Total number of species assessed : 63,837Total number of knownthreatened species: 19,817 31%
Are we Threatening other species…?
Are we in the midst of a sixth mass extinction ??
Species conservation and Habitat conservation • In-situ conservation • Ex-situ conservation
Bio diversity conservation In-situ Ex-situSacred Seedgroves/ Biosphere Botanical/ banks, reserves lakes zoological gene National gardens, banks, parks, Aquariums Cryoprese -rvation wildlife sanctuari es
Conservation breedingConservation breedingIs a tool that is used to improve theconservation status of a species.It’s ultimate intention is to make sureThe status of the species in the world isimproved by the programme.
International Conservation breeding institutes/organizations•CBSG of IUCN•ZSL Greater One Horned Rhino, Amur leopard, Grey SlenderLorise•WAZA Red Panda, Javan Gibbon, Sumatran Tiger•Cikananga Wildlife CenterBlack-winged Starling, Javan warty Pig, The Short-tailedGreen Magpie
1960 - The Arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) is found wild inOman in the Middle East. Decline due to hunting.Estimates put the wild population at between 100 and 200 .1962 - A British conservation team catches three wild oryx.These join others in the Phoenix Zoo, USA,to start a captive breeding programme.1972 - Arabian oryx are hunted to extinction in the wild.Meanwhile, the herd is breeding well in Phoenix, San DiegoLos Angeles zoos establish other new herds.
1978 - A small group of oryxis reintroduced into a reserve in Jordan.1980-82 - 18 oryx are released in Oman,initially into a small enclosure,then a larger one, and ultimately into a wildlife reserve.1984 - A second herd is released in Oman.1994 - Oryx herds are now establishedin the wild in Jordan, Oman,Israel and Saudi Arabia, and being managed and monitored.
Mauritius Kestrel1974 – Only four individuals were remained inthe wild,due to Dutchcolonization,hunting,habitatdistruction,predator introduction,DDT.1979- Conservation begins with one breedingfemale1994 – Free living population released to thewild.status was up to EN2000- Status was up to VU
Now- 800-1,000 individuals presentlyliving in the endemic forests ofMauritius. Mauritius Kestrel
Captive Breeding, Reintroduction,a study on AmphibiansA study by Griffiths RA, Pavaieau L,2008The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology Conservation breeding CB & Reintroduction Re introduction only Figure 1. Representation of amphibian species from different countries in captive-breeding and reintroduction programs (CB, captive breeding only; CB&R, captive breeding and reintroduction; R, reintroductions using wild–wild relocations).
Pinnawala elephant orphanage As a successful conservation-breeding organizationFounded - in 1975Total Kept- 143 present – 74Total births-65Total relocations-46Total deaths-23
Challenges of captive breeding …Genetic consequences of inbreeding.inbreeding depression,reduction of geneticvariability.Behavioural consequences of Captivity.removal of natural selection, andrapid adaptation to captivity.Population consequences of infectiousdiseases.
Limitations of captive breeding in species recovery1.establishment of self sufficent captivepopulations2.poor success in reintroduction3.high costs4.domestication-ex –silver fox,prophyilatic should be avoided5.preemption of other recovery techniques6.disease out breaks7.maintaining administrative contiunityand involvement of local stakeholders
Table 1-Examples of Endangered species breeding programs that have encountered significant problems Species Problems Whooping crane Low numbers, high mortality, (Grus americana) incompatibility ,infertility Kakapo(Strigops habroptilus) Low numbers, poor survival Puato ricon Parrot(Amazona vittata) Infertility, incompatibility Hawaiian Crow(Corvus Low numbers, high mortality, hawaiiensis) incompatibility ,low fertility Aye-Aye(Daubentonimadagascariensis) Low offspring survival Giant Panda(Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Low numbers,poor neonate survival Northen white (Ceratotherium Low numbers,poor conception simum cottoni)rhino rate
Table-2-Recent epizootics in captive breeding populations of endangered speciesSpecies DiseaseWhooping crane Equine encephalitisMauritius pink pigeon Herpes virusThick billed parrot SarcosystisWhite winged wood duck Avian TuberculosisAddax and spider monkey PseudoTuberculosisGreen Sea turtle ChlamydiosisAruba island rattle snake Ophidian paramyxovirus
To overcome the challenges…1.maintenance of highlevels of genetic variation in captive-bred andreintroduced populations.selecting individuals withknown pedigrees, individuals with high allozymeheterozygosity or individuals coming fromgeographically separated populations.(However, in the last case,the consequences of outbreeding depressionmust be considered.)
2. health screening, genetic management, long-term monitoring.3.Education and training programs on conservation breeding for breeders. IUCN,CBSG,WWF4.Allocation of more fundings.5. Reintroduction monitoring
Just because theycan’t talk ,it doesn’t mean thatwe shouldn’t belistening…
References"Red List Overview". IUCN Red List.International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 20 April2013.Synder.F.R, (1996). limitations of captive breeding in endangeredspecies recovery. Conservation Biology. 10 (), pp.338-346Francois S, (1996). Reintroduction: challenges and lessons for basicecology. Tree. 11 ,pp.474-477Torbjiirn E, (1995). Conservation breeding as a tool for saving animalspecies from extinction. Tree. 10, pp.438-442Richard A., (2008). Captive Breeding, Reintroduction, and theConservation of Amphibians. Conservation Biology. 22 (4), pp.852-868