Chapter 11: Infants, Toddlers & Two-Year-Olds

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Early Childhood Education: Learning Together
by Virginia Casper and Rachel Theilheimer
(c)2009 McGraw-Hill Publishing

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Chapter 11: Infants, Toddlers & Two-Year-Olds

  1. 1. Part Four: Working with Children and Their Families: Applying What We Know Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  2. 2. Chapter 11: Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  3. 3. How Infants and Toddlers differ from Preschoolers <ul><li>Preschoolers’ language is more developed </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers have a sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers can exert some self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers can regulate their emotional reactions </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  4. 4. Functions of the Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory information </li></ul><ul><li>Motor development </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  5. 5. Adult Influences on Infant Brain Growth <ul><li>How adults provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loving care for their babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to their babies’ cries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expose their babies to positive experiences, people, and things </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  6. 6. Infant’s Uneven Development <ul><li>Infants and toddlers make gains at an uneven pace </li></ul><ul><li>This uneven pace makes identifying developmental abnormalities more difficult </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  7. 7. Developmental Shifts in the First Year <ul><li>1 month - developing systems coordinate with environment </li></ul><ul><li>2 month - brain growth and regulation </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 months - communication and veto power </li></ul><ul><li>5-6 months - seeking stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>7-9 months - increased intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>9-12 months - representational abilities and movement </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  8. 8. Resiliency <ul><li>A range of inner strengths that allow children to recover or overcome experiences that do not fit their basic preferences or inclinations </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  9. 9. Developmental Niche <ul><li>Inborn preferences for sensory and social experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loud or soft noises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of physical contact or minimal </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  10. 10. Model of Responsive Care <ul><li>A way of caregiving that listens to children and responds to them respectfully </li></ul><ul><li>How might a teacher demonstrate responsive care in the classroom? </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  11. 11. Feelings about Group Care Settings <ul><li>List some pros and cons you associate with group care for young children or young children being separated from their parents: </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  12. 12. Mixed-age/Family Style Care <ul><li>Continuity of Care - Stability across the care for the infant and the infant’s educational experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Important for promoting or maintaining attachment </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  13. 13. School Model <ul><li>Children are divided by age </li></ul><ul><li>May require movement to the next level before child or parents are ready </li></ul><ul><li>May create stress in both children and parents </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  14. 14. Easing Transitions from Home to School or Activity to Activity <ul><li>Be predictable </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Be nurturing </li></ul><ul><li>Be understanding </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  15. 15. Primary Caregiving System <ul><li>Assigning one primary caregiver to a very small group of children </li></ul><ul><li>Allows children to form an attachment to a caregiver </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  16. 16. Power of Peek-a-Boo <ul><li>Enables children to practice “going away and coming back” </li></ul><ul><li>Mimics the disappearance and reappearance of parents dropping off and picking up their children </li></ul><ul><li>Helps children cope with separation </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  17. 17. Object Permanence <ul><li>Understanding that people and objects still exist even when they are out-of-sight </li></ul><ul><li>Peek-a-boo promotes object permanence </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  18. 18. Environment and Attachment <ul><li>Create a supportive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Post photographs of family </li></ul><ul><li>Respect a child’s transitional object </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  19. 19. Elements of Play <ul><li>Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Make-believe </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  20. 20. Sensorimotor Capacities <ul><li>Seeing </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Touching </li></ul><ul><li>Smelling </li></ul><ul><li>Tasting </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  21. 21. Classroom Materials <ul><li>Non-structured materials have no right or wrong way to use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play dough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured materials have a specific purpose or way to use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorters </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  22. 22. Physical Benefits of Play <ul><li>Small muscle or fine-motor development </li></ul><ul><li>Large muscle or gross-motor development </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-eye coordination </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  23. 23. Psychological Benefits of Play <ul><li>Sense of accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Self-exploration and identification </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  24. 24. Representational Thinking <ul><li>The ability to use an object to stand for something else </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  25. 25. Social Skills <ul><li>How to get along with others </li></ul><ul><li>How to resolve conflict </li></ul><ul><li>How to take turns </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  26. 26. Biting <ul><li>Always happens for a reason </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects a lack of language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be addressed by policy </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  27. 27. Oppositional Behavior <ul><li>Two-year-olds’ attempts at independence </li></ul><ul><li>Often takes the form of resisting a request </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can re-direct the opposition by offering “forced-choices” </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  28. 28. Cooking in the Classroom <ul><li>Fosters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience with transformation </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  29. 29. Being an Advocate <ul><li>Is an integral part of professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Can be supported by the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National organizations and coalitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundations and partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies that promote child welfare </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York

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