Department Of Textile Engineering
I/A 251,252 Tejgaon Dhaka Bangladesh
A Textile was originally a woven fabric but now the term textile and its
plural textiles are also applied to fibers, filaments, yarn and most product
for which these are a principle raw material, the product includes threads,
cords, ropes, braids, woven, knitted, non-woven fabrics, nets, household
textile, geo-textile, medical textiles etc.
Weaving is the action of producing fabric by the interlacing of warp and
weft thread. The warp threads are placed along the length of the fabric
and the weft threads are placed along the width of the fabric.
FLOW CHART OF WEAVING
(In the form of spinner’s package)
Winding (cone, cheese)
Winding (Cop, Pirn,
Warping (Pre beam/ Warper’s
beam/ back beam)
Sizing (weavers beam)
Drafting, Drawing, Pinning
Medical Textile: Non-alginate fabric
Three types of yarn package are mention bellow
TYPES OF FABRICS
1. Woven fabric (Shirt)
2. Knitted fabric (T-shirt)
3. Non-woven fabric (Tea pack)
4. Special fabric (Fire proof fabric, water proof fabric)
OBJECTS OF YARN PREPARATION
1. To remove yarn faults ( there are 23 types of yarn faults)
2. To transfer the yarn from spinner package to a convent form of
package which will facilitate weaving.
3. To have desired length on a package.
4. To clean the yarn for better appearance and performance.
5. To make good quality fabric.
6. To reduce labor cost.
FAULTS TO BE REMOVED DURING YARN-PREPARATION
1. Thick place
2. Thin place
4. Lose fibers
5. Count variation
6. Foreign particles (seed, slub, leaf, dust, bollworm, honeydew)
QUALITY OF GOOD WARP
1. The yarn must be uniform, clean and free from knots as much as
2. The yarn must be sufficient strong with withstand the stress and
friction without end breakage.
3. Knots should be a standard size and type. So that they can pass the
heald eye, dropper, read easily.
4. The warp must be uniformly sized and size coating should be thick
enough to protect the yarn various function.
5. The ends of warp must be parallel and each must be wound onto a
weavers beam at an even and equal tension.
6. All warp yarn should of same size in length.
TYPES OF PACKAGE
Cop (use for jute weft)
6. Pirn (use for cotton weft)
7. Spinner’s bobbin
TYPES OF PACKAGE WINDING
There are three types of package winding available.
1. Parallel wound package
2. Near parallel wound package
3. Cross wound package
Parallel Wound Package Features
• Much yarn can be wound at a time.
• No need of traversing motion.
• Side withdrawal is possible.
• The density of yarn is more.
• No change of twist/inch.
• For yarn unwinding separate mechanism is needed.
• Two side of the package needed flange.
Near Parallel Wound Package Features
1. No need flanged here.
2. Both side and overend withdrawal is possible.
3. Twist/inch can be changed.
4. Traversing motion is needed.
Cross-Wound Package Features
1. Here no flanged is required.
2. Traversing mechanism is must.
3. Twist/inch changes.
4. Only overend withdrawal is possible.
5. Yarn ballooning occurs during
6. This package is very stable.
TYPES OF PACKAGE DRIVING
There are three types of package driving system.
1. surface contact driving (indirect system)
2. direct driving at constant angular speed
3. Direct Driving At Variable Angular Speed
1. SURFACE CONTACT DRIVING (INDIRECT SYSTEM)
In this system, the yarn package is placed with a surface contact of a
drum. The drum is driven by a motor and same gear. When it rotates
the package also rotate is reverse direction.
2. DIRECT DRIVING AT CONSTANT ANGULAR SPEED
In this system the package is placed on a spindle and spindle gets motion by a
motor and some gears. So, that package gets a constant angular speed. Here
yarn take up rate is directly proportional to the package dia.
3. DIRECT DRIVING AT VARIABLE ANGULAR SPEED
In the system yarn package is directly driven at a variable angular speed to give a
constant yarn speed. Here the package speed is inversely proportional to the
I.e. Package speed
The appearance of the curved path of running yarn during unwinding or over
end withdrawn from packages under appropriate winding condition through a
guide, placed above and in line with the axis of the package at an adequate
distance from it, the yarn assumes the appearance of a balloon shape. This
circumstance of assuming balloon shape of yarn is called ballooning.
FACTORS EFFECTING THE SHAPE AND SIZE OF BALLOON
Package size Ballooning
Yarn guide distance Ballooning
Lift the package Ballooning
Count of yarn Ballooning
Air resistance Ballooning
Unwinding rate. Ballooning
YARN WITHDRAWAL OR UNWINDING
The unwinding process of yarn from a package is called yarn withdrawal. There
are two types of yarn withdrawal system:
1. Side Withdrawal
2. Overend Withdrawal
1) Side Withdrawal
The features of side withdrawl of yarn are given bellow;
a. Package will rotate in side withdrawal.
b. Yarn twist will be unchanged.
c. No formation of balloon occurs.
d. It is applied to flanged bobbin.
e. The rate and speed of unwinding is slow.
2. Overend Withdrawal
The features of overend withdrawl are given bellow;
a. Package remains stationary during unwinding.
b. Formation of balloon occurs.
c. Twist/inch of yarn changed.
d. Generally cop, pirn, cone, chess are packages used for overend
e. The rate of unwinding is high.
In winding and unwinding some small component control yarn path which is
very necessary, yarn guide is used to perform this job.
TYPES OF YARN GUIDE
There are two types of yarn guide
1. Yarn Guide For The Yarn Whose Ends Are Required For Threading;
For this type of yarn guide extra time is needed for threading. So speed of
operation is decreased. The yarn which passes this guide faces more
Like Ceramic, Tumpet, Bust
2. Yarn Guide For The Yarn Whose Ends Are Not Required For
Here threading is very easy. So the speed of the operating is high. Yarn passes
through this guide faces less friction.
Figure: Yarn Guide
During winding, we have to impart proper tension to yarn, so that we can get a
stable and undamaged package. So we pass the yarn through a device called
Types of Tension Device
There are four types of tension device as follow;
a) Capstan Tensioner.
b) Additive Tensioner.
c) Combined Tensioner.
d) Automatic Tensioner.
It is the simplest type of yarn tensioner. It works only by deflecting the yarn around
fixed posts. This includes a capstan effect on yarn. It works by the following formula:
Output Tension = Input Tension × eμθ
or, T2 = T1 eμθ
T2 = Output tension.
T1 = Input tension.
e = Constant
μ = Co-efficient of friction.
θ = θ1+θ-2+θ3 = Angle of lap.
B. ADDITIVE TENSIONER
This is also a simple technique of applying tension of yarn. In this device a dead
weight or spring is used in the middle of the two surfaces in contact and the
force is applied to give suitable tension to the yarn. Hence the output tension is
T2 = T1 + 2μF
T1 = Input tension.
T2 = Output tension.
µ = Co-efficient of friction.
F = Applied force.
C. COMBINED TENSIONER
It is the combined form of additive and capstan tensioner. The device permits the
tension level to be raised to any desired level, but doesn’t permit a reduction of
tension. Here output tension is expressed of follow:
T2 = T1 + 2μF = T1 eμθ
T1 = Input tension.
T2 = Output tension.
µ = Co-efficient of friction.
F = Applied force.
θ = Angle of lap.
D. AUTOMATIC TENSIONER
It is a simple tensioner in which yarn tension is controlled automatically. It has a lever
with spring loaded disc in one side and applied load in another side. The device is
designed in such a way that if applied tension is too high. The pressure on disc is
reduced to bring the tension back to its proper level.
EFFECT OF TENSIONING DEVICE
There are some effects of tension to yarn or package: They are
a) If tension is too high.
b) If tension is too low.
c) If tension varies.
If Tension is Too High
Breakage rate increase.
Weak the thin place.
If Tension Varies
Problem during unwinding
Irregularity among yarn
If Tension Is Too Low
Auxiliary Function in Winding
CHOICE OF TENSIONING DEVICE
• It must be reliable.
• It must be easily threaded.
• It must neither introduce nor mainly tension variation.
• It must not change the twist of yarn.
• It must not be affected by wear.
• It must be easily adjustable.
• It must not be affected by the presence of oil and dirt.
• It must not encourage the collection of dirt and lint.
• It must be easy cleaning.
• The operating surface must be smooth.
• It must be cheap.
• It must not cause any type of damage to yarn i.e. shade variation, elongation
PRECISION WINDING FEATURES
• Packages are wound with reciprocting traverse.
• Package contains more yarn.
• Low stability of package.
• Hard and more compact package.
• Low unwinding rate.
• The wound coil are arranged parallely or near parallely.
FEATURES OF NON-PRECESSION WINDING
• Coils are cross wound.
• Package is of low density.
• Less amount of yarn is stored in package.
• High stability of package can be obtained.
• Flange is not necessary.
• Unwinding rate is very high.
Production= 560yd/min/drum, 24 Ne, yarn= 500lb, time=?
24 Ne means,
1 lb. of yarn contain = 24X840 yds. yarn
500 lbs. of yarn contains = (24X840X500) yds. yarn
560 yds. of yarn to wind in 1 drum needs =1 min
1 yd. “
15 drum “
=1/ (560X15) min.
(24X840X500) yd “ “
= (24X840X500) / (560X15) min.
25 Ne, Yarn=900 lbs, time=28 hr., Find number of drum.
25 Ne of yarns means,
1 lb of yarn contains
= 25X840 yd yarns.
500 lb of yarn contains
= (25X840X900) yd yarns.
600 yds. of yarn to wind in 1 min in = 1 drum
’’ ’’ ’’ (60X28) min in = 1 / (600X60X28) drum.
(25X840X900) yds. ’’
(60X28) min = (25X840X900) / (600X28X600) drum
= 18.75 drum
= 19 drum (ans.)
OBJECTS OF WARPING
Winding is a part
of total number of
ends of a warp in
full width on to a
back beam from
cone or cheese is
To prepare a beam to make a
To increase the weave ability of
To make a convenient yarn
sheet for sizing.
To wound up required length of
yarn onto a warp beam.
To facilate the weaving of
complex color pattern.
To make reusable small
REQUIREMENT OF WARPING
During warping the following requirement should be
1. The tension of all wound ends must be uniform and
possibly constant throughout the withdrawal process.
2. Warping should not impair the physical and
mechanical properties of yarn.
3. The surface of warping package must be cylindrical.
4. A pre-determined length of yarn should be wound on
beam from every package.
5. The production rate of warping is as high as possible.
6. If possible, yarn faults should be removed
TYPES OF WARPING
Mainly there are two types of warping,
a) Direct/ high speed warping
b) Sectional warping.
Some Other Special Types of Warping Are Available
a) Ball warping
b) Chain warping
c) Cross warping
A) DIRECT/HIGH SPEED WARPING
High speed warping is a process of preparing warp beam directly from yarn
package. Here all the yarns are wound on a simple flange beam at a time. This
process is suitable for single color pattern.
B) SECTIONAL WARPING
Sectional warping is a process of preparing warp beam over two stages. In first
stage yarns are wound in narrow tapes on a large drum. Then in the second
stage the rewinding of the warp onto a beam is slow but suitable for complex
FEATURES OF SECTIONAL WARPING
• Sectional warping is suitable for producing color fabrics with different pattern.
• Production in sectional warping. So it is costly process.
• In sectional warping tension cannot be kept uniform.
• Tapered drum is used as drum here.
• Hand weaving is necessary to produce for simple fabric for bulk production
FEATURES OF HIGH SPEED WARPING
• High speed warping is suitable for producing fabric with same count & same color
• Higher amount of yarn is required here.
• The speed & production of a high speed warping is very high.
• Here simple flanged.
Control System in Warping
• Tension control
• Balloon control
• Stop motion
• Yarn cleaner
• Length control
• Surface speed control
• Proper yarn density
• Static electricity
• Traverse control
• Fly control
Faults in Warping
• Off center warp
• Rigid or uneven warp
• Cross end
• Sinker formation
• Hard/soft beam
• End missing
• Haphazard knotting
• Length deviation
Relation between Taper Angle and Amount of Yarn on a Beam
s = traverse length.
L = axial
d = empty beam dia.
D = full beam dia.
= mean dia.
X = tape distance
α = taper angle
v = volume of yarn stored on beam.
so as to maintain stability.
) = πL (
From figure, it is clear that
= x tan α
So, v = π L dm (x tanα)
V > π L dm S tan α
V < π L dm S tan α
S tan α if α = 90°
if, x > s
if, x < s
then V = α
So unlimited amount of yarns can be wound if flange stays perpendicular to beam barrel. Practically
this is impossible. But this type of package permit’s to wind high amount of yarn.
The method of applying a gelatinous film forming substance of starch on warp
yarn before weaving is known as sizing.
Object of Sizing
• To protect the yarn from abrasion with heald eye, back rest, reed etc. during
• To improve breaking strength of cellulosic yarn.
• To increase yarn smoothness.
• To reduce yarn hairness.
• To increase yarn elasticity and stiffness.
• To decrease yarn extensibility.
• To hinder generation of static electricity for synthetic and blended yarn.
• To increase yarn weight.
Sizing Ingredients and Their Functions
Some important size ingradients and their functions are mentioned below1. Adhesive
2. Lubricants or softeners
3. Antiseptic or antimildew agent
4. Deliquescent or Hygroscopic agent
5. Weighting agent
6. Anti-foaming agent
7. Tinting agent
8. Wetting agent
TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES OCCURE DUE TO SIZING
The following technological changes of a yarn/fabric occurs due to sizing –
1. INCREASE IN BREAKING STRENGTH
2. INCREASE ABRASION RESISTANCE
3. INCREASE IN STIFFNESS
4. INCREASE IN ELASTICITY
5. INCREASE IN FRICTIONAL RISISTANCE
6. INCREASE IN YARN DIAMETER
7. DECREASE IN YARN HAIRINESS
8. DECREASE IN STATIC ELECTRICITY FORMATION
Size Take Up Take Up Percentage Depends On The Following Factors
• Yarn count.
• Viscosity of size material.
• Speed of yarn passing through m/c.
• Pressure of squeezing roller.
• Amorphousness of fiber in yarn.
• Flexibility of yarn.
• Nature of adhesive.
• Time and temperature.
SIZE TAKE-UP PERCENTAGE
Wt. of size material o yarn × 100
Size take up % =
Wt. of unsized yarn
Size Take up Percentage Depends on the Following Factors
Viscosity of size material
speed of yarn passing through m/c
Pressure of squeezing roller.
Amorphousness of fiber in yarn.
Flexibility of yarn
Nature of adhesive.
Time and Temperature.
MATH-1: A beam of wt. 290 lbs. contains 3500 sized warp of 1300 yds length. It
the unsized yarn count is 28 Ne and empty beam wt. 70 lbs., then calculate 1. Wt. of size on yarn.
2. Count of sized yarn.
3. Size take-up percentage.
The loom is the contact point of the whole process of cloth production, ginning,
opening, carding, spinning, winding, warping, sizing and beaming are done before
weaving. A loom cannot be said a machine but it is a device which is used to
produce woven fabric. Looms are generally driven either by line shaft or by
individual motors fitted with it.
Weaving Mechanism / Basic Principle of Weaving
Weaving is the process of interlacement between the warp and weft in fabric
according to a design of fabric.
Basic principle or weaving mechanism is:
• The yarn from the weavers beam passes round the back rest and comes forward
through the drop wire of the warp stop motion to the heald eye of heald shaft which
is responsible for the purpose of shade formation.
• It then passes through the dent of reed which holds the thread at uniform spacing
and it is also performed the beating up the weft thread that has been left in the
triangle warp sheet form by the two warp sheet and reed.
• In this way, weft yarn is meshes with last pick of fabric or cloth. Temple holds the
cloth firm at the feed position and assist in the formation of a uniform fabric width.
Then fabric passes over the front rest, take up roller, pressure roller and finally wind
on to the cloth roller.
It is seen that the figure that, two tappet mounted with the one bottom shaft and it
passed the treadle lever by treadle bowl to down direction.
There is a fulcrum at the end of treadle lever and another end of lever is joined
with heald shaft by yarn.
Top roller acts as intermediate of two rope of heald shaft from which rope passes
over the top roller.
When shedding cam or tappet pressed on the treadle lever by treadle bowl, then
one heald shaft is down while another is up and shedding is formed. Such way, 2nd
shedding tappet reverses full motion i.e. upper heald shaft is down and down heald
shaft is up.
The mechanism of a power loom receives their motion from shaft that traverses
from side to side in the loom and is driver from another. Their relative speeds are of
importance since they give the mechanism that they drive.
The crank shaft being driven by the motor moves one revolution per picks. The
motion of the teeth of the gear wheels connecting this shaft to the bottom shaft is
always 2:1, so that the bottom shaft will move one revolution in ever two picks.
Shuttle less Loom
1. Primitive or Vertical loom.
2. Pit loom
(a) Throw shuttle loom.
(b) Fly shuttle loom.
3. Frame loom
(a) Throw shuttle loom.
(b) Fly shuttle loom.
Modern or Shuttle less Loom
1. Projectile Loom.
2. Rapier Loom.
3. Air jet Loom.
4. Chitttaranjan loom.
5. Hattersley loom
1. Common Motor.
1. Take up
2. Let off
(5 wheel, 7 wheel)
1 Warp stop motion
2 Weft stop motion (Centre, side)
3 Reed stop motion (Loose, fast)
4 Temple motion (Roller, reed)
5 Weft replenish
Difference between Hand Loom and Power Loom
1.Operating system is manual.
1.Operating by electric power.
1.Shedding is done by paddle
and Picking, Beating is done by
1.Shedding and Picking is done
1.Slow running speed.
1.High running speed.
1.Check and striped fabrics are
1.One color fabrics is produced.
Difference between Hesian and Sacking Loom
1.It has two heald shafts.
1.It has 3 eald shafts.
1.No of tappet 2.
1.No of tappet 3
1.No auxiliary shaft.
1.Need of auxiliary shaft due
to more 2 tappet is called
1.A single yarn is
through a heald eye.
through a heald eye.
1.Less spacing between warp
1.More spacing between warp
1.Finer thread is used.
1.Coarser thread is used.
Knitting is the method of creating fabric by transforming
continuous strands of yarn a series of interlocking loops, each row
of such loop hanging by the one immediately preceding it. The
basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with
the loops adjacent to it on both side and above and bellows it.
Kink of Yarn: Per loop from a single yarn.
Knitted Loop: two loops intermeshed.
Knitted Stitch: Three loops intermeshed.
Top Arc: Loop Head
Bottom Half Arc
Leg/ Side Limber
• Wale: Vertical column of needle loop.
• Course: Horizontal row of needle loop.
Stitch Density: Wales per Inch × Course per Inch.
Stitch length: Needle loop + Sinker loop
•Extended sinker loop
• Back loop
Knitting M/C: there are three types of knitting M/C –
1. Warp knitting: Gives vertical movement of yarn.
2. Weft knitting: Gives horizontal movement of yarn.
3. Other loop forming and combined M/C: Tri-axial.
Needle Carrier: Which carries needle.
Number of Feed System: The number
of feeder by course.
Working Diameter: In circular knitting m/c,
the distance from one needle exact to the
other needle is known as working dia.
Working Width: In flat knitting m/c, the distance from first needle to the last needle
is known as working width.
Gauge: Number of needle per inch.
Pitch: The distance the center from one needle to the center of another needle is
known as pitch.
There Are Three Types Of Knitted Fabric
1. Selvage fabric
2. Cut edge fabric
3. Tubular fabric
• Open lap
• Close lap
O = over lap
U = under lap
MECHANICAL PRINCIPAL OF KNITTING TECHNOLOGY
Basic Elements of Knitting
1. NEEDLE: There are various types of needle are available in market
which can be divided in the following group.
a. Spring Bearded Needle
b. Latch Needle
c. Compound Needle
FUNCTION OF SINKER
There are three function of sinker.
1. Loop formation
2. Holding down
3. Knocking over
1. Loop Formation: On bearded needle weft knitting machines of straight bar
frame and sinker wheel type, the loop forming action is performed. The purpose of a
sinker is to kink the newly laid yarn into loop as its forward edge of advance
between two adjoining needle.
2. Holding down Sinker: The second function is hold down the old loop a lower
level on the needle stem, then the new loop which are being formed and prevent to
old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear from their hooks.
3. Knocking Over Sinker: The third function of the sinker is to knock over the
old loops on the neck of the new loops.
The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam
plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by
means of cams acting on the needle butts.
The knitting cams are divided in to three groups. Such as
1. Knit cam
2. Tuck cam
3. Miss cam
Knitting Action of Latch Needle of Knit Loop
5. Custom Position
6. Knock over Position
Knitting Action of Spring Bearded Needle (Knit Loop)
PRIMARY BASIC STRUCTURES
Knitting Fabric Structure
1. Plain structure
2. Rib structure
3. Interlock structure
4. Purl structure
1. PLAIN STRUCTURE
Plain is produce by the needles setting as a single set, drawing the loops from
technical back and towards the technical face side of the fabric.
Example: jersey blister, jersey lily, stockinet etc.
2. RIB STRUCTURE
The structure which requires 2 sets of needle operating in between each other so
that Wales of face side and Wales of back sides are knitting on each side of
fabric is called rib structure.
Features of Plain Single Jersey Fabric
1. Used only one set of needle to produce fabric.
2. Simplest and most economical production.
3. 40% potential recovery stretching.
4. Probability of carling of yarn.
5. Technical face is smooth and v-shape can be seen through the Wales.
6. Technical back is rough and wave shape appeared at the back thought the course.
7. If one yarn breaks, the needle loops successively unmosh through course, this
effect is called laddering.
8. Unroving of yarn can be prevented by binding off.
Features of Plain Circular Knitting M/C
1. Single jersey is produce by plain circular knitting m/c.
2. One set of latch needle is used here.
3. Latch needle, sinker, cylinder, sinker ring revolve around the stationary
knitting cam system.
4. Yarn supplied from cone placed either on or integral overhead bobbin stand or
on a free standing side creel through tensioner, stop motion. Guide eyes down
to the yarn guide.
5. Stationary yarn feeder are situated at a regular interval around the
circumference of the cylinder.
6. The fabric in tubular form is drawn downward from inside the needle cylinder by
tension roller and is wound onto the fabric batching roller of winding frame.
7. The winding down mechanism revolves along with the fabric tube.
8. As the sinker cam plate is placed outside on the needle circle, the centerof the
cylinder is open and the m/c is referred as open top or sinker top m/c.
Features of Rib Structure
1. It is normally knitting with 2 sets of latch needle.
2. Rib has vertical card appearance.
3. 1×1 rib has the appearance of technical face of in fabric.
4. Released 1×1 rib is theoretically twice as thick and 1/2 the width of an
equivalent plain fabric.
5. It is more expensive fabric to produce than plain.
6. It can be unravel from the end knitted last by the free loops head through to the
back of each stitch.
7. It is a heavier structure.
8. It has no curling tendency.
9. Rib structures are elastic, form fitting and retain warmth better then plain
Uses: Rib is suitable particularly for the top of the socks, cuff, collar rib border of
garments, gloves etc.
FEATURES OF CIRCULAR RIB M/C
1. In this m/c, one sides of needle is arranged vertically in the in the cylinder and
another set of needle is arranged in the dial of the m/c.
2. Here both dial and cylinder rotates where cam with yarn feeder remain stationary.
3. The needle of dial and cylinder are arranged in different position alternatively.
4. No sinker is required for this m/c.
5. Not more than 2 cam tracks are possible for dial of this m/c.
3. FEATURES OF INTERLOCKING STRUCTURE
1. Interlocking has the technical face fabric as both sides.
2. Interlocking course requires 2-feeder per course.
3. Reverse loop cannot be seen.
4. Interlocking relaxes by about 30-40% on more compared with its knitting width.
5. This is balance, smooth, stable, structure.
6. Fabric is thickener, heavier, and narrower then rib of equivalent gauge.
7. Finer, better, more expensive yarn is required.
8. Bath horizontal and vertical stripe can be produced.
9. Production is lass.
4. FEATURE OF PURL STRUCTURE
1. It has the similar appearance to pearl droplets.
2. Purl structure have one or more Wales which contain both and back loop-.
3. Both sides’ needle and sinker loops are prominent.
4. The thick of the two needle bed in purl m/c.
5. Double ended batch needles are used in purl m/c.
6. To types of m/c is available for purl structure.
a) Flat m/c
b) Circular m/c
7. The simple purl structure is 1×1 purl.
8. Purl fabric is twice as thick as plain fabric.
No. of feeder = No. of cam = No. of course.
No. of sinker = No. of needle = No. of loop = π D’’ G mm
Number of needle =
Π D’’ G × l
D’’ = cylinder dia
G = gauge
L = stitch length
F = No. of feeder
T = tex number
Π D’’ G l ×N
Π D’’ G l ×N ×F
Π D’’ G l ×N ×F ×T × 60 × 8
1000×1000 × 1000
For single jersey:
Production in weight,
RPM of Cylinder × No. of feeder × π × Cylinder dia × gauge
× loop length (mm) × Tex × 60 × 8 × efficiency %
1000 × 1000 × 1000
Production in length,
RPM of cylinder × No of feeder × 60 × 8 × efficiency
CPI × 36
For Double Jersey
Single jersey production in length
Production in length =
Production in weight = Single jersey production in weight × 2 kg/shift
CPI = 66
Cylinder dia = 25’’
Cylinder RPM = 20
Loop length = 2.2
Yarn count = 70
Gauge = 22
No. of feeder = 90
Efficiency =90 %
Find the production of the m/c in weight and production in length. (Both
single and double jersey)
25.4 × 36 × 840 ×
768096 × Ne
768096 × Ne
1m= 39.37 inch.
1 inch= 1/39.37
1 lb= 453 gm
× 453 × (39.37)2
768096 × Ne
× 702148.5957 gm/m
W × C × l ×0.915