Topic
Controlling points, Faults, Causes
and Remedies Involved in
Different Finishing Processes of
Knit Fabric
SUPERVISING FACULTY:
RAJIB SAHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING
SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY
Prepared ByNAME ID NUMBER
IMRAN HOSSAIN 2009000400079
MD.SAIFUDDIN KHAN 2009000400034
Faruk Ahammed 2009000400007
TANZIR 2...
Introduction
In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the
processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into
a u...
Objects
To improve the appearance of the fabric,
To improve the feel of the fabric by softening, stiffening, etc.
To im...
Classification
Mechanical Chemical
Permanent
Or Durable
Temporary
Permanent
Or Durable
Temporary
Calendarin
g Raising Star...
Flowchart of machines used for
Finishing of Knit fabric
For Tubular Form:
Hydro-extractor
↓
De-watering
↓
Dryer
↓
Tube com...
For Open Form :
Hydro-extractor
↓
De-watering
↓
Dryer
↓
Slitter
↓
Stenter
↓
Open Compactor
Hydro Extractor
Functions:
To extract water from fabric.
It is used for collar, cuff, and when fabric quantity is
low.
C...
Hydro Extractor
Faults Causes Remedies
Crease Mark
 Damp fabric moving at
high speed in twisted
form, in the Hydro
extra...
Dewatering
Function:
To remove excess water from the fabric, about 70-75%.
Facilates the use of softener.
Controlling po...
Dewatering
Faults Causes Remedies
Wet Squeezer Marks
 These marks are caused due
to the excessive pressure, of
the squee...
Slitting Machine
Function:
Slit the tube fabric into open from
Remove excess water from fabric about 70-75% water
Contro...
Slitting Machine
Faults Causes Remedies
Crease mark
 If ballooning is not
controlled
 Proper ballooning of
the fabric s...
Dryer
Function:
 To dry the fabric
 Both open & tube form fabric can be dried here
 Mainly GSM highly fabric is dried.
...
Dryer
Faults Causes Remedies
Overheating and Shade
Variation.
 If speed and temperature
of fabric is not properly
control...
Stenter
Function:
Sometimes used to dry wet fabric
Controlled GSM of fabric
Controlled Dia of fabric
Controlled shrink...
Stenter
 For Heat Setting
Fabric type Temperature Speed
Lycra 190°c 17-20 m/min
Polyester 185°c 17-20m/min
Stenter
Overfeed
Padder pressure
Skew and Bow
Stenter
Faults Causes Remedies
Startch stains and white lines on
finished cloth
 Starch stains and white lines
on the fin...
Stenter
Faults Causes Remedies
Softener Mark
 Improper mixing of the Softener.
 Improper running time of the
fabric duri...
Stenter
Faults Causes Remedies
Spirality problem  Improper skew control
 Skewness of the fabric should
be controlled spe...
Compactor
Function:
Increases G.S.M. of fabric
Control dia of fabric
Calendar the fabric
CompactorControlling points:
Overfeed
Width
Padder pressure:
Chart Of Padder Pressure For Different Types of fabrics:
F...
Compactor
Faults Causes Remedies
Folding Marks
 High pressure of the fabric Take
Down rollers of the Knitting
machine, on...
Compactor
Faults Causes Remedies
GSM Variation
 Roll to roll variation in
the, process parameters,
of the fabric, like;
O...
Softener
Softening treatment is one of the most important chemical after treatments in
the textile industry. By softening ...
Softener
Types of softeners:
There are mainly four types of softeners which are
discussed below:
Cationic Softeners.
Ani...
Softener
Chemical Softness Lubricity Hydro-
philicity
Substant
ivity
Stability
to
yellowin
g
None
foaming
Anionic + ++ ++ ...
ConclusionWe all have tried our level best in accomplishing the project. Although we know
there was a vast chance and fiel...
Thanks Giving
First of all, I am grateful to the ALMIGHTY ALLAH for enabling us to
complete the project successfully.
I wo...
Thanks To All
     Controlling points, Faults, Causes and Remedies Involved in Different Finishing Processes of Knit Fabric
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Controlling points, Faults, Causes and Remedies Involved in Different Finishing Processes of Knit Fabric

  1. 1. Topic Controlling points, Faults, Causes and Remedies Involved in Different Finishing Processes of Knit Fabric
  2. 2. SUPERVISING FACULTY: RAJIB SAHA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY
  3. 3. Prepared ByNAME ID NUMBER IMRAN HOSSAIN 2009000400079 MD.SAIFUDDIN KHAN 2009000400034 Faruk Ahammed 2009000400007 TANZIR 2009000400016 MD.AMINUL ISLAM 2009000400104
  4. 4. Introduction In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished textile or clothing. The precise meaning depends on context.
  5. 5. Objects To improve the appearance of the fabric, To improve the feel of the fabric by softening, stiffening, etc. To improve wearing qualities of cloth by making it shrink resistant, crease resistant or free from pills and soiling. To make garments hold their shape and enable them to be worn without ironing. To impart special properties to the fabric for specific end uses. To set the texture of certain fabrics and make others dimensionally stable. To produce stronger and more durable fabrics.
  6. 6. Classification Mechanical Chemical Permanent Or Durable Temporary Permanent Or Durable Temporary Calendarin g Raising Starching Finishing Resin, Softening, Mercirization, Water Repellent.
  7. 7. Flowchart of machines used for Finishing of Knit fabric For Tubular Form: Hydro-extractor ↓ De-watering ↓ Dryer ↓ Tube compactor
  8. 8. For Open Form : Hydro-extractor ↓ De-watering ↓ Dryer ↓ Slitter ↓ Stenter ↓ Open Compactor
  9. 9. Hydro Extractor Functions: To extract water from fabric. It is used for collar, cuff, and when fabric quantity is low. Controlling point: Speed
  10. 10. Hydro Extractor Faults Causes Remedies Crease Mark  Damp fabric moving at high speed in twisted form, in the Hydro extractor (Centrifuge)  Use anti Crease, during the Scouring & the Dyeing process  (The use of anti Crease, swells the Cellulose & prevents the formation of Crease marks)  Spread the fabric in loose & open form & not in the rope form, in the Hydro Extractor.
  11. 11. Dewatering Function: To remove excess water from the fabric, about 70-75%. Facilates the use of softener. Controlling points: Speed Padder Pressure Ballooning
  12. 12. Dewatering Faults Causes Remedies Wet Squeezer Marks  These marks are caused due to the excessive pressure, of the squeezer rolls of the Padding Mangle, on the wet fabric  Use the Padding mangle, only for the application of the softener.  Use a hydro extractor (Centrifuge) for the extraction, to avoid the squeezer roll marks.  Soon after extraction, open the fabric manually, to prevent crease marks in the damp fabric. Softener Mark  Improper mixing of the Softener.  Improper running time of the fabric during application of softener.  Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener.  Maintaining proper reel sped & pumps speed.  Proper Mixing of the softener before addition.  Prevent the entanglement of the fabric during application of softener.
  13. 13. Slitting Machine Function: Slit the tube fabric into open from Remove excess water from fabric about 70-75% water Controlling points: Slitting point Speed Padder Pressure Ballooning
  14. 14. Slitting Machine Faults Causes Remedies Crease mark  If ballooning is not controlled  Proper ballooning of the fabric should be controlled by air flow before it passes through padder Softener spot  If softener solution is not properly prepared.  If padder roller is not properly cleaned.  Softener solution should properly be prepared.  Padder roller should be cleaned properly. Improper slitting  Slitting is not done following the slitting mark.  Observe whether sensor /operator is working properly.
  15. 15. Dryer Function:  To dry the fabric  Both open & tube form fabric can be dried here  Mainly GSM highly fabric is dried. Controlling points:  Speed  Temperature
  16. 16. Dryer Faults Causes Remedies Overheating and Shade Variation.  If speed and temperature of fabric is not properly controlled.  Temperature & speed should be controlled properly.
  17. 17. Stenter Function: Sometimes used to dry wet fabric Controlled GSM of fabric Controlled Dia of fabric Controlled shrinkage of fabric Controlled Spirality of fabric Item set of synthetic Fabric. Controlling point: Temperature & Speed:  For curing of pigment dyed fabric
  18. 18. Stenter  For Heat Setting Fabric type Temperature Speed Lycra 190°c 17-20 m/min Polyester 185°c 17-20m/min
  19. 19. Stenter Overfeed Padder pressure Skew and Bow
  20. 20. Stenter Faults Causes Remedies Startch stains and white lines on finished cloth  Starch stains and white lines on the finished cloth are produced because of incomplete dissolution of the starch in the padding liquour.  Fabric should be desized and restarched. Longitudinal Creases  Longitudinal creases are produced if the cloth passes on non-uniform cylinders after starching.  The cloth should be padded in a solution of hot water and dried on an even surface. Wrong and narrow width  Frequent stoppages during mercerization or drying produce cloth with non- uniform width.  Cloth should be passed again through the Stenter to get the required width.
  21. 21. Stenter Faults Causes Remedies Softener Mark  Improper mixing of the Softener.  Improper running time of the fabric during application of softener.  Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener.  Maintaining proper reel sped & pumps speed.  Proper Mixing of the softener before addition.  Prevent the entanglement of the fabric during application of softener. Crease Mark  Poor opening of the fabric rope.  Shock cooling of synthetic material.  If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal  Due to high speed m/c running.  Maintaining proper reel sped & pumps speed.  Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature.  Reducing the m/c load.  Higher liquor ratio GSM variation & width variation for  Improper heat setting  Mention properly heat setting.
  22. 22. Stenter Faults Causes Remedies Spirality problem  Improper skew control  Skewness of the fabric should be controlled specially for single jersey fabric. Overheating  If temperature and speed is not properly controlled.  temperature and speed should properly be controled. Width problem  Improper width setting during stentering.  Improper heat setting of lycra fabric.  Width should properly be set during stentering.  Heat setting should properly be done.
  23. 23. Compactor Function: Increases G.S.M. of fabric Control dia of fabric Calendar the fabric
  24. 24. CompactorControlling points: Overfeed Width Padder pressure: Chart Of Padder Pressure For Different Types of fabrics: Fabric Pressure (lb/inch2) Single jersey 9-18 1*1 RIB 18-33 Double pique 18-27 Others 18
  25. 25. Compactor Faults Causes Remedies Folding Marks  High pressure of the fabric Take Down rollers of the Knitting machine, on the grey fabric, is one of the main causes.  Too much pressure of the feeding rolls of the Calendar & Compactor is, the primary cause of the folding marks, in the knitted fabric.  Adjust the gap between the two rolls, as per the thickness of the fabric sheet (Pique, S.J. etc.)  Gap between the two Calendar rolls should be just enough, to let the rolls remove, the wrinkles in the fabric, but put no pressure on the fabric sheet, especially in the case of Pique & structured fabrics Skewing or Diagonal Grain Lines (Wales)  Improper feeding of the fabric, while Calendaring & Compacting.  Keep a slit line on one side of the tubular fabric.  Use the slit line, as a reference line, to keep the grain lines straight, while feeding the fabric slowly, on the Calender, or the Compactor machines
  26. 26. Compactor Faults Causes Remedies GSM Variation  Roll to roll variation in the, process parameters, of the fabric, like; Overfeed & Widthwise stretching of the dyed fabric, on the Stenter, Calendar & Compactor machines.  Roll to roll variation in the fabric stitch length.  Make sure that all the fabric rolls in a lot, are processed under the same process parameters.  The Knitting Machine settings, like; the Quality Pulley diameter etc. should never be disturbed.
  27. 27. Softener Softening treatment is one of the most important chemical after treatments in the textile industry. By softening treatment textile can achieve not only soft handle but also:  Some smoothness.  More flexibility.  Drape and Pliability.  Antistatic properties.  Luster.  Soft handle.
  28. 28. Softener Types of softeners: There are mainly four types of softeners which are discussed below: Cationic Softeners. Anionic Softeners. Non-ionic Softeners. Silicon based Softeners.
  29. 29. Softener Chemical Softness Lubricity Hydro- philicity Substant ivity Stability to yellowin g None foaming Anionic + ++ ++ – ++ – Cationic +++ – – +++ – + Non-ionic + – – – ++ + Silicones +++ +++ – to + +++ +++ to + ++ Comparison among various properties of different softeners :
  30. 30. ConclusionWe all have tried our level best in accomplishing the project. Although we know there was a vast chance and field for working with the project but due to some lack of time we came up with best. We are greatly thankful to the management and staffs of the companies namely “MASCO TEXTILES INDUSTRIES”, “NAZ BANGLADESH LTD” AND “PADMA POLY COTTON KNIT FABRICS LTD”. Without their constant support it could not have been possible. In our project we came up mainly with different kinds of finishing faults in different machines and their remedies. We express our heartiest thanks to our project supervisor and honorable teacher, RAJIB SAHA, Assistant Professor of the Department of Textile Engineering for his logical guidelines, constant inspirations, necessary instructions and proper supervision. We could have done much better if we could have gathered more practical based knowledge. .
  31. 31. Thanks Giving First of all, I am grateful to the ALMIGHTY ALLAH for enabling us to complete the project successfully. I would also like to thank our respected teachers of SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY for giving us the opportunity and helping us in all possible ways to finish the project successfully and also for their valuable suggestions. My deepest appreciation goes to our honorable Chairman Professor SYED FAKHRUL HASSAN, Head, Department of Textile Engineering, SEU and A.N.M AHMEDULLAH SIR, CO-ORDINATOR OF THE DEPARTMENT for their continuous encouragement and valuable suggestions. We express our heartiest thanks to our project supervisor and honorable teacher, RAJIB SAHA, Assistant Professor of the department for his logical guidelines, constant inspirations, necessary instructions and proper supervision A special thanks to all other faculty members for their continuous encouragement and valuable suggestions all throughout our work.
  32. 32. Thanks To All

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