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Human Exceptionality Chapter 13
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Human Exceptionality Chapter 13

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by Michael Hardman …

by Michael Hardman
(c) Cengage Learning 2010

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  • 1. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.CHAPTER THIRTEENSENSORY IMPAIRMENTS:Hearing and Vision Loss
  • 2. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 1Describe how sound is transmitted through the human ear.Focus 2Distinguish between the terms deaf and hard-of-hearing.Focus 3What are the estimated prevalence and the causes of hearing loss?Focus 4Describe the basic intelligence, speech and language skills, educationalachievement, and social development associated with people who aredeaf or hard-of-hearing. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 5Identify four approaches to teaching communication skills topersons with a hearing loss.Focus 6Why is the early detection of hearing loss so important?Focus 7Distinguish between the terms blind and partially sighted.Focus 8What are the distinctive features of refractive eye problems,muscle disorders of the eye, and receptive eye problems? ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 9What are the estimated prevalence and the causes of vision loss?Focus 10Describe how a vision loss can affect intelligence, speech and languageskills, educational achievement, social development, physical orientationand mobility, and perceptual-motor development.Focus 11Describe two content areas that should be included in educationalprograms for students with vision loss.Focus 12Why is the availability of appropriate health care social servicesimportant for people with vision loss? ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION There are misconceptions regarding the quality of life of those with sensory impairments. Sensory loss does not automatically equate to a life of deprivation, loneliness and complete frustration. To others without sensory loss such a life would seem frightening Most lead active, productive lives ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. CASE STUDY: TAMIKA Born with severe hearing loss in both ears Hated being teased about hearing aids Learned to read lips; watches the speaker intently Is the all-star forward for the W.N.B.A.’s Indiana Fever; two time Olympic Gold Medalist A future goal is to open a full-service community center with basketball courts, fitness equipment, computer rooms and a reading corner. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. AUDITION The act or sense of hearing The ear is the mechanism through which sound is collected, processed, and transmitted to a specific area in the brain that decodes the sensations into meaningful language. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. DEFINITIONS/TYPESOF HEARING LOSS Deaf Hard-of-hearing Age of onset  Prelingual  Postlingual Anatomical site of loss  Conductive loss  Sensorineural loss  Mixed hearing loss ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. CLASSIFICATION Severity of condition Caution must be used Must consider  Intelligence  Emotional stability  Early education and training  Family environment  Occurrence of other disabilities ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. PREVALENCE Hearing loss gets worse over time Estimated 28 million people have hearing loss Approximately 11million have significant irreversible hearing loss 1 million are deaf Only 5% are under 17 years of age 43% are over 65 years of age ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. CAUSATION Congenital Factors  Heredity  Prenatal disease Acquired factors  Postnataldisease  Environmental factors ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. CHARACTERISTICS Intelligence Speech and English language skills Educational Achievement Social Development  Adjustingto the hearing world  The deaf culture ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. MULITDISCIPLINAREY SERVICESAND SUPPORTS Teaching communication skills  Auditory approach  Oral approach  Manual approach  Total communication ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. MULITDISCIPLINAREY SERVICESAND SUPPORTS Assistive technology  Closed captioning  Computers and the Internet  Telecommunication devices
  • 15. HEALTH CARE AND SOCIALSERVICES Health care specialists  Geneticist  Pediatricianand family practitioner  Neurosurgeon  Otologist  Audiologist ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. HEALTH CARE AND SOCIALSERVICES Social consequences  Highly correlated to severity of disability  Social inclusion may be difficult.  Social rights may be withheld or hard to obtain.
  • 17. CASE STUDY: JOHN Born premature Likes being blind; his perception is that it’s fun Loves technology; not fond of outdoor activities Uses Braille and a cane to maneuver through the world Is very positive about his abilities and goals in life ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. VISUAL PROCESS Very complex Helps us gain information beyond the other senses The way we perceive visual stimuli provides foundation for the development of more complex learning structures. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. DEFINITIONS Blindness Partial sight (low vision) ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. CLASSIFICATION Refractive eye problems Muscle disorders Receptive eye problems ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. PREVALENCE Difficult to determine 20% of Americans have some kind of vision loss; most can be corrected 1 in 3,000 children are legally blind 5% of children have serious eye disorder; this figure increases to 20% when looking at people over 65 50% of people over the age of 65 have vision loss when cataracts are included ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. CAUSATION Genetic disorders Acquired disorders ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. CHARACTERISTICS Intelligence Speech and language skills Academic achievement Social development Orientation and mobility Perceptual-motor development ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. EDUCATIONAL SUPPORTS ANDSERVICES Assessment Mobility training and daily living skills Instructional content Communication media ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. EDUCATION IN THE LEASTRESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT Open and closed residential facilities Based on principle of flexible placement Full continuum of services recommended ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. HEALTH CARE AND SOCIALSERVICES Health care specialists  Prevention  Treatment Social consequences  May have social adjustment difficulties  May lack self-esteem  Socialization services should begin early. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. LOOKING TO A BRIGHT FUTURE Advanced technology offers a wider variety of ways in which children with sensory impairments can communicate and interact with their peers and the world in which they live. Research on effective methods of education enables students who are sensory impaired to be included in their neighborhood schools and learn side-by-side with hearing peers. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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