Chapter 15: Policy Issues and Early Childhood Practice

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Early Childhood Education: Learning Together
by Virginia Casper and Rachel Theilheimer
(c)2009 McGraw-Hill Publishing

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Chapter 15: Policy Issues and Early Childhood Practice

  1. 1. Chapter 15: Policy Issues and Early Childhood Practice Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  2. 2. Policy <ul><li>A statement that guides both present and future actions </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  3. 3. Lobby <ul><li>To attempt to influence policymakers to make changes </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  4. 4. Policymaking <ul><li>Federal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative and Judicial task forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budgeting and certification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  5. 5. Primacy of Parents <ul><li>Whether parents should take primary responsibility for raising their children </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts with the idea of promoting working mothers </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  6. 6. Custodial Care <ul><li>Providing the minimum care for children outside of the home </li></ul><ul><li>Is not designed to promote growth and development and was not educational </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  7. 7. Deficit Model <ul><li>The premise that early childhood programs were needed to eliminate the disadvantages or deficits created by poverty </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  8. 8. Major Federal Initiatives or Programs <ul><li>Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)/Title I </li></ul><ul><li>Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>Even Start Family Literacy Program </li></ul><ul><li>Individual with Disabilities Act (IDEA) </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  9. 9. Major Federal Initiatives and Programs (Cont’d) <ul><li>Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Learning Opportunities Act (ELOA) </li></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Reading First </li></ul><ul><li>Good Start, Grow Smart </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  10. 10. Achievement Gap and Poverty <ul><li>Children who live in poverty face multiple academic challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade retention or repeating a grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referrals for behavior problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement in special education classes </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  11. 11. School Readiness <ul><li>The academic skills that are basic to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to do math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning other school subjects </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  12. 12. Four Pillars of NCLB <ul><li>Stronger accountability </li></ul><ul><li>More freedom for states and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Proven educational methods </li></ul><ul><li>More choices for parents </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  13. 13. Criticisms of NCLB <ul><li>Over-emphasis on standardized testing </li></ul><ul><li>Limited view of education </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of funding to carry out its stated goals </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  14. 14. Barriers to Policy Change <ul><li>Feelings of powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance of government regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of the political process </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of confidence in your own expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of time </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  15. 15. Quality Issues <ul><li>Process quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher education </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  16. 16. Building Rich Experiences <ul><li>Provide stable, positive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Provide well-equipped settings </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ongoing and responsive communication </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a diverse and integrated curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for strong family involvement </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  17. 17. Higher Education and Specialized Degrees <ul><li>Leads to children who are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Sociable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More sophisticated in language use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform better on cognitive tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires higher compensation which can strain early childhood budgets </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  18. 18. Quality Rating System (QRS) <ul><li>Standards that establish a range from licensing to accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring that the standards are being met </li></ul><ul><li>Training, mentoring, and assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives for reaching the standards </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing tool to promote quality </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  19. 19. Early Learning Systems <ul><li>Services that promote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s health and nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competent parenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance and instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe and supportive communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ready schools </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  20. 20. Indicators <ul><li>Measures of progress that could be used to track children’s school readiness over time </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  21. 21. Indicators of “Ready Children” <ul><li>Physical Well-Being and Motor Development </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Emotional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Language Development </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition and General Knowledge </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  22. 22. Being an Advocate <ul><li>Is an integral part of professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Can be supported by the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National organizations and coalitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundations and partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies that promote child welfare </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York

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