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Chapter 3: Children Learning about the  World through Relationships
 

Chapter 3: Children Learning about the World through Relationships

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Early Childhood Education: Learning Together

Early Childhood Education: Learning Together
by Virginia Casper and Rachel Theilheimer
(c)2009 McGraw-Hill Publishing

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    Chapter 3: Children Learning about the  World through Relationships Chapter 3: Children Learning about the World through Relationships Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 3: Children Learning About the World through Relationships Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Brain Growth After Birth
      • Neural connections are created through experience
      • Repeated experiences strengthen neural pathways
      • Myelinated pathways allow for more rapid processing of information
      • Unused pathways are discarded or pruned
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Tenets of Attachment Theory
      • A secure attachment promotes independence and social-emotional competence
      • Sensitive and responsive care promotes a secure attachment
      • A securely attached child explores his or her surroundings with vigor
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Strange Situation
      • Allows researchers to examine the quality of the relationship between and infant and its caregiver
      • Allows researchers to classify these relationships into one of three attachment categories
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Attachment Categories: Secure Attachment
      • Secure Attachment (B)
        • Caregivers are trustworthy
        • I am worthwhile and loveable
        • My world is safe and offers pleasure
        • I deserve to have my needs met
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Attachment Categories: Ambivalent
      • Ambivalent Attachment (C)
        • Caregivers are unpredictable
        • I never know what to expect
        • If I wander off, I might miss a nurturing opportunity
        • I have to work to be nurtured
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Attachment Categories: Avoidant
      • Avoidant Attachment (A)
        • Caregivers are rejecting and punitive
        • I have to be vigilant and protect myself
        • I deny my own needs to protect myself from rejection
        • I obey to avoid punishment
        • If I do everything right, I will be loved
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Key Cognitive Functions
      • Focusing our attention
      • Creating meaning
      • Utilizing our memory
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Social Referencing
      • Looking to others, usually a caregiver, to judge the emotional meaning of a situation
      • When Marissa sees Mom frown at her older brother Juan, Marissa knows that Juan is in trouble
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Self-Regulation
      • Core ability to control our feelings and behaviors
        • Emerges in the womb
        • Increases with age
        • Involves self-restraint
        • Involves self-soothing
        • Is affected by temperament
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Theory of Mind
      • A person’s ability to think about his or her own and other people’s thinking.
        • Allows a person to make informal guesses about what others might be thinking
        • Allows a person to understand that some people think differently from him/her
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Bullying and Teasing
      • Describe how you would handle the following situation:
      • You observe Lilly, a three year old, walk up to Shotaga and take the crayon out of his hand and proceed to use it herself. This is the fourth such encounter Lilly has had today.
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Conflict Resolution
      • As an educator, how might you resolve the following conflict?
        • Jackie and Ming both want to paint with a big brush, but there is only one in the classroom. They are both holding onto it and screaming at each other.
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Communicating with Young Children
      • Get down to the child’s level
      • Use a culturally friendly approach
      • Use concrete language
      • Affirm understanding of the conversation, especially if consequences were discussed
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Structuring Group Time
      • Get to know your students
      • Reflect on the classroom rules
      • Think about the individual personalities that comprise the group
      • Consider how you will aid the children in creating a community
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Television
      • Not recommended for children under two
      • Can assist preschool age children in learning basic concepts
      • Can diminish spontaneous and creative play
      • Should be used sparingly
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Magical Thinking
      • Child’s often unrealistic perceptions of causality
        • Can make children feel responsible for negative outcomes
        • Can be difficult for teachers to overcome
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Helping Children Cope with Death
      • Be direct and honest
      • Give short answers to their questions
      • Let them know it is okay to be sad
      • Reassure the children that they are safe
      • Have a good-bye ceremony
      • Provide activities that will help them cope with the loss
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
    • Regression
      • Tendency for children to revert back to earlier ways of behaving to handle stress or fear
        • A four-year-old might start having “accidents” again upon learning of his parents’ plan to divorce
      Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York