Chapter 3: Who Are Today's Students in a Diverse Society?


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(c) Cengage Learning
Chapter 3
Those Who Can, Teach! 12th ed
Ryan & Cooper

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Chapter 3: Who Are Today's Students in a Diverse Society?

  1. 1. Who are Today’s Students in a Diverse Society? Chapter Three
  2. 2. Sources of Student Diversity <ul><li>Racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Language (other than English) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic abilities, achievements, and learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse needs (develop at different rates) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic backgrounds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Race and Ethnicity <ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Racial similarity or difference </li></ul><ul><li>Common culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Common ancestry & physical characteristics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Projections of the U.S. Population
  5. 5. Assimilation v. Cultural Pluralism <ul><li>Cultural Pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Each subculture maintains its own individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks healthy interaction among diverse groups </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Members of subcultures expected to give up their own customs and learn American ways </li></ul>
  6. 6. Approaches to Multicultural Education <ul><li>Teaching the exceptional and culturally different </li></ul><ul><li>Human relations </li></ul><ul><li>Single-group studies </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural social justice </li></ul>
  7. 7. Culturally Responsive Teaching <ul><li>Takes a social justice perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to conflicts of communication styles, expectations between students and teacher or school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity pedagogy </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. VIDEO CASE: Culturally Responsive Teaching
  9. 9. ELL Student Language Backgrounds <ul><li>Spanish - 77% </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese - 2.4 % </li></ul><ul><li>Hmong - 1.8 % </li></ul><ul><li>Korean - 1.2 % </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic - 1.2 % </li></ul><ul><li>French (Haitian) Creole - 1.1 % </li></ul><ul><li>Cantonese - 1.0 % </li></ul><ul><li>All others together - less than 1% </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bilingual Education Models Immersion Teaching is in English English as a Second Language (ESL) Program Short-term or pull-out English lessons; may be used with immersion Transitional Intensive English instruction combined with some subject instruction in native language Maintenance or Developmental Preserve and build on native language skills while adding English as a second language
  11. 11. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Verbal/Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative identification of a ninth intelligence (existential) that Gardener is currently trying to validate </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematical </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily-kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist </li></ul>Eight distinct intellectual capacities:
  12. 12. Four Basic Learning Styles <ul><li>Visual - seeing </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory - hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic - moving </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile - touching </li></ul>
  13. 13. Specific Disabilities Among Children Age 6-21
  14. 14. Six Principles of Special Education <ul><li>Six principles provide the framework of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ), around which education services are designed and provided to students with disabilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Free appropriate public education </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized Education Program (IEP) </li></ul><ul><li>Least restrictive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Parent and student participation in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural safeguards </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mainstreaming and Inclusion <ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Students in regular school and classroom as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Brings services to the child in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Students with disabilities in general education classrooms for at least part of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional classes, services as needed </li></ul>
  16. 16. VIDEO CASE: Inclusion: Classroom Implications for the General and Special Educator
  17. 17. Guidelines for Teaching Students With Disabilities <ul><li>Be open to including students with disabilities in your classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Learn each child’s limitations and potential </li></ul><ul><li>Learn instructional methods & technology that can help each child </li></ul><ul><li>Insist that needed services be provided </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of teaching strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Co-teach with a special education teacher </li></ul>
  18. 18. Acceleration and Enrichment for Gifted and Talented Students <ul><li>Enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Go beyond regular curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Greater depth and breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Individual or collaborative inquiry activities </li></ul><ul><li>Develop problem-solving abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration </li></ul><ul><li>Learn regular curriculum at a pace commensurate with abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Progress to advanced materials faster than age norms or grade levels </li></ul>
  19. 19. Guidelines for Teaching Gifted and Talented Students <ul><li>Provide teaching that allows use of the regular class as a forum for research, inquiry, and projects </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage curiosity and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Allow exploration beyond standard curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Help students develop the skills required for self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Group students of varying ability levels by interest for cooperative projects </li></ul><ul><li>Teach complex thinking processes </li></ul><ul><li>Look for alternative curriculum materials </li></ul><ul><li>Implement curriculum compacting </li></ul><ul><li>Match students with mentors </li></ul>
  20. 20. Glasser’s Choice Theory <ul><li>Students make choices to satisfy basic needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love and Belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class works better if teachers plan learning activities that help satisfy, instead of frustrating, needs </li></ul>
  21. 21. VIDEO CASE: Motivating Adolescent Learners: Curriculum Based on Real Life
  22. 22. Promoting Gender Equity <ul><li>Have high expectations for all students, boys and girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize classroom, technology schedules so students don’t segregate or monopolize by sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid biased instructional materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine and address, if needed, the frequency with which students are called on and the kind of responses teachers provide. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate sex-stereotyped assignments & tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure learning to give girls equal opportunity to participate. </li></ul><ul><li>Model sex-equitable behavior. </li></ul>
  23. 23. VIDEO CASE: Gender Equity in the Classroom: Girls and Science
  24. 24. Making School Safer for Students of All Orientations <ul><li>Establish classroom guidelines against name-calling. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect different points of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Make no assumptions about students’ families or their sexual orientations. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a role model; treat all students with respect and dignity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Teaching Your Diverse Students <ul><li>Seek out experiences to broaden your cultural and societal understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Spend time with people who differ from your ethnicity, culture, or language. </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer in schools that differ from those you attended. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about and appreciate the values and backgrounds of your students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach to your students’ strengths. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a variety of educational experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve students’ families. Respect values of both school and families. </li></ul>