20120928 education system in india
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  • There has been an increase in literacy from 2001 to 2011, as can be seen from the graph on this slide. The literacy rate in Delhi and Gujarat is 86% and 79% respectively.
  • Teacher salaries are a very important to mention, since the working hours are 8 hours per day, from Monday to Saturday. A salary of Rs. 5200 is given to junior teachers, who have teacher training and a bachelors degree. However, for the amount of work expected and qualifications required, the salary is very low. This is a common situation in most government/ municipal schools. <br /> <br /> Another very important feature of the school is that students are taken for excursions to learn, e.g. to the zoo, hospitals, police stations, etc. <br /> <br /> Chawl/ chawls*: There are two dominant types of low-income residential areas found in the city: chawls residential units, originally built in the mill premises for workers, and slums that represent illegal occupation of marginal areas of the city. The earliest low-income housing in the city were the chawls, single-room housing units built for the industrial workers. Chawls mushroomed as the accommodation for the (migrant) workers during the late 19th and the early 20th centuries (UN Habitat, 2003, Understanding slums: Case studies for the global report 2003, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/cities/ahmedabad.htm). Currently, residential colonies that follow ‘chawl’ typology are also known as chawls in Ahmedabad. This is the definition used for subsequent use of the word in this presentation.
  • The school is located in Geetamandir area, in an impoverished locality. The locality Is largely made of chawl-like developments and slums; and some apartment buildings. <br /> <br /> (Chawl:
  • The Municipal School located at Geetamandir provides schooling from the 6-8th standards (upper primary). The cleanliness level in the school is high. The school timings are 7:20am to 12:20pm. <br /> A specialty of the school is the prayer service in the morning, where every student is required to come to the common open space in front of the school building and pray together. They are given moral science lessons during the prayer service.
  • According to the Midday Meal Service mandated by the government, a meal is provided by the school every day (Monday-Saturday). There is a fixed menu and schedule followed for the service. It takes place in the common open space in front of the school building. The quality of food is good and this scheme acts as a mechanism to draw children to school everyday.
  • The school does have reverse osmosis water plants, but they dysfunctional at the moment. Hence, the children drink water form taps which are connected to tanks. The quality of water in this situation is questionable and the water might not even be filtered water. <br /> <br /> There is a good toilet facility in the school and it has separate male and female toilets, which are in good condition and are clean. <br /> <br /> A computer room is also available with 12 computers. The school has received these very recently, and will now begin using the facility to teach children.
  • Children can play in the school premises during the midday meal break. Games such as chess and abacus have been provided by the school for the children.
  • This one a scan of one of the essays made by students from the 7th and 8th standards. This essay is written in Gujarati language and the drawing shows a hut. The gist of the drawing shows that the student is worried about poverty and in the future, wishes that there is no poverty.
  • In Ahmedabad at least, no primary or upper primary schools get government or municipal grants.
  • The school is located in Pankornaka area, in a largely Muslim-dominated locality. The locality is largely made of chawl-like developments and low-rise high-density housing and mixed use buildings. <br />
  • This school is one of the oldest schools in Ahmedabad. The primary section was established in 1926 and the upper primary section in 1940. The standard to teaching in the school is relatively good; and the principal is very conducive to try new methods and modes of teaching.
  • The sample modules mentioned in the link below are made available to States as exemplars of training modules that use active or constructivist training processes. These can provide useful exposure to States as they design their own modules (Teacher Education, http://www.teindia.nic.in/Te_Trg_Module.aspx). <br /> <br /> Additionally, from my survey in a municipal school, I found that teachers who undertake teacher-education in the ICT course and clear it are paid higher salaries by the government/ local authorities.
  • A deeper examination of the social inequalities in dropout rates indicates that in addition to social group, income, and urban residence are associated with school dropout rates.

20120928 education system in india 20120928 education system in india Presentation Transcript

  • Education System in India 28.09.2012 Riddhi Sheth Project Researcher Aalto University
  • The Ashram system Brahmacharya Ashram Grihastha Ashram Vanprastha Ashram Sanyas Ashram 0-25 yrs. 26-50 yrs. 51-75 yrs. >75 yrs. Source: Google images
  • History – The Gurukul System Rabindranath Tagore at Santiniketan Source: Google images
  • The Guru Shishya tradition in Music Source: Google images
  • History – The first Universities Nalanda University Source: Google images
  • History – Medieval India Xuanzang Source: Google images Yijing Source: Google images
  • History – The advent of Islam Islamic institutions of education in India included traditional madrassas and makhtabs, which taught grammar, philosophy, mathematics, and law. Portrait of a young scholar Source: Google images
  • English Education Act 1835 Source: Google images
  • The oldest institutes teaching in English Madras Medical College, Chennai, India Source: Google images Government College University, Lahore Source: Google images
  • Port-Independence Structure of Education in India 1 2 3 4 5 6 4-5 Pre-primary5-6 6-7 Primary 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 Upper-primary12-13 13-14 14-15 Secondary 15-16 16-17 Higher Secondary 17-18 18-19 First degree/ diploma19-20 20-21 21-22 22-23 23-24 Duration in No. of Years AgeinNo.ofYears
  • Post-independence Scenario The education system was reformed by the following interventions: • The National Policies • The education boards and commissions [CABE (Central Advisory Board of Education), NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training), UGC (University Grants Commission), etc.] • Amendments in the Constitution Post-independence reforms Streamline the education system Make education compulsory
  • Constitution and educational responsibility • From 1947 to 1976: • Right to Education is one of the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution of India. • After independence, education was solely the State Government’s responsibility. • The Central Government was responsible for coordinating higher and technical education and specify standards. • 1976 onwards: • Education became a joint responsibility between the State and Central Government through a constitutional amendment.
  • ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Total Population of India in 2011 is: 1,21,01,93,422 Total population of children in the 20,04,27,446 age group of 6-14 yrs. In 2011 is: (16.56% of total population) Source: Government of India, 2011, ‘Census of India, 2011’
  • Early education policies • 1968 Policy: Emphasis on the creation of a ‘common structure of education’ in the country. • 1986 Policy: Emphasis on ‘social equality in education’ in the country. • Both the policies failed to tackle the issue of ‘compulsory’ education. • Moreover, the upper age of 14 years was mentioned; but the lower age was not mentioned, which resulted in education being catered to the age group of 11-14 yrs. only.
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan & Mid Day Meal • The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan aims to achieve universal elementary education of satisfactory quality by 2010. • The MDM supports it by way of enhancing attendance of children and simultaneously improving their nutritional status. • Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, there has been an improvement in access of up to 98% at primary level. • The number of out of school children has been reduced to 3-4% of 6-14 age cohort.
  • Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education • These schemes are an important component of SSA to bring out-of school children in the fold of Elementary Education. • The scheme envisages that child-wise planning is undertaken for each out-of-school children. • EGS addresses the inaccessible habitation where there is no formal school within the radius of one km and at least 15-25 children of 6-14 years age group who are not going to school are available. • In exceptional cases remote habitations in hilly areas even for 10 children an EGS school can be opened.
  • Right To Education Act - 2009 • Every child between the ages of 6-14 yrs. shall have the right to free and compulsory education, till completion of elementary education. • No child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses for studying. • Where a child above 6 yrs. has not been admitted to any school or though admitted, could not complete his or her elementary education, then, he or she shall be admitted in a class appropriate to his or her age. • The appropriate government and local authority shall establish a school, if it is not established, within the given area in a period of three years from the commencement of this Act. • The Central and the State Governments shall have concurrent responsibility for providing funds for carrying out the provisions of this Act.
  • Literacy rate in India • In 1947: 12.2% (Nayaka, 1974) • In 2011: 74.04% (Government of India, 2011 Census of India) • World average literacy rate: 84% (Crossette, Barbara (1998-12-09), ‘Unicef Study Predicts 16% World Illiteracy Rate Will Increase’, New York Times, retrieved 2009-11-27) • Compared to the world average, the literacy rate in India is still less by almost 10%.
  • Literacy rate in India 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 India Kerala Lakshadweep Mizoram Tripura Goa DamanandDiu Puducherry Chandigarh Delhi Andamanand… HimachalPradesh Maharashtra Sikkim TamilNadu Nagaland Manipur Uttarakhand Gujarat DadraandNagarHaveli WestBengal Punjab Haryana Karnataka Meghalaya Orissa Assam Chattisgarh MadhyaPradesh UttarPradesh JammuandKashmir AndhraPradesh Jharkhand Rajasthan ArunachalPradesh Bihar 2001 2011 Source: Government of India, 2011, ‘Census of India, 2011’
  • Number and Type of schools Source: Adapted from Ministry of Human Resource development, 2009, ‘Statistics of School Education 2009-10, p.4-5 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% India Delhi Gujarat Private unaided Private aided Local bodies Government
  • Students enrolled in elementary school 90.84 102.23 95.36 100 84.00 86.00 88.00 90.00 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 100.00 102.00 104.00 India Delhi Gujarat % enrolled Ideal Source: Adapted from Indian Ministry of Human Resource development, 2009, ‘Statistics of School Education 2009-10, p.12 and p.63
  • Student Drop out rate Source: Adapted from Indian Ministry of Human Resource development, 2009, ‘Statistics of School Education 2009-10, p.60 42.39 -27.1 39.7 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 India Delhi Gujarat Drop out rates in Elementary School Drop out rates in Elementary School
  • Poverty line in India Source: Times of India, 29th April 2012, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-04- 29/india/31475601_1_poverty-line-population-expenditure • Monthly consumption expenditure: • Urban areas – Rs. 66.10 per day per person • Rural areas – Rs. 35.10 per day per person • 65% urban population lives below this line!
  • Poverty and education Education Mean Household Income % Poor None 21,734 38.1 1 – 4 Std. 25,984 37.2 5 – 9 Std. 35,718 29.7 10 – 11 Std. 53,982 18.7 12 Std./ Some college 69,230 14.8 Graduate/ Diploma 1,14,004 6.8 Source: NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p.24
  • Enrolment and drop-out (Men >7 yrs.) Source: NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p.77 Drop out rate (%) Enrollment rate (%) % Remaining in School 6 yrs. - 80 80 1 – 5th std.* 15 85 68 6 – 10th std. 50 50 34 11 – 12th std. 43 57 19 Until diploma/ degree 44 56 10 Hence, out of 100 men who are more than 7 years, only 10 men will complete any degree or diploma.
  • Enrolment and drop-out (Women >7 yrs.) Source: NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p.77 Drop out rate (%) Enrollment rate (%) % Remaining in School 6 yrs. - 60 60 1 – 5th std.* 16 84 50 6 – 10th std. 57 43 21 11 – 12th std. 45 55 12 Until diploma/ degree 44 56 6 Hence, out of 100 women who are more than 7 years, only 6 women will complete any degree or diploma.
  • Children never enrolled (6-14 yrs.) Source: NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p., 92 State Never enrolled (%) India 10 Delhi 7 Gujarat 6
  • Absence from school Source: NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p. 91 Absent 6+ days in the last month (%) India 20 Standard 1-5 21 Standard 6-10 16
  • Physical infrastructure in Schools in urban areas Source: Adapted from NCERT, 7th All India School Education Survey, 2002, p. 13, 346, 374, 398, 406 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Drinking water Ancillary facilities Electric connection Play ground facility India Delhi Gujarat
  • Quality of education (skill based) Source: NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p. 79-80 11 14 21 22 32 No Reading Letters Words Paragraph Story 19 3326 22 No math Numbers Subtraction Division Reading skills of children aged 8-11 yrs (%) Arithmetic skills of children aged 8-11 yrs (%)
  • Quality of education (type of school) Source: Adapted from NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p.94 Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic Skills of Children Aged 8–11 by School Type and State 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Private Government/ Municipal Private Government/ Municipal Private Government/ Municipal India Delhi Gujarat Read Subtract Write
  • Private tuition Source: NCAER, Human Development in India Report, 2010, p.83 Private tuition increases the work burden on students. Children who receive tuition spend nearly 50 hours per week doing school related work. 31 33 29 32 6 9 8 11 8 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Std. 0-5/ No tuition Std. 6-10/ No tuition Std. 0-5/ Tuition Std. 6-10/ Tuition Tuition (hrs./week) Homework (hrs./week) School (hrs./week)
  • ICT Education and SSA - Aims Source: MHRD, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Manual for planning and appraisal, 2004, p.117) • To create computer awareness and literacy among children and teachers at elementary level. • To make teaching learning effective and interesting through computer-aided learning. • To empower the teachers to generate supplementary material in digitalized form and in other forms. • To improve quality of education and also enrollment and retention.
  • Computer education at Upper primary level Source: MHRD, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Manual for planning and appraisal, 2004, p.117-118 • Computer education is envisaged at three levels by the states: • Orient teachers and children to computers. • Provide computer aided learning. • Computer-based learning. • Focus must be on identification as well as dealing with hard spots, especially in English, Maths and Science. • Use of effective graphics, animations, audio, imaginative analogies and simulations should be encouraged.
  • Execution of ICT learning in Gujarat Source: Government of Gujarat, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, 2012, http://gujarat- education.gov.in/ssa/projects/computer_aided_learning1.htm • In 2003-04, the procurement of 2934 computers was made and were installed in 517 Upper Primary schools. • SSA Gujarat has tied up with INTEL company for the basic training of computer operating to teachers. • As a next activity, SSA Gujarat has tied up with Azim Premji Foundation for the development of content. • The Education Department, State Government, has covered more than 4061 schools in 2006-07.
  • National Policy on ICT in School Education Source: Gurumurthy K., 2011, Presentation on ‘New models in Teacher Education through ICTs’ • National Policy on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in School Education • Assists the States in optimizing the use of ICT in school education within a national policy framework. • Vision: To integrate and leverage ICTs in School Education for improved quality, delivery and administration of primary and secondary education and to build national capacities for the development of an efficient workforce which can contribute effectively to the global knowledge economy. • The guiding principles as well as the thematic objectives discussed in the policy are based on technological parameters rather than on academic or pedagogic principles.
  • Innovative education and ICT in India • Project Shiksha by Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com/india/msindia/msindia_up_partnerslearning.aspx) • One laptop per child (http://one.laptop.org/about/mission) • Project Vision (http://certad.srishti.ac.in/edu/about) • Drishya (http://www.dwarakaonline.com/Html/Drishya.htm) • Aata Pata Horaata (http://www.kinnarithakker.com/Aata-Pata-Horaata-Play- Learn-Transform) • Mallya Aditi International School (http://aditi.edu.in/diff_identity.htm) • Azim Premji Foundation (http://azimpremjifoundation.org/Our_Work)
  • SCHOOL SURVEYS 1. Municipal School – Geetamandir, Ahmedabad 2. Private Aided School – Pankornaka, Ahmedabad 3. Informal School – Bhudarpura, Ahmedabad
  • School location in Ahmedabad
  • Municipal School – Key features 1 • The school is an upper primary school (6th-8th standards) • The school comprises of 215 students. • Most students attending the school are from nearby chawls* or slums. • Mid day Meal is available to all the students. • The main feature of the school is the prayer service, which takes place on the school grounds every morning. • Teacher qualification is high in the school. • Teacher salaries very widely (Rs. 5200 – Rs. 35000 per month) • There are facilities of a well equipped computer room, drinking water, toilets and other ancillary facilities in the school. • The school does not have a playground in the school premises.
  • Municipal School – Surroundings The School is located in an impoverished locality. 1
  • Municipal School - Overview 1
  • Municipal School – Meal service Timings: 10:00 am to 10:45 am Monday to Friday 9:00 a to 9:45 am Saturday 1
  • Municipal School – Facilities • Computer room • Toilets • Drinking water 1
  • Municipal School – Recreation During the meal break, children can play. 1
  • Municipal School – The Essay 1
  • Private aided School – Key features 2 • The school receives government grant only for 9th and 10th grade. • The school comprises of 120 students in the 9th grade (1500 students in total). • Most students attending the school are from nearby chawls. • Mid day Meal is not available in this school. • The main feature of the school is the emphasis on co-curricular activities and excursions to learn. • There are facilities of a well equipped computer room, drinking water, toilets and other ancillary facilities in the school. • The school does not have a playground in the school premises. • Teacher qualification and salary is relatively high in the school.
  • Private aided School – Surroundings 2
  • Private aided School - Overview 2
  • Private aided School - Facilities 2
  • Private aided School – Co-curricular activities Students’ projects for the Science Fest. 2
  • Private aided School – The essay 2
  • Informal School – Key features 3 • The school takes place on the footpath of a street. • The school primarily functions as a free private tuition class. • This school began 12-13 yrs. ago to support students who studied in municipal/ government schools. • Students from 5th to 10th standard come to study in the school. • This school has a student population of 115. • Most students attending the school are from nearby chawls or slum relocation colony. • Most teachers in this school have been its students previously. • Main subjects taught at Maths, English and Gujarati. • A meal is provided every evening.
  • Informal School – Surroundings The school is located in Bhudarpura, a low income neighborhood in the city. 3
  • Informal School – Setting up The school benches are piled on the footpaths when in use and when not in use. 3
  • Informal School – Meal service Students are provided food by the owner of the school. Cooking is done on the footpath too. 3
  • Informal School – the essay 3
  • TEACHERS Teacher training, qualification, student-teacher ratio, ICT and teachers
  • Number of teachers in Elementary Schools Source: Adapted from NCERT, Teacher and their qualifications, 2002, p.23-34 Area Full-time teachers Para teachers Part-time teachers India Total 3312426 181685 28052 Urban 848194 25938 11970 Delhi Total 30191 297 204 Urban 27826 292 202 Gujarat Total 157013 55616 1434 Urban 59368 9260 837
  • Academic qualifications of full-time teachers (urban) Source: Adapted from NCERT, Teacher and their qualifications, 2002, p.137-160 Below secondary Secondary or equivalent Higer secondary or equivalent Graduate and above Any other From inside to outside: India trained, India untrained, Delhi trained, Delhi untrained, Gujarat trained, Gujarat untrained
  • Academic qualifications of Para teachers (urban) Source: Adapted from NCERT, Teacher and their qualifications, 2002, p.220-231 From inside to outside: India, Delhi, Gujarat Below secondary Secondary or equivalent Higer secondary or equivalent Graduate and above Any other
  • Trained teachers 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 India Delhi Gujarat % of trained teachers in Primary school % of trained teachers in Primary school 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 India Delhi Gujarat % of trained teachers in Middle school % of trained teachers in Middle school Source: Adapted from Ministry of Human Resource Development, Statistics of School Education, 2009, p.251
  • Student-teacher ratio 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 India Delhi Gujarat Primary school student teacher ratio Middle school student teacher ratio Minimum student- teacher ratio (30:1) Source: Ministry of Human Resource Development, Statistics of School Education, 2009, p.251 30
  • Student-teacher ratio (Type of School) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Government Local body Private aided Private unaided Primary Schools Upper primary schools Minimum student-teacher ratio (30:1) Source: Adapted from Ministry of Human Resource Development, Statistics of School Education, 2009, p.251
  • Teacher education policy - History Source: Department of Education and Literacy, MHRD, 2011, http://mhrd.gov.in/TE_ov • Teacher education policy has evolved over time and is based on recommendations from various Reports of Committees/ Commissions on Education. • Kothari Commission (1966) • Chattopadyay Committee (1985) • the National Policy on Education (NPE 1986/92) • Acharya Ramamurthi Committee (1990) • Yashpal Committee (1993) • National Curriculum Framework (NCF, 2005).
  • Teacher education: Legal and institutional framework Source: Department of Education and Literacy, MHRD, 2011, http://mhrd.gov.in/TE_ov • Prepare teachers for the school system (pre-service training). • National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE), a statutory body of the Central Government, is responsible for planned and coordinated development of teacher education in the country. • Improve the capacity of existing school teachers (in-service training). • A large network of government-owned teacher training institutions (TTIs), which provide in-service training to the school teachers.
  • National Curriculum Framework on Teacher Education - 2005 Source: Source: Department of Education and Literacy, MHRD, 2011, http://mhrd.gov.in/TE_ov • Reflective practice to be the central aim of teacher education. • Student-teachers should be provided opportunities for self- learning, reflection, assimilation and articulation of new ideas. • Developing capacities for self-directed learning and ability to think, be critical and to work in groups. • Providing opportunities to student-teachers to observe and engage with children, communicate with and relate to children.
  • Source: Azim Premji Foundation, Status of District Institutes of Training and Education, 2010, p.3) • The performance of District Institutes of Training and Education (DIET) across the country had been abysmal. • 17% do not have their own building. • 40% do not have their own hostel facility. • 43% have done no research in last 2 years. • 70% have no librarian. • 80% vacancy in faculty positions exists in some DIETs. Condition of DIETs
  • ICT and Teacher Education – traditional model Source: Gurumurthy K., 2011, Presentation on ‘New models in Teacher Education through ICTs’ • Centralized design • Delivery of training with teacher as the receiver • No clear plan which identifies individuality of the teachers. • Budgetary norms are rigid • Curriculum requires improvement and contextualization. • Did not create community of learners (community requires continuity of interactions) • Workshop based. • Inadequate monitoring and on-site support. • Inadequate linkages between theory/ research and practice. • Isolation of teachers from the schools.
  • ICT and Teacher Education – New model Source: Gurumurthy K., 2011, Presentation on ‘New models in Teacher Education through ICTs’ • Constructionism: Enabling teachers to co-create curricular resources. • Social constructivism: Connecting teachers into the learning community. Teachers connect to one another and to teacher educators on a continuous basis for sharing and learning on virtual networks that complement physical networks. • Moving the teachers from being consumers of teacher education to collaborators. • Using ICT to record individual learning needs. • Demonstrate the pedagogical/ professional development value to teachers. • Availing grants for computers in teacher training centers. • Provide inexpensive netbooks to teachers.
  • THANK YOU