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Healthy Beginnings Healthy Beginnings Presentation Transcript

  • Welcome to the workshop
  • Comprehensive Health Education Foundation (C.H.E.F. ® ) Program Developers 1-800-323-2433, ext.185 (suea@chef.org)
  • Early Childhood Brain Development
  • Introducing . . . the Brain!
      • Source: Seymour Simon, The Brain: Our Nervous System , Scholastic Inc., 1997.
  • Brain Research
    • The brain is incredibly complex.
    • Much is still a mystery.
    • Scientists have learned more in the last five years than the previous 100 years.
    • They’ve learned much through new brain imaging technology.
      • Source: Rima Shore, Rethinking the Brain , Families and Work Institute, 1997.
    • The Adult Human Brain
    • Neurons = brain cells that regulate all our thinking
    • 100+ billion neurons (brain cells)
    • Neurons communicate electrochemically through connections called synapses
    • 500 trillion synapses
      • Source: Richard Restak, M.D., The Brain, Bantam Books, 1984.
  • Neuron Message Route
      • Source: Adapted from an illustration by Martha Weston, Brain Power, Secrets of a Winning Team , Pat Sharp, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books .
    • Brain Growth
    • Branching
    • Neurons tend to reconnect along the same pathway each time the brain responds to a similar stimulus.
    • Connections (synapses) grow in a brain when – experiences are repeated over and over, or – an experience triggers a strong emotional reaction.
    • A neuron grows when it is used.
    • Experience literally sculpts the brain!
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Early Learning
    • Most neural pathways are a result of stimuli coming from the environment that the child interacts with through his/her senses.
    • Pathways create connections that are the keys to learning and remembering.
    • Children need real-world, hands-on experiences to create a framework for understanding.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Use It or Lose It!
    • Pruning
    • Unused neurons (brain cells) and connections wither away.
    • Pruning is an important way the brain sculpts itself.
    • Pruning begins early, with an intensified period around age 10 that lasts for several years.
    • Pruning too many important neurons decreases the brain’s efficiency.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Making Connections
    • Babies are born learning.
    • New connections in an infant’s brain are forming at the rate of 3 billion a second.
    • Essential connections are growing between brain cells with astonishing speed in the first 3 years of life.
    • These pathways provide the foundation for a lifetime.
    • For the rest of the first decade, children’s brains have twice as many connections as adults’ brains:
    Birth – 50 trillion connections 3 Years – 1,000 trillion connections Adult – 500 trillion connections © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Nature/Nurture
    • Babies are born
    • learning!
    • Intelligence is not fixed— a child’s brain is a work in progress!
    • Genes (nature) are the blueprint and experiences (nurture) are the carpenters that create a unique human being.
    • A baby’s brain is a work in progress!
    • Intelligence is a dance between nature and nurture.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Environment
      • Illustration from The Learning Brain , by Eric Jensen, Turning Point for Teachers, 1994.
    Active involvement in a stimulating, challenging and loving environment causes the brain to grow and flourish. Passive involvement, isolation and an impoverished environment diminish the brain.
  • Windows of Opportunity
    • Children’s brains have optimal times for growth.
    • During these times, parts of the brain become much more active in response to what the senses absorb—growing and learning faster than any other time in life.
    • Most windows of opportunity occur in the first three years of life.
    • Children need the right experiences at the right time for their brains to fully develop.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Four Developmental Areas and Windows of Opportunity © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Remarkable Regeneration
    • Windows of opportunity never totally close.
    • For most functions, it is never too late to form new connections.
    • The human brain is remarkable in its ability to heal.
      • Remarkable Recovery: Half of a 4-year-old’s brain was surgically removed to relieve the symptoms of intractable epilepsy. Within two years, the other half compensated for this loss by gaining mass and function.
      • Before surgery:
      • 3 years, 11 months
      • Three months after surgery:
      • 4 years,
      • 3 months
      • Two years after surgery:
      • 6 years, 1 month
      • Source: Rima Shore, Rethinking the Brain , Families and Work Institute, 1997.
  • The Aging Brain
    • The brain is more “plastic” (easily changed) in the first three years of life. A young brain changes its architecture minute by minute, reshaping itself to cope with experiences.
    • The brain becomes less “plastic” with age; however, a healthy, stimulated brain continues to grow throughout life.
    • Use it or lose it!
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Overdoing It!
    • Trust in the innate wisdom of the child to choose the experience he needs.
    • Let the child lead—do not impose too much structure.
    • Be cautious about giving a child too much stimulation.
    • Over-stimulation causes the brain to shut down.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Myelination
    • Myelin is a thin, fatty coating that insulates brain cells.
    • When brain cells are insulated, they become more efficient.
    • Myelination develops over time.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Myelination Protective Factors
    • Never shake a baby.
    • Make sure children get the proper kind and amount of fats and oils.
    • Nurse if possible during the first year—breast milk contains a fat similar to the fat in myelin.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Myelination and Maturation Schedule
    • Early childhood: brain stem cerebellum sensory cortex
    • Puberty: limbic system
    • Late adolescence: prefrontal cortex
      • Source: Illustration by Victoria Tennant, Brain Child , V.T. Consulting, 2000
      • (used with permission from Victoria Tennant)
  • Readiness
    • Myelination establishes boundaries around how quickly the brain can develop.
    • Myelination cannot be rushed— every child has a unique timetable.
    • Pushing a child to do something before she is ready can result in learning problems.
    • Follow the child’s cues—her interest and frustration levels will tell you when her brain is ready or not ready to learn a new skill.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Overview of Four Developmental Areas (Prenatal to 5-year-olds)
  • The Brain and Four Developmental Areas © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
    • What to do
    • Prenatal beginnings:
    • please eat well—it’s important
    • Babies:
    • nurse me if you can—it gives me a head start
    • 1- to 5- year-olds:
    • give me meals rich in nutrients with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables
    • introduce me to a wide variety of tastes
    • make sure I get the right kind and amount of fat and protein
    • limit my sugar intake
    • make sure I drink water every day
    • set a good example for me
    Nutrition Important for Healthy Development © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Moving, Sensing and Exploring
    • Brain Functions
    • and Areas:
    • sensations and movement (sensory-motor cortex)
    • integration (corpus callosum)
    • coordination (cerebellum)
    • balance (vestibular system)
      • Source: Richard Restak, Receptors ,
      • Bantam Books, 1995.
    Vestibular System
    • What to do
    • Babies:
    • never shake me
    • put me on my back when I sleep
    • I need to spend some awake time on my tummy
    • Newborns to 5-year-olds:
    • touch me gently and lovingly
    • make my environment safe
    • give me supervised freedom to move and explore
    • encourage me to be physically active
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Moving, Sensing and Exploring Important for Growth
    • What to do
    • play is my important work—have fun with me!
    • provide me with hands-on experiences— I learn by doing
    • take me places so I can explore the world
    • give me lots of opportunities to play outside— supervise me and teach me to be safe
    • experience and appreciate the wonders of nature with me
    Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Moving, Sensing and Exploring Important for Learning
  • © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Moving, Sensing and Exploring Important for Learning
    • What to do
    • my brain and body work together— give me lots of opportunities to develop my coordination skills
    • don’t rush me into walking—crawling is an important way my brain makes connections for learning
    Newborns to 5-year-olds
  • Seeing, Remembering and Imagining
    • Brain Areas:
    • vision pathways
    • visual images (visual cortex)
    • imagination and visual memory (prefrontal cortex)
      • Source:
      • Richard Restak,
      • Receptors ,Bantam
      • Books, 1995.
    • What to do
    • make sure I have regular eye exams
    • have any cataracts removed as early as possible
    • put me in a room with good lighting—not too bright or too dim
    • surround me with interesting things to see
    • play games with me that help my eyes follow an object
    • look at picture books with me
    Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Sharp Vision
    • What to do
    • make sure I can move freely, yet safely
    • give me objects to manipulate that help my eyes and hands work together
    • let me experiment with a variety of art materials
    Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Eye-Hand Coordination
    • What to do
    • play hiding games with me—I love it
    • point to things in my world and describe them
    • give me objects to play with that help me remember where things go
    • read picture books with me and ask me to recall details
    • help me recognize and identify letters and numbers in a fun, non-pressured way
    Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Visual Memory
    • What to do
    • play pretend games with me
    • give me opportunities to draw, paint, and create in my own way
    • choose toys that encourage me to use my rich imagination
    • read or tell me some stories without pictures
    3- to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Creativity
    • What to do
    • limit and monitor my screen time (TV, videos and computer)
    • give me choices of activities that are active rather than passive
    Newborns to 5-year-olds Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Creativity © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • Listening, Talking and Understanding
    • Brain Areas:
    • hearing (auditory nerves)
    • hearing and speech (auditory cortex)
      • Source: Society for Neuro-
      • science, Brain Facts , 1993.
      • Source: Richard Restak,
      • Receptors ,Bantam Books, 1995.
    • What to do
    • make sure I have regular ear and hearing exams
    • recognize the symptoms of ear infections and treat promptly
    • keep me away from very loud noises
    Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Accurate Hearing
    • What to do
    • talk, talk, talk with me
    • encourage me to name, describe, compare, explain
    • listen closely and respond to what I have to say
    • Introduce a second language to me as soon as possible before I’m 10
    Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Communication and Thinking Skills
    • What to do
    • honor my unique style of learning and expressing
    • respect my culture’s ways of communicating
    • allow me to learn at my own pace
    Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Communication and Thinking Skills
    • What to do
    • read to me—I’m never too young for books
    • make books a part of my daily routine
    • read to me with expression and enthusiasm
    • tell me or sing me stories
    Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Reading and Writing Readiness
    • What to do
    • provide me with a variety of high-interest books
    • read, tell and sing rhymes with me
    • repeat my favorite stories and rhymes again and again
    • encourage me to point to pictures and talk about the book as you read to me
    • point out letters and words in labels, signs and books
    Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Reading and Writing Readiness
    • What to do
    • talk with me about my discoveries as I label, sort and compare things in my world
    • count with me
    • help me recognize and identify numbers
    3- to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Understand- ing Math and Science Concepts
    • What to do
    • play music that calms me and helps me learn
    • sing my favorite songs with me; let’s make up new ones
    • enjoy and make music with me
    • introduce me to playing an instrument as early as three years old
    Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Listening to and Performing Music—Important for Using the Whole Brain
  • Feeling and Relating
    • Brain Areas:
    • survival brain (brain stem)
    • feeling brain (limbic system)
    • chief executive officer (prefrontal cortex)
      • Illustration by Victoria Tennant, Brain Child , V.T. Consulting,
      • 2000 (used with permission from Victoria Tennant)
  • Survival Brain (brain stem)
    • subconscious mind
    • autonomic nervous system
    • freeze/flight/fight response
    • defensive behaviors
    • autopilot; rote behaviors
      • Source: Richard Restak, Receptors , Bantam Books, 1995.
    Feeling and Relating Basic Need: Safety
    • What to do
    • create a physically- and emotionally-safe environment
    • respond to my needs in a loving, consistent way
    • soothe me when I am upset
    • provide me with a structure I can depend on
    Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Survival Brain Basic Need: Safety—Important for Trust Feeling and Relating
  • Feeling and Relating Feeling Brain (limbic system) Basic Need: Love
    • subconscious mind
    • sends and receives emotional signals (to and from the body)
    • pleasure/pain response
    • long-term memory and learning
      • Source: Richard Restak, Receptors ,Bantam Books, 1995.
    Limbic System Structures (brain diagram)
    • What to do
    • shower me with unconditional love
    • hug, cuddle and touch me lovingly
    Prenatal to 5-year-olds Feeling Brain Basic Need: Love Important for Healthy Relationships © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Feeling and Relating
    • What to do
    • give me your undivided attention at times throughout the day
    • praise my accomplishments
    • encourage me when I’m frustrated
    • treat me with respect
    Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Feeling Brain Basic Need: Love Important for Self-Esteem Feeling and Relating
    • Survival and emotional needs must be met for the cortex (thinking brain) to develop and function properly.
    • The greater the struggle to meet these needs, the more the brain develops pathways dedicated to basic survival rather than learning.
    • When needs aren’t met, rebuild the foundation.
    • This process takes time, persistence and faith.
    © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Feeling and Relating Unmet Basic Needs
  • Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer (prefrontal cortex)
    • conscious mind
    • imagination
    • higher-level thinking
    • attention and concentration
    • short-term memory
    • emotional regulation
    • emotional intelligence skills
      • Source: Richard Restak, Receptors , Bantam Books, 1995.
    Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching (brain diagram)
    • What to do
    • pay attention to and validate all my feelings
    • help me identify, accept and express my feelings in safe and respectful ways
    • coach me in social skills
    • be a role model for me—I learn by watching you
    1- to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Self-Awareness, Empathy and Social Skills © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
    • What to do
    • set clear limits and be consistent with me
    • when I misbehave, give me fair consequences that I can learn from
    • don’t spank me—it only teaches me to be afraid and to hurt others
    • ignore some of the things I do or don’t do
    2- to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Self-Control
  • © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Healthy brain – 2:1 Neglected/abused brain – 1:1 Ratio dramatically reduced by stress and drugs Hypervigilant alarm system Exaggerated defense mechanism Violence as a problem-solving tool Presence of a positive, stable adult Guidance Ratio of Control of Thinking Brain Over Survival Brain Survival Brain Low Ratio of Control Can Result In: Influencing Factors for Thoughtful, Positive Behavior
    • What to do
    • help me recognize my own body signals of stress, e.g., tense muscles, fists, frowns, angry loud voice
    • listen to my fears; reassure me that I’m safe
    • help me separate real fears from imaginary ones
    • structure my environment to reduce frustration
    • give me safe ways to let off steam—running, jumping, taking a bath
    • teach me simple relaxation techniques
    Newborns to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Stress Management © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
    • What to do
    • give me choices
    • provide me with appropriate, meaningful learning experiences
    • follow my cues—my interests and frustrations show you what’s right for me
    2- to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Self-Motivation
  • Maximizing Washington’s Brain Power
    • Who to contact:
    • BrainNet TM of The Baby/Toddler Initiative Project: 360-902-0215 or www.brainnet.wa.gov
    • C.H.E.F ® : 1-800-323-2433 or www.chef.org
  • National Efforts
    • Maximizing Children’s Brain Power: The Florida Starting Points Initiative: A national effort of the Carnegie Corp. of New York www. carnegie .org/ startingpoints /
    • BrainWonders, Helping Babies and Toddlers Grow and Develop: Zero to Three www.zerotothree.org
    • Brain Facts : I Am Your Child http:// iamyourchild .org
    • Rethinking the Brain: Families and Work Institute www. familiesandworkinst .org
  • For more information, contact: Sue Anderson Comprehensive Health Education Foundation 1-800-323-2433, ext. 185 [email_address]