Human Exceptionality Chapter 10


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by Michael Hardman
(c) Cengage Learning 2010

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Human Exceptionality Chapter 10

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION DISORDERS©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 1Identify four ways in which speech, language, &communication are interrelated.Focus 2Explain how language delay & language disorder differ.Focus 3Identify three factors thought to cause language disorders.Focus 4Describe how treatment approaches for language disordersgenerally differ for children & for adults. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 5Cite three factors that are thought to cause stuttering.Focus 6Identify two ways in which learning theory & homeenvironment are related to delayed speech.Focus 7Identify two reasons why some professionals are reluctant totreat functional articulation disorders in youngschoolchildren. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. CASE STUDY: MEGAN Megan is 12 years old & a 6th grader She has a strong circle of friends. Megan has cerebral palsy. She is apraxic, she has a hard time coming up with words. Megan works hard to get her messages out. She uses a Dynavox which is touch-activated & creates verbal speech. Megan is seen by her friends as a person first & having a disability second. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION Complicated & vital process Interchange of ideas, opinions, or facts between senders & receivers  Partners in the communication Speech & language  Speech: audible representation of language  Language: message that is contained in speech ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE Phonology: rules regarding how sounds can be used & combined Syntax: way sequences of words are combined into phrases & sentences Morphology: form & internal structure of words Semantics: understanding of language Pragmatics: rules that govern reasons for communication & choice of codes to be used when communicating ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Stages in developing language  Crying, cooing & babbling  Different tones & vocal intensity  Echoing or mimicking responses  Words associated with people or objects  Strings of two & three words  Basic syntactical structures by age 4  Six word sentences by age 5  Articulate nearly all speech sounds correctly by age 8 There are variations to age ranges for each stage ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. MULTIDISCIPLINARYCOLLABORATION Intervention must consider multiple elements  Nature of the problem  Manner individual is affected  What services are provided  Where services are delivered  When and how Referrals come from multiple sources  Parents  Teachers  Other educational personnel ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. LANGUAGE DELAYS ORLANGUAGE DISORDERS Serious disruption of the language process  Memory  Learning  Message reception and processing  Expressive skills Language delays or language disorders  Language delays: sequence of development is intact but the rate is interrupted  Language disorders: sequence of language acquisition is not systematic Cengage Learning. ©2011 or sequential All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION & CAUSATION Classification  Receptive language: difficulty in getting what is said  Expressive language: difficulty in formulating & using language  Aphasia: impairment of language comprehension, formulation, & use due to injury, disease, or abnormal development of the brain Causation  Defective or deficient sensory systems  Neurological damage occurring any time during life  Deficient or disrupted learning opportunities ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. INTERVENTION Individualized language plans  Long range annual goals  Short range specific behavioral objectives  A statement of resources to be used  A description of evaluation methods  Beginning and end dates  Evaluation of the generalization of skills Beginning language stimulation ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. INTERVENTION Interventions for aphasia typically involve the development of an individual’s profile  Relearning or reacquiring language function Strengths and limitations must both receive attention Augmentative communication  Communication boards, electronic appliances, manual communication ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. SPEECH DISORDERS Speech Disorders: Speech behavior sufficiently deviant from normal or accepted speaking patterns; attracts attention & adversely affects communication for the speaker &/or listener. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. SPEECH DISORDERS Fluency Disorders  Cluttering: speech that is overly rapid, disorganized, and occasionally filled with unnecessary words  Stuttering: flow of speech is abnormally interrupted by repetitions, blocking, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases  Delayed Speech: deficit in communication ability in which a person speaks like someone much younger ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. ARTICULATION DISORDERS Articulation Disorders: Sound production process resulting in inaccurate, inappropriate, or abnormal execution of the speaking act  Omissions  Substitutions  Additions  Distortions of certain sound Voice Disorders: Unusual or abnormal acoustical qualities in a person’s speech; Nasality, hoarseness, ©2011breathiness in quality or Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.