Entertainment Telecommunications Insurance Life Sciences Retail Hospitality Technology In addition to vertical focus, Cognizant also provides specialty technology services through its horizontal expertise such as Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence, CRM, ERP,ITIS,BPO etc 19
  • Financial Health Cognizant's revenue for the fourth quarter of year 2006 is up 65 per cent from $256.9 million for the corresponding quarter the previous year to $424.4 million, and the company ended the year 2006 with $1.424 billion in revenue. During this quarter the company added a net total of almost 4,500 employees and more than 50,000 employees in 2006 overall. The company has a debt free balance sheet. Its income has seen a compounded 40% annual growth in the last few years. For the five years ended Dec. 31, 2006, CTSH has grown its revenue by an average of 58.1% every year. After the close of trading on November 16, 2006 Cognizant moved from the mid cap S&P 400 to the S&P 500. On March 5th 2007 Cognizant became first American company to ring the NASDAQ opening bell remotely, from the Company's Chennai, India techno-complex. HR STRATEGIES Employee referral programmes at CTS. They have this programme for the last four years, much before it became a buzzword in the IT industry. Over the last two years they have been constantly fine tuning this programme and They got excellent results because of this. It provided 40% of the total number of people who joined us. The total number of people who joined us last year was 1,500. The employee referral programme is therefore the single largest source of employees for CTS. They obviously use head-hunters, consultants, advertisements and they have unsolicited walk-ins also. And when it said fine tune, it is not about money alone. The money has been more or less constant over the last 36 months. But they have seen the results of this programme increasing in terms of percentage over the last three years. So with money being constant, and results increasing, it means that something else is happening. And one of the biggest things that are happening is communication. Communication within the organization across all levels. And remember, all this is without diluting any standardized process. They are a CMM Level 5 organization and recruitment process is as good as any customer interaction or software development process. They are also ISO 9000 certified. This 20
  • means basically that a referral doesn‘t entitle a person for a clean or an easy walk -in to the organization. It means following exactly the same process that one would have to follow if he were to come from any other source. So they maintain the process integrity and I maintain my cost base, which I have not increased over the past 36 months. But I get increasingly larger and larger returns and that is why they are very proud of our employee referral system. CTS PREFERS FRESHERS CTS goes for fresher, when a majority of software development companies are going in only for experienced programmers See, it is a very complex decision. But there are a couple of important things, like the cost of the search. So you are talking of a person with three or four years experience. What is my cost of search for this person? There are about 60,000 to 80,000 fresh engineers coming out every year into the market and it is quite a big task to search and find out whom you want and who wants you. So the cost of search is the first parameter that they are looking at. Secondly, they are looking to leverage our internal training capability. Having already invested in and built up an in-house training center to train young science and engineering graduates into mature software professionals, gives me another reason to move and look at the model from another angle. Lastly, our experience is that software (and by 'software' here I mean coding, programming, system analysis and design) is not a major 'rocket science' that has to be gained obviously at someone else‘s cost. They have done a lot of research into what makes good software professionals from the technical side. There is a set of data coming out which says that if these things are present, sooner or later, with the right kind of input, the context and the kind of work he does, he will become a software professional. So why should I then take a long and devious route to figuring out where that one unique individual is (which involves the cost of search), when I am not using my current capability to train in- house. And I have seen it work because clarity of thinking, data rationality ...if they are there, within six to 12 months I have a very good software professional in my organization. If you spend a couple of weeks in our organization you will find out why this model works best for us. Depending upon how the context changes, they change our 21
  • system. It need not be the only model and there could be other models, which could do equally well for other organizations. So someone who wants only people with three to four years of experience, I hope has a business reason behind that. It is not to say that this is a better model over that or this is better over that. In our business scenario this works and therefore it is good for us. SKILL SETS THAT CTS LOOKS FOR IN ITS POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES The principles, the fundamentals and its application are what they look for in a candidate. Clarity of thinking, transparency in dealings (honesty) and the ability to learn and learn continuously. It is a combination of ability, desire and attitude to learning. There's what they call ‗learning to learn'. I mean, in this fast-paced industry, change itself is changing. Another aspect that they look for is, when you are learning a new method are you able to focus and learn? It not only learning, but also stepping out of the process to find out how you learn, whether you learn well by doing or by seeing others do or by reading how to do. These are all different ways of learning and it is important to know by which method they learn. Then they know by which way they learn best. From my experience across industries and cultures, by the age of eighteen this trait is either well established and one‘s preferences are concretized. CTS calls work „Celebration‟ Like all good things in life, this did not come from one source; be it the Communications department or from my CEO‘s brainwave at midnight. It comes from experiencing fun in actually what they are doing. You know this concept of soaking the rice. To make your dosa or idly, you soak the rice before grinding it and then the batter is fermented after which only you get your dosa or idly. Now what was happening over the last 36 or 48 months was that they were getting soaked up in the fun atmosphere and then They realized through our ability of ‗learning to learn‘ that what was happening over here was that they were having fun. Then they went into how it happened. But it was not like - suddenly the 22
  • posters came out ‘Celebrate Work’ and they were having fun. That was just when They decided to say to the world that for us fun and work are not two separate things of the same continuum, but that they are part and parcel of each other. That is how it happened. Flow of information within CTS has added value It has added the value by helping us make the transition. If this were not there, there would be no transition. If they were a Y2K company still in 2001, They would have all gone home, because this flow of information is core to the business. This flow of information across all levels has added value to the organization and created openness in sharing. WHAT IS YOUR APPROACH TO IN-HOUSE TRAINING? They say that every person should be trained for ten days in a year. Our total revenue spent on training should not be less than 4% of the total turnover. That is a huge amount of time and money. If there are transitions and if the context in which you work, (the market, the environment) keep changing, what do you have to do? You have to re-skill. What does it mean to re- skill an organization? You have to re-skill individuals who are the final unit of analysis. Then you re-skill the team, the project and the organization. This is not something that is done to make the annual report look good or because it is good. They do it because it is core to the business. If they don‘t train, they would be dead. It is as simple as that. I don‘t think they do anyone a favor by training our people. 23
  • INFOSYS Type Founded Headquarters Public NASDAQ: INFY BSE: 500209 July 2, 1981 Electronics City, Hosur Road, Bangalore, India N. R. Narayana Murthy (Co-founder, Non Executive Chairman and Chief Mentor) Key people Nandan Nilekani (Co-founder and Co-Chairman) Kris Gopalakrishnan (Co-founder, CEO and MD) S. D. Shibulal (Co-founder and COO) Industry Products Software services Finacle (a financial software package for the banking industry) Services Information technology services and solutions Revenue ▲ $3.1 billion (in FY 2006-07) Employees Slogan Website 88,601 (As on December 31st, 2007) Powered by Intellect, Driven by Values www.infosys.com INTRODUCTION Infosys technology, a leading software company based in India, was voted as the best employer in the country in many HR surveys in the recent years. The company is well known for its employee friendly HR practices. Though Infosys has grown to become a US $ 2 billion company by the year 2006, it has still retained the culture of a small company. Infosys attracts the best talent from across the country and recruits 24
  • candidates by conducting one of the toughest selection process. Infosys was one of the first companies to offer ESOPs to its employees. The company followed variable compensation structure where the employees‘ compensation depended on the performance of the individual, the team and the company. It also very tackles the challenges faced by the company to retain its talented workforce. THE HR PRACTICES Most of the HR practices of Infosys are a result of the vision of its founders and the culture that they have created over the years. The founder advocated simplicity and maintained the culture of the company. The employees are encouraged to share the learning experience. Infosys was the first company to provide the employees with world class facilities for training and working. The company‘s head office at Bangalore is located on a 70 acre campus with multi-cuisine food courts and recreation facilities like swimming pools, a gym, and a golf course for employees. Since its inception, till the early 1990s, Infosys recruited employees from engineering colleges. The training imparted to them was largely informal and consist of on the job training. In the early 1990s it experienced a shortfall of skilled manpower in the organization due to which it could not realize its growth plan. The company during that time developed the policy of recruiting personnel with generic analytical skills and high learning potential and of imparting them with specific skill required for the job offered in the company. Infosys international business strategy revolves around 5 elements: World-class operating model. Focusing on human resources. Providing managed software solutions. Exploiting a well established off shore development model. Maintaining an equitable client and business mix. The company believes that in order to succeed in the competitive environment it is necessary to recruit, train, and retain talented employees. Infosys aims at recruiting 25
  • the best available talent, training them according to the industry demands and retaining them in a culture that promoted informal learning and free flow of ideas. The career model that the Infosys created emphasizes on individual growth along with organizational growth. The employees can identify their career path and the additional skills they would have to obtain to move ahead in their career. Infosys identifies the structural requirement of the people at different levels and creates a demand for the roles. If the employees fulfill those demands they would inspire for that role. Infosys adopts a role-based structure, which ensures an employee career growth through different streams, customer interface stream, and domain consulting stream. In each of the streams, the role of the employee is defined and for each role competencies have been identified and created. Recruitment, training, performance appraisal and career progression are carried out based on the roles. RECRUITMENT Infosys takes adequate steps to recruit people on the basis of various factors to identify the right candidate. The following are the main factors that are considered while recruiting new employees. Learnability: Infosys give more emphasis on learnability, it means the ability generic knowledge from specific experiences and to derive apply the same in new situation. Competency: I Infosys give more importance to professional competence and academic excellence. 26
  • RECRUITMENT PROGRAMS: Instep: Infosys Edge Infosys' IT consulting and software solutions address the mission-critical needs of Fortune 500 corporations as well as emerging corporate leaders. Located across the globe, Infosys handles a variety of exciting multi-million dollar projects for clients including Adidas-Salomon AG, Apple Computer, J. Sainsbury PLC Group, Nortel Networks, Salomon and Taylor Made and Toshiba Corporation through its pioneering Global Delivery Model. Infosys offers a stimulating and challenging, yet informal and campus-like work environment. InStep - Venture, Discover, Achieve InStep is an internship program for undergraduate, graduate and PhD students from top academic institutions around the world. As part of the Infosys family, you are given an opportunity to work on high-quality, customer-facing projects. While you venture into new and emerging technologies and business opportunities, you will discover your untapped potential and achieve the impossible. Projects Unlimited This program provides a platform for you to work on live technical and business projects, ranging from application development to business consulting in Infosys' offices worldwide. Time Schedule Flexibility InStep runs through the year, to suit academic calendars across the globe. The internship assignment ranges from 8 - 24 weeks. Global Exposure InStep interns gain not only experience in the dynamic Information Technology industry but also global exposure by working in a multi-cultural environment. 27
  • Interaction with Senior Management Infosys' senior management is regarded as a pioneering synergy in the Indian IT industry. Mr. Narayana Murthy (Chairman and Chief Mentor) and Mr. Nandan Nilekani (Managing Director, President and CEO) were voted Fortune Asia's Businessmen of the Year 2003. As an InStep intern, you will get an opportunity to interact with top management when initiated into the company. Constant Support A student mentor will help you settle into Infosys' international working environment, while a project mentor will guide you through your internship assignment. Benefits You will receive a monthly stipend. The stipend is structured according to the cost of living in the region that you are based in during your internship period. Infosys will also pay for your airfare. Owing to our large infrastructure in India, we will also provide accommodation in a fully furnished apartment, free food and cab transportation within the city for students working from our offices in India. What's more, you will also have an opportunity to experience India during the 'intern excursion'. Infosys offers internship to student from foreign universities, through a program called Instep. The duration of the Instep program was six weeks. Instep receives around 9,500 applications and chooses around 100 students as interns. The interns are from reputed universities and business schools like MIT, Stanford, Harvard, Wharton, Carnegic Mellon, Oxford, London Business School, Munich, Damstadt, INSEAD, and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The students are exposed to live projects during their internship with Infosys. The students undertake a study on a wide range of topics like equity based compensation in the HR department, the telecom industry in Europe, and new services that could be offered there and other topics such as work ethics, working hours, and employee motivation. 28
  • As a part of this program, Infosys conducts a seminar through which the interns are given a basic idea about Indian culture, cuisine, working styles, etc. in order to guide and help them during their internship, the interns were assigned to mentors who guided them on project related activities. Global Talent Program: The Global Talent Program is Infosys universities level recruitment program outside India. Trainees recruited under the program undergo a customized education and training program in Mysore, where they are trained on technical skills, client facing skills, and the global delivery model of Infosys. In 2006, 126 students from 85 US universities are offered employment in Infosys. Infosys are also looking at UK and other European countries besides Australia and China and planned to recruit 300 trainees from the US in 2007. Campus Connect: How many times have IT companies‘ employers complained about fresh recruits from engineering colleges not being ―industry ready?‖ Enter Campus Connect (CC) to bridge this gap! Launched by Infosys in May 2004, CC is a unique academia-industry initiative to ―architect the education experience‖. Our goal is to build a sustainable partnership with engineering education institutions in India and abroad for mutual benefit; producing ―industry ready‖ recruits Our objective in launching the CC programme is to enhance the quality and quantity of the IT talent-pool; sustain the growth of the IT industry itself. We don‘t want to increase the number of engineering colleges, or the number of graduates. We intend to increase the employability of students. We want to have a consistent output, irrespective of all variables involved. It doesn‘t matter where the college is located (big city or remote town), the kind of faculty, or students. However the conditions may be, with the help of our partners, we want to achieve a high-quality, constant product. 29
  • As per predictions, by the year 2040, Asia, especially the Indian subcontinent will have the maximum number of working professionals in the world! Doesn‘t this throw up huge possibilities your way? Clearly we have a plethora of opportunities staring us in the face. The future looks bright and promising…all we need to do is work towards it. Currently we have more than 300 engineering colleges under our wing, and the numbers are growing steadily! As a part of the CC programme, we have launched this portal. The portal will provide a digital platform for academia-industry interaction anytime, and anywhere. What do they do? We align the college curriculum with the industry's requirements, and work with educational bodies towards implementing it. We organize sem ina rs and training sessions for the faculty to give them an industry perspective, enabling them to train the students accordingly. We design industry-oriented topics, and provide the courseware to students; we give them projects to do, and also provide sabbaticals for the faculty. The Infosys courseware is published on our portal, to be viewed by member colleges. Foundation Programme (Generic) We have a different approach when it comes to learning and teaching. The Foundation Programme aligns technical competency to a student's individual needs. Our methodology goes beyond teaching what is available in the books. It comprises reallife case studies, and insights into application of technology. These unique teaching aids go a long way in ensuring that the students are ―industry ready.‖ Faculty Ennoblement Programme The Faculty Enablement Programme introduces to the faculty the 9 generic courses, CC teaching methodology, and prepares them to roll out the Foundation Programme in their colleges. Through this programme we aim at a paradigm shift in the learning and teaching methodology at an accelerated pace, to increase effectiveness. The way the faculty train the students, assess them and put technology to use undergoes a 30
  • major change. It exposes faculty to the Infosys way of professional training and sharing industry best practices. Soft Skills Programme We want students to acquire behavioral skills that will enable them to live by principles. We believe that a person who has strong principles, and is trustworthy, is a better team player than the others. This programme aims at grooming individuals into excellent team players, who will have strong communication skills, and will adapt to the corporate work culture easily. Student Industrial Visit A student- faculty group from different engineering disciplines visits one of the Infosys DCs, and spend half a day there. The purpose of this visit is to demystify the image that students would have on the working of IT business enterprise. The wellplanned event exposes them to corporate work culture, learning environment, Infosys background, services offered to global customers, and learn about leading edge technologies through short lectures. SABBATICALS CC sponsors sabbaticals for the faculty, involving them at Infosys' Development Centres for 2-3 months. We want to expose the faculty to real-life customer project experiences. This is very important, as the experience that the faculty gains here is further transmitted to the students. Deep Dive Technology: Train the Trainer Programme It is a technical workshop for engineering college faculty, conducted at one of the Infosys' campus. Train The Trainer (TTT) covers an assorted set of industry oriented topics for a chosen focus area and latest trend of technologies in IT. It involves team discussions and analysis of real life case studies/projects. TTT is the ideal setting for faculty to interact with su bject matter experts, and impart the knowledge acquired to their students. 31
  • KEEPING IN TOUCH! • Conclave : The CC Conclave brings IT managers and college management on the same platform to discuss the need and actions for academia-industry collaboration. • Regional Meets: Regional meets are an attempt to bring all the partnering colleges on the same platform with the CC team. In the meet we acknowledge excellent performances by partner colleges, motivate other colleges in the region, etc Contests Aspirations 2020: We want to create an exciting and appealing learning environment in the CC partner colleges through knowledge events . As a part of this initiative we are conducting a series of contests, clubbed together as Aspirations 2020. It will include an IT-related quiz, a paper presentation contest, and a ―distinguished engineer‖ contest (will involve problem solving, crisis management etc). Campus Connect In July 2004, Infosys launched the Campus Connect program that focuses on grooming the students in engineering colleges and transforming them into industry ready professionals. Infosys invested Rs.100 million in the program, and published its in house courseware on its website. The program is aimed at reducing the burden of training at Infosys, as the students of Campus Connect program would have some amount of training imparted to them. The program also aims at solving issues such as outdated courses that are taught in some of the engineering colleges and the absence of industry orientation among the engineering colleges and students. As a part of Campus Connect Program, Infosys launched a portal to connect students and teachers of engineering colleges with the company. The portal contains information and courseware related to IT industry that can be used by the students and faculty. The portal also contains online tests to help students assess their capability. Other Programme: Infosys uses Recruitment Management system (RMS) developed by Blueshift, an online solution provider based in Chennai, India. It has different modules for 32
  • candidates who applied directly, for employees‘ referrals, for staffing agencies which submitted the profile of suitable candidate and for application submitted by campus placement coordinators. Candidates who are not selected can reapply after nine month. In 2005 -06, more than 14, 23,000 candidates applied to infosys for employment, of these 48,750 were interviewed and 16,878 joined the company. Last year, the company had more than 1.3 million applicants for full-time position and hired only 1% of them. Recruitment Procedure Each year, out of the total recruitment infosys plans to hire 70% college graduates and 30% lateral workers. In the first quarter of 2006-07, 4,200 freshers were recruited while lateral hires were at 2,140. The Steps in recruitment procedure: Sources: The Company uses different sources like Campus Interviews, advertisements in newspapers and from applications received through the company website. Short listing of candidate: Initially the candidates give the initial screening test based on their academic criteria and experiences. Short listed candidate are called for a written test which comprises of arithmetic reasoning, analytical thinking and English language skills. Candidates who scored the cut off marks in the selection test are called for an interview. Interview Stage: The interview panel consists of personnel from HR department and technical manager. During the interview a candidate‘s communication skills, presentation skills, flexibility and aspiration level are tested. 33
  • TRANING NEW RECRUITS Infosys conducts a 14.5 weeks technique training program for all new entrants. The company spent around Rs.2, 00, 000 per year on training each new entrant. The new recruits are trained at the Global Education Center (GEC) in Mysore, which has world-class training facilities and the capacity to train more than 4500 employees at a time.GEC,which was inaugurated in February 2005 is spread over 270 acres and was the largest corporate training center in the world with 58 training rooms and 183 faculty rooms at that point of time. Other facilities at the GEC included the largest gym in India, a cricket field a volley–ball court,22 tables tennis court, swimming pool, six lane bowling alley, four screen digital auditorium, meditation hall, and a library. Commenting on the training facility, fortune wrote,‖ Indeed, the $120mn Infosys center, which opened last year, is an odd combination of Disney world, club med, and a modern American university. It‘s enough to make you forget the poverty outside and believe you‘re in a first world fairy tale‖ The new employees are trained on the culture and value system of Infosys and also on technical and managerial skills. The first three days of training comprise of orientation about the culture and values of Infosys, and about the company‘s customers. This is followed by five weeks of foundation courses on programming, systems development, and inter-personnel skills. In the following seven weeks, the new entrants are trained on technology courses like C++, UNIX, and HTML. The training program equips the new entrant for a challenging career in software and comprises of generic conceptual courses, platform specific courses, a mini project, and an end term project, which is designed in the form of real life projects. The new entrants are also imparted training in communication skills, interpersonal skills, customer interaction, management development, and quality systems. Care is taken to ensure that the necessary technical skills are provided along with soft, interpersonal and communication skills, and quality-related competencies. There is a feedback mechanism to ensure continuous improvement in the training program. 34
  • TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR EMPLOYEES Infosys also conducts training programs for experienced employees. The company ha s a competency system in place which takes into account individual‘s performance, organizational priorities and feedback from the clients. According to the system, every employee is to have a training plan based on the identified competencies. The training interventions are organized in four areas-technical training, managerial and skills training, domain training, and training on quality processes. Technical training accounts for half of the total training efforts. The E&R department conducts training courses which are mainly project-specific. Most of the training is class-room based while the training through e-learning is limited. Employees can nominate themselves for the training programs. For each of the streams –project management, customer interface, technical, program management, and domain consulting, the behavioral and technical competencies require to be outlined. Training is also imparted in other streams including quality process training, personal effectiveness, and managerial development. Every quarter, over 100 technical training courses are offered. The technical training is imparted for eight days. The quality process training is also conducted on a regular basis. For software engineers, quality process training includes courses on configuration management, defect prevention, and an introduction to CMM, for the programmer analysts, the quality training comprised defect prevention training and an internal auditors training. At the program manager level, the quality process training included implementing CMM and statistical process control. The need for the managerial development programs was assessed through the performance appraisal process. During performances appraisal, the employees are asked to choose, in consultation with their superior, areas in which they need training. Then the required training is imparted and during the next appraisal the improvement is tracked. The E&R department takes complete responsibility for imparting the 35
  • training to the employees. It also conducts research on emerging technologies and designs the training programs according to the trends in the industry. Infosys conducts over 160 middle level training programs. The training needs are determined depending on the business needs. The management determined the upcoming technology requirements and communicated these to the E&R department. The senior executives of E&R and other departments decide on the content and duration of the course. Another way of determining the training needs was during the process of planning. At the planning meetings, expected projects are forecasted along with the required skills to arrive at the training needs. Apart from technical training, Infosys conducts several other training programs including soft skills, communication, building competency, and personal effectiveness. Personnel effective training is imparted through the Infosys finishing school, where employees are trained on business etiquette, business communication, assertiveness skills, and customer skills for a period of eight days. A milestone program-PRAVESH addresses the needs of the employees when they assume higher positions in the organization. For employees schedule to travel abroad for the first time, a program called ―first time traveler‖ is conducted, which aims at sensitizing the employees to new cultures and workplace. The training is spread over six modules and is conducted over a span of three days. It includes personal trait understanding, culture and projects elements appreciation, customer interfacing, communication skills, corporate etiquette, and social interfacing. Another training program called ―chips‖ {cultural highlights and international practices sensitization} is targeted at employees traveling to the US, EUROPE, and the Far East countries. A one-day program, which is meant for employees traveling to different countries. For employees who are to stay in another country for long time periods; Infosys conducts language training. Infosys believes that all employees have to ultimately serve the customer, and conducts a program called C-enabled, or customer-enabled. This program helped the employees to interact with the customers 36
  • COMPENSATION POLICIES Infosys compensates its human assets in three ways. Infosys adds learning value through training and development and appraisal practices. Infosys adds emotional value through initiatives directed towards supporting employees with their work and personal needs, and we adds financial value through monetary compensation. Although Infosys faces strong domestic and international competition for its human assets, through enticing offers from competitors, the compensation level at Infosys equals the average industry level for each country. It is neither above market nor below the market level. Infosys is one of the first Indian companies to offer stock option plans to their employees. Currently Infosys offers three option plans that cover all Infosys employees: 1994 Employees Stock Offer Plan: Established in September 1994, the plan provides for the issuance of 6,000,000 warrants to eligible employees. 1998 Stock Option Plan: Infosys 1998 Stock Option Plan provides for the grant of no statutory stock options and incentive stock options to employees. A total of 1,600,000 equity shares are currently reserved for issuance pursuant to the 1998 Plan. Unless terminated sooner, the 1998 Plan w ill terminate automatically in January 2008. All options under the 1998 Plan w ill12 Please see Appendix C for description of one such scale.13 ―The Lightening Spark,‖ Silicon Technology and Business Magazine, August 1998, 5051.9 be exercisable for ADSs represented by ADRs. 1999 Stock Option Plan: The 1999 Plan provides for the issue of 6,600,000 equity shares to employees. A compensation committee comprising a maximum of seven members administers the 1999 Plan. Options are be issued to employees at an exercise price not less than the FairMarket Value. Under the 1999 Plan, options may also be issued to employees at exercise prices that are less than Fair Market Value, only if specifically approved by the members of Infosys in a general meeting. 37
  • In addition, such statutory benefits as pension, medical and leave, Infosys also offers a loan program that employees find very attractive. Loans may be taken for pursuing a degree program Such as an MBA, or to meet such personal needs as purchasing a car or a house. The interest rate varies (4% for a car purchase and 0-4% for house purchase). To date, almost all loans have been repaid. How Infosys grooms its future leaders… Great companies can neither be built nor their greatness sustained without great leaders. A Reliance would not have been possible without a Dhirubhai, nor an Infosys without a Murthy. But on August 20, 2006, at the age of 60, when N R Narayana Murthy retires as the company's chief mentor and chairman, Infosys Technologies Ltd is not really chewing its nails anxiously. A succession plan has long been put in place and the smooth transition of authority and leadership ensured. Murthy will also continue as the non-executive chairman of Infosys. Of the seven original founders of Infosys, one of India's greatest corporate success stories, only four will remain at the helm of affairs at the company from August 21: Nandan Nilekani, S Gopalakrishnan, S D Shibulal, and K Dinesh. N S Raghavan retired in 1999, while Ashok Arora had quit the firm much earlier, in 1989, to settle down in the United States. While Infosys continues to be in very good hands to take on any challenge, the IT major has already identified a pool of 400 leaders who will steer it in the future. Especially, since the founders of the company are in their early- or mid-fifties and due for retirement at 60. So how does Infosys groom its future leaders? The process is long-drawn, meticulous, and in consonance with the company's stated vision: 'To be a globally respected 38
  • corporation that provides best-of-breed business solutions, leveraging technology, delivered by best-in-class people.' This is where the Infosys Leadership Institute at the company's Mysore campus comes into the picture. The 162,000 square feet structure, built at the cost of Rs 41.1 crore (Rs 411 million), is where the next generation of Infosys leaders is being primed. Says S 'Kris' Gopalakrishnan, chief operating officer and deputy managing director, Infosys: "The company has identified 400 'leaders' on the basis of several parameters: their performance throughout their tenure with the company being a prime criterion for selection." Gopalakrishnan, who will take over as the company's President, COO and Joint MD, on August 21, spoke to rediff.com at Infosys' Mysore campus during its 25th anniversary celebrations. "Great performance puts employees on the fast track to growth within the organisation. As does their commitment to surpassing customer expectations, setting standards in business and transactions, and being an paradigm for the industry and the company," adds Gopalakrishnan. "Creativity, devotion to being ethical and sincere in dealings, and the commitment to strive relentlessly in pursuit of excellence are also major considerations while identifying future leaders at Infosys," he points out. The charismatic Narayana Murthy, speaking about his retirement, said: "I do feel sad, but am happy too. It is a mixed feeling. It's like getting your daughter married: you are sad that she is going away, but happy that there is someone younger -- and stronger -to take care of her." "The company is now in the hands of the youngsters. It is necessary to recognise the power of youth and to nurture it. We must respect youth and create opportunities for them to participate in everything. Which is why at every function, we have the youth participating. I am about the past. I am gone. They are the future," says Murthy. 39
  • "The pool of 400 leaders," says Gopalakrishnan, "that Infosys has identified is from across the globe and does not comprise Indians alone. It is in keeping with the company's multi-national, multi-cultural image where excellence is the most important condition." "There is a three-tier mentoring process at Infosys. Tier-1 of the Infosys Management Council, which consists of the company's board of directors, mentors Tier-2 leaders who in turn guide the Tier-3 group. About 45 executives are a part of the company's Tier-1 of the management council. And each of the leaders undergoes exhaustive and sustained training through the company's personal development programme -- PDP. Infosys training programmes are designed to enable company professionals enhance their skill sets in tune with their respective roles," says Gopalakrishnan. The management council is an advisory body that takes strategic decisions on the company's businesses and was set up by N R Narayana Murthy, with the idea of building an outfit that is built to last and is ably "geared to handle the uncertainties of a global market, the high and lows of business cycles, and to power the company towards strong growth in the future," says the Infosys COO. When Murthy first set up the council, he found that the young go-getters in the company were diffident to air their suggestions. It was then that the idea of an inhouse leadership institute was born. Encouragement from the top management has put an end to the fears of transgressing the chain of command, and young Infoscions are now urged to give vent to their creative talent and come up with their ideas and plans. The faculty at the ILI has in a note spelt out the rationale behind the institute and charted out the manner in which it operates. The ILI was set up in 2001 to prepare Infosys to manage its exceptional growth; to prepare its executives to handle the external and internal business environment; and through 'thought leadership' create better customer value. 40
  • The leadership development programme at Infosys takes after similar processes followed by many global mega corps. It has been refined to suit the particular needs of Infosys and is termed as the 'nine pillars for leadership development in Infosys.'These nine pillars form the backbone of the PDP and each leader can choose from these pillars for personal development. "Depending upon the individual's need to grow and the company's sensitivity to these needs, every (short-listed) individual is groomed to lead the company in the future," Gopalakrishnan says. The chosen few -- 400 of the 58,409 employees -- identified as 'high potential Infoscions' undergo a three-year 'leadership journey' that includes training, astonishing personal development programme, interacting with other participants, understanding the company better and resolving real business issues. The note prepared by the ILI faculty enumerates 'the nine pillars for leadership development' as: 1. 360 degree feedback This is the mechanism through which the company gathers data about an individual's performance and abilities. This information is collected from coworkers, including peers, subordinates, managers and customers. Personal development plans are prepared on the basis of this feedback. Then, each of these individuals is assigned an ILI faculty member to help prepare the PDP and to follow it. 2. Development assignments Identified high potential Infoscions are trained at various functions of the company through job rotations and cross-functional assignments. This helps employees to acquire new leadership skills outside their own areas of expertise and experience. 3. Infosys Culture workshops These workshops are designed to fortify the Infosys culture amongst the participants, help instill better communication skills through sustained interaction amongst themselves, and identify with the values and processes involved in leadership development. 41
  • 4. Development relationships This includes one-on-one interaction in actual on-the-job work climate and leads to better sharing of knowledge and camaraderie amongst individuals. Mentoring forms an integral part of this exercise. 5. Leadership skills training The 'Leaders Teach Series' are workshops that the company's Tier-1 members, including Narayana Murthy and Nandan Nilekani (CEO and MD), hold to acclimatise the next rung with leadership roles and to groom them through their own rich experience. 6. Feedback intensive programmes These are akin to 360 degree feedback, but based on formal and informal feedback from employees that an individual interacts with. 7. Systemic process learning This helps individuals to gain an overall view of the company and its diverse and complex systems, business, operations and processes. It is a continuous process and helps improve the individual and also the systems. 8. Action learning This exercise constitutes solving real problems in real-time conditions, but as a team. 9. Community empathy The company stresses the need to give back to society through involvement in various developmental, educational and social causes. This programme helps nurture a social conscience amongst its leaders. "The last 25 years for Infosys have been successful. And we are ready for the future. Yes, our growth rates will change, the business cycles will change, our ability to influence the business environment will change, even our leaders will change. 42
  • SATYAM Type Founded Headquarters Public (NYSE: SAY) (1987) Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Ramalinga Raju , Founder & Chairman Key people Rama Raju, MD Industry Information Technology Revenue ▲ 2.1 billion USD (2007) Employees Slogan Website 49,200 (2007) What Business Demands http://satyam.com// Satyam Computer Services Ltd. was founded by B.Ramalinga Raju in 1987;Satyam means "truth" in Sanskrit. The company offers a variety of information technology (IT) services spanning various industry sectors, and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Satyam's network spans 57 countries across six continents. The company employs 54,000 IT professionals across development centers in India, the United States, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, Hungary, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Japan,Egypt and Australia. It serves over 489 global companies, 156 of which are Fortune 500 corporations. Satyam has strategic technology and marketing 43
  • alliances with over 50 companies. Apart from Hyderabad, it has development centers in India at Bangalore, Chennai, Pune, Mumbai, Nagpur, Delhi, Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, and Visakhapatnam. In October 2007, Satyam announced a collaboration with Cisco to enhance Health Management Solutions. In November 2007, Satyam is announced as the official Information Technology Services Provider for the FIFA World Cups to be held in 2010 and 2014. Satyam partnered with arvato systems to provide innovative solutions for medium-sized enterprise market in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Satyam has been ranked consistently in the top Employers list released by surveys done by leading groups such as Business India. The company has massive expansion plans to penetrate across the globe especially Europe. Satyam is poised to cross $2 billion in Annual Revenues for the year 2007-2008. On Jan 21, 2008 Satyam announced the acquisition of a Illinois based boutique consulting firm Bridge Strategy. This is yet another acquisition by Satyam after Knowledge Dynamics and Citisoft. "Satyam has the largest overall ERP practice and the heaviest commercial focus on packaged enterprise software" - Dana Stiffler, Research Director, AMR Research, ―Indian Service Provider‘s ERP Practice Grow up,‖ January 26, 2007. Satyam is focusing its expertise around NGN transformation. The Company is investing modestly in developing solutions assets in the areas in which it has chosen to specialise. This is untypical; most offshore companies are poor at making this kind of investment and keep margins high by focusing development around specific projects in order to get an immediate payback. - Eirwen Nichols, Principal Analyst, Ovum On February 23, 2008 Satyam completed 20 years of existence. It is considered as India's youngest software consulting company to exceed $2 billion in annual revenue. The way they do it at Satyam SATYAM Computer Services treats its employees as associates of the company. This speaks a lot about its work culture. About 13,000 associates of Satyam are involved in 44
  • providing IT services to more than 300 customers across 45 countries. In such a big organization, human resources (HR) practice plays a critical role, not only in the decision-making process but also in employee welfare and development activities. The company never wanted to be the best paymaster, but it wants to keep its associates, customers and investors delighted. Satyam broadly categories its focus area of responsibility and accountability into three segments; associates, customers and investors. The vision of the company aims at delighting these segments. Earlier it used to be satisfaction, but with the increasing competition in providing cost-effective IT solutions, and the poaching of people, it has become a major challenge for IT companies to retain employees. This trend prompted software companies to design various attractive policies and incentives to retain their staff. Satyam therefore adopted the strategy of winning the hearts of its associates rather just confining them to the satisfaction level. Satyam's strategy is to keep all its associates, customers and investors happy. Though the task is not easy, the IT major has been pioneering with its HR practices that keep them happy. Increasing salaries is not the right method to retain associates. No company can keep its employees in its grip infinitely, and there is no end-point in this game. We strongly believe that money alone cannot bring loyalty; hence our strategy is that while we maintain competitive pay structures, our HR practices focus on emotional involvement, on getting attached to the company. Satyam also provides stock options to all employees even at the entry level. Moreover, performance-based stock options and incentives are being given every year. These measures have been successful in making our associates loyal to the organization. We encourage our associates to have passion…delight with entrepreneurial skills. Our core value is entrepreneurship and every Satyamite is a leader," A S Murty, the director and senior vice president of HR at Satyam told IT People. The company critically evaluates its functioning style in executing projects in time. It aims to make the customers and associates happy at the same time. Within the organization, each department also considers others as customers, and every project leader is a business manager for his team. It has formulated an Associate Delight 45
  • Index (ADI) to measure key parameters such as performance, job satisfaction, commitment towards the organization, etc., and it is linked to incentives. The higher the ADI, the more will be the incentives. There is no cap on variable salary, and for business leaders, there is no cap on incentives. Recruitment process Identifying the right candidate and retaining him is crucial for any company to withstand global competition. Satyam follows two recruitment methods-at entry and lateral levels. For entry-level recruitment, it has tied up with about 70 reputed institutions in the country. Usually this is done at the end of the examinations of engineering courses. During the year, off-campus interviews are conducted. 1. Entry-level recruitment consists of an aptitude test, group discussion and technical interview. Satyam believes that hard factors (revenue) and soft factors (attitude) are both critical in assessing candidates. 2. After the recruitment process is over, candidates are placed in different business units for about 10-12 weeks. Each unit has a HR wing and works in a partnership model. For lateral recruitments, interviews are conducted at two levels. 1. Usually, candidates having 2+ years of experience are considered for lateral recruitment. During 2003-04, Satyam has recruited about 4,000 associates, with 40 percent coming from entry-level recruitment. (Internal Search) 2. Of the total headcount, 30 percent of Satyamites are overseas at any point of time. 3. Orientation: For those Satyamites who are about to travel abroad, an orientation programme is organised to brief them about the country they are going to visit. As part of this orientation, Satyamites will be briefed about the culture, language and etiquette. 46
  • Help desk In order to make its associates free of house-related work such as payment of utility bills, reserving tickets for trains, etc-without any service charge-Satyam evolved the Help Desk concept, which takes care of all house-related work at product cost only. The objective of the Help Desk is to create an environment for associates to concentrate totally on their projects. For those associates who have been transferred from a different city or country, assistance is also provided to help them find school admission for their children. For this, Satyam has also tied up with about six schools in the city. Help Desk Satyam has eight centres in Hyderabad alone, apart from six in Chennai, five in Bangalore, three in Pune and one at Bhubaneshwar. All these centers are electronically connected. The Samanvay concept aims at involving the families of associates in the learning process on various issues such as health, personal finance, IT education, etc. Only the parents and spouses of associates are allowed to participate in this scheme, which is conducted once every two months. Satyam Learning Centre takes care of this and coordinates the activities. It also conducts cultural and social entertainment programmes for children of the associates. Every year in early January, a Satyam Utsav is organised at all the centres where the families of associates are involved. Corporate social responsibility When it comes to social responsibility, Satyam is at the forefront creating awareness about health, education and environment activities. Satyamites and their spouses have been actively taking part in such initiatives of the company. Every Satyamite contributes Rs 20 per month to the Satyam Alambana Trust, and the company contributes an equal amount. This trust mainly focuses on urban areas. The Bairraju Trust is a personal foundation of the promoters, and focuses on rural areas. It trains children below 15 years in IT with an aim at bridging the digital divide. 47
  • Other activities Breaking from the routine is very important for everyone, particularly those who are part of the creative think-tank of Satyam. In order to re-energize its associates, it provides recreational and entertainment facilities at nominal charges at the Satyam Technology Centre spread over 128 acres. Here cultural events are organized on every occasion for every age group. The company also lends a hand to its associates for their financial needs. Leveraging its brand value, Satyam has been able to arrange finance facilities for its associates at reduced interest rates. It has tied up with a few financial institutions, shopping malls and retail companies for offering discounts on shopping. To keep up the tempo and enthusiasm among associates, Satyam strongly believes in learning and offers an opportunity for them to learn different technologies in various countries. Earlier it was a matter of prestige for parents to say that their son/daughter was working in the US. Now the more countries they travel to, the more pride for them. As part of these initiatives, many associates working in maintenance have been shifted to development and vice versa; associates also move from one package to other. The best example is Murty himself. A B Tech from the regional engineering college, Warangal, and M Tech (computer science) from the Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore, he is now looking after the HR department after working on hardcore technologies for about eight years. Every Satyamite is a leader. To make Satyamites friendly to each other and create a no-boss environment, Satyam follows a trendy practice of calling each otherirrespective of designation-by the first name. The company also follows an open door policy. Every associate can directly access the chairman and e-mail him too. This has broken the barriers of the hierarchy system and brought all Satyamites together. For high-caliber young professionals, age is not a constraint for allocating major tasks to them. "We have young professionals in their early thirties who are managing big projects," Murty says. Telecommuting has been growing, and saves a lot of time and stress for Satyamites. The company believes in virtual leadership, real-time leadership and delegation of accountability. As part of this, every head of a business unit acts as a chief executive officer, with great freedom to run his unit successfully. 48
  • Finally, at the end of the day, everyone needs relaxation from the day's hard work. The company organizes yoga, meditation and other personality development classes like the Art of Living for Satyamites. 49
  • TCS Type Founded Headquarters Public BSE: 532540, Public 1968 TCS House, Raveline Street, Fort, Mumbai - 400 001 Ratan Tata, (Chairman of the Board, TATA Group) Key people S Ramadorai , (CEO & Managing Director) Industry Information Technology Consulting Services Information technology Services and Solutions Revenue ▲ $4.3 billion (in FY 2006-07) Employees 110,000 (As on Jan 31st, 2008) Slogan Experience certainty Website www.tcs.com Tata Consultancy Services was established in the year 1968. It began as a division of the Tata Group, Tata Computer Centre, whose main business was to provide computer services to other group companies. However, the potential of computerization and computer services was realized early on, and an electrical engineer from the Tata Electric Companies, Fakir Chand Kohli, was brought in as the first General Manager. Soon after, the company was named Tata Consultancy Services. TCS's first software export project was undertaken in 1974 when it converted the Hospital Information System from Burroughs Medium Systems COBOL to 50
  • Burroughs Small Systems COBOL. This project was carried out entirely in TCS Mumbai on the ICL 1903 Computer. In 1980, TCS and a sister Tata firm accounted for 63% of the Indian software industry exports, $4 million shared by 21 firms. In 1984, TCS set up an office in the Santacruz Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ) – Mumbai. The early 1990s saw a tremendous surge in TCS's business, which also resulted in a massive recruitment drive by the company. In early and mid-1990s, TCS re-invented itself to become a software products company. In the late 1990s, to accelerate its revenue growth, TCS decided to employ a three-pronged strategy – developing new products with high revenue earning potential, tapping domestic and other fast growing markets and focusing on inorganic growth through mergers & acquisitions. In late 1998, the company decided to concentrate on new revenue opportunities including Y2K and Euro conversion. E-business was a major area of focus in the late 1990s. TCS started a project aimed at eliminating illiteracy in India with a pilot project in Andhra Pradesh. In 2001, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) commissioned the latest 64-bit zSeries eServer from IBM, thereby becoming the first organization in the ASEAN and South Asia region to adopt the latest technology in mainframe computing. In 2004, TCS became a public listed company. In fiscal 2006 the Company's profit before taxes and exceptional items aggregated Rs.3,074.35 crore as compared to Rs.2,308.65 crore in the previous fiscal 2005 - a growth of 33.17%. Tata Research Development and Design Centre The Tata Research Development and Design Centre was established in 1981. TRDDC is today one of India‘s premier R&D centres in software engineering and process engineering. Research and development work at TRDDC is focused in different groups, each specializing in a key area of work. Projects of an interdisciplinary nature are also carried out. With expertise in process engineering, software engineering tools and technologies, advanced techniques, and in systems engineering methodologies, TRDDC provides solutions within TCS and for major clients. There is also an ongoing effort to integrate the products into the Eclipse Integration Framework. 51
  • The process engineering group of TRDDC focuses on modeling and optimization of industrial unit operations for steel and automotive sector. In addition, TRDDC is also involved in the areas of language processing, formal methods, and research on Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support. On account of the ongoing diversification effort, the other centres situated in India have also begun R&D facilities; the centre in Hyderabad is called Advanced Technology Centre (ATC) carries out work on e-Security related issues and bioinformatics. Recently TRDDC celebrated its Silver Jubilee at its Headquarters in Pune in a function presided by former president Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and with the launch of the Co-Innovation Network. Students of the winning schools of the TCS IT Wiz, Pune were also invited. They included Aditya Ramani, Gautam Sondur, Gyanish Kakati and Anshul Singhle. TCS Innovation Labs TCS currently has 19 labs spanning across 4 countries. Many of the labs are located in India. The most recent lab however is the TCS Innovations Lab, located in Peterborough, U.K. This new lab works as a central hub to the other 18 TCS Innovation Labs, making use of the ideas and innovations created in those labs and bringing them to one collaborative location. Indian branches Currently (2006), TCS has branches in the following Indian cities: Hyderabad, Bhavnagar, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Pune, Nagpur, Jamshedpur, Gandhinagar, Coimbatore, Kochi, Gurgaon, NOIDA, Bhubaneswar, Nabadwip and Goa. Global units Africa: South Africa,Morocco Asia (outside India): China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, UAE Australia: Australia, 52
  • Europe: Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom North America: Canada, Mexico, USA South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay HR STRATEGIES: TCS hires more from smaller cities. India's largest software exporter Tata Consultancy Services on Monday said it will hire up to 5,000 employees in northern region this fiscal and 70 per cent will come from smaller cities. "The company is set to hire 3,000 at trainee level and 2,000 positions will be filled through lateral hiring in the northern region. We plan to hire over 70 per cent candidates from tier II and tier III cities due to quality talent present in these places, which we don't want to miss out on," Thomas Simon, vice-president, HR, TCS said. The company believes that the knowledge base of these candidates is as strong as their counterparts belonging to bigger cities. However, imparting training in areas of language, soft skills and etiquette is essential to give them a finishing touch, he said. The compensation and rewards for employees across centers would be similar, Simon added. Eligibility criterion for trainees would be a minimum 60 per cent score in all the degrees attained. As for hiring experienced professionals, the cut-off has been kept at 50 per cent, Simon said. The hiring would be taken up for positions based in the NCR region apart from Lucknow. While experienced professional hiring would be done for pre-mapped positions, the trainees would be sent to Thiruvananthapuram for initial training. The company had earlier said it planned to ramp up head count by 32,000 across India 53
  • this fiscal. TCS has witnessed an attrition rate of 11.5 per cent overall, with 11 per cent attrition rate in the IT services business and 16.7 per cent attrition rate in BPO in the first quarter of current fiscal ended June 30. "We managed to keep a check in the attrition figures this year," Simon added. The total employee strength of the company was 94,902, from 67 nationalities at the end of first quarter. There was a gross addition of 8,706 employees, of which 2,898 were trainees and 4,795 experienced professionals in India and 1,013 employees in overseas subsidiaries and branches in Q1. The net addition in the quarter was 5,512 employees. The company is expanding the talent pool beyond engineering students through its 'Ignite' programme aimed at science graduates as well. TCS recently completed a seven-month on-the-job training programme for science graduates. It also plans to reinforce its new brand image though increased branding activities, newsletters, blogs, campus portal and interacting with training and placement officers and institutional heads of technical institutes through its existing forums 'Sparsh' and 'Sangam'. 54
  • WIPRO Type Founded Headquarters Key people Public (NYSE: WIT) 1945 (Pre Independence) Bangalore Azim Premji, Chairman and Managing director Industry Information technology services Revenue ▲$5.0 billion (2008) USD Net income ▲$677 million (2007) USD Employees 79,832+ (2007) Slogan Website Applying Thought www.wipro.com Wipro Tech (NYSE: WIT) is an information technology service company established in India in 1980. It is the global IT services arm of Wipro Limited (in operation since 1945, incorporated 1946). It is headquartered in Bangalore and is the third largest IT services company in India. It has more than 79,832 employees as of December 2007, including its business process outsourcing (BPO) arm which it acquired in 2002.[1] 55
  • Wipro Technologies has over 300 customers across U.S., Europe and Japan including 50 of the Fortune 500 companies. Some of its customers are Nortel, Boeing, BP, Cisco, Ericsson, IBM, Microsoft, Prudential, Seagate, Sony, HP, Windriver, Airbus, Toshiba and Wal-Mart. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is part of its TMT (technology media telecom) index testing. With revenue in the excess of US $5 billion, Wipro is one of India's major IT companies. It has dedicated development centers and offices across India, Europe, North America, Latin America and Asia Pacific. The current Chairman, Managing Director and majority stake owner is Azim Premji, who has headed the software and hardware divisions since Wipro's inception. HISTORY Wipro was set up in 1945. Primarily an edible oil factory, the chief products were Sunflower Vanaspati and 787 laundry soap (a by-product of the Vanaspati operations). The company was called Western India vegetable Products Limited (WIPRO) ; it had a minor presence in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. In the 1970s and 1980s, it began to expand and made forays into computing. In 1975, Wipro marketed India's first homegrown PC. Wipro was the sole representative for Sun Microsystems in India, before the Sun liaison office was set up in India, in the early 1990s. Wipro is the highest-ranked Indian IT provider by International Association of Outsourcing Professionals. Wipro and its success in handling outsourced information technology from US businesses is detailed in Thomas L. Friedman's best-selling book The World Is Flat and Steve Hamm's Bangalore Tiger. Wipro's offshore model is considered 'unique among the larger players in the security consulting space' according to an independent report by Forrester Research. 56
  • HR STRATEGIES The unique HR practices at Wipro especially in terms of attracting and retaining talent that set it apart from other companies. Considering the number of spin-offs that have originated from Wipro, the environment in the company appears to be particularly conducive to the entrepreneurial spirit. Among several attributes is the fact that Wipro leaders develop a complete business perspective early in their career. Wipro leaders get early general managerial/CEO responsibility to get a good rounding, and exposure to all aspects of the organization: finance (e.g. P&L), operations (process, quality, cost etc.) and people perspective This helps them develop the ability to see the big picture early in their careers. The feeling of ownership is built through higher responsibilities early in the career. We strongly believe that strong ownership feeling and multiple opportunities lead to a passion for hard work. Our leadership development programmes play a major role in developing leaders. We have several life-cycle leadership programmes like the Early Leaders Programme New Leaders Programme Wipro Leaders Programme Business Leaders Programme Strategic Leaders Programme Each being targeted at a particular stage in the life of a leader. Finally, it is the selfconfidence to stand up for one‘s view that builds entrepreneurial leaders. Our 360-degree feedback process helps personal development and builds confidence. Wipro is a meritocracy competing with some of the best people builds 57
  • tremendous confidence. I believe ESOPs are a good way of sharing wealth with employees. Azim Premji‟s View Premji believes in creating teams of highly charged individuals to deliver superior performance, investing significant time as a faculty in leadership development programmes. He was the prime mover in making Wipro the first Indian company to embrace Six Sigma, the first software services company in the world to achieve SEI CMM Level 5 and the world‘s first organization to achieve PCMM Level 5. Premji equates quality with integrity – both being non-negotiable. Premji shared his formula for a successful company, and the way Wipro has developed entrepreneurial leaders with a firm commitment to the company's values. Azim Premji Foundation, a not-for-profit organization established in 2001. Sustained by his personal financial contributions, the aim of the Foundation is the universalisation of elementary education. Wipro has been perhaps the most successful adapter among Indian corporate, evolving with increasing success from soap and consumer care to computer hardware and then onto software and services. The principal strength that has enabled Wipro to make such successful moves are Values combined with a powerful vision can turbocharge a company to scale new heights and make it succeed beyond one‘s wildest expectations. Add to that our ability to attract and retain the best talent and our continuous pursuit of quality, and you have a high-performance organization that can continuously re-invent itself and succeed. Employee Ethics @ WIPRO It is believed that values should be driven from the top. Wipro was perhaps the first Indian company to articulate a set of Beliefs that guided our business conduct, way back in the early 70s. Today, the four Core Values encapsulated in the Wipro Promise 58
  • (Human Values, Integrity, Innovative Solutions and Value for Money), form the foundation of our organization. They have Value Booklet and the Integrity Manual They guide Wiproites through the tough choices they may be faced with. They have also introduced a help line known as ‗Wipro SOS‘; comprising senior members of the company who have helped mould our values. They are always available for guidance on any ethical issue that a Wiproites may face. The Azim Premji Foundation The Azim Premji Foundation has been active in the field of education. They are engaging with the Indian education system in two ways: Firstly, through the Foundation, our mission is to catalyze the Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE). There are today nearly 50 million children who are out of school in India. The dropout rate between standard 1-4 is 42% and between standard 1-8 as high as 58%. A significant percentage of third standard children do not know reading and writing. At the Azim Premji Foundation we believe that sustained UEE is possible only through the improvement of learning levels in school and dramatically improving all that happens inside the school. Working in partnership with the government, the Foundation focuses on rural areas. The theme that we are working around in the identified geographies is ‗Guaranteeing Learning‘. Our approach has the following essentials: l Partnership with the government l Partnership with the community l Large scale initiative l Focus on improvement of learning l Time bound plan for withdrawal and handing over responsibility to relevant stakeholders. Currently, the geographical coverage of the Foundation is 3500 villages in Karnataka and 2500 villages in Andhra Pradesh. The Foundation is also supporting school learning improvement initiatives in three cities in Gujarat. In the first year of its operations, the Foundation has facilitated the process of mainstreaming for about 50,000 children through bridge courses, supported remedial teaching for 35,000 children who required 59
  • special attention, and imparted computer based curricular education in about 35 rural schools covering about 10,000 children. The Foundation also conducted a specialized training and development programme for 100 top education officers across Karnataka state. The second initiative is the „Wipro Applying Thought in Schools‟ programme, the aim of which is to transform the education system to deliver a high quality of learning. The knowledge economy demands people who can think creatively and critically, solve problems and make decisions, and are self-directed lifelong learners. Such individuals are really the output of an education system that delivers high quality of learning. The building blocks of our approach to transforming the education system are: l Transform the teacher into a ‗reflective practitioner‘ who is herself a thinker and learner l Help school leadership see their role as leading this transformation l Help parents change their view of the true purpose of education in the knowledge economy l Help education administrators change the curriculum from being content heavy to ability enhancing, and transform the examination system from focusing solely on testing memorization skill to also assessing abilities such as creative and critical thinking and problem solving. Currently, the programme has reached out to 700 teachers in 40 schools across Delhi, Bangalore and Hyderabad. Work Culture @ WIPRO Wipro work culture is characterized by: - Openness - Absence of politics - Non-hierarchical (no visible symbols of hierarchy) - Hard work - Meritocracy (completely professional work atmosphere) - Middle class Values - non-flashy. 60
  • Recruitment process @ WIPRO Recruitment in Wipro is not just an event but is a part of a complete leadership development process. Most of our recruitment is done from the campus. We began recruiting people from premier institutes since 1970 and have developed some of the best leaders of the Indian industry. However, we do not hire people at senior levels unless it is absolutely required. Policy is such that even if an insider is 60% ready for a given internal vacancy; he will be preferred over an outsider. The recruitment process is extremely important to Wipro and involves a significant application of the senior and top management time. The assessment of the campus panel is supported by an assessment of the candidate's performance in group discussions, psychometric tests and an in- depth reference check. Reward high performing staff They have a comprehensive performance management system, which has been institutionalized over three decades ago. It has been well accepted by the employees. The human resources department does the review and planning is the high point of our performance management and employee development process. The HRRP serves the following purpose: 1. Identifying top 10% and bottom 10% of the employees 2. Identifying talent that we should not lose under any circumstances 3. Succession planning 4. People in the same job for five years and more As for attrition, we are significantly below the industry average. That is more important than numbers. 61
  • Training programmes Development of employees is one of the most critical processes in Wipro. There are broadly two categories of development programmes: 1. Life cycle management programme 2. Individual development programme against individual development need They cover the following under the Life Cycle Management Programme: a. Entry-level programme - this consists of both elaborate technical exposure as well as exposure to issues related to how to be a good productive employee in the Company. This is in addition to a common induction programme that employees go through on joining. b. New leaders programme - For employees who become leaders for the first time. c. Wipro leaders programme - for employees who start leading other managers. d. Business leaders programme - for those who become business managers for the first time. e. Strategic leaders programme - for top management who are responsible for strategic inputs. Besides the above, a detailed action plan is made on completion of performance appraisal for the individual employee. The action plan can include the following: a. Specific need related development programme b. b. Efforts on the job by the employee c. Supervisor coaching guidance etc. Career progression @ WIPRO Due to its growth (23% CAGR in sales and 50% CAGR in PAT for the past 11 years) career growth has never been an issue at Wipro. Various options are available for an individual - ranging from being an individual contributor to team leader to technological contributor. People can progress vertically as well as horizontally. Employee grievances All supervisors are responsible for addressing the grievances of their team members. They may in turn seek help from their supervisors, human resources people or 62
  • business heads. Due to the company's open culture, employees are free to communicate with any other individual within the organisation after having exhausted the options of speaking to the supervisor. Mr. Dileep Ranjekar’s View (Corporate Executive Vice-President HR, Wipro) Changes and trends in HR in the near future The last five years, HR functions have undergone significant changes due to a large proportion of employees being knowledge workers or from the service industry. The Internet and communication explosion has erased all boundaries of culture, knowledge and sharing of practices among professionals. As a result, the paradigm of leadership has changed completely, with team members knowing more about their work than their supervisors. There is a great need for leadership, especially with a complete breakdown in hierarchy at the workplace as well as at home. Therefore, the only important issue is how a leader is able to add value to his/her team members. You have employee groups that are fiercely competitive, have a lot of stress early on in their career and whose world revolves only around themselves. That they also contribute to the organization is incidental and not the main purpose. It is very important for employees to constantly develop and enrich their resume and become more valuable in the market place. This trend will continue. In addition, HR people have the responsibility of boosting employee morale due to the economic downturn. What qualities and attributes, in your opinion, epitomize a good HR professional? * In-depth subject knowledge * Business knowledge * Ability to see newer, different dimensions and possibilities * Tremendous awareness of the global environment * Resilience, high energy and stamina 63