Human Exceptionality Chapter 5


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by Michael Hardman
(c) Cengage Learning 2010

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Human Exceptionality Chapter 5

  1. 1. CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Focus 1Cite ways the purposes and approaches to general education in theUnited States differ from the purposes and approaches to specialmulticultural education.Focus 2Describe population trends among culturally diverse groups in the UnitedStates. How do these changes affect the educational system?Focus 3Identify two ways in which assessment may contribute to theoverrepresentation of culturally diverse students in special educationprograms.Focus 4Identify three ways in which language diversity may contribute to theassessment difficulties with students who are from a variety of cultures. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Focus 5Cite three ways in which differencing sociocultural customs may affectthe manner in which parents become involved in the educationalprocess.Focus 6Indicate two areas that require particular attention in the development ofan individualized education plan (IEP) for a student from a culturallydiverse background.Focus 7Identify two considerations that represent particular challenges inserving children from culturally diverse backgrounds in the leastrestrictive environment. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Focus 8Identify two ways in which poverty may contribute to the academicdifficulties of children from culturally diverse backgrounds, oftenresulting in their referral to special education.Focus 9Identify two ways in which migrancy among culturally diversepopulations may contribute to academic difficulties.Focus 10Cite three conceptual factors that have contributed to heightenedattention and concern regarding the placement of children from ethnicand cultural groups in special education. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5.  Came to United States as a baby Spoke native language of family as her first language (Spanish) Mother nurtured her with Spanish language and she watched Spanish television. Little access to printed materials Unable to read in Spanish or English when entering school ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6.  Communicated in both Spanish and English Low academic scores resulted in placement in another class for English vocabulary development Ability in English improved and continued using both languages for communication with others ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7.  Among the first group of Black students ordered to attend an all White high school under desegregation court order Attended elementary and junior high in African American community Uncomfortable at school being the only African American in most of his classes Subjected to insults and racial slurs that occur constantly ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8.  Held back in second grade due to school officials feeling he has a lack of readiness skills Unable to sit still in class Physically small for age Lack of self control skills Below grade level in reading, writing and math skills ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9.  Multicultural education emanated from the belief that the educational needs of children from culturally diverse backgrounds were not being met. Purpose of education in the United States?  Basic purpose is to produce a literate citizenry  Implemented by grouping and teaching students according to chronological age and evaluating performance based on societal expectations  Aimed at the masses and performance is judged in terms of an average ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10.  Assumptions:  Cultural differences have strength and value.  Schools as models for the expression of human rights and respect for cultural differences  Social justice and equality for all people of paramount importance in the design and delivery of curricula ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11.  Assumptions:  Attitudes and values necessary for the continuation of a democratic society can be promoted in schools.  Schooling for knowledge, dispositions, and skills for the redistribution of power and income among cultural groups  Educators working with families and communities can create an environment that is supportive of multiculturalism. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12.  General education  serving the masses, attempts to bring all students to the same level and teaches similar topics to all groups  Evaluation is based on a norm or average level. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13.  Special education  providing an opportunity for each child with a disability to learn and develop to his or her individual potential  Evaluation is based on individual growth and not norm based averages.  Emphasizes individual and specific skill development ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14.  Multicultural education  at odds with general education goal of comparable levels of performance in similar areas of knowledge, focus on similarities  School as a powerful tool for appreciating and promoting diversity ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15.  African American children appear more frequently in serious emotional disturbances and mental retardation placements. Latinos represent a large and rapidly growing group in special education. Disproportionately few diverse students are found in gifted programs. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16.  African American youth drop out rate is 13%, Hispanic youth rate between 28.6% and 38.2%, and rate at 7% for white students Caucasian children from privileged neighborhoods have higher education and occupational expectations than their diverse peers. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17.  Nondiscriminatory assessment Language diversity support Professional preparation Support parents from different cultures  involvement in special education planning ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18.  Individualized Education  IEP must consider cultural factors including: ▪ language ▪ learning and behavior disabilities ▪ may provide for specialized instruction  IEP goals should not perpetuate cultural stereotypes.  Selection of culturally appropriate instructional materials ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19.  The Least Restrictive Environment  The least restrictive environment (LRE) mandate required that students with disabilities be taught with non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. ▪ Inclusive settings sensitive to family and cultural differences ▪ Bilingual education staff and/or language instruction incorporated into other teaching ▪ If disability is more severe or language difference is extreme, student placed in a separate setting for some instructional time ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20.  There is still considerable debate about how and where the bilingual exceptional learner should be served.
  21. 21.  Children Living in Poverty  Poverty may contribute to children from culturally different backgrounds experiencing academic difficulties and being referred to special education.  Birth complications occur more frequently among low socioeconomic and nonwhite populations.  Impoverished households may place children at greater educational risk.  Poverty among groups with multicultural educational needs is also associated with homelessness and academic risk. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22.  Children from Migrant Families  Interruptions in schooling may impact learning, teacher and peer relationships, and general academic progress.  Migration is associated with economic disadvantages, language differences, and social or physical isolation.  Children in migrant households may move and change educational placements several times a year, contributing to educational programming issues.  Using a consistent tracking system that could move with the child would be helpful to the receiving school or district. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.