Chapter 11: How Are Schools Governed, Influenced and Financed?

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(c) Cengage Learning
Chapter 11
Those Who Can, Teach! 12th ed
Ryan & Cooper

Published in: Education, Economy & Finance
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Chapter 11: How Are Schools Governed, Influenced and Financed?

  1. 1. How Are Schools Governed, Influenced, and Financed? Chapter Eleven
  2. 2. Organizational Structure of a Typical State School System
  3. 3. Profile of School Board Members
  4. 4. Profile of School Administrators
  5. 5. Influences on Public Education <ul><li>Professional Education Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEA, AFT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parents - PTA and PTOs </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform, sponsorships, privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Education </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Percentage of Revenues From Federal, State & Local Sources
  7. 7. Expenditures Per Pupil
  8. 8. Comparison of U.S. Educational Spending <ul><li>The United States spends 3.7 percent of its GDP (gross domestic product) on public elementary and secondary education. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries that spend more than the United States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden (4.5 percent of GDP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand (4.4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norway (4.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark (4.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium (4.0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France (3.9) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Countries that spend less than the United States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greece (2.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan (2.7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany (2.9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland (3.3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Netherlands (3.3). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. School Finance Reform & the Courts <ul><li>Serrano v. Priest – 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Rodriguez case – 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of court challenges, more than twenty states have reformed their school finance laws since 1973. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Categorical v. Block Grants <ul><li>Categorical </li></ul><ul><li>Money that must be spent for designated purposes (or categories) stated generally in the legislation and more precisely by the federal agency administering the funds </li></ul><ul><li>Block </li></ul><ul><li>Sums of money that come with only minimal federal restrictions and are transferred from the federal government to the state governments as a block of money rather than by categories </li></ul>
  11. 11. Compensatory Education <ul><li>For children in high-poverty areas, at risk of educational failure </li></ul><ul><li>Funded through Title 1 of ESEA (now NCLB) </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preschool, Head Start </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic skills (Success for All),remediation, tutoring, dropout prevention, job training, adult literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluations mixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early intervention seems most successful </li></ul></ul>

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