What Is the History of American Education and the Struggle for Educational Opportunities? Chapter Ten
Themes in American  Public Education <ul><li>Local control </li></ul><ul><li>Universal education </li></ul><ul><li>Public ...
Colonial Education New England <ul><li>Dame schools </li></ul><ul><li>Town and district schools  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fir...
Arguments For and Against Common Schools <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy depends upon an educated populace </li></...
Development of American Elementary Education <ul><li>European   influences  – Froebel; Pestalozzi; Herbart; Montessori </l...
Progressive Education  Principles <ul><li>The child should have freedom to develop naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Natural int...
Development of American Secondary Schools <ul><li>Latin Grammar Schools </li></ul><ul><li>English Grammar Schools </li></u...
Enrollment in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools
Junior High and  Middle Schools  <ul><li>Junior High - Grades 7, 8, 9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First ones in 1909-10 </li></u...
Private Education <ul><li>Provide alternative to public schools for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Education of Minorities: African Americans <ul><li>Before  the Civil War – religious motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Late 19t...
History of School Desegregation Efforts 1954 Brown v. Board of Education  ruling 1960s - 1980s Controversy over busing, “w...
Education of Minorities: American Indians <ul><li>On reservations, received schooling from missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>...
Education of Minorities: Hispanics <ul><li>Hispanic children first attended religious mission schools. </li></ul><ul><li>T...
VIDEO CASE:   Bilingual Education: An Elementary Two-Way Immersion Program
Education of Minorities: Asian Americans <ul><li>Diversity: the three largest groups of Asian Americans are individuals of...
VIDEO CASE:   Diversity: Teaching in a Multiethnic Classroom
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Chapter 10: History of American Education

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(c) Cengage Learning
Chapter 10
Those Who Can, Teach! 12th ed
Ryan & Cooper

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Chapter 10: History of American Education

  1. 1. What Is the History of American Education and the Struggle for Educational Opportunities? Chapter Ten
  2. 2. Themes in American Public Education <ul><li>Local control </li></ul><ul><li>Universal education </li></ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive education </li></ul><ul><li>Secular education </li></ul><ul><li>Changing ideas of the basics </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding definitions of educational access and equality </li></ul>
  3. 3. Colonial Education New England <ul><li>Dame schools </li></ul><ul><li>Town and district schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First forms of public schools </li></ul></ul>Middle Colonies <ul><li>Diverse population </li></ul><ul><li>Private venture schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest vocational education </li></ul></ul>South <ul><li>Lack of formal education for many </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersed population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-class, racial distinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private tutoring for wealthy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Arguments For and Against Common Schools <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy depends upon an educated populace </li></ul><ul><li>Common schools would promote a common American culture </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced opportunities and general prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Against </li></ul><ul><li>Some citizens pay for schooling of others’ children </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened cultural identities of diverse groups </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns over religious teachings in schools </li></ul>
  5. 5. Development of American Elementary Education <ul><li>European influences – Froebel; Pestalozzi; Herbart; Montessori </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum changes </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Progressive Education Principles <ul><li>The child should have freedom to develop naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Natural interest is the best motive for work </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is a guide, not a taskmaster </li></ul><ul><li>Measure student development scientifically, not just by grades </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to health and physical development </li></ul><ul><li>The school and the home must work together </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive schools as leaders in trying new educational ideas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Development of American Secondary Schools <ul><li>Latin Grammar Schools </li></ul><ul><li>English Grammar Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Academies </li></ul><ul><li>Public High Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive High Schools </li></ul>
  8. 8. Enrollment in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools
  9. 9. Junior High and Middle Schools <ul><li>Junior High - Grades 7, 8, 9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First ones in 1909-10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle School - Grades 6, 7, 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing popularity since 1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much developmental focus, weak academics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially unhelpful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls to return to K-8 and high school pattern </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Private Education <ul><li>Provide alternative to public schools for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others who are unsatisfied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>28,000+ schools enroll 5.1 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of U.S. students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic schools predominate - 2.3 million </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Education of Minorities: African Americans <ul><li>Before the Civil War – religious motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Late 19th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American enrollment in the schools, which had been only 2 percent of the school-age children in 1850, reached 35 percent by 1890, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booker T. Washington; Morrill Act; 1890 institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20th century – focused on offering a broader variety of curriculum options, and then on removing legal obstacles to equality of education </li></ul>
  12. 12. History of School Desegregation Efforts 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling 1960s - 1980s Controversy over busing, “white flight” in big cities made desegregation difficult 1971 Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg ruling backed busing to hasten desegregation 1990s - present <ul><li>Reversal or end of many desegregation programs </li></ul><ul><li>Resegregation in many areas, especially large cities </li></ul>
  13. 13. Education of Minorities: American Indians <ul><li>On reservations, received schooling from missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>From1890s to 1970s, missionary schools gradually replaced by government boarding schools (Bureau of Indian Affairs) </li></ul><ul><li>By 1965, American Indians began to demand control of their schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1972 and 1975, Congress enacted three bills that encouraged the establishment of community-run schools, offered grants to develop culturally relevant and bilingual curriculum materials, and established an advisory council of American Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Today the education of the American Indian population, about 530,000 students, is plagued by problems such as poverty, parental alcoholism, underachievement, absenteeism, overage students, and a high dropout rate. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Education of Minorities: Hispanics <ul><li>Hispanic children first attended religious mission schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The common school of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries often sealed off opportunities for Hispanics. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, 25 percent of Hispanic students speak mostly Spanish at home, and 49 percent of those have parents with a high school education or higher. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided new support to the education of Hispanics. </li></ul><ul><li>Another response has been the establishment of bilingual education programs to provide students with instruction in their native tongue at the same time they learn English. </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic youth represent the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population </li></ul>
  15. 15. VIDEO CASE: Bilingual Education: An Elementary Two-Way Immersion Program
  16. 16. Education of Minorities: Asian Americans <ul><li>Diversity: the three largest groups of Asian Americans are individuals of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>School segregation of Chinese American children in California lasted until at least 1946. Japanese American children in California were forced to attend segregated schools up until World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>With the end of World War II, discrimination against Asian Americans began to subside. </li></ul><ul><li>This group has often been touted as a “model minority” - this stereotype is misleading and has sometimes contributed to misconceptions and complacency in meeting the educational needs and concerns of Asian American students. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental and community involvement of Asian Americans in the education process also needs to be fostered. </li></ul>
  17. 17. VIDEO CASE: Diversity: Teaching in a Multiethnic Classroom

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