Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 13

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(c) McGraw-Hill 2012

(c) McGraw-Hill 2012

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  • 1. Chapter 13: The Social EnvironmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Identity Formation• One facet of identity is self-concept. Self-concept comes from: – Body image – Cultural and gender identification• Self-concept is affected by: – The social environment 13-2
  • 3. Identity Formation• Self-image is a part of self-concept.• Self-image is interrelated with body awareness.• Caregivers should pay attention to children’s body awareness, including children with physical disabilities. 13-3
  • 4. Identity Formation• Attachment – The basis for high self-esteem is attachment. – Don’t assume you will naturally attach to every child. – Learn ways to develop attachment with a child you don’t immediately “hit it off” with. 13-4
  • 5. Identity Formation and Cultural Identity• Cultural identity is also part of self-concept.• The goal of multicultural education is to help children appreciate many cultures, including their own. 13-5
  • 6. Identity Formation and Cultural Identity• What is a multicultural, multilingual infant-toddler curriculum? – It is not rotating ethnic foods, music from many cultures, celebrating holidays, or posting pictures on the walls. – It is discussing caregiving practices with parents, dialoguing about cultural differences, and working towards resolving conflicts. 13-6
  • 7. Identity Formation and Gender Identity• Another part of self-concept is gender identity. – Most children are aware of their gender identity. – Adults have a profound influence on children’s ideas of how their gender behaves. 13-7
  • 8. Identity Formation and Gender Identity• To provide a broad definition of gender roles: – Treat girls and boys equally. – Model expanded gender roles. – Avoid exposing children to messages that teach narrow gender roles. – Avoid linking occupations to gender. 13-8
  • 9. Identity Formation and Discipline• Self-concept and discipline – The way you guide and manage behavior can affect children’s feelings about themselves. – Be persistent when setting and enforcing limits for children. – When you enforce limits, avoid shaming, blaming, belittling, or criticizing children. 13-9
  • 10. Identity Formation and Discipline• Self-concept and discipline – Don’t punish or scold – Define unacceptable behavior – No single approach works for all children 13-10
  • 11. Identity Formation and Discipline• Self-concept and discipline – One effective way to guide behavior is by using redirection. How is redirection different from distraction? 13-11
  • 12. Identity Formation and Behavior• 6 ways to change behavior in toddlers – Teach socially acceptable behavior through modeling – Ignore the behavior you want to see change – Pay attention to behavior that is socially acceptable – Restructure the situation – Prevent harmful behavior from happening – Redirect the energy when appropriate 13-12
  • 13. Identity Formation and Time Out• What about time out? – Time out is controversial. – Some caregivers use time out because they have no other methods of guiding behavior. – Some toddlers may benefit from moving to a quieter place for a short time. 13-13
  • 14. Identity Formation and Time Out• Time out should not: – Be used to confine children for breaking a rule. – Be used without awareness of cultural notions of individuality. • Is time out an extreme form of punishment in the child’s culture? 13-14
  • 15. Identity Formation and CulturalAwareness• Cultural awareness: – Be aware of perspectives relating to notions of authority. – Understand how a culture views inner control vs. external control. 13-15
  • 16. Identity Formation and You• Model self-esteem by taking care of yourself. – Take care of your needs. – Learn to be assertive when appropriate. – Learn conflict management. – Find ways to be proud of the importance of your job. 13-16
  • 17. Identity Formation and You 13-17
  • 18. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 13 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 13-18