African American enrollment in the schools, which had been only 2 percent of the school-age children in 1850, reached 35 percent by 1890,
Booker T. Washington; Morrill Act; 1890 institutions
20th century – focused on offering a broader variety of curriculum options, and then on removing legal obstacles to equality of education
History of School Desegregation Efforts 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling 1960s - 1980s Controversy over busing, “white flight” in big cities made desegregation difficult 1971 Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg ruling backed busing to hasten desegregation 1990s - present
Reversal or end of many desegregation programs
Resegregation in many areas, especially large cities
On reservations, received schooling from missionaries
From1890s to 1970s, missionary schools gradually replaced by government boarding schools (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
By 1965, American Indians began to demand control of their schools.
Between 1972 and 1975, Congress enacted three bills that encouraged the establishment of community-run schools, offered grants to develop culturally relevant and bilingual curriculum materials, and established an advisory council of American Indians
Today the education of the American Indian population, about 530,000 students, is plagued by problems such as poverty, parental alcoholism, underachievement, absenteeism, overage students, and a high dropout rate.
Diversity: the three largest groups of Asian Americans are individuals of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese heritage.
School segregation of Chinese American children in California lasted until at least 1946. Japanese American children in California were forced to attend segregated schools up until World War II.
With the end of World War II, discrimination against Asian Americans began to subside.
This group has often been touted as a “model minority” - this stereotype is misleading and has sometimes contributed to misconceptions and complacency in meeting the educational needs and concerns of Asian American students.
Parental and community involvement of Asian Americans in the education process also needs to be fostered.
VIDEO CASE: Diversity: Teaching in a Multiethnic Classroom