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Human Exceptionality Chapter 12

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by Michael Hardman …

by Michael Hardman
(c) Cengage Learning 2010

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  • 1. Chapter Twelve SEVERE AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 1What are the three components of the TASH definition of severe disabilities?Focus 2Define the terms multiple disabilities and deaf-blindness as described in IDEA.Focus 3Identify the estimated prevalence and causes of severe and multiple disabilities.Focus 4What are the characteristics of persons with severe and multiple disabilities? ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 5Identify three types of educational assessments for students with severe andmultiple disabilities.Focus 6Identify the features of effective services and supports for children with severeand multiple disabilities during the early childhood years.Focus 7Identify the features of effective services and supports for children with severeand multiple disabilities during the elementary school years. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 8Describe four outcomes that are important in planning for the transitionfrom school to adult life for adolescents with severe and multiple disabilities.Focus 9Describe four features that characterize successful inclusive education forstudents with severe and multiple disabilities.Focus 10Describe four bioethical dilemmas that affect people with severe disabilitiesand their families. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. CASE STUDY:THE BEGINNING OF A NEW CIRCLE OF FRIENDS  Joanne and Jennifer  Inclusion in general education classroom  Peer support  Establishment and maintenance of friendships between students with disabilities and peers without disabilities  Impact on students with and without disabilities ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. DEFINITIONS Historical Descriptions of Severe Disabilities  Historically, terminology has communicated a sense of hopelessness and despair.  Today terminology is changing again to define severe disabilities based upon educational need with an emphasis on supporting the student in an inclusive setting.©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. DEFINITIONS The TASH definition focuses on three factors:  The relationship of the individual with the environment (adaptive fit), requiring the individual to cope with the demands of various environments as well as requiring these environments to accommodate the need of the individual.  The need to include people of all ages.  Extensive “ongoing support” in life activities.©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. DEFINITIONS The IDEA Definitions of Severe and Multiple Disabilities  IDEA does not include the term “severe disabilities” as one of the 13 categorical definitions.  Individuals with severe disabilities may be subsumed under any one of IDEA’s categories, including the categories of multiple disabilities and deaf- blindness. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. DEFINITIONS The IDEA Definitions of Severe and Multiple Disabilities (continued)  Multiple disabilities are defined in IDEA as concomitant impairments that may combine to cause such severe educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments.  Deaf-Blindness is a dual sensory impairment resulting from concomitant vision and hearing difficulties that cannot be accommodated in a program for children with blindness or children with deafness. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. PREVALENCE Prevalence estimates generally range from no more that 0.1 to 1% of the general population. The USDOE (2007) estimated that 131,682 students between the ages of 6 and 21 were served in public schools under the label multiple disabilities. This is 2% of the over 7 million students considered eligible for services under IDEA. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. PREVALENCE The USDOE also reported 1,600 students between the ages of 6 and 21 were labeled deaf-blind. Overall, about 14,000 individuals in the United States are identified as deaf-blind. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. CAUSATION Disabilities may be the result of genetic or metabolic problems (e.g. Rh incompatibility). Most identifiable causes are genetic in origin. Other causes involve prenatal conditions such as poor maternal health, drug abuse, infectious disease, advanced maternal age, radiation exposure, and venereal disease. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. CAUSATION Postnatal factors associated with poisoning, accidents, malnutrition, physical and emotional neglect, and infectious diseases are known contributors. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. CHARACTERISTICS Intelligence and Academic Achievement Adaptive Skills Speech and Language Skills Physical and Health Vision and Hearing ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. EDUCATIONAL SUPPORTS ANDSERVICES Assessment  Identifying the Disability  Assessing for Instruction  School Accountability©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. THE EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS Services and Supports for Infants and Toddlers  Effective programs are both child and family-centered.  Child-centered services begin with infant stimulation programs and continue as the child develops through health care, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech/language services.  Family-centered programs are holistic in their approach. Supports include parent training, counseling, and respite care. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. THE EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS Services and Supports for Preschool-Age Children  Goals for preschool programs serving children with severe disabilities should blend the principles and elements of DAP, multicultural education, and special education and should include:  Maximizing the child’s development in a variety of important developmental areas.  Developing the child’s social interaction and classroom participation skills.  Increasing community participation through support to family members and other care- givers.  Preparing the child for inclusive school placements and providing support for transition into elementary school. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS Self-determination Parental Involvement Teaching Functional Skills Assistive Technology and Augmentative Communication©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. THE ADOLESCENT YEARS Outcomes important in the transition planning process for students with severe disabilities include:  Establishing a network of friends and acquaintances.  Developing the ability to regularly use community resources.  Securing a paid job.  Establishing independence and autonomy in making lifestyle choices. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Effective educational programs for students with severe and multiple disabilities include continual opportunities for interaction with their nondisabled peers. This requires:  Placement of students in general education schools and classrooms.  Systematic organization of opportunities for interaction between students.  Specific instruction in valued post-school outcomes.©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. SEVERE DISABILITIES AND BIOMEDICAL DILEMMAS Medical technology advances have resulted in an increasing number of infants with severe and multiple disabilities surviving and living into their adult years. This has prompted ethical issues and an interest in bioethics.  Genetic Engineering  Genetic Screening and Counseling  Selective Abortion and Withholding Medical Treatment ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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