Human Exceptionality Chapter 11


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by Michael Hardman
(c) Cengage Learning 2010

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Human Exceptionality Chapter 11

  1. 1. Chapter Eleven AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 1Identify four areas of functional challenge often found in children withautism spectrum disorders.Focus 2What are the general prevalence estimates for autism and autism spectrumdisorders?Focus 3Identify six characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 4Identify the two broad theoretical views regarding the causes ofautism spectrum disorders.Focus 5Identify four major approaches to the treatment of autism spectrumdisorders. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. CASE STUDY: JAKE Elementary-age child with autism Service delivery in preschool ABA therapy Impact of diagnosis on the family Impact of the family on Jake©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. DEFINITION IDEA defined autism as a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, which adversely affects educational performance.©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. DEFINITION Characteristics of autism include  irregularities and impairments in communication.  engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements.  resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines.  unusual responses to sensory experiences. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. DEFINITION• A broad range of capacity in those with autism, from severe to mild impairments, has led to the concept of autistic spectrum disorders, which include a range of functioning in multiple areas of communication, intelligence, and social interaction.• Asperger syndrome is a condition that shares certain unusual social behaviors with autism but typically involves no language delay. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. PREVALENCE Commonly accepted prevalence figures for autism are about 5 cases per 10,000 births, though some researchers suggest prevalence rates as high as 116 per 10,000 for all autism spectrum disorders. Gender differences are evident in autism, with males outnumbering females from 4 to l to as high as 8 to 1.©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS Impaired or Delayed Language Stereotypic Behavior Resistance to Change in Routine Intelligence Learning Characteristics©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. CAUSATION• Historically, two broad theories about the cause of autism have existed: biological and psychodynamic. – From a psychodynamic perspective, family interactions have been implicated as causative in autism. This theory has largely fallen out of favor since the 1970s because of lack of research support. – Much of the current research on causation in autism explores biological factors, particularly genetics.©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. CAUSATION • Abnormal development, damage to, or impairment of, the central nervous system— along with other investigations of neurological conditions, such as brain cell differences and neurological chemical imbalance—has received attention recently as a cause of autism. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. MULTIDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION:DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION  Educational Interventions  Education for students with autism requires a full range of instructional options, ranging from specialized individual programs to inclusive placement with support services.  Psychological and Medical Interventions  Medical treatment often involves the use of medications, which shows promising but mixed results in reducing unusual speech patterns, social withdrawal, and self injurious behaviors. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. MULTIDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION:DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION  Behavioral Interventions  Interventions are carried out without concern for the underlying cause of the disability, but instead focus on enhancing appropriate behaviors and reducing inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. IMPACT ON THE FAMILY Living with an individual with autism has a significant impact on family members, especially parents and siblings, and presents a wide variety of challenges.©2011 Cengage Learning.All Rights Reserved.