Hart13 ppt ch16

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(c) McGraw-Hill 2011

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  • Image source: Stockbyte/Getty Images (Image Ch16_01Sprinters) Image source: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer (Image Ch16_18FemaleBodybuilder)
  • Image sources: Anthony Saint James/Getty Images (Image Ch16_17FlexMuscle); Royalty-Free/Corbis (Image Ch16_02YoungSportFans)
  • Image source: Courtesy K. Price (Image Ch16_03DelphiStartBlock)
  • Image source: National Library of Medicine (Image Ch16_04Strychnine)
  • Image source: National Library of Medicine (see Chapter 6; Image Ch06_06CocaWine)
  • Image source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division (Image Ch16_05EarlyCyclists)
  • Image source: Getty (Image Ch16_22Weights)
  • Image source: Royalty-Free/Corbis (Image Ch16_20CompetitiveLifter)
  • Image source: PhotoLink/Getty Images (Image Ch16_06Football)
  • Image source: Digital Vision/Getty Images (Image Ch16_07Discus)
  • Image source: Spike Mafford/Getty Images (see Chapter 3; Image Ch03_16DrugTesting)
  • Image source: Royalty-Free/Corbis (Image Ch16_21PowerHandshake)
  • Image source: Getty Images (Image Ch16_08Baseball)
  • Image source: Photo Link/Getty Images (Image Ch16_09SportsInjury)
  • Image source: Drug Enforcement Administration (Image Ch16_10Testosterone)
  • Image source: Royalty-Free/Corbis (Image Ch16_11Bodybuilder1)
  • Image source: Suza Scalora/Getty Images (Image Ch16_12FistRage)
  • Image source: PhotoDisc/Getty Images (Image Ch16_13Inhaler)
  • Image source: Royalty-Free/Corbis (Image Ch16_14Wrestler)
  • Image source: Steve Cole/Getty Images (Image Ch16_223DumbbellWorkout) Image source: Royalty-Free/Corbis (Image Ch16_15Bodybuilders2)
  • Image source: Stockbyte/Getty Images (Image Ch16_01Sprinters) Image source: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer (Image Ch16_18FemaleBodybuilder)

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 16 Performance- Enhancing Drugs© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Concerns About Drug Use Among Athletes  Athletes are role models for young people  Drugs may provide an unfair advantage during competition, contrary to our tradition of fair play in sports  Athletes at all levels of ability may risk their health or lives by taking drugs© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 3. History: Ancient Times  Early concoctions  May not have provided any true physical performance enhancement  Could have placebo value that boosted a competitor’s self- confidence  Ancient Greek Olympians and Aztec athletes used plant-based stimulants  Athletic competitions probably developed in tribal societies as a Starting blocks at ancient stadium, Delphi, Greece means of training for war (5th century BC)© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 4. History: Early Use of Stimulants Strychnine  At low doses = a CNS stimulant  At higher doses = convulsions and death  Use reported in boxers, possibly to make them more aggressive and keep them from tiring quickly  1904 St. Louis Olympic marathon winner  Fueled by a mixture of brandy and strychnine  Collapsed and had to be revived after the race  Some use of strychnine in world competition may have continued into the 1960s© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 5. History: Early Use of Stimulants  Cocaine: Available beginning in the 1800s  Mariani’s coca wine was used by the French cycling team  Athletes later used pure cocaine  Caffeine: Many athletes used coffee and/or pure caffeine  “Doping” initially referred to a cheap brandy given to racing dogs and horses to slow them down  Term came to refer to the opposite—an effort to improve rather than impair performance© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 6. History: Amphetamines  More potent than caffeine, safer than strychnine  Probably in use by athletes soon after they were introduced in the 1930s  Many early reports of the use of “pep” pills by boxers, cyclists, and soccer players  1950s Olympics: Many reports of amphetamine use, a few deaths  1960 Rome Olympics: One cyclist died, several others hospitalized due to amphetamine use© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 7. History: International Drug Testing  Ergogenic = “energy producing,” a general term for performance enhancement  1960s: Some sports began testing athletes, but problems continued  1967: Tommy Simpson died during the televised Tour de France  Amphetamines found in his system© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 8. History: International Drug Testing  1968: International Olympic Committee established rules to disqualify any athlete who used banned drugs or refused to be tested  The scope of testing at the Olympics has continued to expand over time© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 9. History: American Football  1960s: Many football players used amphetamines during games  Attitudes toward amphetamines changed  National Football League (NFL) banned the distribution of amphetamines by team physicians and trainers in 1971  But initially no testing of players, who could still obtain the drug on their own  Current NFL policy restricts all use of amphetamines and many other drugs© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 10. History: Steroids  Established medical use for weight gain in malnourished people  Soviets began to use testosterone to build up athletes in the 1950s  Many U.S. athletes in certain sports used steroids in the 1960s  Weight lifters and bodybuilders  Track and field athletes  Testing began in the 1970s  Athletes began to be caught and banned from competition for steroid use  Some individual use among Western athletes  Widespread use by athletes from some Eastern European countries© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 11. History: The BALCO Scandal  Rumors of steroid use circulated around certain professional baseball players  June 2003: Evidence surfaced that athletes were using tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)  Previously unknown steroid that did not show up in tests developed by the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency  BALCO Laboratories founder Victor Conte was implicated, along with a number of professional athletes from several different sports  Fallout from the BALCO/THG scandal continues© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 12. History: The Battle Over Testing  1980s: Reports of drug use among athletes grew  Most amateur and professional sports organizations adopted more strict testing guidelines and longer lists of banned substances  Despite extensive and expensive tests, use of performance-enhancing substances continues  Ongoing development of new drugs and strategies to help athletes avoid detection© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Drugs Used for Performance Enhancement  Stimulants  Steroids  Human growth hormone  Beta-2 agonists  Creatine© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Stimulants as Performance Enhancers Effectiveness  Studies indicate that most athletes perform better on amphetamines, but the improvement is small  Small improvements can make a big difference at high levels of competition  Underlying mechanism of improvement is unclear  Increased physical ability (increased strength, masking of fatigue)  Effects on the brain (increased confidence, winning attitude)  At legal levels, caffeine may provide a slight improvement in endurance performance© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Stimulants as Performance Enhancers  Cocaine  No experiments have been carried out on its performance-enhancing abilities  In the 1980s, many athletes believed it did improve performance  Similar to amphetamine in its properties  Shorter duration of action, so it would likely have only brief effects© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Stimulants as Performance Enhancers  Ephedrine (available in pure form or in ephedra extract or ma huang)  On Olympic and NCAA lists of banned substances  Professional sports organizations were slower to ban it  NFL eventually banned it but Major League Baseball did not  Players continued to use it for its stimulant effects and for weight loss  Death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler in 2003 was attributed to heat stroke brought on by ephedrine  FDA was able to ban ephedra and ephedrine in dietary supplements in 2004© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Stimulants as Performance Enhancers  Current use  Some athletes continue to use stimulants during training and then discontinue use several days before competition to avoid testing positive  Risks of use  Unknown effects of use during training on competitive performance  Possible overexertion or injury due to fatigue-masking effect of stimulants  Dependence, paranoid patterns and withdrawal symptoms© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Steroids  Physical effects of natural testosterone  Androgenic effects (masculinizing)  Growth of the penis and other male sex glands  Deepening of the voice  Increased facial hair  Anabolic effects (tissue building)  Increased muscle mass  Control of the distribution of body fat  Increased protein synthesis  Increased calcium in the bones© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Steroids  Synthetic anabolic steroids  Drug companies synthesized types of steroids that have fewer of the androgenic effects and more of the anabolic effects of steroids  Not entirely free of androgenic effects© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Steroids: Effectiveness at Improving Athletic Performance  Mixed and controversial research findings  Testosterone builds muscle mass and strength during puberty  Animal studies: Synthetic anabolic steroids build muscle in castrated animals  Unclear if giving additional anabolic steroids to adolescent or adult males who already have normal circulating levels of testosterone will have a significant effect  Laboratory research on healthy men  Steroids can produce small increases in lean muscle mass and sometimes small increases in muscular strength  No evidence for an overall increase in aerobic capacity  Research findings may not match word-of-mouth© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Steroids: Issues in Research  Difficult to extrapolate laboratory findings to athletes  Athletes may use much higher doses  Athletes may use combinations of steroids (“stacking”)  Psychological effects of steroids may affect results  Users report that they feel stronger—that they can lift more or work harder  Possible active placebo effect—a belief in the power of steroids enhanced by the sensation that the drug is doing something because one can “feel” it© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Steroids: Psychological Effects  Steroids produce a stimulant-like high and increased aggressiveness  May allow more work done during training and increased intensity of effort during competition  Risks, especially at high doses  Psychological dependence, resulting in mood swings and depression when users don’t take the drugs  Interference with social relationships and other areas of life  “Roid rage”: Stories may be exaggerated, but the number of reports of violent feelings and actions among steroid users is a key area of concern© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Steroids: Adverse Effects  Peliosis hepatitis  Bloody liver cysts  Unhealthy changes in blood lipid levels  May contribute to atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and heart disease  Acne  Baldness© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Steroids: Adverse Effects  Special risk for young users  Premature closure of the growth plates of the long bones, thus limiting adult height  Special risks for men  Atrophy of the testes  Breast enlargement  Special risks for women, who normally have only trace amounts of testosterone  Decreased breast size  Enlargement of the clitoris  Increased facial hair  Deepening of the voice  Some effects may be irreversible© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Steroids: Regulation  Issues leading to regulation  Large black market for the drugs  Concerns about use among adolescent boys, even nonathletes  Anabolic steroids are listed on Schedule III  Limited prescription refills  More record-keeping© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 26. College Stimulant Use  Low doses of stimulant drugs can improve performance that has been disrupted by fatigue or sleep-deprivation  Recently there has been a renewed interest in using stimulants as nootropics and cognitive-enhancers  Some stories imply that the majority of college students take these drugs to enhance their performance.  The actual percentage is 4-7 %  Drugs maybe useful in increasing alertness and assisting one to study for a longer period of time, but they wont increase critical thinking or creativity© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 27. College Stimulant Use  Health risks associated with nootropics  All stimulants increase cardiovascular activity, which, at large doses, can increase the likelihood of heart attack or stroke  These drugs can also disrupt sleep and excessive loss of sleep can lead to the development of physical and mental health problems.  Fairness  Some students may not have access to a physician  Some students may not want stimulants due to health risks.© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Human Growth Hormone  A pituitary hormone that can potentially increase the height and weight of an individual to gigantic proportions  Rare instances of excessive body production of the hormone produces “giants” over 7 feet tall  Condition usually results in early death  Administration of doses of human growth hormone and related hormones may produce a more controlled increase in body size  Experiments have shown HGH may increase lean body mass but may not improve strength  It is illegal to distribute human growth hormone for nonmedical purposes© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 29. Beta-2 Agonists  Action and effects  Selective stimulation of the beta-2 subtype of adrenergic receptors  Sympathomimetic effects on the bronchi of the lungs  Used in treating asthma  Animal studies showed a possible effect on muscle mass  No evidence for improved athletic performance  Banned for use in competition  Example: Clenbuterol© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Creatine  A natural substance found in meat and fish, sold legally as a dietary supplement  Actions and effects  Helps regenerate ATP, which provides the energy for muscle contractions  Users tend to gain weight, some of which is water weight  Creatine may improve strength and short-term speed in sprinting  No evidence for improvement in longer-distance events  Performance may decrease due to weight gain© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Getting “Cut”  Weight challenges in sports  Wrestlers and jockeys need to build strength and train hard but also need to make a specific weight  Athletes in these sports may engage in extreme methods to achieve short-term weight loss  Purging  Diuretics  Sweating (exercising in heat or while wearing nonporous clothing)© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Getting “Cut”  Bodybuilding terms and strategies  “Cut” refers to a lean, strong body, a “sculpted” body  “Ripped” or “shredded” refers to a more extreme version of looking cut  Every muscle fiber and vein is visible  Body fat percentage may be as low as 6 to 9 percent  14-20% is ideal for a healthy male  Many bodybuilders take “fat burning” supplements of questionable safety and effectiveness© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Chapter 16 Performance- Enhancing Drugs© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.