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Chapter 12:              The Physical EnvironmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin          © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All right...
A Safe Environment• The physical environment must be safe.  – Group size and adult-child ratio are important.  – Child-pro...
A Healthful Environment• The environment must be healthy.  – Wash your hands often.  – Make sure there is good light and v...
Nutrition• Food must be appropriate to:  – Children’s age  – Children’s physical condition  – Children’s cultural and/or r...
Nutrition• Feeding infants:  – Make sure the room is supportive of breast-feeding    mothers.  – Learn how to properly han...
Nutrition• Feeding infants:  – Avoid additives  – Avoid mixtures (casseroles, etc.)  – Use pure, unseasoned food  – Talk w...
Nutrition• Feeding toddlers:  – Offer a nutritious variety of foods  – Incorporate finger foods if culturally appropriate ...
The Learning Environment• The structure of a program depends on its  environment.  – Behavior is influenced by environment...
The Learning Environment• Layout  – The sleeping area should be away from the play area.  – The eating area should be away...
The Learning Environment• Eating area  – A sink, counter, refrigerator, and provision for warming    food should be either...
The Learning Environment• Toileting area  – Toddlers appreciate child-sized toilets.  – Children need access to a sink, so...
Developmental Appropriateness• The learning area must be developmentally  appropriate.• Flexibility is required when infan...
Developmental Appropriateness• An appropriate environment for infants:  – Allows infants to be on the floor, but protected...
Developmental Appropriateness• An appropriate environment for toddlers:  – Is an environment that encourages independence ...
Developmental Appropriateness• Family child care:  – May have a less “institutionalized” feel  – May be smaller in scale a...
What should be in the play environment• Newborns:  – Just a few things to look at. People are most    interesting.• Young ...
What should be in the play environment• Simple play materials, individualized attention,  and a safe environment that prom...
What should be in the play environmentWhat toys and materials are appropriate for inside                       play?   Wha...
Assessing the Quality of an Infant-ToddlerEnvironment• The five dimensions of a learning environment  include:  – Balancin...
Assessing the Quality of an Infant-ToddlerEnvironment• Simple toys and materials are best for infants.• Children under age...
Assessing the Quality of an Infant-ToddlerEnvironment• The following characteristics are also important:  – Aesthetics (th...
The Physical Environment• Remember, when planning a physical  environment, be sure to consider:  – Developmentally appropr...
Online Learning Center• See Chapter 12 of the text’s Online Learning  Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action  acti...
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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 12

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Transcript of "Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 12"

  1. 1. Chapter 12: The Physical EnvironmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. A Safe Environment• The physical environment must be safe. – Group size and adult-child ratio are important. – Child-proof the environment. – Know how to contact emergency personnel and put together an emergency plan. – Know first aid and CPR. – Always supervise children. 12-2
  3. 3. A Healthful Environment• The environment must be healthy. – Wash your hands often. – Make sure there is good light and ventilation. – Wash children’s hands regularly. – Use precautions when preparing food, changing diapers, etc. – Learn signs of common illness and follow polices about reporting illness. 12-3
  4. 4. Nutrition• Food must be appropriate to: – Children’s age – Children’s physical condition – Children’s cultural and/or religious traditions 12-4
  5. 5. Nutrition• Feeding infants: – Make sure the room is supportive of breast-feeding mothers. – Learn how to properly handle and store breast milk. – Provide for individualized infant nutrition. 12-5
  6. 6. Nutrition• Feeding infants: – Avoid additives – Avoid mixtures (casseroles, etc.) – Use pure, unseasoned food – Talk with parents about special dietary needs 12-6
  7. 7. Nutrition• Feeding toddlers: – Offer a nutritious variety of foods – Incorporate finger foods if culturally appropriate – Use small portions – Avoid foods which may choke toddlers 12-7
  8. 8. The Learning Environment• The structure of a program depends on its environment. – Behavior is influenced by environment. – All children should be accommodated in the environment. 12-8
  9. 9. The Learning Environment• Layout – The sleeping area should be away from the play area. – The eating area should be away from the diapering area. – If possible, keep the eating area away from the play area. 12-9
  10. 10. The Learning Environment• Eating area – A sink, counter, refrigerator, and provision for warming food should be either in the room or near the eating area. – Children need small, low tables to encourage independence. How do you feel about eating outdoors? 12-10
  11. 11. The Learning Environment• Toileting area – Toddlers appreciate child-sized toilets. – Children need access to a sink, soap, and towels. – The toileting area should be convenient to play space. 12-11
  12. 12. Developmental Appropriateness• The learning area must be developmentally appropriate.• Flexibility is required when infants and toddlers are in the same room. 12-12
  13. 13. Developmental Appropriateness• An appropriate environment for infants: – Allows infants to be on the floor, but protected from walking feet – Has supports for infants who are newly upright – Only uses cribs as sleeping environments 12-13
  14. 14. Developmental Appropriateness• An appropriate environment for toddlers: – Is an environment that encourages independence – Invites toddlers to explore using both gross and fine motor skills – Contains a variety of age-appropriate toys and equipment that develop active, creative, and manipulative skills 12-14
  15. 15. Developmental Appropriateness• Family child care: – May have a less “institutionalized” feel – May be smaller in scale and more homey – Is more likely to have mixed age groups, and must adapt the space to promote safe interactions and exploration for infants and toddlers 12-15
  16. 16. What should be in the play environment• Newborns: – Just a few things to look at. People are most interesting.• Young infants: – Should not be distracted from hand exploration. – Multi-sensory toys not necessary. – 14 x 14 cotton scarf multi-purpose infant toy.• Older infants: – Bowls, wooden spoons, stackable plastic cups. 12-16
  17. 17. What should be in the play environment• Simple play materials, individualized attention, and a safe environment that promotes interaction are essential components to infant and toddler play. – Such conditions help children develop long attention spans, concentration, and other manipulative and physical skills. 12-17
  18. 18. What should be in the play environmentWhat toys and materials are appropriate for inside play? What toys and materials are appropriate for outside play? 12-18
  19. 19. Assessing the Quality of an Infant-ToddlerEnvironment• The five dimensions of a learning environment include: – Balancing soft and hard – Providing for intrusion and seclusion – Encouraging mobility – The open-closed dimension – The simple-complex dimension 12-19
  20. 20. Assessing the Quality of an Infant-ToddlerEnvironment• Simple toys and materials are best for infants.• Children under age three may need more open- ended materials than closed ones. What types of toys are open-ended? 12-20
  21. 21. Assessing the Quality of an Infant-ToddlerEnvironment• The following characteristics are also important: – Aesthetics (the visual appeal of the room) – Acoustics (are children who need quiet protected?) – Order (room arrangement can make a big difference in the order of a room) 12-21
  22. 22. The Physical Environment• Remember, when planning a physical environment, be sure to consider: – Developmentally appropriate practice – Individually appropriate practice – Culturally appropriate practice 12-22
  23. 23. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 12 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 12-23

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