Industrial attachment of northern fashion

1,436 views
1,322 views

Published on

Published in: Engineering, Business, Lifestyle
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,436
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Industrial attachment of northern fashion

  1. 1. 1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Northern Fashion Limited
  2. 2. 2 INTRODUCTION By achieving practical knowledge it is possible to apply the theoretical knowledge in the technical field. For any technical education, practical experience is almost equally necessary in association with the theoretical knowledge. The industrial attachment is the most effective process of achieving the practical experience. It provides us sufficient practical knowledge about production management, productivity, evaluation, work study, efficiency, industrial management, production planning & control, production cost analysis, inventory control, purchasing, utilities and Maintenance of machinery and their operation technique etc. Industrial attachment is an essential part of four years B.Sc. in Textile technology course of College Of Textile Technology under University of Dhaka. We had the opportunity to perform the industrial attachment with NORTHERN FASHION LTD. During 42 days long attachment, we studied the man, machine, material aspects of the circular knitting section, quality control section, planning section, grey fabric inspection, finished fabric inspection, dyeing & finishing section, merchandising section of the mill. We also had a short visit in the garments section of the factory. We also took a study tour in Padma knitting,Viellatex & Opex Group with my supervising officer of the mill. According to our studies there we have prepared the following report and would like to present.
  3. 3. 3 TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER CONTENTS PAGE NO CHAPTER-I PROJECT DESCRIPTION 1-4 CHAPTER-II MANPOWER MANAGEMENT 5-10 CHAPTER-III MACHINE DESCRIPTION 11-20 CHAPTER-IV RAW MATERIALS 21-22 CHAPTER-V PRODUCTION PLANNING, SEQUENCES & OPERATIONS 23-27 CHAPTER-VI QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM 28-31 CHAPTER-VII MAINTENANCE 32-39 CHAPTER-VIII UTILITY SERVICES 40-43 CHAPTER-IX STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL 44-45 CHAPTER-X COST ANALYSIS 46-49 CHAPTER-XI MARKETTING ACTIVITIES 50-66 CHAPTER-XII CONCLUSION 67-68
  4. 4. 4 CHAPTER I (PROJECT DESCRIPTION)
  5. 5. 5 Name: NORTHERN FASHION LTD Type: Composite knit fabrics and garments (with dyeing & finishing) mill (100% Export Oriented Composite Industry) Status: Private limited company Year of establishment: 2006 Location:EPZ, Kaliakoir Road, Kashimpur,Gazipur,which is about 35 (35Km) minute from Dhaka International Airport. Satrasta Address: a. Corporate office: Plot no: 91(3rd floor) Road: Suhrawardy Avenue Block: K Baridhara,Dhaka-1212. Bangladesh. Tel: 9882516 9882517 9882607 Fax:880-2-9882610 Email: info@northernbd.com www.northerngroup.com.bd b. FACTORY: Plot # 16-18 Dakhin Panishail,EPZ,Kaliakoir road,Kashimpur,Gazipur,(P.O. Box# 1349 BKSP) Northern Fashion ltd BKSP EPZ SEU Air port
  6. 6. 6 Tel#7788383-5, Fax: 8802-7701922 SPONSORSHIP: Eastern Bank Ltd. PRODUCT MIX: a) Knitted grey fabrics: Plain single jersey, Auto stripper, Heavy jersey, polo pique, Lacoste, Rib &Interlock double jersey, Drop needle, Automan & 2threaded fleece 100% cotton, 15% viscose+ 85% cotton, 10% viscose+ 90% cotton, 30% viscose+ 70% cotton b) Knit garments: T-shirt, polo shirt, Short / trouser, Knitted pant, Vests DAILY PRODUCTION CAPACITY: Knitting: 4 tons Dyeing: 8 tons Garments:20000 pc PROJECT COST: US$4000,000per year (approx) in 2007 US$11000,000 Projection for 2008. HISTORY OF PROJECT DEVELOPMENT: Starting with 6 knitting machines only in 2006 and dyeing capacity was only 6 tons per day. Garments section named NORTHERN FASHION had only two floors with 6 lines. DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS: 1. Marketing and Merchandizing 2. Knitting: circular knitting 3. Dyeing & Finishing 4. Lab department 5. Quality Assurance
  7. 7. 7 6. Garments:  Cutting  Sewing  Finishing  Inspection  Packing 7. Stores 8. Technical Department (Maintenance) 9. Human & Resource and Administration 10. Account and commercial section 11. Batching section TOTAL AREA OF THE INDUSTRY: 170000 sq. feet & 6stored building.
  8. 8. 8 CHAPTER- II (MANPOWER MANAGEMENT)
  9. 9. 9 ORGANOGRAM MANPOWER: (Sewing section) Managing Director Executive Director General Manager Deputy General Manager Asst. General Manager Merchandising Manager Sinior Merchandiser Merchandiser Production Manager Sample incharge Cutting incharge Sewing incharge Quality inchare Cutting executive Line supervisor Operator Operator Cutting supervisor Operator Helper Helper Marker man Helper Cutterman
  10. 10. 10 ORGANOGRAM MANPOWER: (Dyeing) Managing Director Executive Director General Manager Deputy General Manager Asst. General Manager Production Manager Asst. Production manager Sinior production Officer production Officer Supervisor Operator Helper ORGANOGRAM MANPOWER: (Knitting) Managing Director Executive Director Manager (knitting) Knitting master Supervisor Asst. supervisor
  11. 11. 11 Fitter Operator Helper MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GARMENTS SECTION: 8 hours per day.8 AM-5 PM. Overtime: 2hours. Offday: Friday in a week. RESPONSIBILITIES OF PRODUCTION MANAGER: RESPONSIBILITIES OF SAMPLE ROOM INCHARGE: To make pattrn from specification sheet. When there is no measurement chart then he make specification chart by his own idea, then send to buyer,if it is ok then he make pattern. After making sample he check the sample if it is ok , then he order to make 4 pcs of the sample. RESPONSIBILITIES OF CUTTING INCHARGE: Check the relaxation of fabric,order wise quantity measure, patterncutting with signature,befor sewing to communicate the print embroidery. To ensure equal input & output. To check fabric shrinkage, twisting repair. To make the cutting plan according to operation breakdown. To give target and style devide in every table. RESPONSIBILITIES OF QUALITY INCHARGE: To control the overall quality of the garments. To brief the incharge about tentative problem of quality. To make size set of the garments. To check the measurement of the garments, if required increase or decrease KNITTING SECTION: Two mechanical fitters for per shift. One skilled operator and two unskilled operators for two knitting machine. SHIFT CHANGE: Shift of eight hours. Shift changes after a week on Saturday. RESPONSEBILITIES OF PRODUCTION OFFICER: From getting an order of upper level all responsibilities are on the production officers. They
  12. 12. 12 work with a troop of operators, helpers, fitters etc. to finish the production in due time. In the meantime Production officers bear all hazards, problems. They have to explain to the manager for any type of production hamper. So all production activities and its success depend on the production office. DYEING SECTION: SHIFT CHANGE: Shift of twelve hour.Shift changes afte a week on Saturday. RESPONSEBILITIES OF PRODUCTION OFFICER: From getting an order of upper level all responsibilities are on the production officers. They work with a troop of operators, helpers, fitters etc. to finish the production in due time. In the meantime Production officers bear all hazards, problems. They have to explain to the manager for any type of production hamper. So all production activities and its success depend on the production office. JOB DESCRIPTION: SENIOR PRODUCTION OFFICER: In a knitting factory a senior production officer plays a great role in production and manpower management. Here we enlist the duties of senior production officers: 1. Follow up knitting production 2. regular observation of the knitting floor. 3. Prepare knitting orders regularly 4. Maintain the quality of the product PRODUCTION OFFICER: Production officer is the right hand of senior production officer and he is directly related with production, manpower & informs senior production officer time to time. Here are his listed duties:  Follow up overall knitting production  Decide every machine utilization during production  Recruit new labor  To inform the authority on the overall knitting production and make it financially profitable  Regular machine Maintenance
  13. 13. 13  Maintains subcontract orders  Help knitting manager and also guide the junior officers of the section REMARKS: Production runs with the help of mechanical fitters. For any kind of mechanical fault of any machine they fix and work under knitting manager. Production officer takes account of daily production by running after the two supervisors & workers so on.
  14. 14. 14 CHAPTER-III (MACHINE DESCRIPTION)
  15. 15. 15 MACHINE SPECIFICATION: NORTHERN FASHION LIMITED (GARMENTS SECTION) Name Origin Brand Model Mfg no Plain m/c Japan Juki DDL-900SS 2DOZKO4865 Plain m/c japan Juki LH3568S 3L3AL00132 Flatlock m/c China Juki MF7723 8M4AC11435 Flat lock m/c China Pegasus W1500N SERIES W1562N-02G Over lock m/c China Juki MO6714D BE6-44H Button attaching m/c China Juki N9-47 3874 Piping cutting m/c China Idea SM-601 3658 Line: 30 No of machine:780 Plain m/c: 264 Over lock m/c: 234 Flat lock M/c: 102 Button hole m/c: 60 Button attaching m/c: 60 Piping cutting m/c: 60 Line Balancing of the sequence of the line MODHUMOTI :
  16. 16. 16 Plain m/c O/L Plain m/c O/L Plain m/c Plain m/c Plain m/c Plain m/c Over lock m/c Over lock m/c Plain m/c Flat lock m/c Plain m/c Plain m/c Plain m/c Flat lock m/c Over lock m/c Placket tuck m/c Flat lock m/c Over lock m/c Over lock m/c Flat lock m/c Flat lock m/c Flat lock m/c Over lock m/c O/L P Over lock m/c Plain Flat lock m/c NORTHERN FASHION LIMITED (KNITTING SECTION) 2 3 5 8 9 11 27 25 23 3 21 19 17 15 13 29 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 7 6 4 1 1.Plain m/c = 11 2. Over lock m/c =10 3. Flat lock m/c =7 4. Placket tuck m/c=1 Total m/c = 29 Output = T-shirt
  17. 17. 17 CIRCULAR KNITTING SL Type Dia Gauge Feeder Attachment Brand Origin 1 S/J 30 24 90 Lycra KEUM YONG Korea 2 S/J 36 24 108 Lycra KEUM YONG Korea 3 S/J 30 24 90 Lycra KEUM YONG Korea 4 S/J 30 24 90 Lycra KEUM YONG Korea 5 Rib 36 18 72 Lycra KEUM YONG Korea 6 Rib 36 18 72 Lycra KEUM YONG Korea 7 S/J 30 28 90 Lycra Mayer & Cie Germany 8 S/J 30 28 90 Lycra Mayer & Cie Germany 9 S/J 30 38 96 Lycra Mayer & Cie Germany 10 S/J 30 38 96 Lycra Mayer & Cie Germany 11 Interlock 30 22 84 Lycra Fukuhara Japan 12 Interlock 34 22 96 Lycra Fukuhama Taiwan 11 Interlock 30 22 84 Lycra Fukuhara Japan 12 Interlock 34 22 96 Lycra Fukuhama Taiwan
  18. 18. 18 Office Layout plan of Ground floor(Knitting Section)
  19. 19. 19 Lay out plan of 2nd Floor(Knitting section) Lay out plan of 3rd Floor(Knitting section) Office1 Office1
  20. 20. 20 # List of machinery: Single jersey: 8Nos Rib: 2Nos Interlock: 4 Nos CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE Circular knitting m/cs are widely used through out the knitting industry to produce fabric. This m/c can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This m/c can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular m/c because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. Plain circular m/c uses only one sets of needles, circular rib m/c uses two sets of needles i, e, Cylinder needle and Dial needle, the interlock circular knitting m/c also uses two sets of needles by needles are long and short respectively for both dial and cylinder, that is why multiple design and thick fabric can be produce with that m/c. That m/c is also called double Jersey m/c. M/c. Gauge – needle/inch (varies according to diameter) Needle Type – Latch Needle bed type – Single cylinder, Double cylinder, Cylinder & Dial, long or short needles for cylinder and dial. Two principle operation exist: 1. English system – Where the cams and yarns strands revolve by needle and fabric take down is stationary. 2 American system – Where the needles and fabric take down revolves by cams and yarn strands are stationary. IMOPORTANT EQUIPMENT OF CIRCULAR KNITTING M/C 1. START/STOP/INCH BUTTONS: Complete set of easily accessible start/stop/inch buttons at top in each leg. 2. RATCHET LEVER: Permit hand movement of the M/C. 3. AUTO STOP MOTION:
  21. 21. 21 Automatic three stages 24v yarn motion, positive feed tapes & knitting zone. Indicator lamps are on individual stop motions & on the main control panel. While the yarn is broken we can find the location which is broken as well as to repair, meanwhile the motor can brake and stop operation at once to keep the security of M/C. 4. FREE STANDING SIDE CREEL: An active reserve package per feed 5.AUTO–COUNTER: Two-shift revolution with display counter with predetermined stop, to settle freely the weight or yardage of fabric. 6. VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE WITH M/C BRAKE: Transistor inverter provided for free controlled, the process of “V.s. motor-drive” from slow operation to normal operation is quite & fast brake to prevent damages in case of needles or yarn breakage. 7. FABRIC TAKE UP SYSTEM: With variable speed control by a belt drive set can be adjusted the speed for different course of fabric-constant and uniform fabric tension. 8. SAFETY GUARD SWITCH: Machine cannot be started with guards open; these guards have reinforced fibreglass window for easy fabric inspection. 9. AUTO LUBRICATION: The automatic central pressurized oil sprayer can be adjusted at cycling time and quantity to make cylinder, dial, sinker ring’s cam, needles and sinkers lubricated enough, besides it has the function cooling and clearing. 10. AUTO-LINE REMOVAL SYSTEMS: Three fans on each rotating arm for clearing off any dust of creel and knitting.
  22. 22. 22 NORTHERN FASHION LTD (DYEING SECTION): Name Brand Origin Capacity (Kg) Max workin g temp(º C) Max working pressure( Bar) Liquor ratio Type Prod date Winch Dimenler Turkey 25 135 2.5 1:16 DMS25HT Sample Dyeing m/c 2006 Winch Dimenler Turkey 25 135 2.5 1:16 DMS25HT Sample Dyeing m/c 2006 Winch Dimenler Turkey 50 135 2.5 1:16 DMS50HT Sample Dyeing m/c 2006 Winch Dimenler Turkey 175 135 2.5 1:6 DMS11HT JUMBO Dyeing m/c 2006 Winch Dimenler Turkey 525 (2 Head) 135 2.5 1:6 DMS11HT JUMBO Dyeing m/c 2006 Winch Dimenler Turkey 700 (2 Head) 135 2.5 1:6 DMS11HT JUMBO Dyeing m/c 2006 Winch Dimenler Turkey 1050 (3 Head) 135 2.5 1:6 DMS11HT JUMBO Dyeing m/c 2006 Winch Dimenler Turkey 1400 (4 Head) 135 2.5 1:6 DMS11HT JUMBO Dyeing m/c 2006
  23. 23. 23 List of Machinery: No of Sample Dyeing machine: 3 No of Dyeing machine: 5 Stentering machine: 1 Calendering machine: 1 Slitting machine: 1
  24. 24. 24 CHAPTER-IV RAW MATERIALS
  25. 25. 25 RAW MATERIALS OF NORTHERN FASHION LTD: Knitting Section: Yarn purchased:  Natural: cotton  Synthetic: Polyester, Viscose Yarn Melange Yarn:  Cotton mélange  Viscose mélange  Cotton/ Polyester/ viscose melange Eqru melange: viscose 1-2% Grey melange: Viscose 5-15% Anthra melange: Viscose 75% Source of cotton yarn: Local: Shamim, keya, Shohag, Pahartoli,Square. Indian: Pacific, Krisna, TT, and Vardhaman & Sports King. Lycra from (Dupond) Taiwan ANNUAL REQUIREMENTS OF YARN: 4500 tons Garments Section:  Fabric(Knitted & woven)  Button  Zipper  Sewing thread  Main label  Care label  Tag pin  Soucing tag  Price ticket  Hanger  Sizer  Size sticker  Poly bag  Cartoon
  26. 26. 26 CHAPTER-V (Production Planning, Sequences & Operations)
  27. 27. 27 PRODUCTION PARAMETERS: Machine Diameter; Machine rpm (revolution per minute); No Of feeds or feeders in use; Machine Gauge; Count of yarn; Required time (M/C running time); Machine running efficiency. DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS(KNITTING SECTION): In every mill, there maintains a sequence in production processing. It is also followed in this mill where I was in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below: 1) Firstly, knitting manager gets a production sheet from merchandisers as accordance as consumer requirements. Then he informs or orders senior production officer about it. 2) Senior production officer informs technical in charge and knows about m/c in which the production will be running. 3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about m/c for production considering m/c condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity etc. 4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM (gram per square meter) for required final GSM. 5) Supervisor check daily production regularity and make operators conscious about finishing in due time. 6) Operators operate machine in highly attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he is sure about any fabric fault, then he call for mechanical fitter in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in-charge. He then comes in spot. 7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they are sent in dyeing section PRODUCTION FLOW-CHART: Executive director takes order from Buyer | Merchandiser estimates total amount of yarn of production | Knitting manager gets production order sheet | Senior Production Officer ordered by K.M. and orders Production officer and Technical in-charge. |
  28. 28. 28 Production officer fixes up stitch length and GSM With mechanical fitter. | Definite operator operates machine in his full conscious and Attention. | Mechanical fitter fixes machine if there is any m/c fault. | Supervisors keep daily production report and assure m/c is OK. | Fabric roll is checked by a troop of inspectors in inspection unit and weighted. | Final product to the required amount is delivered to dyeing unit. MONTHLY EFFICIENCY: Daily production: 9,000kgs. Approx. Daily production capacity: 10,000 kgs approx. So, monthly production: 9,000*26 kgs. Monthly production capacity: 10,000*26 kgs. So, Monthly production efficiency= 90% DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS(GARMENTS SECTION): Sequence Operation for Sample Section: Product Package Make Pattern If not OK Make Sample Send to Buyer through Merchandiser If OK Collect the approved Sanple
  29. 29. 29 Sequence Operation for Cutting Section: Fabric Inspection & relaxation Fabrid spreading Fabic cutting Parts numbering Part inspection If any defect is found then make this part Sequence Operation for Sewing Section( Line Tisa): Front Yoke joining Elastic join Topstich Sleeve join Front Yoke join Sleeve join Elastic tuck Elastic tuck Elastic join
  30. 30. 30 Back part piping Front Yoke+Sleeve+Back Yoke Joining Elastic ¼ Stiching Vertical tuck Sleeve opening tuck Side seam Chup tuck Sleeve opening chup tuck Hem Inspection REMARKS: As NORTHERN FASHION LTD. is a big project; its production quantity is huge. Production quantity varies as according as buyers demand. It gives approximately 234-ton and 600000 pcs production per month. In Bangladesh, there are a few mills, which can produce such quantity of knitted fabrics.
  31. 31. 31 CHAPTER-VI (Quality assurance system)
  32. 32. 32 QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM: All rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time and are inspected over the grey inspection m/c visually in a pre-set speed against light. For any major or minor faults like thick-thin, barre marks, fall out, contamination, fly, holes, oil lines, needle lines, slubs, etc are recorded in grey inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four point system. Collar & cuff are inspected visually under light box, any major & minor faulty collar/cuff like having wrong ply, hole, needle lines, slubs, wrong design, first line problem etc properly counted and recorded. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE: Based on the sequence of grey inspection, the inspector serially numbers each roll ensuring that all rolls having the knit card with complete details of the roll. 1) After production of fabric rolls of 8 to 25 kg, m/c operators cut them from the cloth or batch roller and they are carried to inspection section by the helpers. 2) Almost four inspection workers are for every shift to check the fabric rolls. For any kind of fault they are checked thoroughly. Skilled inspectors find them and indicate them by the scissors in some cases. 3) Quality is specified on the basis of 4-points system. Here is the point distribution for different kinds fault in this system: - QUALITY CLASSIFICATION 1 2 3 <20 20-30 30> OK ASK REJECT FOUR POINT GRADING SYSTEM Size of defects Penalty 3 inches or less 1 point Over three inch but not 6 inch 2 point Over 6 inch but not 9 inch 3 point Over 9 inch 4 point
  33. 33. 33 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS: In this factory NCL is the list of equipments to assure quality: - 1) Inspection machine 2) Scissors 3) Weight balance & Microbalance 4) GSM cutter 5) Seal (‘CHECK-1’, ‘OK’, ‘REJECT’.). Rejection criteria for body & Rib: Following table shows common body & rib faults and response by grey inspection section. No. Faults Response 1. Needle marks Major needle line is rejected. 2. Stripe Major needle line is rejected. 3. Barre marks Rejected 4. Slubs 1 point 5. Wrong design Rejected 6. Pin holes 1 point 7. Fly & contamination Acceptable for color but not for white 8. Sinker marks Do 9. Uneven tension Discuss with manager 10. Missing yarn Use 4 point 11. Crease line Do 12. Uneven tension Discuss with manager 13. Oil stripe/line Do 14. Thick-thin place Rejected 15. Mixed yarn Discuss with manager
  34. 34. 34 Rejection criteria for collar & cuff: Following table shows common collar & cuff faults and response taken by grey inspection section. No. Faults Response 1. Wrong ply Reject 2. Hole Reject 3. Needle line Reject 4. Slubs Reject 5. Wrong design Reject 6. Wrong tripping Reject 7. Fly & contamination Acceptable for color but not for white 8. First round problem Reject 9. Uneven tension Discuss with manager 10. Missing yarn Reject 11. Crease line Reject 12. Rust line Reject 13. Oil stripe Reject 14. Thick-thin Reject 15. Wrong tube Reject QUALITY STANDARD: Here is the quality standard:- 1) Fabric width 7) Broken needle /2’’ 2) Fabric length 8) Thick /thin yarn 4) Slub 9) Barre/ Stripe 3) Fabric weight 10) Dirt 5) Hole 11) Oil 6) Needle / Sinker line 12) Press off REMARKS: There is hardly any chance of any roll to pass through production on to any buyers by to by unchecked or disqualified. The inspections are too much experience and they are aware about their duties and responsibilities. The factory authority and production related personnel are happy and satisfied with their works
  35. 35. 35 CHAPTER-VII (Maintenance)
  36. 36. 36 MAINTENANCE: Maintenance of machineries is very important for any type of industries and it is a must for a knit composite mill. All machines and machines parts of knitting, dyeing and garments are maintained with extreme care. Because production quality and quantity, both depends on the maintenance with regularity. NORTHERN FASHIONLTD lead maintenance with a troop of skilled mechanical fitters. MAINTENANCE OF MACHINERY: In the knitting floor of NCL all circular machine are maintained regularly and as necessity requirements. Here, different type of maintenance of machinery, which is taken, different time on the machineries. ROUTINE: 1) Daily Maintenance: Every machine is taken maintenance daily by the operators during production. When the operator starts a production after handing over from previous shift operator, he takes a routine maintenance on the machine. He cleans the machine, assures yarn is fed to all needles, cleans the eye pot of feeder, memminger, signal lamp sensor etc. Before a while of a roll cut from batch or cloth roller, operator cleans needles, cylinder base plate etc. All around of the machine are kept neat and clean as if there is no dirt with yarn in the fabric. 2) Schedule/Routine Maintenance: Every machine has a schedule of maintenance of 10 or 15 days. According to date, schedule maintenance is taken on the machines. Operators are informed about the time of maintenance. After pre-estimated production, they hand over the machine to the fitters. Thus, fitters assure all machines are OK. For any time. 3) Break down maintenance: When product quality hampered and to complete production in due time break down maintenance is taken. There are many faults seen in the fabric during production due to needle, sinker, take down roller etc. Then operators inform the mechanical fitters and they fix it. 4) Restorative maintenance: Restorative maintenance is taken for design change or new design development. According to advice or order of production officer, a machine is fixed for new design and mechanical fitters rearrange cam and needle system. Planned and preventive maintenance are not taken on the machineries in this mill. MAINTENANCE OF ‘CIRCULAR KNITTING M/C’: Lubrication: Since the life of the m/c and its correct working depend to a large extend adequate and proper lubrication. It is recommended that the instructions given in the lubrication charts be followed conscientiously. The Company can not be need responsible for faults that arise from wrong or inadequate lubrication.
  37. 37. 37 Oiling Needles & Jacks: Too much oil is preferable to too little. Dark vertical lines in the fabric originate not from excessive oiling b but from too mach friction between needle and jacks and the trick walls on account of lack of oil. Should dark vertical lines makes their appearance is recommended that the appropriates m/c parts be flooded with oil. This will cause heavy soiling or ht fabrics but the trouble will disappear quickly correct quantity of oil then can be applied. The supply of oil should be reduced if light oil striper appears on the fabric. The Cleaning of Needle & Jacks: Thin oil is most suitable for this work, about one point heated to a temperature not exceeding 160ºF poured into the oiling position of the cylinder & dial cam races & in the heads of the needles while the m/c is running. The fabric will found to be cleaned again after few yards have been knitted. How often cleaning is necessary will depend upon what kind of yarn is being used. Synthetic yarn cleaning is taken place at lest monthly, yarn with absorbent properties is being knitted at same time. General Cleaning Schedule: Long m/c life, maximum output & trouble free running depend upon proper care and maintenance. A general overhaul should take place annually when single shifts are worked & correspondingly at more frequent interval. When extra shifts are worked. The overhaul involves removal of all cam section and removal of needles and jacks from their tricks, so tat the tricks should be thoroughly the cleaned. Before parts are replaced they should be adequately lubricated.
  38. 38. 38 MANPOWER SET-UP FOR MAINTENANCE: NORTHERN CORPORATION LTD. TONGI, GAZIPUR.
  39. 39. 39 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE: 1) For there is any mechanical fault of machine, which is responsible for production hamper, operator informs mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitters come and observe the problem firstly, and then they begin to fix it. 2) If mechanical fitters were unable to fix it, then they inform technical in-charge, he then comes in spot and fixes it. 3) For there is any electrical problem of machine or serious founding mechanical problem, mechanical and electrical department are informed, they come and fix the problem. They commence at work after informing of knitting manager. There are two mechanical engineers in the department. 4) For restorative maintenance, senior production officer orders mechanical fitters to fit required machine for cam and needle arrangement and other necessary requirements in case of new design development. Maintenance sequence of circular knitting machine Power on/off ↓ MPF/Positive feeder current line off ↓ MPF belt out/loss ↓ Yarn cut ↓ Fabric out by handle ↓ Cleaning and Oiling ↓ Cam box out ↓ Needle & sinker out ↓ Needle & sinker cleaning by oil ↓ Cam box cleaning by air After opening & cleaning, m/c is leveled by using leveling meter and follows the reverse process to ready the m/c.
  40. 40. 40 MAINTENANCE TOOLS/EQUIPMENTS & THEIR FUNCTIONS: Maintenance tools/equipments Functions 1. Adjustable wrench Used for setting nut & bolts 2. Air suctioner For cleaning machine 3.Spanner Fixed Spanner for nut & bolts fitting 4.Socket spanner Handle system for nut & bolt fitting 5. Hammer To apply load where required 6. Screw driver To release any screw 7. Punch Used to fit any worn out shaft 8. Lock opener To open the clip of bearing 9. Hack saw To cut any metallic thing 10. Outside calipers To measure outside dia 11. Inside calipers To measure inside dia 12. Cutting pliers To cut thin wires 13. Pulley key To loosen pulleys 14. Chain ton To lift heavy load 15. Welding machine To join metallic parts 16. Grinding machine To make the smooth fabrics 17. Tester To test electric circuit 18. Pliers To grip anything & cut anything 19. Star driver Screw unlocking 20. Steel tape To measure length, width & height 21. Chisel To cut any metal 22. L-key For loosen & tighten the screw 23. File To smooth the rough surface
  41. 41. 41 Repair, maintenance and setting and replacement of different parts of lockstitch machine: Apparatus: 1. Flat screw driver 2. Star screw driver 3. Hammer 4. Pliers 5. Lubricating oil 6. Grease Standard atmospheric condition: Temperature………………28c Relative humidity………..62% Procedure: The repair, maintenance, setting and replacement procedure are described below:- 1. Repair: Repair work is carried out when a component requires slight modification. To carry out such job the machine needs to be switched off first. The component under repair is then screwed off by suitable apparatus. After repairing, the part is fixed to its designated place and hence its correctness is measured by running the machine. In a lockstitch machine bobbin case, bobbin, check spring, feed dog. Motor belt etc can undergo repair job. a. Maintenance: Maintenance can be of different types. But following types are important in this aspect. b. Routine maintenance: lubrication and regular inspection are the constituent of routine maintenance. Lubrication ensures long life and safe working of all the equipment. Inspection tries to detect faults in equipment so that repairs and replacement may be under taken at the right time. c. Scheduled maintenance: this type of maintenance provides for inspection, overhaul lubrication and servicing of the machine, cleaning of all components is normally done in this manner. It involves opening of the machine into its smallest component and carry out lubrication. 2. Setting: the setting of the lockstitch machine is of immense importance. Following setting points need to be ensured before running the machine.
  42. 42. 42 a. Stitch density controller: It controls the no of stitch per inch. Before starting the machine, stitch per inch is determined by rotating the knob and fixing it at the desired position. b. Motor: Motor rpm depicts the speed of the machine. The rpm is controlled by tightening or looseness the belt over machine & motor pulley. c. Needle: needle undergoes accurate setting to ensure proper sewing. Needle is attached by means of a screw which needs to be tightened enough to produce easy sewing. Again the needle size is also important from fabric point of view. d. Pressure foot: The type of pressure foot to be used & its proper setting is important which is ensured by proper attachment with the motor through machine pulley. e. Feed dog: It is often found that due to random working the feed dog is subjected to be loose which may cause accident also. Thus the feed dog must be set properly with the screw. 3. Replacement: The replacement is revealed when the retention of equipment is no more remain an economical proposition. A replacement is affected when the equipment is subjected to complete breakage which cannot be used even after repair or the component has become so obsolete that affects production or it has crossed its expire date. Replacement can be affected to any components of the machine at any time. In lockstitch machine components like needle, pressure foot, feed dog etc undergo frequent replacement. Precaution: Following precautions must be taken when repair, setting maintenance is carried out in the lockstitch machine. 1. All repair & maintenance work must be carried out by switching off the machine. 2. Right tools should be used at right place. 3. Skilled personnel should be involved for specialized job. 4. Careful handling of all the components is necessary. 5. The components should not be too tight or too loose. Remarks: The experiment has provided us wide idea regarding the repair, maintenance, setting & replacement of different components of lockstitch machine & circular knitting m/c. It has given us a basic knowledge on machine maintenance as a whole. It has also oriented us with different machine tools & their use those are required for the said job. The gathered knowledge will indeed help us in our practical life. We hope to important our learning in the days to come.
  43. 43. 43 This mill has a strong maintenance fitter’s troop to fix up all types problem. Two groups of two shifts obey their duties responsibly and sincerely. With their different tools or equipments they perform their duties skillfully
  44. 44. 44 CHAPTER-VIII (UTILITY SERVICES)
  45. 45. 45 UTILITY FACILITIES AVAILABLE: For smooth functioning of any production unit, uninterrupted and required utility services are indispensable. Success of any industry largely depends on this factor. Any irregularity or lack in the required utility services immediately results in unexpected halt of the production process. An Industry needs various utilities depending on its manufacturing process. In NCL the major utilities are available- - Power (Electricity) - Water - Natural gas - Compressed air - Steam - ETP SOURCES OF UTILITIES: The main utility, which is used by NCL, is natural gas. From natural gas generator produce electricity. From natural gas and electricity in association with mechanical and electrical apparatus, NCL produce other utilities like water, steam, compressed air etc. CAPACITY AND OTHER TECHNICAL DETAILS: Power (Electricity): Generator house is the main power producing plants of NCL There are one generator in generator house. Generator - Type: gas generator Brand name: Caterpillar Origin: USA Frequency: 50 Hz Voltage: 400 V STEAM: Boiler produces the required steam. There is one boiler in NFL Boiler specification: Brand name: Industrial boiler Ltd Capacity: 8ton / hr Blower motor: 25 HP
  46. 46. 46 Water supply for the boiler: Water required for steam production is supplied by deep tube well. Pretreatment of the boiler water: Boiler feed water needs special standard. Any deviation from the required standard may result in scale formation, which eventually reduces the efficiency of the boiler. This ultimately affects the cost of steam generation and makes the production cost high. To maintain the required standard of the water, there should be some means to pretreat the boiler feed water. To protect scale formation of boiler, NELCO is used as chemical in water feed tank. 200 gm NELCO is injected per 12 hrs. In NCL there are water softeners that act before the water enters the boiler. . No. Of the softener : There is one water softener to pretreat the boiler feed water. COMPRESSED AIR: The compressed air is supplied from air compressor. There are one-air compressors in NCL. Compressor - Brand name Hitachi Screw Compressor Origin: Japan Model no. OSP-55S5 ARI Maximum working pressure: 15 bar Average working pressure: 6.5-7.5 bar Year of construction: 2006 WATER: The water source NCL is deep tube well. Water treatment plant: There is no eater treatment plant in NCL. GAS: The source of gas is government agency. Gas is required mainly for generation of electricity, boiler to produce steam, the burners of heat setting m / c. As NCL generates their own electricity, the gas consumption is quite high. The gas consumption is 250-350 m³ / hr. COST OF DIFFERENT UTILITIES: Electricity cost: REB =3.8 TK / KW-HR
  47. 47. 47 Gas generator = 2.70 TK / KW-HR Diesel generator = 6.50 TK / KW-HR Gas cost: 4.94 Tk/m³ for boiler 3.66 Tk/m³ for generator 4.5 Tk/m³ for domestic purpose Steam cost: 4.30 Tk per kg fabric. REMARKS: For smooth running of factory main utilities like gas, electricity or steam is very essential. Sometimes gas pressure is low than required pressure. When the gas pressure is low, then diesel generator run. Government should have to ensure proper gas supply for Industrial purpose.
  48. 48. 48 (CHAPTER-IX) STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL
  49. 49. 49 INVENTORY SYSTEM OF RAW MATERIAL: It is previously speak that NFL. is a knit composite industry. The main raw material of NCL is grey fabric. Grey fabric first produce in knitting department of this company. Knitting section of NFL. Produces grey fabric as per buyers order. Dyeing section get grey fabric from knitting section. Grey fabric store officer receive the grey fabric and store the grey fabric in storeroom. Then he delivers the grey fabric to batch preparation section according to shipment date or according to production manager of dyeing section instruction. Other raw materials of NFL are dyes and chemicals. Dyes and chemicals store officer always keep stock report of dyes and chemicals and also know the daily or monthly requirements of each dyes or chemicals. If the stock is bellowing30days then he gives requisition to head office for each product. Head office indent dyes and chemicals. SPARES: Spare store officer keep the spare part in store & make a list of spare parts. If the spare parts are little in stock he gives requisition to maintenance manager. Technical manager give requisition to Head office. Head office indent spare parts or buy local market as per requirements. FINISHED GOODS INVENTORY: Finish fabrics from the compactor go to inspection team. From the inspection table the fabric weighted in weight meter & go to finish fabric storeroom. Here finished fabric store officer make a list of total finished products. He sends the finished fabric to NORTHERN FASHION LTD as per shipment date or requirements of production manager of NORTHERN FASHION LTD. He also keeps the delivery list. REMARKS: Inventory control system and storing system of NFL. is over all good.
  50. 50. 50 CHAPTER -X (COST ANALYSIS)
  51. 51. 51 INTRODUCTION: Costing is a process by which the setting price of a product is calculated. It is a very important task for a factory, which runs for business purposes. And it is also strictly followed in the NCL. Costing of the products considering the raw materials expenditure, salary and wages of officers and workers, distributions and advertisement expenses etc. all direct and indirect expenses is done in this factory. It is determined by a troop of accountants with advice and consultancy of executive director. PRICE OF THE PRODUCT: Generally price of product is determined by the required profit adding to the total expenses. So, Price of products= (Direct expenses + Indirect expenses + Factory Overhead) + Required profit PRICE RANGE OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTS: T-Shirt = $0.75 - $4.50 /Pcs Polo Shirt =$2.00 - $6.50 /Pcs Kids Wear ==$0.75- $2.15 /Pcs KNITTING CHARGE OF DIFFERENT FABRICS: Fabric name Charge per kg(Tk) Single Jersey 8-9 Single Jersey with Lycra 30-35 Single locust PK 16 Double lacost PK 16 Single PK 16 Double PK 16 Rib 12-17 Rib with Lycra 30 Interlock 18-22 Fleece 22-25
  52. 52. 52 DYEING CHARGE OF DIFFERENT FABRICS: Name of fabric process Charge per kg (Tk) White with Enzyme 45 White without Enzyme 35 Avg. color with Enzyme 85 Avg.color without Enzyme (Light& med.) 75 Deep shed with Enzyme (Black) 120 Deep shed without Enzyme (Black) 95 Only wash (Tubular) 25 Only wash (Open) 45 Double dyeing (Face & Back) 115 FINISHING CHARGE OF DIFFERENT FABRICS: Name of fabric process Charge per kg(Tk) Slitting only 5 Stenter only 25 Compacting only 15 Stenter + Compacting 35 Stenter + Compacting+ wash 50 Tube Compacting 10 COSTING OF THE PRODUCT: Let price of yarn is $ 3.00/ kg. Process loss of yarn for knitting (10%) = $0.30 Knitting fabric cost = $3.30 Cost of dyes & chemicals = $2.50 Process loss for dyeing (12%) = $0.30 Dyed fabric cost = $ 6.10 Packing cost = $0.05 Production cost of fabric=$6.15 Fabric price (with 25% margin) =$7.79 Fabric consumption/ doz. = (Body length + Sleeve length +10) x Chest length x 2 x GSM x12 /10000000 Garments specification: Body length=78 cm Sleeve length=33 cm Chest length=62 cm GSM=210 Fabric consumption/ doz. = {(78+33) x62x2x210x12}/ 10000000 = 3.469 kg
  53. 53. 53 Fabric consumption/doze (with 10% wastage) = 3.816 kg Body fabric cost / doz. =$(7.79x 3.816) = $29.73 Cost of collar& cuff/doz = $ 4.00 Cost of Trims=$ 2.25 Cost of Trims (with 5% Process loss) = $2.36 Production Cost of Garments/ doz=$36.09 Garments Price/doz (with 25% Profit) =$45.12 REMARKS: Costing is very important for a productive factory. Without proper costing all production curriculums will go to vain. Because a factory cannot reach to its goal without achieving good profit and good profit is not possible without skillful costing. In NCL there are some skillful personnel to do this job.
  54. 54. 54 CHAPTER-XI (MARKETING ACTIVITIES)
  55. 55. 55 INTRODUCTION: Marketing activities are done of NCL by a skillful team of marketing officers under the Executive Director. Here are the details of marketing activities. CONSUMER OF THE PRODUCTS: The mill has a great number of renowned and international consumers. Following are some regular consumers: 1) Lindex 2) Carryfour 3) Kappal PRODUCT LABEL: There are following labels used by this mill: 1) Care Label: It contains washing in hot or cold water, chemical cleaning, drying conditions etc. 2) Size Label: It contains size of garments. 3) Composition Label: It contains the fabric composition of different fibre type. 4) Decorative Label: Decoration is as buyer or consumer choice wise. PACKAGE SIZE & LABEL: Most common sizes are S - Small M - Medium L - Large XL - Extra large XLL - Very very large LOCAL MARKET: NFL is 100% export oriented mill. So there is no local market involved in it. But the knitting section takes some sub-contact for knitting an amount of fabrics from there given yarn. IMPORTING COUNTRIES: This mill relates to the countries for yarn importing, they are 1) India 2) Taiwan MANPOWER: Almost seven marketing officers and twelve others workers act under the Executive Director.
  56. 56. 56 DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITES OF MARKETING OFFICERS: 1) Executive director takes order from the buyer and gives order the marketing officer’s troops to produce a cost sheet. 2) Marketing officers are known the amount and design of product. 3) They collect the sample from the buyers and send to knitting and dyeing section. 4) Knitting section adjusts the amount of total yarn and knitting conditions and dyeing sections adjust the amount of dyes and chemicals. They send a rough calculation to the marketing section. 5) Marketing officers adjust the amount of garments accessories with the help of their own experiences and their knowledge. They also take help of garments in charge. 6) Finally, they adjust their cost sheet after consulting with the Executive Director and copy several pieces of the cost sheet. REMARKS: Marketing activities are very important tasks for a productive factory. In this mill, there having highly qualified marketing officers. As a result, the mill rises up day by day.
  57. 57. 57 SOME ANALYSIS & REPORT LYCRA% CALCULATION: Half feeder lycra Circumference of elastane roller 5.5 cm Revolution of elastane roller Per revolution of cylinder: 61 For cotton yarn: 100 feeders 100*2510*3*453.6 1000*30*840*0.9144  14.822 gm Lycra for 50 feeder 61*5.5*50*40/100*9000 gm  0.7455gm Total weight (0.7455+14.822) gm  15.57 gm Lycra0.7455*100/15.57  4.78% Cotton Yarn 14.822*100/15.57  95.19% In case of full feeder (5% lycra) 20 den Lycra is used In case of full feeder (10% lycra) 40 den Lycra is used
  58. 58. 58 FAULTS OF GREY FABRICS: 1. Patta Causes: 1. Yarn count variation 2.Yarn tension variation Remedies: Proper yarn count & tension should be maintained. Remarks: For dark color & plain single jersey patta very sensitives. But in case of derivatives of single jersey, rib &interlock light patta considerable. 2. Contamination: Causes: 1.For unlearned machine & floor. 2.Little space between two adjacent machines. 3. For hairy & color yarn. Remedies: 1.Proper cleaning of machine & floor. Remarks: Protection of every machine from dust & fly. In case of light color contamination is very bad appearance. As a result garments rejected. 3.Needle mark: Causes: For bent hook & latch. Remedies: Immediately change faulty needle. Remarks: Needle mark is a common faults of knitting because unconscious of operator. It has very bad effective for dyeing & causes a great loss of company.
  59. 59. 59 4.Hole: Causes: 1. For needle breakage & wrong adjustment of machine parts. 2. For uneven yarn & deposit of fibre. Remedies: Correct adjustment of machine parts &clean machine. 5.Lycra out & tension variation of Lycra: Causes: Breakage of Lycra yarn & uneven tension of Lycra. 6. Oil mark 7. Tara &loop. FABRIC CONSUMPTION PROCESS: Suppose we get a following order of T-shirt; Fabric type – Single jersey Finished gsm- 160 gm Color gsm-300gm
  60. 60. 60 FABRIC CONSUMPTION FOR A SINGLE T- SHIRT – Lengthwise fabric need for body – For length-60 cm Shrinkage- 1 cm Hem- 3 cm Total -64 cm Fabric need for chest- Cheast-40 cm Shrinkage-1 cm Cutting allowance-2 cm Sewing allowance-2 cm Total-45 cm Fabric need for Sleeve – Sleeve-40cm Cutting allowance-2 cm Sewing allowance-2 cm Shrinkage allowance-2cm
  61. 61. 61 Total=45cm Area of fabric – Length x Width=0.92x0.45 square meter =0.414 square meter =0.414x160 g m (Gsm=160 gm) =66.24 gm x 2 (for two side) =132.48 gm x 1.1 (10% allowance for fabric fault) =0.145 kg x 1.05 (5% allowance for garments faults) =0.152 kg/garment FABRIC CONSUMPTION FOR COLLAR:
  62. 62. 62 Fabric need=0.3x1 square meter =0.3x 300 gm =90 gm/collar Another method: Make a collar & weighted it. Another method: If a collar is 3 ply & stitch length=4 mm Course/cm=13& Wales/cm=13 If the collar 66 cm long & 9 cm wide then- Total course =13x9=117 Total needle=13x66=858 Pcs Fabric need=858x4x117x3 mm=1204 m=1312 yards If yarn 26s/1 then Collar weight=(0.4536x1312)/(840x26) kg =27 gm YARN REQUIIRMENT: Normally ordered 10% more yarn than fabric consumption SPECIAL FABRIC LYCRA SINGLE JERSEY PRODUCTION:  Open width machine best for knitting lycra fabric  If knitting in tubular form machine then roller pressure decrease & box used for fabric take up.  Yarn tension 5/7 & lycra yarn tension 2/3  Required finished dia= Grey fabric dia. HEAT SET BEFORE DYEING: Lycra fabric heat set both before dyeing & after dyeing. Heat set parameter-  Temperature 180˚-190˚  Rpm 12-16  Over feeding 35/45/50  Heat dia=Finished dia+5/6"  After Heat set gsm=Required gsm
  63. 63. 63 WHOLE PRODUCTION PROCESS PRODUCTION PROCESS: Receiving order sheet from merchandiser ↓ Yarn count & stitch length selection ↓ Machine selection ↓ Sample making ↓ After having sample results go for bulk ↓ Grey fabric storing ↓ Delivery to dyeing ↓ Dyeing ↓ Finishing ↓ Quality check ↓ Garments making ↓ Garments finishing ↓ Packing ↓ Final inspection ↓ Shipment
  64. 64. 64 1. RECIVING ORDER SHEET FABRIC SPECIFICATION:  Fabric type  Finished gsm  Finished dia  Color  Yarn composition  Yarn quality  Shrinkage level 2. YARN COUNT SELECTION If Buyer give swatch then – Analysis the swatch- Count measurement from bees leys balance. Stitch length measurement from swatch. If swatch not given then use experience, formula & standard data- By using formula- (Ks x Tex)/stitch length= Finished gsm In experience- Ks- For Single jersey=19-21 For 1 x 1 Rib =26 For 2 x 1 rib =31 For Interlock =38
  65. 65. 65 STANDARD DATA: FOR PLAIN SINGLE JERSEY: FOR LACOSTE & PK FOR 1X 1 RIB FOR INTERLOCK: Finished gsm Count Gauge 130-140 30/1 24 150-160 28/1 24 160-170 26/1 24 175-185 24/1 24 195-210 20/1 24 220-230 18/1 20 240-250 30/2 20 260-280 26/2 20 280-310 24/2 20 Finished gsm Count Gauge 180 30/1 24 200 28/1 24 210-220 26/1 24 220-240 24/1 24 Finished gsm Count Gauge 170-180 34/1 18 190-200 30/1 18/16 210-220 28/1 18/16 220-240 26/1 18/16 250-270 24/1 18/16 270-300 20/1 16 Finished gsm Count Gauge 170-200 40/1 24 210-230 34/1 24 240-250 30/1 24
  66. 66. 66 FOR LYCRA SINGLE JERSEY: Finished gsm Cotton Yarn count Lycra count In Deniar 180 40/1 20d 200-210 34/1 20d 220-230 30/1 20d 240-250 30/1 20d 3. MACHINE SELECTION: Machine dia & gauge selection is depends on finished fabric dia, finished fabric gsm & fabric type. It is very tuff to select machine according to order. It depends upon officer’s experiences & some calculation. Experience data & calculation: In a finished fabric first we calculated wales/cm. If wales/inch for a finished fabric 33.11 Then If 24 dia 20 gauge machine then no of total needle 1508. For one side 1508/2=754 Dia of finished fabric 754/33.11=22.77 inch in 24 x 20 machine. In experience In 160 gsm (26/1) & 180 gsm (24/1) Plain single jersey finished fabric wales/inch=35.25 1 x 1 rib (200 gsm) in 30x18 machines suppose finished dia =30 inch Then 2 x 1 rib in 30 x 18 machines – Total needle=1696-565=1130 For one side =1130/2=565 Finished dia=565/28.2=20 inch
  67. 67. 67 EXPERIENCE DATA: For Single jersey- For 1 x 1 Rib- For Plain Interlock – Finished gsm Count Gauge Finished dia 200 40/1 24 Finished dia=Machine dia 180 40/1 24 Finished dia=Machine dia+1 220-230 34/1 24 Finished dia=Machine dia+2 240-250 30/1 24 Finished dia=Machine dia+2/3 4. SAMPLE MAKING: According to fabric order we make small amount of fabric. Then dyeing & finishing have done Before sample making we have to check-  Yarn quality  VDQ pulley adjustment After making grey sample. Check-  Gsm  All types of fabric faults Finished gsm Count Finished dia 140 30/1 Machine dia= finished dia 160 26/1 Machine dia+1= finished dia 180 24/1 Machine dia+2= finished dia 200 20/1 Machine dia+3= finished dia 220 18/1 Machine dia+5= finished dia Finished gsm Count Gauge Finished dia 150-200 30/1 18 Finished dia= Machine dia 210-220 28/1 18 Finished dia= Machine dia 220-230 26/1 18 Finished dia= Machine dia+1 240-250 24/1 18 Finished dia= Machine dia+1/2 280-300 20/1 18 Finished dia= Machine dia+2/3
  68. 68. 68 After making finished sample we have to check-  Gsm  Dia  Shrinkage  Spirality Sensitive faults for specific color-  Light color-Neps not acceptable.  Dark color-Patta, dead fibre not acceptable.  White color- No fly, dust & contamination. 5.BULK PRODUCTION: If we got satisfactory results after checking finished sample we go bulk production. 6.GREY FABRIC STORING:  Roll marking must be correct.  Open form storage.  Roll form for lycra.  Dia / color wise fabric selection. 7. DELIVERY TO DYEING: After then further steps proceed on.
  69. 69. 69 FABRIC DESIGNS 1. Plain Single Jersey – 2. Single Lacoste- 3. Double Lacoste- 4. Polo Pique- 5. Single Jersey Lycra- 6. Plain Rib-
  70. 70. 70 7. Plain Interlock- 8. Fancy Rib-
  71. 71. 71 CHAPTER-XV (CONCLUSION)
  72. 72. 72 CONCLUSION: When the development of the country was at a stand still position due to the legacy of shattered economy and the industrialization was stagnant, the export oriented textile and RMG sector had shown the ray of hope by its all- pervasive positive impact on the national economy. At the fag end of the eighty, this sector started expanding and within a short period of its existence, this nascent industry became the largest foreign exchange earner. Standing at the verge of a new millennium, Textile and RMG sector is now the heart of our national economy. Even after all this achievements, this industry faces the major challenge of global adjustment in the coming years when it has to respond the new trading arrangement after 2004. NORTHERN FASHION LTD being a part of this decisive sector will have to take necessary measure to cope with the change of globalization. Modification of the technical arrangement with the advancement of technologies and good positive approach will help to survive in this ever-changing global economy. Hopefully, the confidence and foresight of the entrepreneurs and the enthusiastic teamwork of the professionals will take NORTHERN FASHION LTD to an even better position.

×