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Chapter 10: History of American Education
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Chapter 10: History of American Education


(c) Cengage Learning …

(c) Cengage Learning
Chapter 10
Those Who Can, Teach! 12th ed
Ryan & Cooper

Published in Education
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  • 1. What Is the History of American Education and the Struggle for Educational Opportunities? Chapter Ten
  • 2. Themes in American Public Education
    • Local control
    • Universal education
    • Public education
    • Comprehensive education
    • Secular education
    • Changing ideas of the basics
    • Expanding definitions of educational access and equality
  • 3. Colonial Education New England
    • Dame schools
    • Town and district schools
      • First forms of public schools
    Middle Colonies
    • Diverse population
    • Private venture schools
      • Earliest vocational education
    • Lack of formal education for many
      • Dispersed population
      • Social-class, racial distinctions
    • Private tutoring for wealthy
  • 4. Arguments For and Against Common Schools
    • For
    • Democracy depends upon an educated populace
    • Common schools would promote a common American culture
    • Enhanced opportunities and general prosperity
    • Against
    • Some citizens pay for schooling of others’ children
    • Weakened cultural identities of diverse groups
    • Concerns over religious teachings in schools
  • 5. Development of American Elementary Education
    • European influences – Froebel; Pestalozzi; Herbart; Montessori
    • Curriculum changes
    • Consolidation
  • 6. Progressive Education Principles
    • The child should have freedom to develop naturally
    • Natural interest is the best motive for work
    • The teacher is a guide, not a taskmaster
    • Measure student development scientifically, not just by grades
    • Attention to health and physical development
    • The school and the home must work together
    • Progressive schools as leaders in trying new educational ideas
  • 7. Development of American Secondary Schools
    • Latin Grammar Schools
    • English Grammar Schools
    • Academies
    • Public High Schools
    • Comprehensive High Schools
  • 8. Enrollment in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools
  • 9. Junior High and Middle Schools
    • Junior High - Grades 7, 8, 9
      • First ones in 1909-10
    • Middle School - Grades 6, 7, 8
      • Growing popularity since 1960s
    • Criticisms
      • Too much developmental focus, weak academics
      • Socially unhelpful
      • Calls to return to K-8 and high school pattern
  • 10. Private Education
    • Provide alternative to public schools for:
      • Religious
      • Wealthy
      • Others who are unsatisfied
    • 28,000+ schools enroll 5.1 million
      • 10% of U.S. students
      • Catholic schools predominate - 2.3 million
  • 11. Education of Minorities: African Americans
    • Before the Civil War – religious motivation
    • Late 19th century
      • African American enrollment in the schools, which had been only 2 percent of the school-age children in 1850, reached 35 percent by 1890,
      • Booker T. Washington; Morrill Act; 1890 institutions
    • 20th century – focused on offering a broader variety of curriculum options, and then on removing legal obstacles to equality of education
  • 12. History of School Desegregation Efforts 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling 1960s - 1980s Controversy over busing, “white flight” in big cities made desegregation difficult 1971 Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg ruling backed busing to hasten desegregation 1990s - present
    • Reversal or end of many desegregation programs
    • Resegregation in many areas, especially large cities
  • 13. Education of Minorities: American Indians
    • On reservations, received schooling from missionaries
    • From1890s to 1970s, missionary schools gradually replaced by government boarding schools (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
    • By 1965, American Indians began to demand control of their schools.
    • Between 1972 and 1975, Congress enacted three bills that encouraged the establishment of community-run schools, offered grants to develop culturally relevant and bilingual curriculum materials, and established an advisory council of American Indians
    • Today the education of the American Indian population, about 530,000 students, is plagued by problems such as poverty, parental alcoholism, underachievement, absenteeism, overage students, and a high dropout rate.
  • 14. Education of Minorities: Hispanics
    • Hispanic children first attended religious mission schools.
    • The common school of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries often sealed off opportunities for Hispanics.
    • Today, 25 percent of Hispanic students speak mostly Spanish at home, and 49 percent of those have parents with a high school education or higher.
    • The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided new support to the education of Hispanics.
    • Another response has been the establishment of bilingual education programs to provide students with instruction in their native tongue at the same time they learn English.
    • Hispanic youth represent the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population
  • 15. VIDEO CASE: Bilingual Education: An Elementary Two-Way Immersion Program
  • 16. Education of Minorities: Asian Americans
    • Diversity: the three largest groups of Asian Americans are individuals of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese heritage.
    • School segregation of Chinese American children in California lasted until at least 1946. Japanese American children in California were forced to attend segregated schools up until World War II.
    • With the end of World War II, discrimination against Asian Americans began to subside.
    • This group has often been touted as a “model minority” - this stereotype is misleading and has sometimes contributed to misconceptions and complacency in meeting the educational needs and concerns of Asian American students.
    • Parental and community involvement of Asian Americans in the education process also needs to be fostered.
  • 17. VIDEO CASE: Diversity: Teaching in a Multiethnic Classroom