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  • 1. How Are Schools Governed, Influenced, and Financed? Chapter Eleven
  • 2. Organizational Structure of a Typical State School System
  • 3. Profile of School Board Members
  • 4. Profile of School Administrators
  • 5. Influences on Public Education
    • Professional Education Organizations
      • NEA, AFT
    • Parents - PTA and PTOs
    • Business
      • Reform, sponsorships, privatization
      • Purchasing pressures
    • Federal government
      • Courts
      • Department of Education
  • 6. Percentage of Revenues From Federal, State & Local Sources
  • 7. Expenditures Per Pupil
  • 8. Comparison of U.S. Educational Spending
    • The United States spends 3.7 percent of its GDP (gross domestic product) on public elementary and secondary education.
    • Countries that spend more than the United States:
      • Sweden (4.5 percent of GDP)
      • New Zealand (4.4)
      • Norway (4.2)
      • Denmark (4.2)
      • Belgium (4.0)
      • France (3.9)
    • Countries that spend less than the United States:
      • Greece (2.1)
      • Japan (2.7)
      • Germany (2.9)
      • Ireland (3.3)
      • the Netherlands (3.3).
  • 9. School Finance Reform & the Courts
    • Serrano v. Priest – 1971
    • Rodriguez case – 1973
    • As a result of court challenges, more than twenty states have reformed their school finance laws since 1973.
  • 10. Categorical v. Block Grants
    • Categorical
    • Money that must be spent for designated purposes (or categories) stated generally in the legislation and more precisely by the federal agency administering the funds
    • Block
    • Sums of money that come with only minimal federal restrictions and are transferred from the federal government to the state governments as a block of money rather than by categories
  • 11. Compensatory Education
    • For children in high-poverty areas, at risk of educational failure
    • Funded through Title 1 of ESEA (now NCLB)
    • Preventive programs
      • Preschool, Head Start
    • Intervention
      • Basic skills (Success for All),remediation, tutoring, dropout prevention, job training, adult literacy
    • Evaluations mixed
      • Early intervention seems most successful