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Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
Human Exceptionality Chapter 7
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Human Exceptionality Chapter 7

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by Michael Hardman …

by Michael Hardman
(c) Cengage Learning 2010

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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  • 1. LEARNING DISABILITIES AND ATTENTIONDEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Focus 1Cite four reasons why definitions of learning disabilitieshave varied.Focus 2Give two current estimated ranges for the prevalence oflearning disabilities.Focus 3Identify seven characteristics attributed to those withlearning disabilities, and explain why it is difficult tocharacterize this group.Focus 4List four causes thought to be involved in learningdisabilities. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Focus 5Identify three types of interventions or treatmentsused with people who have learning disabilities.Focus 6Identify three behavioral symptoms commonlyassociated with ADHD.Focus 7Identify two ways in which the behavior of childrenwith DHD detrimentally affects instructionalsettings. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Focus 8Identify the three major types of ADHD accordingto DSM-IV.Focus 9Identify two prevalence estimates for ADHD thatcharacterize the difference in occurrence bygender.Focus 10Identify three categories of characteristics thatpresent challenges for individuals with ADHD.Focus 11Identify three possible causes of ADHD. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5.  Undergraduate psychology student with learning disabilities Inability to memorize information and difficulty reading Math of special concern due to lack of basic fact rote memory ability and fear of performing poorly when called on by teacher ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6.  Testing in higher education uncovered information processing differences Processing speed Deficit in short-term memory Fluid reasoning issues Specific strategies could support compensation for neurological wiring pattern differences. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7.  As an infant was fussy and cried a lot Could get out of crib by 1st birthday Child safety latches and gates proved inadequate At 3 years old tried to flush cat down toilet at 4:30 a.m. Pediatrician felt she needed to mature and saw her simply as active and inquisitive. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8.  In kindergarten had short attention span and high levels of impulsivity Pushed down a level to pre-kindergarten due to poor performance Described as developmentally immature; performance did not improve Psychological and medical evaluation in 2nd grade confirmed attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9.  A relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined Learning disabilities can occur at all intelligence levels. Learning disabled = heterogeneous group of individuals with highly variable, complex characteristics, and needs ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10.  IDEA ’04 and Joint Committee Definitions ◦ IDEA - a disorder of one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. ◦ Includes perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11.  IDEA ’04 and Joint Committee Definitions ◦ Does not include learning problems which are primarily the results of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage ◦ The IDEA definition describes primarily what are not learning disabilities. ◦ The IDEA definition is also ambiguous in its description of how to measure the disability. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12.  Estimates vary from 2.7% to 30% A reasonable estimate of prevalence is 5% to 10% of the school age population. 2.6 million children served under IDEA (nearly 50%) Variations due to public and educational policy and assessment accuracy ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13.  Recent focus to identify subgroups, subtypes, or severity levels Subtype and comorbidity research are appearing in literature at increasing rates. Subtype research investigates the characteristics of youngsters to identify distinctive groups. Comorbidity research investigates the degree of multiple disabilities or conditions. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14.  Students with learning disabilities tend to be below their age mates in achievement, but they also perform below what would be expected based on their measured potential. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15.  Above average or near average intelligence Secondary behavioral or emotional concerns Variability between measured intelligence and performance Intraindividual differences between skill areas ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16.  The way a person acquires, retains, and manipulates information Some score lower than peers on memory tests Differing rather than uniformly deficient cognitive abilities Attention problems – Short attention spans – Selective attention ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17.  ADHD - a set of symptoms that can accompany other conditions ◦ became the focus of attention during 1990s Learning Disabilities comorbid with ADHD from 25% to 70% ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18.  People with ADHD may exhibit a variety of characteristics ◦ Impulse control ◦ Executive functioning Symptoms may interfere with life activities ADHD is a life long condition ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19.  DSM IV Definitions ◦ ADHD, combined type: Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are present for at least six months. ◦ ADHD, Predominately Inattentive Type: Inattention present for at least six months ◦ ADHD, Predominately Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: Hyperactivity and impulsivity are present for at least six months. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20.  3-7% school-aged children may have ADHD. Males outnumber females. Different symptoms and need different interventions Variation between subgroups by age, gender, and comorbidity Substantial growth in services under IDEA (OHI) ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21.  Self-Regulation, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity ◦ Self-regulation - the ability to think through one’s actions to see what the consequences will be. ◦ Hyperactivity must be present for at least six months and must be of such severity to cause maladaptive problems. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22.  Neurological brain injuries or chemical imbalances ◦ Abnormalities in frontal lobes, basal ganglia and the cerebellum ◦ Chemical functioning of the brain may be a causal agent. Environmental factors: ◦ Lead exposure ◦ Poor maternal or fetal health ◦ Poor prenatal care ◦ Fetal exposure to tobacco or alcohol Heredity and ADHD ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23.  Targeted behavior modification seems more successful than cognitive-behavioral interventions. Structuring pedagogy and the classroom setting can lead to academic improvement. Academic interventions must target the area where the child is experiencing difficulty. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24.  Strategies involving structure along with explicit instruction may be beneficial. A multimodal approach is more effective ◦ Both drug and behavior therapies ◦ Communication ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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