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  • 1. A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT IN National Thermal Power Corporation LTD Ramagundam A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO KAKATIYA UNIVERSITYIn Partial Fulfillment of Requirement For The Award Of The "Master of Business Administration" By K.REKHA REDDY (070 18C-l028) UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF Mr. E. MANOHAR DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE COLLEGE KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY,WARANGALGODAVARIKHANI, KARIMNAGAR DIST -505209 2006-08 1
  • 2. DECLARATION I hereby declare that this project ‘‘STRESS MANAGEMENT”done in NTPC Ramagundam is original work by him for the award of partialfulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESSADMINISTRATION in HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT to"UNIVERSITY P.G. COLLEGE’’ Godavarikhani “KAKATIYAUNIVERSITY” is record of bonified work carried out by me. I also declare that this project is a result of my own effort and that notbeen submitted to any other University / Institution for the award of anydegree. K. REKHA REDDY 07018C-1028 2
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am very thankful to management of the "National Thermal Power station,Ramagundam, for extending their-cooperation in completion of projectwork.I am thankful to Prof. Thirumala Rao Garu, Principal of University postGraduate College, and my Lecturer Mr. E. Manohar Sir, who constantguidance had given very valuable suggestions in completing my projectsuccessfully. It is my immense pleasure to thank Sri. P.Gopal Rao (Deputy GMRR)NTPC, Ramagundam who gave me an opportunity do my project work in anesteemed organization RSTPSINTPC Plant.My sincere thanks to Sri A.Monoharan, HR Manager (RR-ED) for makingit convenient to undertake project work at NTPC, Ramagundam.I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude Sri Rajesham Sir, Officer(HR). My project guide who guide me precisely and without his timelyinstructions his report would not have seen light. I am also grateful to all the Executives and staff of the NTPC,Ramagundam, for having me an opportunity in their organization to carry onmy project work & their support in bringing out this case study successfully. K. REKHA REDDY 07018C-1028 UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE COLLEGE KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY GODAVARIKHANI, PIN-505209 3
  • 4. CERTIFICATE This is certifying that the project work entitled ‘‘STRESSMANAGEMENT”, being submitted by. K.REKHA REDDY 07018C-1028In partial fulfillment for the award of "MASTER OF BUSINESSADMINISTRATION" at UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATECOLLEGE, GODAVARIKHANI, KARIMNAGAR is a bonafide workcarried out under my supervision. PROJECT GUIDE E. MANOHAR Faculty Member Department of Business Management University Post-GraduateCollege, Godavarikhani-505209 CONTENTSChapter-1 : Introduction 6-28 Introduction of Stress Organizational Stress Sources of Stress Consequences of Stress 4
  • 5. Management of StressChapter-2 : Organization Profile 29-42Chapter-3 : Data Analysis & Interpretation 43-60Chapter-4 : Findings and Suggestions Conclusions 61-63Chapter-5 : Questionnaire Bibliography 64-68 5
  • 6. INTRODUCTION Stress has been called “the invisible”. It is a disease that may affectyou, your organization, and any of the people in it, so you cannot afford toignore it.EVOLUATION OF STRESS: 6
  • 7. The Garden of Eden began as a tranquil stress environment. Howeverwhen Adam was given the tantalizing chance to eat the forbidden fruit, hewas trust into mankind’s first stressful situation. Adam was offered a choiceand, as we know, decision-making is the breeding ground for conflict,frustration and distress.DEFINITION: Stress in individual is defined as any interference thatdisturbs a persons’ healthy mental and physical well being. Itoccurs when the body is required to perform beyond its normalrange of capabilities. Stress is the way that you react physically, mentally andemotionally to various conditions, changes and demands inyour life. High levels of stress can affect your physical andmental well being and performance. The results of stress are harmful to individuals, families,society and organizations, which can suffer from“organization stress”. Ivancevich and Matteson define stressas individual with the environment. Behr and Newman define job stress as “a conditionarising from the interaction of people and their jobs andcharacterized by changes within people that force them todeviate from their normal functioning”. Stress is a dynamic condition, which an individual isconfronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand relatedto what he or she desires and for which the outcome isperceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress isassociated with constraints and demands. The former preventyou from doing what you desire, the latter refers to the loss ofsomething desired. 7
  • 8. Stress is highest for those individuals who perceive that theyare uncertain as to whether they will win or lose and lowestfor those individuals who think that winning or losing iscertainty. Canadian physician Hans Selye (1907-1982) in his bookthe stress of life 1956 popularized the idea of stress.According to Selye, the General Adaptation Syndrome consistsof three phases. Ce level begins to decline irreversibly. The organismcollapses .• Alarm Reaction: The first is the alarm phases. Here the individualmobilizes to meet the threat. The alarm reaction has two phases. The firstphases includes in initial “stock shock phase” in which defensive mechanismbecome active. Alarm reaction is characterized by autonomous excitability;adrenaline discharges; increase heart rate, ulceration. Depending on thenature & intensity of the threat and the condition of the organization theperiod of resistance varies and the severity of symptoms may differ from“mild invigoration” to “disease of adaptation”.• Resistance: The second is the phase of resistance. The individualattempts to resist or cope with the threat. Maximum adaptation occurs duringthis stage. The bodily signs characteristic of the alarm reaction disappear. Itthe stress persist, or the defensive reaction proves ineffective, it mayoverwhelm the body resources. Depleted of energy, the body enters thephase of third.• Exhaustion: Adaptation energy is exhausted. Sings of the alarmreaction reappear, and the resistance level begins to define irreversibly. Theorganism collapses. 8
  • 9. Pestonjee has attempted / identified three important sectors of life inwhich Stress originates. These are  Job and the organization  The social sector  Intrapsychic sector Job and organization, refers to the totality of the work environment(task, atmosphere, colleagues, compensation, policies, etc.). The socialsector refers to the other such factors. The Intrapsychic sector encompassesthose things, which are intimate, and persona, like temperament, values,abilities and health. It is contended that stress can originate in any of thesesectors or in combinations thereof. In the figure below it can be seen that the magnitude of stressemanating from the stress to learner limit of the individual to handle thesestress. This indicates a balanced state. 9
  • 10. ORGANIZATION-INDIVIDUAL NORMAL INTERACTIONPATTERN S.T.L – STRESS TOLERANCE LEVEL In the figure we find that job and organization loads have increasedand have made a dent in the personality. In this stage, we find minor surfacechanges taking place, which are quite manageable. MINIOR SURFACE CHANGES Adaptation attempt a) Extra effort b) Excessive concern of task c) Worries d) Anxiety In the stage three and the figure below, we find that job and organizational loads have become unmanageable and interact with intrapsychic loads. This is the stage at which he negative consequences of the stress become apparent. Most of the stress related diseases emerge at this point. When the situation persists we move into the next stage in which we start operating beyond the “stress tolerance limit”. 10
  • 11. MAJOR SURFACE DISFIGURATION Frantic copying 1. Extra ordinary effort 2. Worry and anxiety about the self 3. Onset of physiological symptoms 4. Aggressive tendencies Several types of breakdowns and cracks are observable in this stagei.e., fourth stage. If unchecked the situation may culminate into the last andmost intense phase wherein complete disintegration of personality takesplace. At this stage, the individual requires proper psychological andmedical care. The figure below depicts the fourth and fifth stage. STRESSORS OR LOADS BREAKDOWNS AND CRACKS: FAILURE IN COPING 11
  • 12. A. Work related symptoms Lack of concentration Affected clarity of thinking & decision – making Frequent absenteeism Affected team work Aggressive behaviorB. Physiological symptoms Headache / Migraine Insomnia Lack of appetite Digestive disorders Sexual disorders Temperamental changes. Pestonjee has also developed a model to explain how we cope withstress reactions. It is called the BOUNCE model because the behavioraldecomposition taking place due to stress tense to get reflected ininterpersonal reactions. The reactions are received & analyzed by theenvironment, which in turn, bounce back signals to the individuals to bringabout a change either at the orgasmic level or at the response level.THE BOUNCE MODELSTRESSORS 12
  • 13. BORNOUT STRESS SYNDROME (BOSS):- Boss can lead to at least four types of stress related consequences suchas, depletion of energy reverses, lowered resistance to illness, increaseddissatisfaction and pessimism and increased absenteeism and inefficiency atwork. Veningle and spradley have identified five distinct stages of BOSS.HONEYMOON STAGE:- This stage can be describe as accounting for the euphoric feeling ofencounter with the new job such as excitement, enthusiasm, challenge andpride. Dysfunctional features emerge in two ways first; the energy reversesare gradually depleted in coping with the demands of a challengingenvironment. Second, habits and strategies for coping with stress are formedin this stage which is often not useful in coping with later challenges.FUEL SHORTAGE STAGE:- This stage can be identified as composed of the value feelings of loss,fatigue and confusion arising from the individual’s overdraws on reverses ofadaptation energy. Other symptoms are dissatisfaction, inefficiency, andfatigue and sleep disturbances leading to escape activate such as increasedeating, drinking & smoking.CRISIS STAGE:- When these feelings and physiological symptoms persist over periodof time, the individual enters the stage of crisis. At this stage he develops“escape mentality” and feels oppressed. Heightened pessimism, self-doubling tendencies, peptic ulcers, tension headaches, chronic backaches,blood pressure.HITTING THE WALL STAGE:- This stage of BOSS is characterized by total exhaustion of one’sadaptation energy, which may mark the end of one’s professional career.While recovery from this stage elude may be resourceful to tide over thecrises. 13
  • 14. TYPES OF STRESS:- • It the stress for the day to day adaptability of man to his environment and results in the maintenance of internal steady state (homeostasis) it is know as neustress. For example, one produces neustress in order to breath, work. • Stress is through of in negative terms. It is thought to be caused by something bad (for example the boss gives a formal reprimand for poor performance). It the stress response is unfavorable and potentially disease producing, this is known as distress. Constant worry in a susceptible individual can lead to ulcers. If the stress response is favorable and results is favorable and resultsin improvement in physical and / or mental functioning, it is called estruses.This is the positive, pleasant side of stress caused by stress caused by goodthings. For examples an employee is offered a job promotion at another I. 14
  • 15. DEFINING STRESS AT WORK Change in working practices, such as the introduction of newtechnology or the alternation of new technology or the alternative of targets,my cause stress, or stress may be built into an organizations’ structure.Organizational stress can be measured by absenteeism and quality or work.ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS:- Stress affects as well as the individual within them. An organizationwith a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff turnover, deteriorating industrialand customer relations, a worsening safety record, or poor quality control issuffering from organizational stress.FOLLOWING THE PAT OF STRESS THROUGH IN ORGANIZATION:- The below chart shows one example of the structure of a departmentin an organization, indicating typical causes of stress that may effect stress atcertain levels in the structure, and particular. 15
  • 16. Causes that are affecting individuals. Stress is contagious; anyone who is notperforming well due to increases the amount of pressure on their colleagues,superiors, and subordinates. The cause may range from unclear or overlapping job descriptions, tolack of communication, to poor working conditions, including “sick buildingsyndrome”.POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS: There are three categories of potential stressors: ♣ Environmental factor ♣ Organization factor ♣ Individual factorsEnvironmental factors: Just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of anorganization. Changes in business cycle create economic uncertainties.Political uncertainties: If the political system in a country is implemented in an orderlymanner, there would not be any type of stress.Technological uncertainties: New innovations can make an employee’s skills and experiencesobsolete in a very short period of time. Technological uncertainty thereforeis a third type of environmental factor that can cause stress. Computers,robotics, automation and other forms of technological innovations are threatto many people and cause them stress.Organization factors: There are no storages of factors within the organization that can causestress; pressures to avoid error or complete tasks in a limited time period,work overload are few examples. Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. They include thedesign of the individual’s job working conditions, and the physical worklayout. 16
  • 17. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function ofthe particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role overhead isexperienced when the employees is expected to do more than time permits. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearlyunderstood and employee is not sure what he / she is to do. Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lackof social support from colleagues and poor. Interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especiallyamong employed with a high social need. Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in theorganization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where decisions aremade. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decision that affect anemployee are examples of structural variables that might be potentialsources of stress.Potential sources Consequences 17
  • 18. Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of theorganizations senior executive. Some executive officers create a culturecharacterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They establish unrealisticpressures to perform in the short-run impose excessively tight controls androutinely fire employees who don’t measure up. This creates a fear in theirhearts, which lead to stress. Organizations go through a cycle. They are established; they grow,become mature, and eventually decline. An organization’s life stage - i.e.Where it is in four stage cycle-creates different problems and pressures foremployees. The establishment and decline stage are particularly stressful.Individual factors: The typical individual only works about 40 hrs a week. Theexperience and problems that people encounter in those other 128 non-workhrs each week can spell over to the job.Family problems: National surveys consistently show that people hold family anddiscipline, troubles with children are examples of relationship problems thatcreate stress for employee and that aren’t at the front door when they arriveat work.Economic problems: Economic problems created by individuals overextending theirfinancial resources are another set of personal troubles that can create stressfor employees and distract their attention from their work. 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. CAUSES OF STRESS Society the working world and daily life have changed almost beyondrecognition in the past 50 years. These changes have contributed to a majorincrease in stress. Stress is caused from both outside & inside the organization & fromgroups that employees are influenced by & from employees themselves.Stressors: The agents or demands that evoke the potential response are referredto as stressors. According to Syele a stressors is “Whatever produces stresswith or without functioning hormonal or nervous systems”.Extra organizational stressors: Extra organizational stressors have a tremendous impact on job stress.Taking an open system perspective of an organization, it is clear that jobstress is not just limited to things that happen inside the organization, duringworking hours. Extra organizational stressors include things such as social /technological change, the family, relocation, economic & financialconditions, race & class, residential or community conditions.Organizational stressors: Besides the potential stressors that occur outside the organization,there are also those associated with the organization itself. Although theorganization is made up of groups & individuals, there are also more macro-level dimensions unique to the organization that contains potential stressors. 20
  • 21. MACRO-LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL STRESSORS:POLICIES Unfair, arbitrary performance reviews. Rotating works shifts. Inflexible rules. Unrealistic job descriptions.STRUCTURES Centralization; Lack of participation in decision making. Little opportunity for advancement. A great amount of formalization. JOB Interdependence of departments. STRESS Line-Staff conflicts.PHYSICAL CONDITIONS Crowding & lack of privacy. Air pollution. Safety hazards. Inadequate lighting. Excessive, heat or cold.PROCESS Poor communication. Poor / inadequate feedback about performance. Inaccurate / ambiguous measurement of performance. Unfair control systems. Inadequate information.GROUP STRESSORS: The group can also be a potential source of stress. Group stressors canbe categorized into three areas.1. Lack of groups cohesiveness:- “Cohesiveness” or “togetherness” is a very important to employees, especially at the lower levels of the organizations. If the employee is denied the opportunity for this cohesiveness because of the task design, because the supervisor does things to prohibit or limit it, or because the other members of the group shut the person out, this can be very stress producing.2. Lack of social support:- Employees are greatly affected by the support of one or more member of a cohesive group. By sharing their problems & joys with others, 21
  • 22. they are much better off. It this type of social support is lacking for an individual, it can be very stressful.3. Intra-Individual, interpersonal & inter-group conflict:- Conflict is very closely conceptually or hostile acts between associated with in compatible or hostile acts between intra-individual dimensions, such as personal goals or motivational needs / values, between individuals within a group, & between groups.INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS: In a sense, the other stressors (Extra organizational, organizational, &Group stressors) all eventually get down to the individual level. Forexample, role conflict, ambiguity, self-efficacy & psychological hardinessmay all affect the level of stress someone experiences. 22
  • 23. CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS The effect of stress is closely linked to individual personality. Thesame level of stress affects different people in different ways & each personhas different ways of coping. Recognizing these personality types meansthat more focused help can be given. Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual who isexperiencing high level of stress may develop high blood pressure, ulcers,irritability, difficulty in making routine decisions, loss of appetite, accidentproneness, and the like. These can be subsumed under three categories: Individual consequences Organizational consequence BurnoutIndividual consequences: Individual consequences of stress are those, which affect theindividual directly. Due to this the organization may suffer directly orindirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for it. Individualconsequences of stress are broadly divided into behavioral, psychologicaland medical.  Behavioral consequences of stress are responses that may harm the person under stress or others. Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, paid speech, and sleep disorders.  Psychological consequences of stress replace to an individual mental health and well-being from or felling depressed. Job related stress could cause dissatisfaction, infact it has most psychological effect on the individual and lead to tension, anxiety irritability, and boredom.  Medical consequences of stress affect a person’s well being. According to a research conducted, it revealed that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increases blood pressure bring out headaches and induce heart attacks. 23
  • 24. Organizational consequences: Organizational consequences of stress have direct affect on theorganizations. These include decline in performance, withdrawal andnegative changes in attitude.  Decline in performance can translate into poor quality work or a drop in productivity. Promotions and other organizational benefits get affected due to this.  Withdrawal behavior also can result from stress. Significant form of withdrawal behavior is absenteeism.  One main affect of employee stress is directly related to attitudes. Job satisfaction, morale and organizational commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to perform at higher levels.Burnout:- A final consequence of stress has implementation for both people andorganizations. Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops whenan individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and few sourcesof satisfaction. 24
  • 25. Managing stress in the work place Every responds to stress in a different way, it is only by understandingthe nature of individual responses that you can start fighting stress yourselfand others. Reduction or elimination of stress is necessary for psychological andphysical well being of an individual. Efficiency in stress managementenables the individual to deal or cope with the stressful situations instead ofavoidance. Strategies like tie management, body-mind and mind-bodyrelaxation exercise, seeking social support help individual improve theirphysical and mental resources to deal with stress successfully. Apart from helping employees adopt certain coping strategies to dealwith stress providing them with the service of counselor is also useful. Many strategies have been developed to help manage stress in thework place. Some are strategies for individuals, and other is geared towardorganizations.Individual coping strategies: Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress have beenproposed. Individual coping strategies are used when an employee under stressexhibits undesirable behavior on the jobs such as performance, strainedrelationship with co-workers, absenteeism alcoholism and the like. 25
  • 26. Employees under stress require help in overcoming its negative effects. Thestrategies used are:Exercise:- One method by which individual can manage their stress is throughexercise. People who exercise regularly are known to less likely to haveheart attacks than inactive people are. Research also has suggested thatpeople who exercise regularly feel less tension and stress are more conflictand slow greater optimism.Relaxation:- A related method individual can manage stress is relaxation. Copyingwith stress require adaptation. Proper relaxation is an effective way to adopt.Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take regularvacations; people can also relax while on the job (i.e. take regular breaksduring their normal workday). A popular way of resting is to sit quietly withclosed eyes for ten minutes every afternoon.Time management:- Time management is an often recommended method for managingstress, the idea is that many daily pressures can be eased or eliminated if aperson does a better job of managing time. One popular approach to timemanagement is to make a list, every morning or the thins to be done thatday. Then you group the items on the list into three categories: criticalactivities that must be performed, important activities that should beperformed, and optimal or trivial things that can be delegated or postponed,then of more of the important things done every day.ROLE MANAGEMENT:- Some what related to time management in which the individualactively works to avoid overload, ambiguity and conflict.SUPPORT GROUPS:- This method of managing stress is to develop and maintain supportgroup. A support group is simply a group of family member or friends withwhom a person can spend time. Supportive family and friends can helppeople deal with normal stress on an ongoing basis. Support groups can beparticularly useful during times of crisis. 26
  • 27. BEHAVIORAL SELF-CONTROL:- In ultimate analysis, effective management if stress presupposesexercise of self-control on the part of an employee. By consciouslyanalyzing the cause and consequences of their own behavior, the employeescan achieve self-control. They can further develop awareness of their ownlimits of tolerance and learn to anticipate their own responses to variousstressful situations. The strategy involves increasing an individuals controlover the situations rather than being solely controlled by them.COGNITIVE THERAPY:- The cognitive therapy techniques such as Elli’s rational emotivemodel and Meichenbaum’s cognitive strategy fir modification have beenused as an individual strategy for reducing job stress.COUNSELING: Personal counseling help employees understand and appreciate adiverse workforce, the holistic approach adopted by the counselor gives hima comprehensive view of the employee as client and enable him to deal theissues of work related problems in a larger context with his awareness of theinter-relationship among problems in adjustment with self, other andenvironment and that a work concern will effect personal life and vice-versa,the employee would receive help regarding the problem in all life. One of the advantage of the individual interventions is the individualcan use these skills to improve the quality of life in offer domains likefamily, social support and self, thus reducing the negative carry ofexperiences in these domains into the work life which might effect hisoccupation mental health.ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES:- The most effective way of managing stress calls for adopting stressorsand prevent occurrence of potential stressors.’ Two basic organizational strategies for helping employees managestress are institutional programs and collateral programs. 27
  • 28. Work Design Stress Management programs Work schedules Health promotions programs Culture Other programs SupervisionInstitutional programs:- Institutional programs for managing stress are undertaken toestablished organizational mechanism for example, a properly designed joband word schedules can help ease stress. Shift work in particular canconstantly have to adjust their sleep and relaxation patterns. Thus, the designof work schedules should be a focused of organizational efforts to reducestress. The organization’s culture can also used to help to manage stress. Theorganization should strive to foster a culture that reinforces a healthy mix ofwork and nonworking activities. Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role inoverload. In managing stress. A supervisor is a potential manager source ofoverload. If made aware of their potential for assigning stressful amounts ofwork, supervisors can do a better job keeping workloads reasonable.COLLATERAL PROGRAMS: In addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress, manyorganizations are turning to collateral programs. A collateral stress programin an organizational program specifically created to help employees dealwith stress. The organizations have adopted stress management programs,health promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this purpose. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. COMPANY PROFILE Energy is important parameter in the overall economic developmentactivity of any country. It has become synonymous with progress in allfields of activities. Its standard of living in the words of DAGLI is asfollows it is said that the difference between a starving Indian peasant and aprosperous American farmer is that behind his elbow the India farmer hasalmost nothing while his American counterpart has thousands of hourspower. This, it is energy, which is the dividing line between any substanceeconomy and a highly developed economy. India is poor and American isrich because America consumes nearly 50 times as much energy as isconsumed by India. Energy is at the heart of the modern industrial society. Itcould also be effective weapon in the battle against object poverty. There is a close correlation between energy consumption and level ofeconomic development. Energy means “capacity of doing work”. There arevarious sources of energy but in India the important sources are coal,hydroelectricity. Oil and natural gas, nuclear fuels fire wood and animalwastes. Despites the development of various sources in the energy sector,the fact still remains that low last energy sources like fire wood, cattle drugand vegetable wastes account for as much at 45 percent of energyconsumption in the country. Power development in India began in 1897 when a 200KW hydrostation was first commissioned at Darjeeling, in 1899 a first steam stationwas set up in Calcutta with a total of 100kw. There after, a series of hydroand steam power station were commissioned. But the power developmentwas not in a systematic and planned manner in the country. Therefore, inorder to achieve the objective of promoting the co-ordination developmentand rationalization of generation, transmission and distribution of electricityon a regional basis throughout the country in the most efficient andeconomic way the state electricity board (SEBs) was constituted in thevarious states of the country under the provisions of the electricity (supply)act 1948. These SEBs, were to enjoy the monopoly in respect of generation,transmission and distribution of electricity in the country. After constitutionof SEBs, there was phenomenal improvement in the development ofinstalled capacity and power generation. The efficiency of working of powerplant and their maintenance have been unsatisfactory as a result of which thepower generating capacity already created could not have been fully utilized. 30
  • 31. Power is the single factor, which changed the way of living. TheNational Thermal Power Corporation Limited, established on November 7 thin 1975, has become the most important infrastructure input for improvingthe standard of living to meet the growing demand and to fulfill the needs ofthe country. Just in 29 years this company has grown to be the largestproducer of power in the country. NTPC the NAVARATNA power gianttoday generates one fourth of the total power in the country and it is ranked9th largest thermal power generating utility in the world. Keeping the significance of power supply in sight, NTPC has beenchosen for the purpose of the study as it has many units under its control.Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station (RSTPS) has been selected forthe study.BRIEF HISTORY OF NTPC: “Power” The single factor which changed the way in which man livedfor millions of years, has become the most important infrastructure input forimproving the standard of living both directly as well as indirectly by way ofcontributing in the economic development to make available to the nationreliable & quality power in increasingly large quantities. NATIONALTHERMAL POWER CORPORATION LTD was formed in 1975; NTPCRamagundam unit with approved capacity of 260MW and installed capacityof 21OOMW is the largest Thermal Power plant powering South Indiasgrowth. Ramagundam unit of NTPC credited with first ISP 14001 certifiedSuper Thermal Power Station in our country. NTPC a front runner in the Indian Power sector in one of the larges &the best power utilities of the world, there by contributing of Indiasemergence as one of the worlds leading economies. The World Bank, in itsperformance audit report on NTPCs projects observed that. "NTPC record in plant construction, cost containment & operatingefficiency has been exceptional, while as an institution it has broken newground in Organization & Management, successfully navigated thetransition from constructions to operating company & generally coped quitewell with the problems of rapid expansion". Two corporations The National Hydro Electric Power Corporation(NHPC) & National thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) were set in 1975-76 in the center sector as a step to achieve the objectives. The company 31
  • 32. started functioning in March 1976 with the appointment of a chairman &Managing Director.LOCATION: The 2100 MW Ramagundam Super Thermal Project is located inKarimnagar District of Andhra Pradesh to the South of river Godavari. Theproject is linked to the south Godavari Coal field or the Singareni Collieries.NTPC ACTIVITIES:1. Planning & Investigation of new sites, preparation of feasibility prospect report & the designing as well as engineering of power station.2. NTPC also manages the 720 MW Badarpur Thermal Power Station in Delhi & 270 MW BALCO Captive power plant (M.P)3. Operation & Maintenance of Power Stations.4. Research & development in area related to power generation5. NTPC also bagged a turnkey contract for the construction of21 Sub - stations from Nepal electricity authority.6. The R &D using of NT PC has been instrumental in enhancing the reliability of plant & equipment.OBJECTIVES OF NTPC: To add generating capacity with in prescribed time & cost. To operate & maintain power stations at high availability ensuring minimum cost of generation. It has planned massive growth to make itself a 40,000 MW company. To maintain the financial soundness of the company by managing the financial operations in accordance with good commercial utility practices. To function as a responsible corporate citizen & discharge social responsibility, in respect of environment protection and rehabilitation. The corporation will strive to utilize the ash produced at its stations to the maximum extent possible through production of ash bricks, building materials etc. To adopt appropriate human resources development policy leading to creation of team of motivated and competent power professionals. To introduce, assimilate & attain self sufficiency in technology, acquire expertise in utility mgt. Practices to disseminate knowledge essentially as a contribution to other constituents of the power sector in the country. 32
  • 33.  To develop R&D for achieving improved plant reliability To expand the consultancy operations & to participate in ventures abroad.CORPORATE OBJECTIVES: To add generating capacity with in prescribed time & cost. To expand the constancy operations & to participate ventures aboard. To maintain the financial soundness of the company by m aging the financial operations in accordance with good commercial utility. To operate and maintain power stations at high availability ensuring minimum Cost of generation. To develop (R&D) for achieving improved plant reliability. To develop appropriate commercial policy leading to remunerative tariffs & minimum receivables. Implement strategic diversification in the areas of R&M. Hydro. LNG and Non conventional and eco-friendly fuels and explore new areas like transmission information technology etc. Promote consultancy. Make prudent acquisitions. Continuously develop competent human resources to match world standards. Be a responsible corporate citizen with thrust on environment protection rehabilitation and ash utilization.VISION OF NTPC:‘‘TO BE ONE OF THE WORLDS LARGEST AND BEST POWERUTILITIES. POWER INDIAS GROWTH’’CORE VALUES (COMIT)  Customer focus.  Organizational pride.  Mutual Respect and Trust.  Initiative and speed total quality.  Total Quality.MISSION OF NTPC: Make available reliable, quality power in increasingly large quantitiesat appropriate tariffs, and ensure timely realization of revenues. Speedilyplan and implement power projects, with contemporary technologies. 33
  • 34. DISTRIBUTION OF POWER OF NTPC RAMAGUNDAM S.No State Distributed Percentage Capacity (MW) (%) 1. Andhra Pradesh 580 27.619 2. Tamil Nadu 470 22.381 3. Karnataka 345 16.429 4. Kerala 245 11.667 5. Goa 100 4.762 6. Pondicherry 50 2.381 7. Unallocated 310 14.762PERFORMANCES: NTPC stations & the NTPC manage Badarpur station has beenaccredited with “ISO 14001” for sound environment management system &practices.FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: NTPC recorded a provisional turnover of Rs.30000 crores during2004-05 as against Rs.25184 crores during 2003-04. The provisional netprofit after tax for 2003-04 is Rs.4905 crores, as compared to Rs.5500 croreslast year. The provisional Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Returnon Net worth (RONW) are 12.31 % and 14.13% respectively for the year2004-05. An interim dividend of Rs.400 Crores has been paid to theGovernment for 2003-04. The total out standings as on 31.10.2005 stood at Rs 26078.96 croresincluding a principal amount of Rs.16049.55 crores. 34
  • 35. STATION HIGH LIGHTS: Record haulage of coal in single day of 78,720 MT on 29 June 1998 Asian record. Station recorded highest loading factor of 99.4% for the yr 1999 2000 Continuous run or VI unit (500MW) for 406 days, third best in the world. Ramagundam 500MW unit-7 (stage-III) has successfully completed one year of commercial operation on 25.03.06 without any tube leakage. The unit generated 3802.492 MUs @ a PLF of 86.81%. Considering the loss of generation of 297 MUs due to backing down, the deemed, PLF is 93.590/0. The unit also has achieved a continuous run of 97 days without tripping in the first year of operation itself. Ramagundam station achieved 47.94% (18.63 LMT) of Ash utilization during the financial year against the target of 47% (18.20 LMT). Ramagundam & Simhadri were recommended for commendation certificate for “storage commitment to Excel” by G1II. Ramagundam bagged “Innovative safety practices” award for the year 2005 from institution of Engineers. Ramagundam station bagged “Best Management award from Govt. of AI” fur the year 2004-05. NTPC – Ramagundam bagged golden shied for the financial years 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 for outstanding performance in power generation.Installed capacity of NTPC Projects: Projects No. of Projects Commissioned Capacity (MW)NTPC OWNED 13 19,980COAL 07 3,955GAS/LIQ.FUELONED BY JVCsCOAL 3 314GRAND 23 24.249TOTAL 35
  • 36. Capacity power plant under JV with SAILCoal based projects:Sl.No. Coal Based State Commissioned Capacity1. Singrauli Uttar Pradesh 2,0002. Kobra Chhattisgarh 2,1003. Ramagundam Andhra Pradesh 2,6004. Farakka West Bengal 1,6005. Vidhyachal Madhya Pradesh 1,6006. Rihand Uttar Pradesh 2,2007. Kahalgoan Bihar 2,0008. Dadri Uttar Pradesh 8409. Tacher Kaniha Orissa 84010. Unchahar Uttar Pradesh 3,00011. Tacher Thermal Orissa 84012. Simhadri Andhra Pradesh 3,00013. Tanda Uttar Pradesh 440 Total 19,980 @ Capacity presently under implementation. Vindyachal 1000 MW Unchahar 210 MW Kahalgoan State II Phase I 1500 MW Phase II 1000 MWGas Based Projects:14. Anta Rajasthan 41315. Auralya Uttar Pradesh 65216. Kawas Gujarat 64517. Dadri Uttar Pradesh 81718. Jahanor-Gandhar Gujarat 64819. Kayamkulam Kerala 35020. Faridabad Haryana 430 Total 24,249 Grand total (Coal + Gas + JV)Capacity Power station managed State Installed By NTPC (MW)21. Badarpur Delhi 705 36
  • 37. Sterling Performance of 2005-06:-1. The company takes a new name “NTPC Limited” aligned to its new business plans.2. The company market capitalization J11 crosses Rs. One trillion (Rs. 1,00,000 crore) and is one of the top three largest Indian companies in terms of market cap.3. A highest ever generation of 170.88 BVs during 2005-06 registering an increase 017.40% over the generation of 159.11 BVs during 2004-05.4. With 19.51% [including capacity of joint venture companies] share of the total installed capacity of the nation, NTPC contributed 27.68% electricity generated in the country during 2005-06.5. Coal stations of NTPC achieved an operating availability of 89.95%.6. Coal stations of NTPC recorded a PLF of 87.54%, which is the highest for any financial year since inception; Tilt PLF during previous year was 87.51%.7. 100% realization for the third year in succession.8. Provisional and un audited net sales of Rs. 2,59,928 million during the year 2005-06 as against Rs. 2,25,316 million for the year 2004-05. however, provisional and un audited Gross Revenue is Rs. 2,86,473 million during 2005-06 as against Rs. 2,55,460 million for the year 2004-05.9. Provisional and un audited net profit after tax for the year 2005-06is Rs. 57,076 million a compared to Rs. 58, 070 million during the year 2004- 05.10. Total capacity added during the year four years of 10 th plan period (2002-2006) increases to 4000 MW with another 500 MW getting added during the far company to 24,249 MW (including capacity of Joint venture companies).11. Construction works on 9470 MW in progress.12. Further projects with capacity of 3720 MW under bidding process.13. Ratnagiri Gas and power supply Pvt Ltd formed ith NTPC having a stake of 28.33% for taking over and operating the Dabhol power project.14. The Government allots 7 mort’ coal mining blocks to NTPC for capacity use taking the total mines allotted to 8 with an expected output of 50 MT per annum.15. A consortium comprising of NTPC and two other members allotted an exploration block in Arunachal Pradesh. 37
  • 38. 16. Capital expenditure incurred in 2005-06 on capital scheme was Rs. 71,879 million compared to Rs. 53,603 million in 2004-05 capital outlay for 2J0607 set at Rs. 1,13,250 million.17. A USD 1 Bn medium Tern Note programme established. NTPC becomes the first Indian corporate since 1997 to make successful offering of 10 year fixed rate amounting to USD 300 million.18. Standard & Poor’s have revised outlook on the rating of the company from stable to positive while affirming the ‘BB+’ issuer rating.19. An interim divided o 20% for the financial year 2005-06 amounting to Rs. 16,491 million.20. Government has assigned NTPC the consultant role to modernize and improve several plants across the country in the partnership ‘In Excellence’ program of the government.21. Collaborating the government in the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojuna.22. NTPC has also taken up Distribution Generation for rural electrification of remote villages through non-conventional energy sources.23. Simhadri project receivers international project management award instituted by International project management Association (IMPA) NTPC is the only Asian Company that has received this award.24. Ranked 3rd “Great Place to work for in India” by M/S Grow Talent and Business world 2005.25. NTPC has achieved all the targets to be rated “Excellent” during 2005- 06 for the nineteenth year since inception of the MOU system.NTPC ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS: The organizations design is one of the main factors, which ultimatelydetermines the effectiveness of enterprises. The board of directors is the supreme policy making body, which givethe direction to the activities of the organization. The head of this board isthe chairman & managing director who is also the full time chief executiveof the company. The members of this board are both full-time directors aswell as senior level officers. 38
  • 39. The basic divisions, which are accountable to CMD, Are:1. Technical and Engineering division.2. Corporate Commercial division.3. Operation Services division.4. Corporate Finance division.5. Corporate Human resources division.6. Corporate Projects Division.7. Vigilance division. NTPC RAMAGUNDAM The foundation stone for RSTPS was laid on 14-11-1978 by Sri.Morarji Dessai then Prime minister of India. Ramagundam a vibrant 2600 MW station is a largest Thermal Powerstation in South India with three 200 MW & three MW and 1×500 sets andalso one of the largest in the country. Its emergency has put the SouthernStates one step ahead in their effort to meet their power requirement. Third in the series super Thermal Power Station set up by NTPCRamagundam. It is situated in the interiors of Andhra Pradesh on the banksof Godavari River in Karimnagar District of Telangana, just across the oldpitheads of Singareni Collieries. Ramagundam has been raising at this time & earned the prouddestination of being the only station in the country to omission all the sevenunits ahead of schedule, constructed at a cost of Rs. 1702 crores, the stationhas been one of the largest recipient its of the world Bank. Its projectimplementation & financial control has earned a path from the World Bank“Ramagundam a be considered as the school for construction of Powerprojects”. The major external financing sources are IBRD, IDA & OPEC. Ramagundam generation proportion has achieved the Govt. of Indiameritorious productivity award as many four times. The beneficiaries ofRSTOS are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa and Pondicherry. The plant load factor for the year 2003-04 was 8.3% and it stood inthe fourth place the NTPC station. To cater to the growing demand for power the seventh unit of 500MW is being added. The station had required infrastructure facilities and thecommitment of the employee. The project after completion will be thelargest power station supplying power to the Southern Grid. The HonorableUnion Minister of the Power Sri. Suresh Babu in the presence if Sri. N.Chandra Babu Naidu, Honorable Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh laid thefoundation on 11th Jan 2002 and completed ahead of schedule. 39
  • 40. COMPANY AT GLANCEInstalled Capacity : 2600MWUnit Sizes : 3X200MW 4X500MWUnits Commissioned : Unit- I October, 1983 Unit- II May, 1984 Unit- III December, 1984 Unit- IV June, 1988 Unit- V March, 1989 Unit- VI October, 1989 Unit- VII November 2000Transmission System : 2400 cks -400KVSource of Coal : South Godavari Coal fields of Singareni ColleriesWater Sources : Sri Ram Sagar ProjectBeneficiary States : Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa and Pondicherry.Approved investment : Rs. 3877.68 croresCoal Consumption : 8.6 million tones per annumWater Consumption : 250 cusecCoal Transportation : (MGR) Merry-or-round system of 22.5 kms Indian Railway.Total Land : 10,000 Acres. 40
  • 41. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Discuss the research design, research problems, important of thestudy, scope and significance of the study, source of data, questionnaire,sample design statistically techniques used, and objective of the study andlimitations of the study.RESEARCH DESIGN: A research design is an arrangement of conditions for collection andanalysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research. Purpose with economy in procedure. It is the conceptual structurewithin which research is conducted and it constitutes the blueprint for thecollection, measurement and analysis of data. It includes an outline of whatthe researcher will do from within the hypothesis and its operationalimplications to the final analysis of data. The research design used for the study is descriptive design.Descriptive research design includes surveys and fact finding enquires ofdifferent kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description ofthe state of affairs, as it exists at present.SOURCE OF DATA: The relevant data has been collected from the primary sources andsecondary sources. The primary data is collected by a questionnaire from theemployees. For this purpose of data collection, the questionnaire wascirculated among the employees to collect information. The secondary datais collected by news paper company journals, magazines websites etc.QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION: The questionnaire was prepared after counseling with the officer.Employee relations of the HR department of NTPC. The researcher prepareda set of questionnaire. A four point scale “strongly agree to stronglydisagree” was used for this purpose.SAMPLE DESIGN: A sample of 150 respondents was taken using random sampling. Theresearcher contacted the executive personally and brief summary of thenature of the study and details in the questionnaire were narrated to them. 41
  • 42. PERIOD OF STUDY: The present study had been undertaken for period of 6 weeks, inwhich it had divided into three stages as such. Stage I is of research problemand collection the literature of the topic chosen. Stage II is of analysis andinterpretations by using different statistical tools, findings andrecommendations.STATISTICAL TOOLS USED: For the purpose of present study percentage analysis was used.LIMITATIONS OF STUDY:1. The sample size chosen is covered only a small portion of the whole population of NTPC, Ramagundam.2. The study is confined to limited period i.e. Six weeks.3. Accuracy of the study is purely based on the information as given by the respondents.4. Data collected cannot be asserted to the free from crores, as the sample size restricted to the employees. HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT 42
  • 43. 1. How often do you say the word “I am busy or I am having hard time” At the work place? 43
  • 44. Options Response ( % ) Very often 9 often 26 Rarely 28 Very rarely 25 Never 12 30 25 20 15 10 Response 5 0 Very Often Rarely Very Never Often rarely Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (52%) rarely and very rarely says that they are busy at work place.2. You think physical environment problem in the work place cause Stress? ( Temperature, lighting, gases, dust ) Options Response ( % ) 44
  • 45. Strongly agree 26 Agree 36 Cannot say 16 Disagree 16 Strongly disagree 6 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons eInterpretation: Opinion of study reveal that, majority of the respondents (62%) agreewith physical environment (Temperature, Lighting, Gases and Dust) causesStress.3. You feel time pressure to complete work? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 10 45
  • 46. Agree 41 Cannot say 13 Disagree 28 Strongly disagree 8 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: The finally yet importantly, the question asked about the employees, majority of the employees (51%) of the NTPC agree and strongly agree with above statement.4. Do you feel lack of co-operation in office? Options Response ( % ) Very often 9 46
  • 47. often 26 Rarely 16 Very rarely 17 Never 32 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) faced lack of co-operation in office remaining (32%) of employees never faced lack of co-operation in organization.5. Family problems cause stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 19 Agree 41 47
  • 48. Cannot say 11 Disagree 19 Strongly disagree 10 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (60%) strongly agree and agree with family problems causes stress.6. Do you have problem of BP / sugar / any other health problems? Options Response ( % ) Very often 5 often 17 48
  • 49. Rarely 19 Very rarely 12 Never 47 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 Response 15 10 5 0 Very Often Rarely Very Never Often rarely Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (47%) saiddon’t love health problems like BP, sugar.7. Physical exercise & yoga reduce the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 39 Agree 36 49
  • 50. Cannot say 11 Disagree 9 Strongly disagree 5 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (75%) agree with above statement that by doing physical exercise & yoga stress will be reduced.8. Meditation & prayer to reduce the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 40 Agree 37 50
  • 51. Cannot say 14 Disagree 6 Strongly disagree 3 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (77%) agree with above statement that meditation & prayer to reduce the stress.9. Lack of communication causes stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 13 Agree 55 51
  • 52. Cannot say 17 Disagree 9 Strongly disagree 6 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) agree with above statement i.e. lack of communication causes stress.10.Spending time with your family reduces stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 35 Agree 44 52
  • 53. Cannot say 9 Disagree 8 Strongly disagree 4 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (79%) agree with above statement i.e. appending more time with family reduces stress.11.Improving working conditions, reduces the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 26 Agree 56 Cannot say 8 53
  • 54. Disagree 7 Strongly disagree 3 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Strongly agree Agree Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (82%) Cannot agree with improving working conditions in office say will be stress Disagree reduce. Strongly disagree12.Rational allocation of work reduces the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 11 Agree 55 Cannot say 20 54
  • 55. Disagree 10 Strongly disagree 4 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (66%) agree with rational allocation of work reduces the stress.13.Financial motivations reduce the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 12 Agree 43 Cannot say 32 55
  • 56. Disagree 10 Strongly disagree 3 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (55%) agree with above statement i.e. financial motivation reduces the stress.14.Training & Development programs help to cope-up with new technology reduces the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 16 Agree 52 Cannot say 21 56
  • 57. Disagree 8 Strongly disagree 3 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) agree with above statement i.e. training and development with changes.15.Need for family counseling is required? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 11 Agree 29 Cannot say 28 57
  • 58. Disagree 19 Strongly disagree 13 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Respons e Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (40%) agreed that family counseling is needed to plan and over come the stress.16.Relaxation reduces the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 32 Agree 48 Cannot say 13 58
  • 59. Disagree 6 Strongly disagree 1 50 Respons 40 e 30 20 10 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagree Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (80%) agree with above statement i.e. relaxation (holydays, leaves, family, tours etc.) reduces stress.17.Following safety precautions reduces the stress? Options Response ( % ) Strongly agree 15 Agree 50 Cannot say 21 59
  • 60. Disagree 10 Strongly disagree 4 25 Respons 20 e 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly agree say disagreeInterpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (65%)agree with above statement i.e. following safety precautions stress isreduced. 60
  • 61. FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONSFINDINGS: The finding of the present revealed the following.  Most of the respondent fall under law stress category.  Thee is in significance relationship between stress & demography factors i.e. age, experience & designation.  The following dimensions of personal policies & practices of the organization have contributed to stress among employees. 61
  • 62.  Respondents who fall under the E2A & E5 grade are more stressed in comparison with the other grade.  The organization falls a very tall structure of stress among hierarchy & this is one of the reasons for employees being stressed.  There is no significancant difference of stress among employees working in plant & other departments.  The employees working in the plat gave a positive response in answering the questionnaireSUGGESTIONS: A Small percentage of the employees did have high stress. Personfacing stress at the organizational level of lot of psychological problems inthe form of decreased motivation, absenteeism low productivity targets notbeing achieving etc. as a reedy for the above said employees facing stressare advised to attend stress management courses which will help them tobuild coping strategies and cause out their stress. The stress managementcause comprise of a package program consisting of:  Relaxation  Positive outlook towards works / responsibilities  Self analysis through personality type testes  Inter personal skill development  Protection yoga cum meditation  Time management  Since T & D job related factors, performance appraisal & job satisfaction were perceived stressful by the employees, the employees should be counseled regarded the matter  At the individual level the employees could practice a relaxing holiday (where in quality time is spent with the family) every fortnight or mouth  Realize excessive use of tea / coffee cigarette is not answer to stress  Try to get 6-7 hrs of continuous sleep per day CONCLUSION CONCLUSION: 62
  • 63. The present study was conducted at NTPC in Ramagundam.The aim was to find the stress levels, personality type of theemployees. This was done using a detailed questionnaire. The studyreveled that fall under low stress category only a small percentage ishighly stressed & needed prevailing in the organization to someextent. At the end of the study, we can conclude that through there aresigns of stress among the employees & such stress is affecting theirbehaviors, it can be controlled & reduced effectively. This can be done by giving counseling & incorporating thesuggestions given here in at individual & organization level. 63
  • 64. 1. How often do you say the word “I am busy or I am having hard time” At the work place? Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( ) Very rarely ( ) Never ( )2. You think physical environment problem in the work place cause Stress? (Temperature, lighting, gases, dust) Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) 64
  • 65. Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )3. You feel time pressure to complete work? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )4. Do you feel lack of co-operation in office? Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( ) Very rarely ( ) Never ( )5. Family problems cause stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )6. Do you have problem of BP / sugar / any other health problems? Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( ) Very rarely ( ) Never ( )7. Physical exercise & yoga reduce the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )8. Meditation & prayer to reduce the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )9. Lack of communication causes stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )10.Spending time with your family reduces stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )11.Improving working conditions, reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) 65
  • 66. 12.Rational allocation of work reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )13.Financial motivations reduce the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )14.Training & Development programs help to cope-up with new technology reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )15.Need for family counseling is required? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )16.Relaxation reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )17.Following safety precautions reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )18.Please offer suggestions if any for better management of work stress in NTPC. 66
  • 67. BIBLIORAPHYBooks for reference:Fred Luthans : “Organization Behavior” Mc Graw Hill International Edition. 67
  • 68. Stephen P. Robin : “Organization Behavior – concept Controversies & Applications”V. Ashwatha Ramaiah : “A celebration called Life” Unique consultants (P) Ltd.V. K. Jain : “The management journal of power professionals” NTPC Articles. 68
  • 69. Stephen P. Robin : “Organization Behavior – concept Controversies & Applications”V. Ashwatha Ramaiah : “A celebration called Life” Unique consultants (P) Ltd.V. K. Jain : “The management journal of power professionals” NTPC Articles. 68
  • 70. Stephen P. Robin : “Organization Behavior – concept Controversies & Applications”V. Ashwatha Ramaiah : “A celebration called Life” Unique consultants (P) Ltd.V. K. Jain : “The management journal of power professionals” NTPC Articles. 68