Industrial attachment of novel hurricane knit garments ltd


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Industrial attachment of novel hurricane knit garments ltd

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd
  2. 2. Industrial Attachment Repor - 1 - Industrial Attachment Course is an academic function of the Southeast University. Like all other years our teacher Syed Fakrul Hassan, Chairmen of Department of Textile-Engineering, Gave us an opportunity to choose preferable mills for Industrial Attachment Course. We, the Four student of 5th batch choose the Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. joyfully with the supervising teacher Dr.Md. Abul Kalam Azad. During the attachment with The Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd we worked in all the departments related with the Garments Manufacturing Technology & Knitting. We not only gave priority to garments manufacturing but also worked sincerely in the knitting, dyeing, and Maintenance and Marketing section. We learned about quality control section, finished fabric Inspection section, warehouse, store &Inventory &Finishing. We owe a particular debt of gratitude to Md.Emrul Khan, Manager(HRD),Md.Mofazzal Hosan,GM (Production & Head Of The Factory) MD.Masud Rana,Manager,(Marketing &merchandising Dpt.),Md.Shariful Hasan Talujder,DGM(Production & Head Of The Factory),Md Maruf Mia(PM) Md.Abdus Salam, AGM,(Knitting &Fabrication) in Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. They gave always some of his valuable time regularly in helping us to achieve our intended goal. We also express our gratitude to all the executives of Bangle knitting, dyeing, cutting, sewing, finishing, store & inventory control. Of course we wish to pay our special thanks to the persons guided us cared us during this days- MD.Masud Rana, Manager,(Marketing &merchandising Dep’t. of Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. However, we have prepared our Industrial Project overcoming all the difficulties & also the shortage of time. Here we would like to present the report. Md.Yeasin Mia Md.Afjal Mia
  3. 3. Industrial Attachment Repor - 2 - Chapter-I Project Description
  4. 4. Industrial Attachment Repor - 3 - Company Profile Name of the Company: NOVEL HURRICANE KNIT GARMENTS LIMITED Company Type: 100% export oriented knit composite mill. We have two high capacity garments manufacturing plants where we can produce 18.70 million pieces of knit apparels per annum with the help of sophisticated machinery and well trained manufacturing team. Serving the needs to the global apparel market since 1999 as a leading manufacturer of quality and value added knit garments. Year of Establishment 1999 Business lines Manufacturing and marketing of wide range of knit apparels. Employee Number Management -117 Production -580 Products T-shirt, Polo shirt, Sweatshirt, Fleece shirt, Ladies Tops, etc. Production Capacity 7.50 million pieces per annum Export Market Europe , USA, Japan, German
  5. 5. Industrial Attachment Repor - 4 - Location and Address: Corporate Office- 122/A, Tejgaon Industrial Area Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh Phone: 8815356, 8819373, 8855381 Fax: 880-2-8819372 Web site: Operational Office- Bokran, Monipur, Mirzapur Gazipur-1703, Bangladesh Phone: 0682555074, 0682555104 Fax: 88-0682555103 Company Space: 500acre Products: All Types of Knit Fabric and Garments Production Capacity Per Month: Basic T-shirt 600,000 pcs Polo shirt 300,000 pcs Special Knit Item 400,000 kg Fleece Item 200,000 kg Rib/Interlock Item 400,000 kg
  6. 6. Industrial Attachment Repor - 5 - Total worker (with knitting): 1100 General Manager: 68 Maintenance: 17 Different Departments- 1. Merchandising 2. HRD 3. Administration 4. Production -Sample section -Cutting section -Sewing section -Finishing section -Work Study -Quality section 5. Complains 6. Accounce 7. Store & inventory Control 8. Knitting section History of the development: a. Garments are the biggest export oriented industry and earns 65% foreign currency. b. Engaged about 30 lac people directly with this industry activities directly on the other hand one core people of the total country are engaged with his activities .Being it is the main source of earning foreign currency and labor oriented industry for which this project development and increasing day by day.
  7. 7. Industrial Attachment Repor - 6 - Physical infrastructure: FIG: NOVEL HURRICANE KNIT GARMENTS LIMITED It is situated Gazipur basis area on about three acores of land of five stored-modern building including that different and various social humidity and department like 1. Welfare area . 2. Safety area . 3. Sufficient like fans and natural air flow the working. Atmospheric is nice hygienic and healthing. Remarks: It is one of the modern and model garments factory including ISO certified and WRAP certified factory
  8. 8. Industrial Attachment Repor - 7 - Chapter-II Man power Management
  9. 9. Industrial Attachment Repor - 8 - Organo gram: Chairperson:  Responsible for all management decision and actions take place in the company.  Approving company budgets.  Taking final decision on company profits/ loss and profit sharing between the shareholders.  Directly responsible to produce company budgets.  Responsible to work on fund management and cost control in all the process of the operation. Managing Director:  Reporting to Chairperson.  Responsible to board of director’s  Having total charge of the operation.  Directly responsible to overlook marketing department and fulfil marketing requirement.  Monitor factory operation and make sure orders and delivery on time with customer’s required quality at minimum cost.  Take the total change of all human resource activities and make sure GNF Ltd to have professional and cheerful work force. Director Operations:  Reporting to Managing Director.
  10. 10. Industrial Attachment Repor - 9 -  Direct co-ordination with production Manager/ Sample Room In-Charge/ Quality manager/ Lab In-Charge.  Product analyzing and providing technical guidance for optimum benefit of the company.  Monitor productivity and take necessary actions and give advises.  Take charge of all pre production activities.  Take change of all new development.  Identify tanning needs.  Maintain safety system and procedures.  Introduce cost effective management methods. Merchandising Manager:  Report directly to Managing Director.  Co-ordinate with Marketing officer, Director Operations and Sample Room In- Charge.  Upgrade Managing Director on the progress.  Make contribution to production planning and make sure that the production plan is up to date.  Monitoring maintained and processed order information, this is transferred between head office and the factory.  Execute raw material booking and follow-ups.  Follow up and get it done samples from sample room with the help of the coordinator.  Understand the general/ technical problems in the factory, customer requirements and get buyers approvals where even possible. Marketing Manager:  Report directly to Managing Director.  Co-ordinator with Merchandising Manager.  Responsible for business development/ develop new supplier sources and cost control.  Frequent market research and up date.  Generate innovation to the organization.  Follow up current customer and ongoing orders.  Co-operate with customers and make.  Understand the general/ technical problems in the factory, convince customers and get customers approvals approvals where ever is possible on company interest.  Find business for surplus good.  Prepare and maintain management reports. Administration Manager:  Directly reporting to General Manager
  11. 11. Industrial Attachment Repor - 10 -  Co-ordinate with the entire department in changes and all the workers in the Factory.  Responsible to monitor:  Factory timing.  Discipline and cleanliness.  Attendance, leave and holidays.  Security and maintenance of the factory.  Transportation and its maintenance.  Wagers, overtime pay, allowances and other payment.  Do necessary formalities during new recruitment or terminations.  Keep head office updated on regular intervals. Management System: Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. has maintained in the International Standard Management System. It is follow up ISO9001:2008 management system & WRAP standard. Shift System: Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. has flows one shift and shift hour 8:00 AM to 5:00PM (Within one hour taking rest ). For emergency shiftment it is work overtime 5:00 PM to 10:00PM. Responsibility of production Officer: The production Officer is very sincere, proactive and very carefully every work. They doing work factory full time. The production officer solves the problem and how to know production planning and improvement of the production. The production manager maintain production department and increase productivity. Remarks: The management of Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. is very strong and they maintain every work carefully. The management supervising all of the factory and production Officer doing works carefully.
  12. 12. Industrial Attachment Repor - 11 - Chapter-III Machine Description
  13. 13. Industrial Attachment Repor - 12 - No. of Machine: The Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. has used different type machine. This machine is high technology & ultra modern machine. Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. has six hundred above machinery. The machine is use different section. The section wise machine is following- Cutting Section:  Fabric inspection m/c  Straight knife m/c  Brand knife m/c  Fusing m/c  Hand Operated Scissors Sewing Section:  Plain Machine(S/N)  Double Needle Machine(D/N)  Over lock Machine(O/L)  Flat lock Machine (F/L)  Kanshai Machine  Blend Stitching m/c Bar-tack Section:  Button Hole Machine  Button join Machine  Bar-tack Machine(B/T)  Snap button attaching m/c Finishing Section:  Suction Machine.  Repeat attaching m/c  Iron  Metal detector m/c  Spot cleaning m/c
  14. 14. Industrial Attachment Repor - 13 - Make, Brand name ,Origin Model: They given below m/c name, origin ,make, brand name and model following table: Machine Name Brand Origin Model Quantity 1 CLOTH CUTTER K.M JAPAN KS-AUV-258857 5 2 BAND KNIFE K.M JAPAN S.BK-700 1 3 FABRIC INSPECTION M/C UZU THAILAND UZ-900-31/72” 1 4 SINGLE NEEDLE BROTHER JAPAN SL-7340-5 306 5 DOUBLE NEEDLE BROTHER JAPAN T-8420A-005 22 6 5 THRED OVERLOCK BROTHER JAPAN FB-N310-5030-55- 3WF 32 7 HAMMING JUKI U.S.A US-63900AM1/2 4 8 ZIGZAK YAMATA CHINA FY-20043 3 9 FEED OF THE ARM BROTHER JAPAN DA-9280-D 9 10 BUTTON STITCH BROTHER JAPAN BE-438D 3 11 BUTTON HOLE BROTHER JAPAN HE-800A-2 3 12 EYELEY HOLE BROTHER JAPAN RH-981A-02 2 13 BARTACK BROTHER JAPAN KE-430D-02 12 14 SNAP ATTCH PRYM GERMANY PP5-600ZP 6 15 IRONING VACUUM TAB NAWMOTO JAPAN FB-700-SID 12 16 THRED SUCKER MODERN BANGLA TS05-12 1
  16. 16. Industrial Attachment Repor - 15 - Main specification: Single needle sewing /plain machine:  Thread stand  Thread clamp  Thread retainer  Thread up lever guide  Thread guide  Tension disk  Pressure screw  Pressure bar  Pressure feet  Hand lifter  Needle clamp  Needle  Feed dog  SPI adjust  Reverse lever Figure-Typical view of Plain M/c  bobbin winder pulley  Needle plate  Oil sight winder  Pulley  Belt cover  Leg lifter  Safety guide  Motor Sewing Machine types According to the operating system, there are two types of sewing m/c are available given below- 1. Manually Operated sewing machine 2. Electrically Operated sewing machine 1. Manually Operated sewing machine: The m/c in which sewing is done by physical power called Manually Operated sewing machines. These types of sewing m/c are widely used in tailoring and domestic purpose for sewing fabrics. Because of less production, these types of sewing m/c are not used in garments industry.
  17. 17. Industrial Attachment Repor - 16 - 2. Electrically Operated sewing machine: The m/c, in which sewing is done by electrical power called Electrically Operated sewing machine. Comparatively these types of m/c contain high production and widely used in garments industries for making garments. The machines which are used in garments industries are called Industrial sewing m/cs. There are various types of industrial sewing machines are available named by- 1. Double chain stitch m/c (4-thread short) 2. Double chain stitch m/c (4-needle elastic inserting m/c) 3. Double chain stitch m/c (double needle with reverse feed) 4. Feed of the arm(double chain stitch m/c.3 needle) 5. Interlock m/c (2- needle 5-thread O/L M/c) 6. Lock stitch m/c (single needle with variable to feed with automatic thread trimmer) 7. Lock stitch m/c(single needle with automatic thread trimmer) 8. Lock stitch m/c (single needle sewing m/c) 9. Lock stitch m/c (2-needle with split needle bar sewing) 10. Lock stitch m/c (twin needle feed) 11. Lock stitch ink (1-needle with vertical trimmer wiper & reverse feed) 12. Lap seaming m/c (for back tape attaching) 13. Linking m/c 14. Over lock m/c (twin needle, 4-thread m/c) 15. Over lock m/c (1-needle, 3-thread) 16. Zigzag sewing m/c (1-needle) 17. Top & bottom cover stitch flat bed m/c, 3-needle 18. 3-needle covering m/c, 5-thread flat bed top & bottom covering m/c 19. Button hole m/c (for woven fabric) 20. Button sewing m/c 21. Bartak ink (with automatic thread trimmer) 22. Button hole sewing m/c (for knitted fabric) 23. Button covering stitch belt loop making m/c (kansai m/c) 24. Bias tape cutting m/c 25. Label sewing machine. Only main specification of different Sewing machine (m/c) are given below-
  18. 18. Industrial Attachment Repor - 17 - Lock Stitching M/c:  Group : Lock Stitch  S.P.M : 1500-5500  Needle name : DB*1  Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21.  T.P.I : 2.5 inches  Function : Woven fabric stitching Figure :- Lock Stitching m/c Bar Tack M/c:  Group : Lock stitch  S.P.M : 3000-3200  Needle name : DP *5  Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21.  Per bar tack : 8 inches Figure: Bar Tack m/c  Function : Bar tacking. Kansai M/c:  Group : Chain stitch  S.P.M : 3000-3600  Needle name : UO * 113  Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21.  Per bar tack : 16 inches  Function : Jacket, cuff, fu-long pant, waist belt joining Feed of the Arm m/c: Group : Chain stitch S.P.M : 6000 Needle name : UY * 113 Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. Per bar tack : 8 inches Figure: Feed of the Arm m/c Function : Inseam stitching of woven & jeans fabric.
  19. 19. Industrial Attachment Repor - 18 - Single Needle Chain stitching m/c [1 needle 1 lopper 2 thread]: Group : Chain stitch S.P.M :1800 - 6500 Needle name : UV * 5 / TV * 7 Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. T.P.I : 4 inches. Figure: Single Needle Chain stitching m/c Function : False stitching. Double Needle Chain stitching m/c [2 needle 2 lopper 4 threads]: Group : Chain stitch S.P.M : 1800 - 6500 Needle name : UV * 5 / TV * 7 Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. Figure: Single Needle Chain stitching m/c T.P.I : 4 inches. Function : Side seam stitching. Button Hole M/C: Group – Lock stitch / Chain stitch S.P.M : 3600 Needle name : DP * 5 Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. Per hole : 8 inches. Function : Button hole making Figure: Button Hole M/C
  20. 20. Industrial Attachment Repor - 19 - Button Attaching m/c: Group : Lock stitch / Chain stitch S.P.M :1500 Needle name : TQ * 1 Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. Function : Button attaching Figure: Button attaching m/c Blend Stitching m/c: Group : Chain stitch S.P.M : 2500 Needle name : LW * 6T Needle size : 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. Per hole : 8 inches Function : Blend stitching making Zigzag Stitching M/C: Group : Lock stitch S.P.M : 1500 - 5500 Needle name : Db * Needle size – 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. Per hole : 5 inches. Function : Decorative seam making. Over lock m/c:  No of needle: One or multiple needle is used  No of threads: 2-5threads are used  Maximum stitch length is 4mm, but it can easily be adjusted by using push button system.  SPM: 6500-8500  Edge trimmer knife is available in front of the needle.
  21. 21. Industrial Attachment Repor - 20 - The m/c is used for both woven & knitted fabrics Group Chain stitch Brand Name Juki Needle Type DC*1,DC*11,DC*14 Origin Japan Model :MO-3914,TO-42 Figure: Over lock m/c Cloth Cutting Machine: Machine Nam : K.M. Company Cloth Cutting Machine Model : KM KS-AUV Producer : Made by K.M. Cutting, Japan Type : Heavy Duty Industrial Cloth Cutting Machine Self Sharpening Dimension : 8’’W *11’’L *24’’H (Weight=33.5 lb) Current : A.C (3.3/2.6 amps) Speed : 3000/3600 Remarks: It is the most important factor for garments factory. To know m/c name .origin , model and what type of m/c work done properly and to know every parts of machine.
  22. 22. Industrial Attachment Repor - 21 - Chapter-IV Raw Materials
  23. 23. Industrial Attachment Repor - 22 - Types of raw materials: Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd is used different types of raw materials. Such as fabric , sewing thread, trimmings, accessories, spare parts etc. Source of Raw Materials: The raw materials are come from the Comilla EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE (CEPZ). Main suppliers for our fabrics, zipper & others are given bellow- Fabric supplier:  Main Land – CHINA  K.G. Denim - INDIA  Kashem Textile - PAKISTAN  H.S. Textile –BANGLADESH  Polash Textile - BANGLADESH  Hossain Fabric Ltd - BANGLADESH Zipper supplier: L.S.I & Y.K.K. Thread: SANZI TEXT ANLIMA YARN TOTAL THREAD ACTIVE THREAD Label: COLOR KING GOLDEN LINE ETACOL Button: L.S.I. & Rupali Lace Poly: IMPERIAL Carton: BECO & COMILLA PACKAGING Hang Tag/ Paper tag: COLOR KING Price: The price is fixed by the management. Annual requirement: The requirement of raw materials depends on the production capacity. Increase productivity more raw materials are required. Annual requirement 20,000,00 yards of fabric.
  24. 24. Industrial Attachment Repor - 23 - Remarks: It is the most important part of the garments factory. To know type of raw materials , fabric speciation and function.
  25. 25. Industrial Attachment Repor - 24 - Chapter-V Production Planning Sequence and Operation
  26. 26. Industrial Attachment Repor - 25 - Production planning It is a suitable and clear study and pre-arranging the techniques involves to a long series of operation for achieving best possible out comes at desired or scheduled time by using man, Material and m/c present in industry. Tools of production planning: 1. Motivation of worker 2. Education of training 3. Work study 4. Line balancing 5. Scheduling 6. Planning 7. Incentive 8. Inventory management 9. Quality management 10. Maintenance management Production parameter: There are hundreds of items used to manufacture the garments, proper selection of trims and its quality are very important for styling, otherwise the garment may be rejected or returned by the customers.
  27. 27. Industrial Attachment Repor - 26 - Following is a part of list that covers some names of the trims:  Zipper/Fastener • Sewing Thread • Main Label • Flag Label • Button • Elastic • Eyelet hole • Tag s • Tag pin • Plastic clip • Sticker • Hanger • Poly bag • Scotch tape • Gum tape • Photo Board • Back Board • Tissue • Carton. Etc.
  28. 28. Industrial Attachment Repor - 27 - Planning officer must know the following things:  Order number  Style name  Order quantity  Shipment date  Lead time  Style breakdown  Allocation the specific line of the style & the capacity of the style or not  Production per day according to the shipment order  Print status  For specific style how much printing unit can produce per day For achieve the plan target planning officer must ensure the following things:  Input(Cutting parts)  Accessories  Machineries  Manpower  Floor space to set up the machine  Required working hour.  Planning Department Procedure:  Have to good knowledge about planning.  Skilled workers are need.  To know about planning process.  Store of raw material availability.  To know market demand.  Order in hand availability.  Export availability of goods.  To set up man power .  To set up machinery. Problem of planning: Have to change the planning:  New order allocation  Printing supply delay  Shipment adjustment  Fabric supply delay  Trims & Accessories delay  Dyeing delay  Extra shipment
  29. 29. Industrial Attachment Repor - 28 -  Order cancelled Reasons for production overtime: The planning section decided that whether the overtime is needed or not for specific order according to shipment date. Sometimes there have some reasons for overtime. The reasons are follows below:  Fabric shedding from dyeing  Print & Embroidery Delay supply  Emergency shipment  Quantity Trim & adjustment  Fabric delay supply  Trims & accessories insufficient/delay  Order quantity rebalance &pending work  Machine storage & problems  Interruption power supply by maintenance
  30. 30. Industrial Attachment Repor - 29 - Sample Section
  31. 31. Industrial Attachment Repor - 30 - Sample garments :The garments which is need for bulk production is called sample garment or sample garments is a small production the bulk amount of sample. Sequence of Sample Garments Making : Design/Sketch Basic block/Block Pattern Working Pattern Sample making Fault detection Cost determination Solve the problem (as required) Approved sample Production sample Design/Sketch: For the production of knit of woven garments a sketch of a particular garment including its design features is essential to produce on paper so that after manufacturing of that garments could be verified or checked whether it looks like the sketch of not. Design/Sketch of the garments could be done manually or with the help computer. Basic block :The pattern which are made according to actual size , shape of standard body measurement without any design , style , allowances etc . Working Pattern :When a pattern is made for a particular style with net dimension then it is known as working pattern use for sample making. Sample Making: The pattern is used to cut the fabric. Then the garment component in fabric form is used to Sew/assemble the garment. Sample garment making is to be done by a very efficient and technically sound person. Approved sample :The sample ( according to buyer specification sheet )which is approved by buyers is known as approved sample
  32. 32. Industrial Attachment Repor - 31 - Cutting Section
  33. 33. Industrial Attachment Repor - 32 - Introduction: Cutting section is the most important and risky section in garments industry. For a little mistake full order may be cancelled. With the false management a big portion of garments may employed. With very care this section is handled. In Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. there consists 05 cutting table. From the section of marker comes out for denim fabric there is marker use because if use the marker for denim fabric, frequently match of one side to the other. This is a buyer requirement to match the fabric. Normally big marker length is 5.5 yards and thickness of lay is 4 inch. Straight Knife Cutting Machine: In Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. all the fabric is cut down with the straight knife cutting machine by the help of skilled operator. Here use a blade which is very sharp and changed this on the basis of fabric quantity and composition, normally in every after 4 days. Here, in the below give a short description on this time. Advantages:  As it comparatively cheaper, easy movement and maximum lay height could be cut, used extensively in garments industry.  Could cut fabric at move curved line then round knife.  Cutting could be done for up to 10 inch depth of the lay.  Quick fabric cutting.  Components could be cut out directly from the fabric lay.  Grinding could be done during cutting.  Could be cut at any angle. Disadvantages:  Knife deflection may result due to heavy weight of the motor.  Higher the depth of the lay, higher will be the deflection.  Possibility of accident is higher. Requirement for Fabric Cutting: The following points must be fulfilled in fabric cutting: 1. Precision of fabric cutting:
  34. 34. Industrial Attachment Repor - 33 - Fabric cutting should be done accurately as per exact dimension of the pattern pieces in the marker. Accurate cutting depends on method of cutting and marker planning. If manual cutting method is sued, then cutting and die cutting have their self cutting accuracy. 2. Consistent Cutting: Whatever be the cutting method used for fabric lay cutting, it should be ensure that the shape of the cut components from top to bottom lay are of exact size and shape, otherwise the garments produced will be defective. 3. Infused edge: During fabric cutting, the friction between the fabric and the blade produces temperature in the blade; the temperature may be up to 300°C. If the fabric contains synthetic fabric e.g. nylon, polyester, acrylic or other blends, then fused edge may result in the fibres melt at round 250°C. Therefore, sticking of cut edge of fabric will increase the fabric wastage. Moreover, the fused edge after cooling will form hard bid, which will be a problem of irritation during use of garments. To avoid the problem of fused edge formation, the following steps may be taken:  Reduce the height of the lay;  Reduce the cutting speed;  Use anti-fusion paper in the lay at regular interval;  Lubricate the knife during cutting; 4. Supporting of the lay: Surface of the cutting table depends on methods of fabric cutting. The table surface should be capable to support the lay as well to ensure that all the piles are cut at a time during fabric cutting. In Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. the sequence of the operation in cutting Section is as follows:
  35. 35. Industrial Attachment Repor - 34 - Flow Sequence of Cutting Sample pattern Order sheet Store receiving fabric Inspection of fabric Fabric width measure Marker making Fabric spreading Cutting Parts checking Numbering Panel check
  36. 36. Industrial Attachment Repor - 35 - Bundling , shortening Transfer for sewing Fabric inspection: 1. GSM Check 2. Dia Check 3. Fault Check 4. Point calculation 5. Four point system calculation 6. Prepared fabric inspection report 7. Prepared weight sheet 8. Send to store (With Weight Sheet) Description of production process: Fabric received from store Before fabric laying a thin paper as like as marker that is marker size and thin paper size is same, then thin paper attach with spreading table by gum tape then spread the fabric according to marker size. Marker Making : Marker is a thin paper which contains all necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments in such a way that fabric wastage would be least Marker width is equal to the minimum fabric width and its length depends on the no. of pattern sizes that will be the drawn . Method of marker making : 1)Manual Method 2)Computerized Method This factory used in manual method Advantages -Suitable for small production
  37. 37. Industrial Attachment Repor - 36 - -Investment is low Disadvantages -More time required -High labour cost Fabric Spreading Fabric spreading is a process by which plice of fabric is spreaded in order to get required length and width as per marker dimension .This a preparatory operation for cutting and consists laying Method of fabric spreading 1)Manual method 2)Mechanical method This factory used manual method -Spreading complete by hand -Spreading by hook Straight fabric lays used in this factory -This lay is mostly used -Few fabric wastage Fabric cutting: Fabric lay is cutting by straight knife cutting machine then separated cutting part. Numbering: In this stage sticker is attached with all part of cutting part for shade matching. The sticker number maintains cutting number, size number, serial number. Prepared the bundling card Prepared bundling card according to fabric lay report this card maintain  Program No  Cutting No  Size No  Pies  Roll No
  38. 38. Industrial Attachment Repor - 37 - Bundling: In this stage all number are checked according to serial number. Quality inspection and part-back part is fold together: Here all parts are checked according to following fault.  Oil Sport  Dirty Sport  Crease mark  Needle mark  Foreign yarn  Slub  Contamination  Hole Then same number of sticker are marked fold and bundled After Cutting Store: All bundles are put in the input rack then send to sewing section. Limitations of Cutting Section:  Input problem.  Scissor man cuts the tubular fabric to spread randomly and send to cutting floor and then find out the desired fabric to lay on the table.  There is maybe no group for any table.  Quality inspection and front part and back part are fold together. The faulty body parts are rejected but the rest ok body is not match by the same batch.  Cutting quality man may not be trained.  Check, variegated rib fabric lay quantity may be excess. As a result reject percentage may be increased.  Fabric Spreading.  There is may be no identification number to the rest of the cutting price of the lay.  There is no individual marker man for any unit.  Three cutting man cuts the fabric according to the marker.  Four man working with numbering m/c to sort out the cut fabric.  Two man preparing the bundle cards by writing on a piece of fabric.  In this stage four men bundle the parts according to serial number.
  39. 39. Industrial Attachment Repor - 38 - Sewing Section: Sewing Section is the crowds section in Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. All day long there machine are ruined according to the plan. From the cutting section the cutting parts of different garments brought in sewing section to sew. First of all machine is set out according to requirement. In this chapter I will try to give some flow chart of the different garments item sewing along with the machine lay out plan. I in sewing machine normally the following machine is used:
  40. 40. Industrial Attachment Repor - 39 -  Plain Machine(S/N)  Double Needle Machine(D/N)  Over lock Machine(O/L)  Flat lock Machine(F/L)  Kanshai Machine  Button Hole Machine  Button join Machine  Rib Cutter Machine  Bar tack Machine(B/T) Sewing: Sewing Production Flow Chart: Input taken and sample arrange Cutting Store Cutting Sewing Store In line work Lay out submit PP meeting Label check Sewing Start During Sewing Out put
  41. 41. Industrial Attachment Repor - 40 - Finishing Ship the Goods Sewing Procedure: Input taken and Sample arrange-  Input taken will provide by planning department with ensure the shipment date, size, break-down according to manpower of that line and confirm the checklist sheet of store is ok.  As per input taken planner will provide sample from sample department.  AQC will select the PP sheet and other necessary papers in the mentioned style. Cutting  Input man collects size-wise information from cutting section for giving the requisition in store for accessories (label; button, twill-tape etc.) Store  From store it has to ensure all the accessories if the mentioned style is in the house.  As per requisition store will start to arrange the accessories.  One requisition is given for thread Cutting:  Input man will collect the size wise input by counting which is confirmed by cutting section.  Pre-work, printing, embroidery and other parts have to give by accurate check and counting as per input quantity which will taken by sewing input man. Sewing:  Input man put the input in rack by size-wise. Store:
  42. 42. Industrial Attachment Repor - 41 -  Store will provide all the accessories as per requirement of the inputted quantity and input man take accessories by counting. In line work:  After getting all necessary things supervisor will start paper layout and take necessary actions to avoid the problems which can be affected during pick production line. Layout submits:  Before start the production, supervisor submit the layout sheet in IE and maintenance department. PP meeting:  Before starting the sewing in the line of the style it has to be conduct pp meeting to avoid the missing of buyer comments or requirement. Label check:  AQC check the label against trim card and give the permission to start the sewing. Sewing start:  It is mentioned that sewing will start by size wise which quality is large. During sewing:  Supervisor and line-chief doing the major job during the sewing.  They always try to solve the up-coming problem.  Maintain the hourly production with right quality. Output:  After doing all processes and quality check garments will stored in output table.  Reporter will collect the garments from output table.  After collecting the garments, reporting will count and delivery the goods finishing section by size wise. Finishing:  Finishing will ensure that the size wise quantity is ok as per order quantity.  If there any size missing or size wise breakdown not accurate as per order quantity they have to inform the respective production officer. Ship the Goods:
  43. 43. Industrial Attachment Repor - 42 -  As per order quantity finishing will complete carton and make as final inspection.  After final inspection goods will delivery for shipment. Sewing sequence of polo shirt SL NO.OPRATION MACHINE SMV MAN POWER 1 Placket rolling 1 p/m 6.1 OP=1,HL=1 2 Moo n joint 1 p/m 14 OP=1 3 Moon top stitch 1 F/L 12.4 0 OP=1,HL=1 4 4 Kasa maring (neck close) 1 P/M 11.44 OP=1 5 Placket matching with front part Table ,HL=2 6 Placket attach with front part P/M (Auto) 20.40 OP=1 7 Placket top stitch 1 P/M 20.00 OP=1,HL=1 8 Placket tuck 1 P/M 17.1 0 OP=1,HL=1 9 Matching (F&B part) Table 13.0 0 OP= 1,HL=1 10 Solder joint with solder tap 1 0/L 10.0 0 OP=1,HL=1 11 Solder top stitch 1 F/L 12.00 OP=1,HL=1 12 Collar cut without thread O/L( N o NEED) 6.00 OP=1,HL=1 13 Collar tuck with Placket 1 P/M 15.33 OP=1,HL=1 14 Collar joint with body 1 O/L 10.0 0 OP=1,HL=1 15 Neck piping 1 F/L 10,2 0 OP=1,HL=1 16 Main label joint 1 P/M 12.5 0 OP=1,HL=1 17 Sleeve hem joint with Sleeve 1 OIL 13.00 OP=1,HL=1 18 18 Collar back top stitch 2 F/L 17.50 OP= 2,HL=2 19 Cutting& Matching (Sleeve& body) Table 7.00 (42:2 0) HL= 2 20 Sleeve joint 2 O/L 22.50 OP= 2,HL=2 21 Placket Kasa mara 1 P/M 19.30 OP=1 22 Placket 1/16 top stitch P/M (Auto) 11.00 OP=1
  44. 44. Industrial Attachment Repor - 43 - 23 Placket tuck 1 P/M 13.40 OP=1,HL=1 24 Care label joint 1 P/M 14.10 OP=1 Here , Symbol Name Quantity P/M Plain machine 18 O/L Over lock m/c 8 25 Placket box top stitch 2 P/M 20.00 OP= 2,1.1 26 Inspection all back process Table 11.40 OP=1 I 27 Bottom hem 1 F/L 13.20 OP=1,HL=1 28 Side seam 2 0/L 31.00 OP= 2 HL=2 29 Side band twill tap 'f I 1 P/M 10.40 OP=1,HL=1 30 Side band tuck 1 P/M (Auto) 17.30 OP=1 31 Side band top stitch 2 P/M 29.30 OP= 2,HL=2 32 Sleeve inside tuck 1 P/M 12.00 OP=1 HL=1 , 33 Sleeve outside top stitch 1 P/M 9.30 OP= I,HL=1 34 Side band tuck 1 P/M 17.50 OP=1,HL=1 35 Button hole 1 B/H 12.30 OP=1 36 Button Positionin g able 10.00 OP=1 37 Button attaching 1 B/A 14.10 OP=1
  45. 45. Industrial Attachment Repor - 44 - P/M (Auto) Auto Plain m/c 3 F/L Flat lock m/c 6 B/H Button hole m/c 1 B/A Button attaching m/c 1 OP Operator 40 HL Helper 33 Total Machine = 37 Total Manpower = 73 Result: Total time required to making garments is 9:28 if single machine is used. But double machine is used in (operation, 18, 21, 25, 28, 31) so that time Reduce 60 secede. Actual Total time required to making a garments=8:28 minutes (basic time) Sewing sequence of T- shirt Parts name M/c name No of m/c Side seam joining 4 thread Over lock m/c 2 m/c Label tuck Plain m/c 1 m/c Label join with body Plain m/c 1 m/c Side top seam 3 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c Shoulder join 4 thread Over lock m/c _ 1 m/c Shoulder top seam 3 thread flat lock m/c 1 m/c Rib v sewing Plain m/c 1 m/c Rib show tuck Plain m/c 1 m/c Rib servicing 2 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c Rib servicing by cutting Over lock m/c 1 m/c V tuck with body Plain m/c 2 m/c Neck join 4 thread Over lock m/c 2 m/c Rib binding 2 thread flat lock m/c 1 m/c Back top seam Plain m/c 1 m/c Sleeve inside tuck 4 thread Over lock m/c 1 m/c
  46. 46. Industrial Attachment Repor - 45 - Sleeve hem 3 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c Sleeve join 4 thread Over lock m/c 2 m/c Body hem 3 thread flat lock m/c 1 m/c Quality check Men 2 person T shirt layout (Long sleeve): Parts name M/c Name No of m/c First shoulder join 4 thread Over lock m/c 1 m/c Neck binding/piping 3 thread flat lock m/c 1 m/c Binding tuck Plain m/c 1 m/c Second shoulder join 4 thread Over lock m/c 1 m/c Shoulder top stitch 5 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c False tuck on the neck Plain m/c 1 m/c Sleeve join 4 thread Over lock m/c 2 m/c Arm hole top seam 5 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c Side seam join Feed of the arm (6 thread) 6 m/c Sleeve hem 3 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c Body hem 3 thread flat lock m/c 1 m/c Care label Plain m/c 1 m/c Quality check Men 2 person Sewing sequence of Tank Top Parts name M/c Name No of m/c First shoulder joint 4 thread Over lock m/c 1 m/c Neck piping 3 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c Neck tuck Plain m/c 2 m/c Second shoulder joint 4 thread Over lock m/c 1 m/c Chup tuck(Neck) Plain m/c 1 m/c
  47. 47. Industrial Attachment Repor - 46 - Armhole piping 5 thread flat lock m/c 2 m/c Armhole Tuck Plain m/c 2 m/c2m/c Side joint 4 thread Over lock m/c 2 m/c2m/c Body Hem 3 thread flat lock m/c 1 m/c Seam Definition: In sewing a seam is the line where two or more layers of fabric are held together by stitching. In order words, the line of joining of fabric is called seam. The arrangement of fabric ends at the seam line called seam type Properties of Seam: Properties of seam are assessed on the following two aspects:  Appearance After sewing, the seam area is observed for any defects, if present which affects outlook. Normally it is expected that there will be no defective view of stitches, seam pucker, or unsightly view.  Performance: Performance of a seam is assessed according to following criteria.  Seam strength: strength of a seam should be equal to or slightly less than the fabric strength.  Seam elasticity: Elasticity property of a seam should be equal to or greater than the fabric elasticity.
  48. 48. Industrial Attachment Repor - 47 -  Durability: Durability of a seam equal to or greater than the durability of the fabric. Especially during wear and washing, the seam should not fail or damage due to frictional forces and tension.  Security: During normal use of apparels, the seam should not fail due to simple reason. Confidence of normal stability of seam is the security of the seam. If the seam fails due to normal reason the situation might be unexpected.  Comfort ability: Apparels, during normal use should not create any irritation or problem to body and health as well.  Special property: If clothing has any special property like water proof, fire proof, chemical resistant, etc then in manufacturing this apparel the seam should be produced in such a way that the seam have also such special property. Garment seam: Seam is the combination of stitch which makes line to join two ply of fabric. It has both functional and decorative purpose. There are 8 classes of Seam: 1. Seam Class 1 : Superimposed Seam 2. Seam Class 2 : Lapped Seam 3. Seam Class 3 : Bound Seam 4. Seam Class 4 : Flat Seam 5. Seam Class 6 : Edge neatening Seam 6. Seam Class 7 : Applied Seam 7. Seam Class 8 : Belt loop Seam Factors that affect seam strength: Five factors that determine the strength of a seam include:  Fabric type and weight.  Thread fiber type, construction, and size.  Stitch and seam construction.  Stitches per inch.  Stitch balance. Seam type: Seam types in the apparel industry are used to categorize according to their structure. Each is classified by the abbreviated seam type(example: Superimposed Seam= SS). There are more than 100 types of seam and all those seams are grouped under 8 (eight) classes, called seam
  49. 49. Industrial Attachment Repor - 48 - classes. Each seam class is useful for different condition methods. The seam class are discussed below: Seam class-1(Super imposed seam): Seam under this class have a general characteristic and all the fabric ends are lying in one side of the seam. This type of seam is used for general sewing, trouser side seam etc. Seam class-2(Lapped seam): This class of seaming has the largest number of variations. A lapped seam is achieved with two or more pieces of fabric overlapping each other. LS commonly, but not always, have one ply of fabric fold under itself for a finishing edge. Lapped seam are common when working with leather and sewing side seams on jeans and dress shirts. Fabric ends lie at both sides of the seam line. Seams under this class are very strong. Seam class-3 (Bound seam): The purpose of a bound seam is to finish an edge of a garments. A common example of this would be a neckline of a t-shirt. A bound seam is one piece of fabric encompassing the raw edge of another piece of fabric. There are 18 variations of a bound seam. Seams under this class are produced with at least two pieces of fabric. One piece of fabric bound the open end of other piece of fabric.
  50. 50. Industrial Attachment Repor - 49 - Seam class-4(Flat seam): Flat seams are constructed by having two pieces of fabric meet precisely at their edges. A cover stitch is used to sew the two pieces of fabric together. This stitch has multiple needles and creates a stitch perpendicular to the seam line. This creates a flat seam which is commonly used on garments the fit closely to the body such as underwire. The purpose is to create a seam that will be flat throughout the duration of the garments life. Seam under this class are produced by keeping the fabric plies side by side i.e. without overlapping of plies of fabric. Hence seams can produced without increasing the thickness of the seam. Seam class-5(Decorative seam) Seams under this class are produced only for decoration purpose with single pieces or multi- pieces of fabric. Seam class-6(Edge neatening) Seams under this class are produced in such a way so that the fabric ends from cut area cannot come out during use. Over lock sewing is frequently used for this purpose.
  51. 51. Industrial Attachment Repor - 50 - Seam class-7 These are sometimes called applied seam because they are mainly used to apply a decorative material to an edge of seam, such as the lace ending on a nightdress sleeve. Seam class-8 Constructed from one ply of fabric only, this class is commonly used for belt loops and waist belts. Garments stitch: Stitch is the unit of seam which is formed by interlacing, interloping, intra-looping or combination of three principle. 1. Stitch Class 100 : Single-Thread Chain Stitch 2. Stitch Class 200 : Hand Stitch
  52. 52. Industrial Attachment Repor - 51 - 3. Stitch Class 300 : Lock Stitch 4. Stitch Class 400 : Multi-Thread Chain Stitch 5. Stitch Class 500 : Over-edge Stitch 6. Stitch Class 600 : Flat & Covering Stitch  Stitch Class 100- Single Thread Chain Stitch - Stitch is made by same thread through intra-looping - One needle and one looper is needed for forming stitch - Less Strength - Temporary stitch, Subclass-101 - Invisible/Blind Stitch, Subclass-103 Uses: Basting, or light construction, Blind stitch for Hemming  Stitch Class 200-Hand Stitch - This stitch also produced from single thread - Less durable stitch - Subclass-202 is hand stitch - Subclass-209 is machine stitch Uses: Decorative purpose such as Lapel of Coat Decorating, Tacking or Repairs etc. Stitch Class-103Stitch Class-101 Stitch Class-202 Stitch Class-205
  53. 53. Industrial Attachment Repor - 52 -  Stitch Class 300-Lock Stitch - It requires two types of sewing thread - Stitch is form through interlacing - Bobbin and bobbin case required instead of looper - Both side are same - It is difficult to pick up the stitch when required - More Compact - Subclass-301 is more compact and non elastic - Subclass-304 consume more yarn and elastic Uses: Top stitching and attaching elastic lace to the garments  Stitch Class 400-Multi-Thread Chain Stitch - Multithread Chain stitch - At least 2 set of thread is required for forming stitch (One is Looper Thread another one is Needle Thread) - Subclass-401 consists of 1 needle thread and 1 looper thread - Subclass-406 consists of 2 needle thread and 1 looper thread - Subclass-407 consists of 3 needle thread and 1 looper thread Uses: [401-Waist Band of Jeans Pant, Side Seam of Trousers], [406-Hemming of T- Shirt & Polo Shirt], [407-Attaching Elastic bands to Briefs and Undergarments]  Stitch Class 500-Over-edge Stitch - Its function to stop fraying out of loose yarn from edge - It also increase seam security - Subclass-503 consists of 1 needle thread and 1 looper thread - Subclass-504 consists of 1 needle thread and 2 looper thread - Subclass-514 consists of 2 needle thread and 2 looper thread - Subclass-515 is the combination of 503 and 401 Uses: For surging the edge of fabric Stitch Class-401 Stitch Class-406 Stitch Class-301 Stitch Class-304
  54. 54. Industrial Attachment Repor - 53 -  Stitch Class 600-Covering chain Stitch - Formed with at least 3 groups of yarn - Covering stitches for decorative purpose. - Can be used to joint of 2 raw edges. - Suitable for knitted garment. - Cover Stitch for Over-stitching Seams, High Elongation for Foundation Garments, also used for "Butt-Seams" (Joining Raw Edges Together) - Subclass-602 consists of 2 needle thread and 2 looper thread - Subclass-605 consists of 3 needle thread and 2 looper thread - Subclass-606 consists of 4 needle thread and 5 looper thread Uses: For hemming of sleeve and bottom of T-Shirt, Polo Shirt and other Knit Garments, Attaching collar, Contrast yarn in top covering thread for decorative purpose Stitch Class-602 Stitch Class-605 Stitch Class-502 Stitch Class-503 Stitch Class-514 Stitch Class-515 Stitch Class-504
  55. 55. Industrial Attachment Repor - 54 - Sewing Needle: A sewing needle is a long slender tool with a pointed tip. The first needle was made of bone or wood, modern ones are manufacture from high carbon steel wire, nickel or gold plated for corrosion resistance. The higher quality embroidery needles are made of platinum. Needle size is denoted by a number on the packet. The convention for sizing is that the length and thickness of a needle increases as the size number decreases. For example, a size 1 needle will be thicker and longer, while a size 10 will be shorter and finer. The action of needle has a direct effect on seam strength and garments performance. Function of a needle: The function of a sewing needle is: To produced a hole in the material for the thread to pass through without causing any damage to material. To form a loop that will be picked up by the hook of bobbin case. To pass the needle thread through the loop formed by the looper mechanism on machines other then lock stitch. Parts of a Sewing Needle: The different parts of a needle and their functions are mentioned below  Butt: It is the truncated conical shape at the top end of the needle which is needed to attach the needle with needle bar or clamp.  Shank: Shank is the upper part of the needle which locates which the needle bar. It may be cylindrical or flat at one side.  Shoulder: shoulder is the section intermediate between the shank and the blade.  Blade: It is the longest portion of the needle from the shoulder to eye. This part is responsible for the most amount of friction between needle and fabric.  Long groove: There is a fine slot in the needle from its shoulder to eye. The needle thread remains at this slot when the needle penetrates the fabric and goes up and down.
  56. 56. Industrial Attachment Repor - 55 -  Short groove: Short groove is the slot on the side needle towards the hook or looper. It assists in forming the loop of needle thread.  Eye: Needle eye is a hole at the tip of the needle through which the sewing threads passes. It prevents the sewing threads from damage during sewing.  Point: It provides the best penetration of material according to its nature and the appearance that has to be produced.  Tip: It is the keen extreme end of the point. Size of needle:  DB * 1-7, 8, 9, 10, 11 for plain M/C  DC * 1-7, 8, 9, 10, 11 for over lock M/C  UY * 128-8, 9, 10, 11, for Flat lock M/C  UO * 113-9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 for kansai M/C  DP * 17-11 for button stitch M/C  DP * 5-11 for button hole M/C  DP* 5-9, 10, 11 for two needle lock stitch Sewing thread: Types of sewing thread being used in the garments industry of Bangladesh are followings: 1. Polyester Core-Spun Thread 2. Spun Polyester Thread 3. Staple Spun Cotton Thread 4. Textured Polyester Thread 5. Polyester Cotton Core-Spun Thread 6. Trilobal Polyester Thread 1. Polyester Core-Spun Thread: This type of thread is produced by spinning staple polyester fibre around a core of high tenacity continuous filament polyester in yarn-spinning operation. Two or more of these composite yarns are then twisted together to give the necessary size and tensile strength. Key Characteristics: - Exceptionally strong.
  57. 57. Industrial Attachment Repor - 56 - - The continuous filament core (Having high tenacity) provides superior strength while the staple polyester cover helps to protect the inner core from damage due to needle heat. - Its resistance to abrasion helps ensure long seam life in a wide variety of materials. - Fine threads can be used for delicate fabric without compromising on strength, thereby avoiding problems like seam pucker. - Brand Name: Epic (Coats) Uses: Mainly used in topstitching of shirts, blouses, trousers, sportswear , jeans & work clothes. 2. Spun Polyester Thread Staple polyester fibres are spun into polyester yarn. Then two or more of spun polyester yarns are twisted together to produce spun polyester thread. Key Characteristics: - High tenacity of polyester ensures greater strength and thereby high abrasion resistance. - Very least amount of shrinkage (less than 1%) compared to cotton thread. - Brand Name: Astra (Coats). Uses: Mainly for over-edging. Also used for general seaming of shirts, trousers, knitwear, jackets, blouses etc. 3. Staple Spun Cotton Thread Normally long staple cotton fibers are spun into cotton yarn. Then two or more ply of spun cotton yarn are twisted together to produce spun cotton thread. Key Characteristics: - 100% cotton thread have relatively low strength and elongation compared to those in synthetic thread, therefore they need relatively light sewing tension and high stitch densities. - Very high amount of shrinkage compared to synthetic thread. - During sewing, cotton thread is not damaged at high temperature generated by needle. - 100% cotton thread is mercerized to provide greater luster and higher strength. - Brand Name: Dymax (Coats)
  58. 58. Industrial Attachment Repor - 57 - Uses: Mainly used in sewing cotton garments that are to be post dyed. 4. Textured Polyester Thread This Thread is made from textured continuous polyester filament. Texturing means modification by applying crimp to the filament. It is done to make softer yarn. - Provides high softness and comfort. - High extensibility and seam strength enhance higher seam security. - Also widely used in over-locking and covering stitches for high extensibility and seam security - Brand Name: Gramax (Coats). Uses: Mainly used in “next to the skin” seams for high softness. Ex: Underwear, Swimwear, Baby wears etc. 5. Polyester Cotton Core-Spun Thread This thread is made of polyester filament in the core and staple cotton fibre which wraps polyester filament. Two or three plies of this yarn are twisted together to make thread. - Very low shrinkage, good strength - Cotton core protects poly core from needle heat and high ironing temperature. - Brand Name: Dual Duty (Coats). Uses: Fine cotton denim shirts, Outdoor wear etc. 5. Trilobal Polyester thread - Newly developed polyester fibre to improve the dullness of usual polyester fibre. - Trilobal poly is a multiple filament, twisted, high-sheen continuous fiber thread. - It has the bright appearance of rayon or silk. - Brand Name: Sylko (Coats) Uses: Embroidery for garment.
  59. 59. Industrial Attachment Repor - 58 - Fabrics used in Apparel: Based on Fiber fabric can be classified as Cotton Fabric, TC (Terylene Cotton) Fabric, and CVC (Cheap Value Cotton) Fabric etc. The Knit Fabric can be broadly classified as follows: 1. plain fabric Uses :Plain fabric are used for basic T-shirt , under garments , men’s vest , ladies hosiery , fully fashioned knitwear . 2. Rib fabric Uses : Rib fabric are used for socks , cuffs , waistbands , collars , men’s outwear , knitwear , and underwear etc 3. Purl fabric Uses :purl fabrics are widely used for baby wear children’s clothing , sweater , thick and heavy outerwear , under garments etc 4. Interlock fabric Uses : Interlock fabric are used for underwear , shirts , suits , trouser suits , sportswear and dresses etc 5. Fleece fabric 6. Piquee fabric 7. Mash fabric 8. Single jersey & Double jersey fabric 9. Single lacoste & Double lacoste 10. Lycra jersey fabric The Woven Fabric can be broadly classified as follows:
  60. 60. Industrial Attachment Repor - 59 - 1. Plain/Poplin Weave 2. Oxford/Basket Weave 3. Twill Weave 4. Dobby Weave 5. Jacquard Weave 01. Plain/Poplin Weave They are (One up one down) structured basic fabric. They so many types: Poplin: - Thin Fabric with Higher EPI/PPI - Fine yarn is used - Standard Construction: [110×76]/[45×45] Uses: Pocketing Canvas: - Very Thick Fabric with less EPI/PPI - Coarser yarn (Ne: 6-10) is used - Standard Construction: [70×42]/[10×10] Uses: Pant, Blazer Sheeting: - Light Fabric with Less EPI/PPI - Medium Fine yarn is used - Standard Construction: [68×68]/[35×35] Uses: Shorts Calico: - Less Heavier Fabric than Canvas Fabric - Coarser Yarn is used - Standard Construction: [68×68]/[35×35] Uses: Winter Garments, Dress Pants, Shorts Taffeta: - Glossy & Shiny Fabric - Synthetic (Polyester/Nylon) with Less or No Twisted Yarn is used
  61. 61. Industrial Attachment Repor - 60 - - Standard Construction: [120×90]/[70D×70D] Uses: As Lining inside Coat, Blazer etc. Taslan: - Heavier Fabric than Taffeta - Weft yarn is 2 times coarser than warp yarn - Standard Construction: [120×70]/[70D×140D] Uses: As Lining inside Coat, Blazer etc. Chambray: - Simple structure with colored warp yarn and white weft yarn - Color may reflect by changing visual angle Uses: Men’s Shirt, Ladies Shirt etc. Ottoman: - The filling (Weft) yarn is more coarser than warp Uses: Specially for Pants Flannel: - One or both side surfaced fibre being raised by Brushing - Very soft in handling Uses: Ladies wear, Babies wear etc 02. Oxford/Basket Weave - Two parallel yarn (Without Twist) used in warp way - Single yarn is used in Weft way
  62. 62. Industrial Attachment Repor - 61 - - Standard Construction: [110×76]/[(30+30)×20] Uses: Shirt (Especially for US Buyer, Shorts etc. 03. Twill Weave Twill fabrics are many types: 1. Basic Twill (3×1, 2×1, 2×2, 3×3 etc) 2. Herring Bone Twill (Especially for Pants, US) 3. Broken Twill 4. Sateen (Made from Cotton) / Satin (Made from Silk or Rayon) Fabric 5. Denim Twill Denim Fabric: In Denim Fabric Colored yarn is used in Warp way and White yarn is used in Weft way. These fabrics are mainly used for Pants, Shirt etc. There are 4 major types of Denim: 1. Basic Denim 2. Cross-Hatch Denim: Different yarn count use in warp and weft way 3. Ring Denim: Only warp count is different 4. Slub Denim: Slub yarn is used Another Popular Denim is 5. Bull Denim: Heavy weight Denim 04. Dobby Weave - Combination of Plain weave and Twill weave - Very popular for Shirting, curtain etc. 05. Jacquard Weave - Any types of design with any size of repeat can be made - Costlier fabric used in decorative purpose Check & Plaid Fabric: - The Repeat size of Check Fabric is Smaller than Plaid. - Repeat size of Plaid Fabric is Larger than Check Fabric. Uses: Especially for Shirt
  63. 63. Industrial Attachment Repor - 62 - Seer-Sucker Fabric - An weave stripe is made by varying tension between warp yarn - Natural rough and shrinkage effect Uses: Especially for Shirt Garments defect: Garment defects can be separated into 3 categories: 1. Fabric defects 2. Workmanship and handling defects: 3. Trims, accessories and embellishment defects Fabric defects These are defects that are found in the fabric; mostly these are not caused by the sewing lines. The common fabric defects are running shade, selvedge to selvedge shade, holes, staining mark, missing yarn, foreign yarn, slub, hairiness etc. It can be overcome by Fabric inspection before cutting. Workmanship and handling defects: These are defects that are directly caused by production section; this would include both the cutting and sewing section. Buyer’s approved samples must be referred to maintain perfect workmanship. Workmanship means all the details such as measurement, outlook, ways of attaching trims, packing etc. Typical Defects can be categorized as follow: a) Seam Puckering: - It refers to the gathering of a seam either just after sewing or after laundering causing an unacceptable seam appearance. - This problem arises due to uneven stretching on to plies of fabric during sewing, improper thread tension, wrong sewing thread selection, dimensional instability of the plies of fabric etc.
  64. 64. Industrial Attachment Repor - 63 - b) Shading Variations within different parts: - It arises due to improper cutting, bundling and numbering. c) Open seam or broken seam: - It occurs when portion of the garment that has not been covered by sewing thread. - This happens due to improper handling of the parts of garments, improper setting and timing between needle and looper or hook etc. d) Broken Stitch: - Non-continuous sewing thread during stitching. - It appears due to improper trimming or machine usage. e) Drop stitch/Skipped stitch: Irregular stitching along the seam: - It appears due to improper handling of cut pieces or machine usage. f)Wavy/staggered stitching: - Stitches are not straight. - It appears due to improper handling of cut pieces, faulty feed mechanism, needle deflection or wrong needle. g) Uncut/ loose thread: - Extra thread or loose thread on seam line. It appears due to improper trimming or finishing. h) Sizing defects - It means difference in measurement of various parts of garments
  65. 65. Industrial Attachment Repor - 64 - - Wrong placement of pocket, buttonhole, embroidery and prints , measurement discrepancy - All these problems come from pattern section. I) Poor ironing: - If ironing is not sufficient, there might be creases and crinkles on garment surface - And if ironing is too heavy, there might be shining mark on garment. j) Finishing Problem: - Misaligned buttons and holes, unfinished buttonhole, missing buttons - Wrong placement of labels or hang tag - Wrong folding or poor folding, improper packing into cartons Trims, accessories and embellishment defects These defects include color, size and placement of trims such as labels, sewing thread, screen print, embroidery designs, zipper, hangtag, lining, button and any kind of trims. Common Trims, accessories and embellishment defects are: - Unmatched color of thread - Button and zipper tape - Short zippers, faulty zippers - Wrong labels, improper size of the labels - Printing mistake of labels and cartons - Broken poly bag - Wrong hanger - Improper embroideries and prints etc. Classification Defects are also classified (as per extent of defect) into: 1. Critical defects 2. Major defects 3. Minor defects 1.Critical defects - Critical defects are defects that are not allowed to be shipped and are the most serious of defects (0%). 2. Major defects - Major defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (3%) depending on buyers requirements
  66. 66. Industrial Attachment Repor - 65 - 3. Minor defects - Minor defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (5%) depending on buyers requirements Finishing Section:
  67. 67. Industrial Attachment Repor - 66 - From the sewing section all garments are sending to the finishing section to check them before packing. It is known to all finishing parts is done very carefully then the little fault may be unseen at a glance. It is ensured that all the accessories are the attached with garments according to the buyer requirement which are already approved iron is done carefully and gives attention the fold mark where it is exactly placed. Here steam iron may be the proper solution and in Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd. Steam iron is used in every section where it is necessary. When poly packing is done then it done then it is very carefully handle that there is identify the assortment requirement. The carton size and the format is also the vital in the finishing section. Finishing layout Thread cutting
  68. 68. Industrial Attachment Repor - 67 - Repeat button Pocket cleaning Inside pre-final Top side pre-final Thread sucker Ironing Final check Measurement check Get up Hand tag Hand tag level check Folding Packing Delivery Production flow chart: Table Final Inspection Primary Inspection Washing if required Button /Cording Fabric and accessories to Store Fabric Checking (Before sending to cutting) Inspection before cutting Drawing Marker, Laying cutting and numbering Trimming Inside /Outside Inspection Numbering and Bundling Cut fabric sent to the sewing line Inline Inspection
  69. 69. Industrial Attachment Repor - 68 -
  70. 70. Industrial Attachment Repor - 69 - Chapter-VI Quality assurance system Quality assurance procedure:  Inspection room and sewing line should be clean and tidy.  Fabric Inspection report.  Table stores easy identification Inspected and non Inspected fabric.  Trim Inspection report 0.65% A,Q.I 10% total trims up to 30% in case of tan our in 10%.  Trims stores easy identification Inspected and non Inspected fabric.  Color contents card. Each and every batch with collar and rib fabric.  Fusing check report.  Panel check report.  Fabric relaxation report each and every batch import or local.  Broken needle register.  Process wise inspection system .
  71. 71. Industrial Attachment Repor - 70 -  Complete line file with list.  Complete trims card.  P.P sample to hangs in the relevant line.  Size set checks records.  P.P melting records.  In the inspection report one for each 3000 pcs.  SPC system and records.  In line measurement report as per Tema maneal.  First packing inspection within first 50to 1000pcs.  Pre final inspection .  Final inspection records.  Original measurement checks records packing section style wise 100” garments. BEFORE STARTING PRODUCTION  Fabric inventory.  Fabric blanket individual style.  5 yds fabric to office.  Accessories inventory.  Trim card checking.  Single poly measurement confirmed.  Pre-production size set.  All twill fabric/ cotton types washed before going to inline / elastics.  Details pp meeting with factory/discuss possibility of problem critical area. DURING CUTTING  Fabric checked based on 4 point system.  Has factory out goods correctly as per latest order sheet.  Fabric numbering method suitable and correct.  Has factory cut shade wise( check the cutting record).  Blanket shade as same per buyer approved shade. DURING IN LINE  Compare pp samples comments with first output.  Compare all trims against approval.  Finish pattern are correct measurement.
  72. 72. Industrial Attachment Repor - 71 -  Fusing quality / color is appropriate with the fabric.  Any bubbling after fusing / after wash.  Is correct thread is used in bobbin and top thread.  Number of stitch per cm as per buyer given requirement.  Correct size needle used in each operation.  Is all type of marking in line can be removed after sewing / washing.  Measurement checked / before wash / after wash.  If non denim garments are they going to washing plant.  Blister poly / carton measurement. List of equipment:  Abrasion and pilling tester.  Seam slippage.  Perspirometer.  Wrinkle recovery tester.  Light fastness tester.  Air permeability tester.  Crease recovery tester.  Pressely strength tester.  Spectra photo meter.  Wrap block.  Crock meter.  Digital fibro graph.  Aqura neps and length.  Rape meter.  Flame meter.  Color matching cabinet.  Launder meter. Quality standard: The standard quality level maintain is 2.5. Acceptance quality level 2.5 normal level Delivery Size Inspection Quantity Major faults Minor faults Accept Reject Accept Reject 51-90 20 1 2 1 2 91-150 20 1 2 2 3 151-280 32 2 3 3 4 281-500 50 3 4 4 5 501-1200 80 5 6 7 8
  73. 73. Industrial Attachment Repor - 72 - 1201-3200 125 7 3 10 11 3201-10000 200 10 11 14 15 10001-35000 315 14 15 21 22 35000-50000 500 21 22 21 22 Quality report: Description of defects Minor Major 01 Rivers open at front pocket 05 02 Rivers missing at front pocket 01 03 Broken stitch at front pocket(Bag side) 02 04 Care label size missing at in side 01 05 Over lock mark front at top side 02 06 Standard at waist band 01 TOTAL 04 09 Remarks : Quality control department is checked all part of the fabric. It is understood that the inspection were carried out at random.
  74. 74. Industrial Attachment Repor - 73 - Chapter-VII Maintenance Maintenance: Maintenance is the action taken to prevent a device or component from failing or to repair normal equipment degradation experienced with the operation of the device to keep it in proper working order.  Objective/ Advantage Maintenance  To keep factory plants, equipment, machine tool in optimum working condition.  To ensure accuracy of product and time schedule to delivery customers.  To minimize downtime of machine.  To prolong the useful life of factory plant and machine.
  75. 75. Industrial Attachment Repor - 74 -  To modify or improve productivity of existing machine to meet the need for production and avoid sinking of additional capital Routine: Daily maintenance necessary for garments industry. Lubrication and regular inspection are the continents of routine maintenance. Lubrication ensures long life and safe working of all the equipment. Man power set up for maintains: Man power set up for machinery maintenance. Maintenance procedure: 1. Repair 2. Maintenance 3. Setting 4. Replacement Requirements for good maintenance: 1. Good supervisor and administration of maintenance department. 2. Operators should be well trained 3. Proper maintenance record should be maintained 4. Adequate stock of spare parts should always be kept. 5. Manufacturer of machine tools should be consulted and when required. 6. Maintenance department should remain in contact in planning and purchasing department. Maintenance tools and functions: 1. Tester 2. Clutch motor 3. Cutting plus 4. Screw driver 5. Measuring tape 6. Safety glass 7. Riveter tools 8. Drill machine 9. Welding machine
  76. 76. Industrial Attachment Repor - 75 - 10. Electric Welding machine 11. Gas Welding machine 12. Super glue 13. Hexsa blade 14. Meter scale 15. Scissor 16. Stone 17. Hammer 18. Fatial 19. Hand gear machine 20. Start driver 21. Flat driver Remarks: Machine Maintenance is the important factor of garments factory
  77. 77. Industrial Attachment Repor - 76 - Chapter-VIII Utility Services Utility facilities available: Novel Hurricane Knit garments Ltd is located Tongi Basic Industrial Estate where utility facilities available. Capacity: 500mw Source of Utility: Electricity supply from PDB, water supply own dip machine and gas supply from Titas.
  78. 78. Industrial Attachment Repor - 77 - Remarks: It has good utility service.
  79. 79. Industrial Attachment Repor - 78 - Chapter-IX Store & Inventory Control Inventory control Inventory in a wider sense is define as any idle resource of an enterprise in order to meet expects of demand or distribution. It is commonly used to keep hold inventory of various kind to act as a cushion between and demand. Types of Inventory Inventory are of the following 06 categories:
  80. 80. Industrial Attachment Repor - 79 - 1. Production inventories: Items which are used to process final product e.g. raw material and other component. 2. In processes inventories: Semi finish product at various sage of production. 3. Finished goods inventories: Complete product ready for dispatch. 4. Maintenance repair and operation inventories: Items those do not from a part of final product are used in production process like spare parts. 5. Miscellaneous inventories: Scrap, surplus and obsolete item which are not to be disposed off. 6. Fluctuation inventories: These are maintain to safeguard fluctuation in customer demand for the product or availability of material. Objective/ Advantage of inventories control Improvement of customer friction: This is achieved through maintenance of better balance among the quantities of finished item on one hand and customer service to the other. Reduction in manufacturing cost: Manufacturing cost can be reduce by- I. By better utilization of labor ,supervision and facilities by eliminate idle time due to raw material shortage. II. By making economical manufacturing runs in place of small lots. Constant rescheduling and set up changes which are needed to component for unbalance inventories.
  81. 81. Industrial Attachment Repor - 80 - III. By minimizing machine down time caused by unavailability of spare parts. IV. By reducing purchase material cost by measuring requirement. V. By keeping safe an impotent asset against theft, preventive waste ,insurable damage or unauthorized use. Improve the effectiveness of key personnel: By taking care and minimize uncertainties like uncertainties in demand from customers and uncertainties in producing the material in time. Symptoms of poor inventory management: I. Periodic server back II. Continuously growing inventory quantities while the order backlog remaining constant or increasing. III. High rate of customer turn over and order cancellation. IV. Uneven production with frequent layoffs and rehiring. V. Frequent used for uneconomical production to meet sales requirement. VI. Excessive machine down time because of material shortage. VII. Periodic lack of adequate storage space. Different inventory costs: I. Cost of ordering II. Inventory carrying costs III. Costs of shortage. Cost of ordering:  Cost of ordering is the amount of money expended in getting an item an inventory.  To evaluate this cost we have to identify the total annual cost associate with running a purchase department. If the total number order place during the year divides this cost , the cost per order, can be obtained. So, Cost per order=Total cost in running purchase/Total no. of order during the year.  The cost of placing order can estimate by considering various cost as below-  Salary and wages of personnel of purchase department  Telephone , postage power and stationary cost  Rent / depreciation of machines and equipment building. Inventory carrying costs: This cost is carried in maintaining the stories in a firm and can be broken down in to two categories:
  82. 82. Industrial Attachment Repor - 81 - a. Cost of storage space –light , rent, maintenance b. Cost of holding stock-pilferage, spoilage, deterioration, protection c. Other cost: Stacking , packing, issuing, recording, keeping etc. Cost that depend on the value of inventory: I. Cost of capital, interest ,lost II. Cost of insurance III. Cost of obsolescence I. Internal: Overtime and special administrative effort a. The second case is lost sale case. In this case we loss customers good will and also profit. Economic order quantity: The size of an order that minimize the total inventory cost is known as Economic order quantity. Lead time: In case of procuring materials some the length of time ,which is spent to get suppliers and parts in store after they are ordered for is called lead time. The delivery date of plant orders are calculated by considering this lead time with the date of which they are required .Any change in this lead time will change release date of plant orders and this change will cause the total reschedules
  83. 83. Industrial Attachment Repor - 82 - Chapter-X Cost analysis Costing Costing is the process of preparing price quotation for the buyers given their specific speculation costing is the compare of three components –
  84. 84. Industrial Attachment Repor - 83 - Direct cost , Indirect cost , Profit 1. Direct cost: Direct cost covers the following cost- A. Fabric cost B. Accessories cost C. Cost of making 2. Indirect cost: A. Indirect cost covers the following cost- B. Machine depreciation C. Transporting D. Utility costs (eg. water, gas, electricity) E. Workers salaries F. Over-head costs 3. Profit : Profit is set as 7-15%of the total of direct cost and indirect cost depending on company’s policy. Solution: Final cost = Direct cost+ Indirect cost+ Profit The process of determining this final cost for specific order is known as Costing. Costing is the important as it ensure the profit margin for a industry. A very efficient costing can bring great profit for the industry with out pushing the buyer too much. Costing of Men’s shirt
  85. 85. Industrial Attachment Repor - 84 - A. Fabric consumption for a dozen of shirt π × L ═ size of basic shirt. Width of body of shirt ═ 1/2 chest ═ 24"+1"(sewing allowance) ═ 25" Body length ═ 32"+1"(sewing allowance) ═ 33" Sleeve length ═ 23"+2.5(cost) +1.5"(sewing allowance) ═ 27"
  86. 86. Industrial Attachment Repor - 85 - Consumption of a body shirt: ═{1/2 chest× (body length) ×2} / 36× fabric width. (Sq. inch) ═25"×33"×2 (Sq. inch ). {Let assume fabric width 25"effective width ═25"−1" ═ 24"} Fabric length ═25×33×2 / 44 inch Fabric consumption ═25×33×2 / 44×36 yds Consumption of sleeve ═ (length of sleeve × width sleeve) ×2 sq. inch ═27"×24"×2" (Sq. inch) Fabric consumption in length width ═ 27×24×2 / 44×36 sq. inch Total fabric consumption of one dozen shirt ═ [(25×33×2 / 44×36 + / 27×24×2 / 44×36) ×2+ wastage of 8%] ═ 22.75 yds + 8% wastage ═24.6 yds B. Sewing threads consumption: It is calculated by measuring the total of different kind of seam. Normally sewing threads consumption per shirt , 120m. So, sewing threads consumption per dozen, ═ 120 × 12 ═ 1440m Costing of T- shirt
  87. 87. Industrial Attachment Repor - 86 - Fabric Type :Single jersey G.S.M :180 Yarn count :24/1 Measurement of Garments: Body length : 54 cm Chest length : 43 cm Sleeve length : 15 cm Fabric Consumption = {(Body length + sleeve length + allowance) *(Chest length + 3)} * 2 /10,000 * G.S.M / 1000 * 12 * 10 % (+) = {( 54 + 15 + 10 ) * ( 43 + 3 )} * 2 / 10,000 * 180 / 1000 * 12 * 10% (+) =1.72 kg =1.72* 0.18 = 1.90 kg / doz. Costing Fabrics cost : 17.10 Cost of making : 4.5 Print cost : 3.5 Lab cost : 0.20 Accessories cost : 2.5 Washing cost : 1 Total = $ 28.80 / Doz.
  88. 88. Industrial Attachment Repor - 87 - = $ 2.40 / pcs.
  89. 89. Industrial Attachment Repor - 88 - Chapter-XI Marketing activities Consumer of the products: Serial No. Buyers Name Logo Brand Country of Origin
  90. 90. Industrial Attachment Repor - 89 - 01 Wal-mart Faded Glory, George, Puritan, White Stag USA 02 Levi Strauss & Co. Levi’s USA 03 Adidas Adidas USA 04 H&M (Harris & Menuk) H&M Sweden 05 Carrefour Carrefour France 06 C&A C&A Germany 07 Temma Temma Turkey  Responsibility of Marketing Officer:  Report directly to Managing Director.  Co-ordinator with Merchandising Manager.
  91. 91. Industrial Attachment Repor - 90 -  Responsible for business development/ develop new supplier sources and cost control.  Frequent market research and up date.  Generate innovation to the organization.  Follow up current customer and ongoing orders.  Co-operate with customers and make.  Understand the general/ technical problems in the factory, convince customers and get customers approvals approval where ever is possible on company interest.  Find business for surplus good.  Prepare and maintain management reports. Local market: B.P garments is 100% export oriented garments factory. There product doesn’t sell goods in local market.
  92. 92. Industrial Attachment Repor - 91 - Chapter-XII Conclusion The Ready-Made Garments (RMG) industry occupies a unique position in the Bangladesh economy. It is the largest exporting industry in Bangladesh, which experienced phenomenal growth during the last 25 years. By taking advantage of an insulated market under the provision of Multi Fiber Agreement (MFA) of GATT, it attained a high profile in terms of foreign exchange earnings, exports, industrialization and contribution to GDP within a short span of time. The industry plays a key role in employment generation and in the provision of
  93. 93. Industrial Attachment Repor - 92 - income to the poor. To remain competitive in the post-MFA phase, Bangladesh needs to remove all the structural impediments in the transportation facilities, telecommunication network, and power supply, management of seaport, utility services and in the law and order situation. The government and the RMG sector would have to jointly work together to maintain competitiveness in the global RMG market. Given the remarkable entrepreneurial initiatives and the dedication of its workforce, Bangladesh can look forward to advancing its share of the global RMG market.