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Industrial attachment of northern corporation limited

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  • 1. Industrial Attachment Page 1 Southeast University Department of Textile INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Northern Corporation Limited Industrial Attachment Page 1 Southeast University Department of Textile INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Northern Corporation Limited Industrial Attachment Page 1 Southeast University Department of Textile INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Northern Corporation Limited
  • 2. Industrial Attachment Page 2 Southeast University Department of Textile Industrial Attachment Page 2 Southeast University Department of Textile Industrial Attachment Page 2 Southeast University Department of Textile
  • 3. Industrial Attachment Page 3 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting floor Organogram of Fabric Division BuyerWise Production Officer (3) Knitting Supervisor (3) M/c Operator & Helper Out Supervisor (10) Industrial Attachment Page 3 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting floor Organogram of Fabric Division AGM (Fabric Division) BuyerWise Production Officer (3) Out Supervisor (10) Sr Executive (1) Excutive (1) Quality Excutive Mechanica lTeam Fitterman Incharge (1) Fitterman (4) Quality Supervisor (3) Industrial Attachment Page 3 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting floor Organogram of Fabric Division Quality Excutive Mechanica lTeam Fitterman (4)
  • 4. Industrial Attachment Page 4 Southeast University Department of Textile 0 EXIT EXITEXIT FlatKnittingArea EXIT EXIT E X I TDark Room L i f t Of fi ce Ma na ge r L i f Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e EXITEXITEXIT Accessories Store Yarn Distribution Area Maintenance L i f t ToiletToilet Inspection M/c Keep Fabric Roll Keep Fabric Roll S N E W LAYOUT PLAN Industrial Attachment Page 4 Southeast University Department of Textile 0 EXIT EXITEXIT FlatKnittingArea EXIT EXIT E X I TDark Room L i f t Of fi ce Ma na ge r L i f Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e EXITEXITEXIT Accessories Store Yarn Distribution Area Maintenance L i f t ToiletToilet Inspection M/c Keep Fabric Roll Keep Fabric Roll S N E W LAYOUT PLAN Industrial Attachment Page 4 Southeast University Department of Textile 0 EXIT EXITEXIT FlatKnittingArea EXIT EXIT E X I TDark Room L i f t Of fi ce Ma na ge r L i f Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e EXITEXITEXIT Accessories Store Yarn Distribution Area Maintenance L i f t ToiletToilet Inspection M/c Keep Fabric Roll Keep Fabric Roll S N E W LAYOUT PLAN
  • 5. Industrial Attachment Page 5 Southeast University Department of Textile Specification of Circular Knitting M/c M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Dia Gauge Feeder 01 Top Knit Korea Single Jersey 34 28 102 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 28 102 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 102 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 24 102 05 Monarch England ʺ 30 28 90 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock /Rib 34 24 82 09 ʺ ʺ Single Jersey 34 24 82 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 82 11 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 28 96 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ 34 24 108 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 90 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock/Rib 32 18 68 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 32 18 68 16 Fukuhara Japan Single Jersey 36 24 102 17 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 12 96 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 88 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 34 24 108 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock/Rib 30 22 72 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 22 72 22 Top knit Korea Interlock/Rib 30 24/28 72 23 Mayer &Cie Germany Single Jersey 38 24 123 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 20 96 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ 36 24 114 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 34 18 72 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 36 24 72 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 30 18 64 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard - - - 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - 31 ʺ ʺ Engineering Stripe 30 20 48 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - Industrial Attachment Page 5 Southeast University Department of Textile Specification of Circular Knitting M/c M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Dia Gauge Feeder 01 Top Knit Korea Single Jersey 34 28 102 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 28 102 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 102 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 24 102 05 Monarch England ʺ 30 28 90 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock /Rib 34 24 82 09 ʺ ʺ Single Jersey 34 24 82 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 82 11 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 28 96 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ 34 24 108 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 90 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock/Rib 32 18 68 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 32 18 68 16 Fukuhara Japan Single Jersey 36 24 102 17 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 12 96 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 88 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 34 24 108 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock/Rib 30 22 72 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 22 72 22 Top knit Korea Interlock/Rib 30 24/28 72 23 Mayer &Cie Germany Single Jersey 38 24 123 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 20 96 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ 36 24 114 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 34 18 72 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 36 24 72 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 30 18 64 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard - - - 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - 31 ʺ ʺ Engineering Stripe 30 20 48 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - Industrial Attachment Page 5 Southeast University Department of Textile Specification of Circular Knitting M/c M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Dia Gauge Feeder 01 Top Knit Korea Single Jersey 34 28 102 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 28 102 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 102 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 24 102 05 Monarch England ʺ 30 28 90 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock /Rib 34 24 82 09 ʺ ʺ Single Jersey 34 24 82 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 82 11 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 28 96 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ 34 24 108 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 90 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock/Rib 32 18 68 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 32 18 68 16 Fukuhara Japan Single Jersey 36 24 102 17 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 12 96 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 88 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 34 24 108 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock/Rib 30 22 72 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 22 72 22 Top knit Korea Interlock/Rib 30 24/28 72 23 Mayer &Cie Germany Single Jersey 38 24 123 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 20 96 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ 36 24 114 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 34 18 72 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 36 24 72 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 30 18 64 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard - - - 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - 31 ʺ ʺ Engineering Stripe 30 20 48 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - -
  • 6. Industrial Attachment Page 6 Southeast University Department of Textile “Dimension of Knitting Machinery” M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Creel Position Length (Inch) Width (Inch) Height (Inch) Creel capacity 01 Top Knit Korea S/J Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 05 Monarch England ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 09 ʺ ʺ S/J Side Creel 174" 143" 105" 176 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 190" 126" 105" 176 11 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 238" 160" 105" 192 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ Side Creel 270" 150" 125" 224 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 222" 158" 106" 192 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock Side Creel 205" 145" 130" 144 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 16 Fukuhara Japan S/J Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 17 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 205" 160" 105" 192 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 220" 160" 105" 192 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 22 Top knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 23 Mayer &Cie Germany S/J Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 31 ʺ ʺ Engineerin g Stripe Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 Industrial Attachment Page 6 Southeast University Department of Textile “Dimension of Knitting Machinery” M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Creel Position Length (Inch) Width (Inch) Height (Inch) Creel capacity 01 Top Knit Korea S/J Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 05 Monarch England ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 09 ʺ ʺ S/J Side Creel 174" 143" 105" 176 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 190" 126" 105" 176 11 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 238" 160" 105" 192 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ Side Creel 270" 150" 125" 224 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 222" 158" 106" 192 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock Side Creel 205" 145" 130" 144 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 16 Fukuhara Japan S/J Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 17 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 205" 160" 105" 192 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 220" 160" 105" 192 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 22 Top knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 23 Mayer &Cie Germany S/J Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 31 ʺ ʺ Engineerin g Stripe Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 Industrial Attachment Page 6 Southeast University Department of Textile “Dimension of Knitting Machinery” M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Creel Position Length (Inch) Width (Inch) Height (Inch) Creel capacity 01 Top Knit Korea S/J Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 05 Monarch England ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 09 ʺ ʺ S/J Side Creel 174" 143" 105" 176 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 190" 126" 105" 176 11 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 238" 160" 105" 192 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ Side Creel 270" 150" 125" 224 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 222" 158" 106" 192 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock Side Creel 205" 145" 130" 144 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 16 Fukuhara Japan S/J Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 17 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 205" 160" 105" 192 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 220" 160" 105" 192 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 22 Top knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 23 Mayer &Cie Germany S/J Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 31 ʺ ʺ Engineerin g Stripe Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208
  • 7. Industrial Attachment Page 7 Southeast University Department of Textile Northern Corporation Limited Tongi, Gopalpur, Gazipur, Dhaka Knitting charge/kg for TIL: Fabric Type M/C Gauge Yarn Count Charges/kg S/J 24 20/1-34/1 9 S/J 24 36/1-40/1 10 S/J 20 16/1-20/1 10 S/J Y/D 24 (20/1-34/1) 16 S/J Y/D 20 Y/D(18/1-30/1) 16 Heavy S/J 20 Double Yarn (26/2-40/2) 16 S/J 28 50/1-80/1 16 S/J Slub 24 24/1-36/1 12 S/J Slub 20 20/1-30/1 13 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 100 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 120 Eng.stripe L-S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 180 Eng.stripe L-PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 190 Eng.stripe S/J (Double Yarn) 20 Double Yarn 125 L-S/J 24-28 TUBE 25 L-S/J 24-28 OPEN 28 L-S/J 24-28 Y/D 35 S/Lacoste, PK 24 Single Yarn 14 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Single Yarn 15 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Double Yarn 16 L-S/Lacoste 20-24 H/Feeder 33 2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 15 L-2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 35 1×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 14 1×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 20 1×1 RIB 18 Y/D, Single Yarn 20 2×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 21 Waffle 18 Single Yarn 28 2×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 30 D/Yarn RIB 18 Single Yarn 22 2×1 RIB 18 60/2 35 2×1 L-RIB 18 60/2 45 P/Interlock 24 Cotton 16 P/Interlock 24 Polyester 38 Mesh/ Mini eyelet/ Birds eye 24 Polyester 45 Flat Rib 14 Cotton 110 Collar per sets 14 Cotton 4 Industrial Attachment Page 7 Southeast University Department of Textile Northern Corporation Limited Tongi, Gopalpur, Gazipur, Dhaka Knitting charge/kg for TIL: Fabric Type M/C Gauge Yarn Count Charges/kg S/J 24 20/1-34/1 9 S/J 24 36/1-40/1 10 S/J 20 16/1-20/1 10 S/J Y/D 24 (20/1-34/1) 16 S/J Y/D 20 Y/D(18/1-30/1) 16 Heavy S/J 20 Double Yarn (26/2-40/2) 16 S/J 28 50/1-80/1 16 S/J Slub 24 24/1-36/1 12 S/J Slub 20 20/1-30/1 13 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 100 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 120 Eng.stripe L-S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 180 Eng.stripe L-PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 190 Eng.stripe S/J (Double Yarn) 20 Double Yarn 125 L-S/J 24-28 TUBE 25 L-S/J 24-28 OPEN 28 L-S/J 24-28 Y/D 35 S/Lacoste, PK 24 Single Yarn 14 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Single Yarn 15 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Double Yarn 16 L-S/Lacoste 20-24 H/Feeder 33 2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 15 L-2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 35 1×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 14 1×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 20 1×1 RIB 18 Y/D, Single Yarn 20 2×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 21 Waffle 18 Single Yarn 28 2×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 30 D/Yarn RIB 18 Single Yarn 22 2×1 RIB 18 60/2 35 2×1 L-RIB 18 60/2 45 P/Interlock 24 Cotton 16 P/Interlock 24 Polyester 38 Mesh/ Mini eyelet/ Birds eye 24 Polyester 45 Flat Rib 14 Cotton 110 Collar per sets 14 Cotton 4 Industrial Attachment Page 7 Southeast University Department of Textile Northern Corporation Limited Tongi, Gopalpur, Gazipur, Dhaka Knitting charge/kg for TIL: Fabric Type M/C Gauge Yarn Count Charges/kg S/J 24 20/1-34/1 9 S/J 24 36/1-40/1 10 S/J 20 16/1-20/1 10 S/J Y/D 24 (20/1-34/1) 16 S/J Y/D 20 Y/D(18/1-30/1) 16 Heavy S/J 20 Double Yarn (26/2-40/2) 16 S/J 28 50/1-80/1 16 S/J Slub 24 24/1-36/1 12 S/J Slub 20 20/1-30/1 13 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 100 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 120 Eng.stripe L-S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 180 Eng.stripe L-PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 190 Eng.stripe S/J (Double Yarn) 20 Double Yarn 125 L-S/J 24-28 TUBE 25 L-S/J 24-28 OPEN 28 L-S/J 24-28 Y/D 35 S/Lacoste, PK 24 Single Yarn 14 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Single Yarn 15 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Double Yarn 16 L-S/Lacoste 20-24 H/Feeder 33 2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 15 L-2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 35 1×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 14 1×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 20 1×1 RIB 18 Y/D, Single Yarn 20 2×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 21 Waffle 18 Single Yarn 28 2×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 30 D/Yarn RIB 18 Single Yarn 22 2×1 RIB 18 60/2 35 2×1 L-RIB 18 60/2 45 P/Interlock 24 Cotton 16 P/Interlock 24 Polyester 38 Mesh/ Mini eyelet/ Birds eye 24 Polyester 45 Flat Rib 14 Cotton 110 Collar per sets 14 Cotton 4
  • 8. Industrial Attachment Page 8 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle and Sinker numbering system M/C No. Machine Brand Gauge M/C Type Position Needle Brand Name Needle No. 1,2,3 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-94.41 G031 V0-94.41 G032 Sinker 209202673 G00 4,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO Ls-136.41 G0029 VO Ls-136.41 G0030 VO Ls-136.41 G0031 VO Ls-136.41 G0032 Sinker 209202673 G00 1,,2,3,4 ,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 32 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-141.36 G001 V0-141.36 G002 V0-141.36 G003 V0-141.36 G004 Sinker 209202673 G00 8,9,10,1 2 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 V0-65.48 G0013 V0TA-105.48 G006 28 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.41 G005 V0-105.41 G006 V0-65.41 G007 V0TA-65.41 G004 12,19,2 3,25 Mayer &Cie 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VOLS-140.50 G0036 VOLS-140.50 G0038 Sinker 206085204 G00 12,19 Mayer &Cie 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-140.41 G0040 VO-140.41 G0042 Sinker 206080204 G00 27,15 Mayer &Cie 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 Dial V0-65.48 G0013 VOTA-65.48 G006 28 Mayer &Cie 18 Rib Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-91.50 G0011 VOTA-62.50 G0011 Dial V0-147.41 G005 Industrial Attachment Page 8 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle and Sinker numbering system M/C No. Machine Brand Gauge M/C Type Position Needle Brand Name Needle No. 1,2,3 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-94.41 G031 V0-94.41 G032 Sinker 209202673 G00 4,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO Ls-136.41 G0029 VO Ls-136.41 G0030 VO Ls-136.41 G0031 VO Ls-136.41 G0032 Sinker 209202673 G00 1,,2,3,4 ,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 32 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-141.36 G001 V0-141.36 G002 V0-141.36 G003 V0-141.36 G004 Sinker 209202673 G00 8,9,10,1 2 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 V0-65.48 G0013 V0TA-105.48 G006 28 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.41 G005 V0-105.41 G006 V0-65.41 G007 V0TA-65.41 G004 12,19,2 3,25 Mayer &Cie 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VOLS-140.50 G0036 VOLS-140.50 G0038 Sinker 206085204 G00 12,19 Mayer &Cie 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-140.41 G0040 VO-140.41 G0042 Sinker 206080204 G00 27,15 Mayer &Cie 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 Dial V0-65.48 G0013 VOTA-65.48 G006 28 Mayer &Cie 18 Rib Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-91.50 G0011 VOTA-62.50 G0011 Dial V0-147.41 G005 Industrial Attachment Page 8 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle and Sinker numbering system M/C No. Machine Brand Gauge M/C Type Position Needle Brand Name Needle No. 1,2,3 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-94.41 G031 V0-94.41 G032 Sinker 209202673 G00 4,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO Ls-136.41 G0029 VO Ls-136.41 G0030 VO Ls-136.41 G0031 VO Ls-136.41 G0032 Sinker 209202673 G00 1,,2,3,4 ,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 32 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-141.36 G001 V0-141.36 G002 V0-141.36 G003 V0-141.36 G004 Sinker 209202673 G00 8,9,10,1 2 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 V0-65.48 G0013 V0TA-105.48 G006 28 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.41 G005 V0-105.41 G006 V0-65.41 G007 V0TA-65.41 G004 12,19,2 3,25 Mayer &Cie 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VOLS-140.50 G0036 VOLS-140.50 G0038 Sinker 206085204 G00 12,19 Mayer &Cie 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-140.41 G0040 VO-140.41 G0042 Sinker 206080204 G00 27,15 Mayer &Cie 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 Dial V0-65.48 G0013 VOTA-65.48 G006 28 Mayer &Cie 18 Rib Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-91.50 G0011 VOTA-62.50 G0011 Dial V0-147.41 G005
  • 9. Industrial Attachment Page 9 Southeast University Department of Textile Machine With Brand Name M/c Brand Origin No. of M/c Top Knit Korea 09 Fukuhara Japan 06 Mayer &Cie Germany 10 Terrot Germany 04 Monarch England 03 Total M/c = 32 Industrial Attachment Page 9 Southeast University Department of Textile Machine With Brand Name M/c Brand Origin No. of M/c Top Knit Korea 09 Fukuhara Japan 06 Mayer &Cie Germany 10 Terrot Germany 04 Monarch England 03 Total M/c = 32 Industrial Attachment Page 9 Southeast University Department of Textile Machine With Brand Name M/c Brand Origin No. of M/c Top Knit Korea 09 Fukuhara Japan 06 Mayer &Cie Germany 10 Terrot Germany 04 Monarch England 03 Total M/c = 32
  • 10. Industrial Attachment Page 10 Southeast University Department of Textile Knitting Industrial Attachment Page 10 Southeast University Department of Textile Knitting Industrial Attachment Page 10 Southeast University Department of Textile Knitting
  • 11. Industrial Attachment Page 11 Southeast University Department of Textile What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction. Industrial Attachment Page 11 Southeast University Department of Textile What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction. Industrial Attachment Page 11 Southeast University Department of Textile What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction.
  • 12. Industrial Attachment Page 12 Southeast University Department of Textile History of knitting Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old Englishcnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical Background of Knitting Technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: JedediahStrutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: MonsierDecroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie. Industrial Attachment Page 12 Southeast University Department of Textile History of knitting Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old Englishcnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical Background of Knitting Technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: JedediahStrutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: MonsierDecroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie. Industrial Attachment Page 12 Southeast University Department of Textile History of knitting Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old Englishcnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical Background of Knitting Technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: JedediahStrutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: MonsierDecroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie.
  • 13. Industrial Attachment Page 13 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting Machine: Circular knitting machine is widely used throughout the knitting industry to produce fabric. This machine can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This machine can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular machines because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. The main features of the knitting machine: Originally, the term ‘machine’ used to refer to a mechanism on a bearded needle frame such as the fashioning mechanism on the straight bar frame. Today, it refers to the complete assembly. A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying mechanical movement, either hand or power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into knitted loop structures. The machine incorporates and co-ordinates the action of a number of mechanisms and devices, each performing specific functions that contribute towards the efficiency of the knitting action. The main features of a knitting machine are as follows: 1. Frame: The frame, normally free-standing and either circular or rectilinear according to needle bed shape, provides the support for the majority of the machines mechanisms. Industrial Attachment Page 13 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting Machine: Circular knitting machine is widely used throughout the knitting industry to produce fabric. This machine can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This machine can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular machines because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. The main features of the knitting machine: Originally, the term ‘machine’ used to refer to a mechanism on a bearded needle frame such as the fashioning mechanism on the straight bar frame. Today, it refers to the complete assembly. A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying mechanical movement, either hand or power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into knitted loop structures. The machine incorporates and co-ordinates the action of a number of mechanisms and devices, each performing specific functions that contribute towards the efficiency of the knitting action. The main features of a knitting machine are as follows: 1. Frame: The frame, normally free-standing and either circular or rectilinear according to needle bed shape, provides the support for the majority of the machines mechanisms. Industrial Attachment Page 13 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting Machine: Circular knitting machine is widely used throughout the knitting industry to produce fabric. This machine can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This machine can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular machines because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. The main features of the knitting machine: Originally, the term ‘machine’ used to refer to a mechanism on a bearded needle frame such as the fashioning mechanism on the straight bar frame. Today, it refers to the complete assembly. A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying mechanical movement, either hand or power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into knitted loop structures. The machine incorporates and co-ordinates the action of a number of mechanisms and devices, each performing specific functions that contribute towards the efficiency of the knitting action. The main features of a knitting machine are as follows: 1. Frame: The frame, normally free-standing and either circular or rectilinear according to needle bed shape, provides the support for the majority of the machines mechanisms.
  • 14. Industrial Attachment Page 14 Southeast University Department of Textile 2. Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the Drive of the devices and mechanisms. 3. Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam accommodation, tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides. 4. Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing, drive and control, as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control devices (if equipped). 5. Fabric Take-away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning, windup and accommodation devices. 6. Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, fault detectors, automatic oilers and lint removal systems. Machines may range from high-production, limited-capability models to versatile, multi- purpose models having extensive patterning capabilities. The more complex the structure being knitted, the lower the knitting speed and efficiency. The simplest of the knitting machines would be hand- powered and manipulated where as power-driven machines may be fully automatically-programmed and controlled from a computer system. Important Parts of Circular Knitting Machine: Industrial Attachment Page 14 Southeast University Department of Textile 2. Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the Drive of the devices and mechanisms. 3. Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam accommodation, tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides. 4. Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing, drive and control, as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control devices (if equipped). 5. Fabric Take-away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning, windup and accommodation devices. 6. Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, fault detectors, automatic oilers and lint removal systems. Machines may range from high-production, limited-capability models to versatile, multi- purpose models having extensive patterning capabilities. The more complex the structure being knitted, the lower the knitting speed and efficiency. The simplest of the knitting machines would be hand- powered and manipulated where as power-driven machines may be fully automatically-programmed and controlled from a computer system. Important Parts of Circular Knitting Machine: Industrial Attachment Page 14 Southeast University Department of Textile 2. Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the Drive of the devices and mechanisms. 3. Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam accommodation, tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides. 4. Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing, drive and control, as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control devices (if equipped). 5. Fabric Take-away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning, windup and accommodation devices. 6. Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, fault detectors, automatic oilers and lint removal systems. Machines may range from high-production, limited-capability models to versatile, multi- purpose models having extensive patterning capabilities. The more complex the structure being knitted, the lower the knitting speed and efficiency. The simplest of the knitting machines would be hand- powered and manipulated where as power-driven machines may be fully automatically-programmed and controlled from a computer system. Important Parts of Circular Knitting Machine:
  • 15. Industrial Attachment Page 15 Southeast University Department of Textile Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in the machine. VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Brush: Its clean the pulley belt. Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn. Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder. Industrial Attachment Page 15 Southeast University Department of Textile Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in the machine. VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Brush: Its clean the pulley belt. Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn. Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder. Industrial Attachment Page 15 Southeast University Department of Textile Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in the machine. VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Brush: Its clean the pulley belt. Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn. Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder.
  • 16. Industrial Attachment Page 16 Southeast University Department of Textile MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel. MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give positive feed to the machine. Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together. Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together. Cam Box: Where the cam are set horizontally. Industrial Attachment Page 16 Southeast University Department of Textile MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel. MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give positive feed to the machine. Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together. Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together. Cam Box: Where the cam are set horizontally. Industrial Attachment Page 16 Southeast University Department of Textile MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel. MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give positive feed to the machine. Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together. Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together. Cam Box: Where the cam are set horizontally.
  • 17. Industrial Attachment Page 17 Southeast University Department of Textile Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine. Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear. Dial: Dial is upper steel needle bed used in double knit machines. Into the grooves of the dial the needle are mounted horizontally and are allowed to move radially in and out by their dial cams. UNIWAVE Lubrication: The UNIWAVE lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles, cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil. Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fibre from yarn and others. To clean the dust by air flow. Industrial Attachment Page 17 Southeast University Department of Textile Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine. Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear. Dial: Dial is upper steel needle bed used in double knit machines. Into the grooves of the dial the needle are mounted horizontally and are allowed to move radially in and out by their dial cams. UNIWAVE Lubrication: The UNIWAVE lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles, cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil. Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fibre from yarn and others. To clean the dust by air flow. Industrial Attachment Page 17 Southeast University Department of Textile Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine. Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear. Dial: Dial is upper steel needle bed used in double knit machines. Into the grooves of the dial the needle are mounted horizontally and are allowed to move radially in and out by their dial cams. UNIWAVE Lubrication: The UNIWAVE lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles, cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil. Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fibre from yarn and others. To clean the dust by air flow.
  • 18. Industrial Attachment Page 18 Southeast University Department of Textile Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses. Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be reduced. Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose. Primary Knitting Element Primary Knitting Elements are mainly three types. There are as flow: 1. Needle 2. Cam 3. Sinker Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle Industrial Attachment Page 18 Southeast University Department of Textile Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses. Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be reduced. Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose. Primary Knitting Element Primary Knitting Elements are mainly three types. There are as flow: 1. Needle 2. Cam 3. Sinker Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle Industrial Attachment Page 18 Southeast University Department of Textile Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses. Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be reduced. Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose. Primary Knitting Element Primary Knitting Elements are mainly three types. There are as flow: 1. Needle 2. Cam 3. Sinker Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle
  • 19. Industrial Attachment Page 19 Southeast University Department of Textile Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines. Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self-acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine. 2. Flat Bar Machine. 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. Industrial Attachment Page 19 Southeast University Department of Textile Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines. Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self-acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine. 2. Flat Bar Machine. 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. Industrial Attachment Page 19 Southeast University Department of Textile Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines. Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self-acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine. 2. Flat Bar Machine. 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine.
  • 20. Industrial Attachment Page 20 Southeast University Department of Textile Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick. The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1) The rest position: The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2) Latch opening: As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3) Clearing height: When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4) Yarn feeding and latch closing: The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook. Industrial Attachment Page 20 Southeast University Department of Textile Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick. The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1) The rest position: The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2) Latch opening: As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3) Clearing height: When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4) Yarn feeding and latch closing: The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook. Industrial Attachment Page 20 Southeast University Department of Textile Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick. The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1) The rest position: The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2) Latch opening: As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3) Clearing height: When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4) Yarn feeding and latch closing: The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook.
  • 21. Industrial Attachment Page 21 Southeast University Department of Textile 5) Knocking-over and loop length formation: As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted. Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle. Industrial Attachment Page 21 Southeast University Department of Textile 5) Knocking-over and loop length formation: As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted. Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle. Industrial Attachment Page 21 Southeast University Department of Textile 5) Knocking-over and loop length formation: As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted. Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle.
  • 22. Industrial Attachment Page 22 Southeast University Department of Textile CAMS: Cam is a primary weft knitting element. Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action to the needles and other elements. There are three types of knitting cam. Knit cam Tuck cam Miss cam The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams Industrial Attachment Page 22 Southeast University Department of Textile CAMS: Cam is a primary weft knitting element. Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action to the needles and other elements. There are three types of knitting cam. Knit cam Tuck cam Miss cam The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams Industrial Attachment Page 22 Southeast University Department of Textile CAMS: Cam is a primary weft knitting element. Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action to the needles and other elements. There are three types of knitting cam. Knit cam Tuck cam Miss cam The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams
  • 23. Industrial Attachment Page 23 Southeast University Department of Textile Sinker: The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action. It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. Different Parts of Sinker Industrial Attachment Page 23 Southeast University Department of Textile Sinker: The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action. It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. Different Parts of Sinker Industrial Attachment Page 23 Southeast University Department of Textile Sinker: The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action. It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. Different Parts of Sinker
  • 24. Industrial Attachment Page 24 Southeast University Department of Textile General Terms of Knitting Technology The knitted stitch: The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops. The center loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it. The repeat unit of a stitch is the minimum repeat of intermeshed loops that can be placed adjoining other repeat units in order to build up an unbroken sequence in width and depth. A needle loop only has its characteristic appearance because its legs are pre-vented from spreading outwards by being intermeshed through the head of the loop below it. If there is no previous loop to mesh through, the legs of the new loop will spread outwards. The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength. The face loop stitch: The face side of the stitch (Fig. 5.8) shows the new loop coming towards the viewer as it passes over and covers the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the right side in mainland Europe. Face loop stitches tend to show the side limbs of the needle loops or overlaps as a series of inter fitting ‘V’s. The face loop-side is the underside of the stitch on the needle. Fig. The knitted stitch. Industrial Attachment Page 24 Southeast University Department of Textile General Terms of Knitting Technology The knitted stitch: The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops. The center loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it. The repeat unit of a stitch is the minimum repeat of intermeshed loops that can be placed adjoining other repeat units in order to build up an unbroken sequence in width and depth. A needle loop only has its characteristic appearance because its legs are pre-vented from spreading outwards by being intermeshed through the head of the loop below it. If there is no previous loop to mesh through, the legs of the new loop will spread outwards. The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength. The face loop stitch: The face side of the stitch (Fig. 5.8) shows the new loop coming towards the viewer as it passes over and covers the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the right side in mainland Europe. Face loop stitches tend to show the side limbs of the needle loops or overlaps as a series of inter fitting ‘V’s. The face loop-side is the underside of the stitch on the needle. Fig. The knitted stitch. Industrial Attachment Page 24 Southeast University Department of Textile General Terms of Knitting Technology The knitted stitch: The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops. The center loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it. The repeat unit of a stitch is the minimum repeat of intermeshed loops that can be placed adjoining other repeat units in order to build up an unbroken sequence in width and depth. A needle loop only has its characteristic appearance because its legs are pre-vented from spreading outwards by being intermeshed through the head of the loop below it. If there is no previous loop to mesh through, the legs of the new loop will spread outwards. The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength. The face loop stitch: The face side of the stitch (Fig. 5.8) shows the new loop coming towards the viewer as it passes over and covers the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the right side in mainland Europe. Face loop stitches tend to show the side limbs of the needle loops or overlaps as a series of inter fitting ‘V’s. The face loop-side is the underside of the stitch on the needle. Fig. The knitted stitch.
  • 25. Industrial Attachment Page 25 Southeast University Department of Textile The reverse loop stitch: This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop-side and shows the new loop meshing away from the viewer as it passes under the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the under laps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface. The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop (Figures 5.8). The needle loop The needle loop (H +L in Fig. 5.1) is the basic unit of knitted structure. When tension in the fabric is balanced and there is sufficient take-away tension during knitting, it is an upright noose formed in the needle hook. It consists of a head (H) and two side limbs or legs (L). At the base of each leg is a foot (F), which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle. The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. (NB: If the loop is the first loop knitted on that needle, its feet and legs will not be restricted and it will open out to give the appearance of a tuck loop. If the loops are knitted on a flat machine with a pressing down device and no take-down tension, the loops will be more rounded and will tend to incline due to the traversing movement of the presser.) Fig. 5.1 Intermeshing points of a needle loop. In weft knitting, the feet are normally open because the yarn continues to be sup-plied in one direction (except at the selvedges of straight knitting machines). Exceptionally, closed loops have occasionally been produced in the past on the bearded needle sinker wheel machine, by twisting a loop over as it is transferred to another needle, or by using a twizzle beard which closes onto the back of the needle so that, as the loop is cast-off, it twists over itself. Industrial Attachment Page 25 Southeast University Department of Textile The reverse loop stitch: This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop-side and shows the new loop meshing away from the viewer as it passes under the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the under laps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface. The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop (Figures 5.8). The needle loop The needle loop (H +L in Fig. 5.1) is the basic unit of knitted structure. When tension in the fabric is balanced and there is sufficient take-away tension during knitting, it is an upright noose formed in the needle hook. It consists of a head (H) and two side limbs or legs (L). At the base of each leg is a foot (F), which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle. The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. (NB: If the loop is the first loop knitted on that needle, its feet and legs will not be restricted and it will open out to give the appearance of a tuck loop. If the loops are knitted on a flat machine with a pressing down device and no take-down tension, the loops will be more rounded and will tend to incline due to the traversing movement of the presser.) Fig. 5.1 Intermeshing points of a needle loop. In weft knitting, the feet are normally open because the yarn continues to be sup-plied in one direction (except at the selvedges of straight knitting machines). Exceptionally, closed loops have occasionally been produced in the past on the bearded needle sinker wheel machine, by twisting a loop over as it is transferred to another needle, or by using a twizzle beard which closes onto the back of the needle so that, as the loop is cast-off, it twists over itself. Industrial Attachment Page 25 Southeast University Department of Textile The reverse loop stitch: This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop-side and shows the new loop meshing away from the viewer as it passes under the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the under laps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface. The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop (Figures 5.8). The needle loop The needle loop (H +L in Fig. 5.1) is the basic unit of knitted structure. When tension in the fabric is balanced and there is sufficient take-away tension during knitting, it is an upright noose formed in the needle hook. It consists of a head (H) and two side limbs or legs (L). At the base of each leg is a foot (F), which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle. The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. (NB: If the loop is the first loop knitted on that needle, its feet and legs will not be restricted and it will open out to give the appearance of a tuck loop. If the loops are knitted on a flat machine with a pressing down device and no take-down tension, the loops will be more rounded and will tend to incline due to the traversing movement of the presser.) Fig. 5.1 Intermeshing points of a needle loop. In weft knitting, the feet are normally open because the yarn continues to be sup-plied in one direction (except at the selvedges of straight knitting machines). Exceptionally, closed loops have occasionally been produced in the past on the bearded needle sinker wheel machine, by twisting a loop over as it is transferred to another needle, or by using a twizzle beard which closes onto the back of the needle so that, as the loop is cast-off, it twists over itself.
  • 26. Industrial Attachment Page 26 Southeast University Department of Textile The sinker loop: The sinker loop (S in Fig. 5.1) is the piece of yarn that joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next. On bearded needle weft knitting machines, loop-forming sinkers form the sinker loops in succession between the needles – hence the origin of the term sinker loop. On latch needle weft knitting machines, however, the sinker loops are automatically formed as the needles, in succession, draw their new loops. Sinker loops show on the opposite side of the fabric to the needle loops because the needle loop is drawn onto the opposite side from which the yarn was originally fed. The terms ‘sinker loop’ and ‘needle loop’ are convenient descriptive terms but their precise limits within the same loop length are impossible to exactly define. A Course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A Course Length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unweave from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding-off. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles. A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit.  When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. (If needle B knits continuously, the wale knitted by needle A will merge into it).  In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles.  Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting).  Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric. Industrial Attachment Page 26 Southeast University Department of Textile The sinker loop: The sinker loop (S in Fig. 5.1) is the piece of yarn that joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next. On bearded needle weft knitting machines, loop-forming sinkers form the sinker loops in succession between the needles – hence the origin of the term sinker loop. On latch needle weft knitting machines, however, the sinker loops are automatically formed as the needles, in succession, draw their new loops. Sinker loops show on the opposite side of the fabric to the needle loops because the needle loop is drawn onto the opposite side from which the yarn was originally fed. The terms ‘sinker loop’ and ‘needle loop’ are convenient descriptive terms but their precise limits within the same loop length are impossible to exactly define. A Course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A Course Length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unweave from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding-off. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles. A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit.  When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. (If needle B knits continuously, the wale knitted by needle A will merge into it).  In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles.  Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting).  Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric. Industrial Attachment Page 26 Southeast University Department of Textile The sinker loop: The sinker loop (S in Fig. 5.1) is the piece of yarn that joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next. On bearded needle weft knitting machines, loop-forming sinkers form the sinker loops in succession between the needles – hence the origin of the term sinker loop. On latch needle weft knitting machines, however, the sinker loops are automatically formed as the needles, in succession, draw their new loops. Sinker loops show on the opposite side of the fabric to the needle loops because the needle loop is drawn onto the opposite side from which the yarn was originally fed. The terms ‘sinker loop’ and ‘needle loop’ are convenient descriptive terms but their precise limits within the same loop length are impossible to exactly define. A Course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A Course Length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unweave from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding-off. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles. A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit.  When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. (If needle B knits continuously, the wale knitted by needle A will merge into it).  In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles.  Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting).  Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric.
  • 27. Industrial Attachment Page 27 Southeast University Department of Textile Stitch Density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters). The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. The four primary base weft knitted structures Four primary structures – plain, rib, interlock and purl are the base structures from which all weft knitted fabrics and garments are derived. Each is composed of a different combination of face and reverse meshed stitches, knitted on a particular arrangement of needle beds. Each primary structure may exist alone, in a modified form with stitches other than normal cleared loops, or in combination with another primary structure in a garment-length sequence. All weft knitted fabric is liable to unrove (unravel), or ladder, from the course knitted last, unless special ‘locking courses’ are knitted, or unless it is specially seamed or finished. 1. Plain is produced by the needles knitting as a single set, drawing the loops away from the technical back and towards the technical face side of the fabric. 2. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in between each other so that wales of face stitches and wales of reverse stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. 3. Interlock was originally derived from rib but requires a special arrangement of needles knitting back-to-back in an alternate sequence of two sets, so that the two courses of loops show wales of face loops on each side of the fabric exactly in line with each other, thus hiding the appearance of the reverse loops. Industrial Attachment Page 27 Southeast University Department of Textile Stitch Density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters). The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. The four primary base weft knitted structures Four primary structures – plain, rib, interlock and purl are the base structures from which all weft knitted fabrics and garments are derived. Each is composed of a different combination of face and reverse meshed stitches, knitted on a particular arrangement of needle beds. Each primary structure may exist alone, in a modified form with stitches other than normal cleared loops, or in combination with another primary structure in a garment-length sequence. All weft knitted fabric is liable to unrove (unravel), or ladder, from the course knitted last, unless special ‘locking courses’ are knitted, or unless it is specially seamed or finished. 1. Plain is produced by the needles knitting as a single set, drawing the loops away from the technical back and towards the technical face side of the fabric. 2. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in between each other so that wales of face stitches and wales of reverse stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. 3. Interlock was originally derived from rib but requires a special arrangement of needles knitting back-to-back in an alternate sequence of two sets, so that the two courses of loops show wales of face loops on each side of the fabric exactly in line with each other, thus hiding the appearance of the reverse loops. Industrial Attachment Page 27 Southeast University Department of Textile Stitch Density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters). The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. The four primary base weft knitted structures Four primary structures – plain, rib, interlock and purl are the base structures from which all weft knitted fabrics and garments are derived. Each is composed of a different combination of face and reverse meshed stitches, knitted on a particular arrangement of needle beds. Each primary structure may exist alone, in a modified form with stitches other than normal cleared loops, or in combination with another primary structure in a garment-length sequence. All weft knitted fabric is liable to unrove (unravel), or ladder, from the course knitted last, unless special ‘locking courses’ are knitted, or unless it is specially seamed or finished. 1. Plain is produced by the needles knitting as a single set, drawing the loops away from the technical back and towards the technical face side of the fabric. 2. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in between each other so that wales of face stitches and wales of reverse stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. 3. Interlock was originally derived from rib but requires a special arrangement of needles knitting back-to-back in an alternate sequence of two sets, so that the two courses of loops show wales of face loops on each side of the fabric exactly in line with each other, thus hiding the appearance of the reverse loops.
  • 28. Industrial Attachment Page 28 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Purl is the only structure having certain wales containing both face and reverse meshed loops. A garment-length sequence, such as a ribbed half-hose, is defined as purl, whereas smaller sections of its length may consist of plain and rib sections. Although in the past structures of this type were knitted only on flat bed and double cylinder purl machines employing double-ended latch needles, electronically-controlled V-bed flat machines with rib loop transfer and racking facilities are now used.  Single-jersey machines can only produce one type of base structure.  Rib machines, particularly of the garment-making type, can produce sequences of plain knitting by using only one bed of needles.  Interlock machines can sometimes be changed to rib knitting.  Purl machines are capable of producing rib or plain knitting sequences by retaining certain needle arrangements during the production of a garment or other knitted article. Knit Stitch:The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on. Float Stitch:A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop; one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. The float Industrial Attachment Page 28 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Purl is the only structure having certain wales containing both face and reverse meshed loops. A garment-length sequence, such as a ribbed half-hose, is defined as purl, whereas smaller sections of its length may consist of plain and rib sections. Although in the past structures of this type were knitted only on flat bed and double cylinder purl machines employing double-ended latch needles, electronically-controlled V-bed flat machines with rib loop transfer and racking facilities are now used.  Single-jersey machines can only produce one type of base structure.  Rib machines, particularly of the garment-making type, can produce sequences of plain knitting by using only one bed of needles.  Interlock machines can sometimes be changed to rib knitting.  Purl machines are capable of producing rib or plain knitting sequences by retaining certain needle arrangements during the production of a garment or other knitted article. Knit Stitch:The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on. Float Stitch:A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop; one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. The float Industrial Attachment Page 28 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Purl is the only structure having certain wales containing both face and reverse meshed loops. A garment-length sequence, such as a ribbed half-hose, is defined as purl, whereas smaller sections of its length may consist of plain and rib sections. Although in the past structures of this type were knitted only on flat bed and double cylinder purl machines employing double-ended latch needles, electronically-controlled V-bed flat machines with rib loop transfer and racking facilities are now used.  Single-jersey machines can only produce one type of base structure.  Rib machines, particularly of the garment-making type, can produce sequences of plain knitting by using only one bed of needles.  Interlock machines can sometimes be changed to rib knitting.  Purl machines are capable of producing rib or plain knitting sequences by retaining certain needle arrangements during the production of a garment or other knitted article. Knit Stitch:The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on. Float Stitch:A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop; one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. The float
  • 29. Industrial Attachment Page 29 Southeast University Department of Textile extends from the base of one knitted or tucked loop to the next, and is notated either as an empty square or as a bypassed point. It is assumed that the held loop extends into the courses above until a knitted loop is indicated in that wale. A single float stitch has the appearance of a U-shape on the reverse of the stitch. Structures incorporating float stitches tend to exhibit faint horizontal lines. Float stitch fabrics are narrower than equivalent all-knit fabrics because the Wales are drawn closer together by the floats, thus reducing width-wise elasticity and improving fabric stability. Effect of Float/Miss Stitches: 1. Float stitch makes the fabric thinner than the tuck stitched one, as there is no yarn accumulation. 2. It makes the fabric narrower as there is no looped configuration and hence the whole structure is pulled to minimum width. 3. Less extensible than either knitted or tucked structures. 4. Fabric is lighter in weight due to minimum yarn in construction. 5. Fabric is flimsy or less rigid compared to others. The Tuck Stitch:A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop, which becomes a tuck loop because it is not intermeshed through the old loop but is tucked in behind it on the reverse side of the stitch. Its side limbs are therefore not restricted at their feet by the head of an old loop, so they can open outwards towards the two adjoining needle loops formed in the same course. The tuck loop thus assumes an inverted V or U-shaped configuration. The yarn passes from the sinker loops to the head that is intermeshed with the new loop of a course above it, so that the head of the tuck is on the reverse of the stitch. Effect of Tuck Stitches: 1. Fabric with tuck stitches is thicker than knit stitches due to accumulation of yarn in stitches at tucking places. 2. The structure with tuck stitches is winder than with knit stitches and the loop shape has a wider base at stitches. 3. Tuck stitch structure is less extensible because at every tuck stitch, the loop length is shortened. Fig. B Industrial Attachment Page 29 Southeast University Department of Textile extends from the base of one knitted or tucked loop to the next, and is notated either as an empty square or as a bypassed point. It is assumed that the held loop extends into the courses above until a knitted loop is indicated in that wale. A single float stitch has the appearance of a U-shape on the reverse of the stitch. Structures incorporating float stitches tend to exhibit faint horizontal lines. Float stitch fabrics are narrower than equivalent all-knit fabrics because the Wales are drawn closer together by the floats, thus reducing width-wise elasticity and improving fabric stability. Effect of Float/Miss Stitches: 1. Float stitch makes the fabric thinner than the tuck stitched one, as there is no yarn accumulation. 2. It makes the fabric narrower as there is no looped configuration and hence the whole structure is pulled to minimum width. 3. Less extensible than either knitted or tucked structures. 4. Fabric is lighter in weight due to minimum yarn in construction. 5. Fabric is flimsy or less rigid compared to others. The Tuck Stitch:A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop, which becomes a tuck loop because it is not intermeshed through the old loop but is tucked in behind it on the reverse side of the stitch. Its side limbs are therefore not restricted at their feet by the head of an old loop, so they can open outwards towards the two adjoining needle loops formed in the same course. The tuck loop thus assumes an inverted V or U-shaped configuration. The yarn passes from the sinker loops to the head that is intermeshed with the new loop of a course above it, so that the head of the tuck is on the reverse of the stitch. Effect of Tuck Stitches: 1. Fabric with tuck stitches is thicker than knit stitches due to accumulation of yarn in stitches at tucking places. 2. The structure with tuck stitches is winder than with knit stitches and the loop shape has a wider base at stitches. 3. Tuck stitch structure is less extensible because at every tuck stitch, the loop length is shortened. Fig. B Industrial Attachment Page 29 Southeast University Department of Textile extends from the base of one knitted or tucked loop to the next, and is notated either as an empty square or as a bypassed point. It is assumed that the held loop extends into the courses above until a knitted loop is indicated in that wale. A single float stitch has the appearance of a U-shape on the reverse of the stitch. Structures incorporating float stitches tend to exhibit faint horizontal lines. Float stitch fabrics are narrower than equivalent all-knit fabrics because the Wales are drawn closer together by the floats, thus reducing width-wise elasticity and improving fabric stability. Effect of Float/Miss Stitches: 1. Float stitch makes the fabric thinner than the tuck stitched one, as there is no yarn accumulation. 2. It makes the fabric narrower as there is no looped configuration and hence the whole structure is pulled to minimum width. 3. Less extensible than either knitted or tucked structures. 4. Fabric is lighter in weight due to minimum yarn in construction. 5. Fabric is flimsy or less rigid compared to others. The Tuck Stitch:A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop, which becomes a tuck loop because it is not intermeshed through the old loop but is tucked in behind it on the reverse side of the stitch. Its side limbs are therefore not restricted at their feet by the head of an old loop, so they can open outwards towards the two adjoining needle loops formed in the same course. The tuck loop thus assumes an inverted V or U-shaped configuration. The yarn passes from the sinker loops to the head that is intermeshed with the new loop of a course above it, so that the head of the tuck is on the reverse of the stitch. Effect of Tuck Stitches: 1. Fabric with tuck stitches is thicker than knit stitches due to accumulation of yarn in stitches at tucking places. 2. The structure with tuck stitches is winder than with knit stitches and the loop shape has a wider base at stitches. 3. Tuck stitch structure is less extensible because at every tuck stitch, the loop length is shortened. Fig. B
  • 30. Industrial Attachment Page 30 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Due to thicker in nature, the tuck stitched fabric is heavier in weight per unit area than the knit stitches. 5. Tuck stitched structure is more open and porous than the knit stitched fabric. Tuck stitch is also used to get fancy effects by using colored yarns. Feeder Stripe: By carefully arrangement of the package of colored yarn on a large diameter , multi feeder m/c, on elaborate sequence of stripe having a depth that is repeated at each m/c revelation, is obtained the depth of the stripe may vary depends on fabric style , total no. of feeder of the m/c and stitch length. Machine with few fees particularly garments length m/c and hosiery knitting m/c would have severely restricted capabilities. In this m/c choice of yarn may include elastic yarn and separated yarn as well as colored yarn. Engineering stripe: The stripe can produce on auto stripe, m/c with any depth of stripe. Fabric structure may be single jersey or double jersey. Auto stripe may use at each feed for selection of colour. The facility of yarn changing by “stopping finger” selection , which can provide a choice of one from four or five yarn at a particular feed point during each m/c revolution. Striping finger changes must occur while the needle bed rotates. A slight overlap of two interchanging yarn is essential, to maintain a continuous yarn flow at the knitting point. Industrial Attachment Page 30 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Due to thicker in nature, the tuck stitched fabric is heavier in weight per unit area than the knit stitches. 5. Tuck stitched structure is more open and porous than the knit stitched fabric. Tuck stitch is also used to get fancy effects by using colored yarns. Feeder Stripe: By carefully arrangement of the package of colored yarn on a large diameter , multi feeder m/c, on elaborate sequence of stripe having a depth that is repeated at each m/c revelation, is obtained the depth of the stripe may vary depends on fabric style , total no. of feeder of the m/c and stitch length. Machine with few fees particularly garments length m/c and hosiery knitting m/c would have severely restricted capabilities. In this m/c choice of yarn may include elastic yarn and separated yarn as well as colored yarn. Engineering stripe: The stripe can produce on auto stripe, m/c with any depth of stripe. Fabric structure may be single jersey or double jersey. Auto stripe may use at each feed for selection of colour. The facility of yarn changing by “stopping finger” selection , which can provide a choice of one from four or five yarn at a particular feed point during each m/c revolution. Striping finger changes must occur while the needle bed rotates. A slight overlap of two interchanging yarn is essential, to maintain a continuous yarn flow at the knitting point. Industrial Attachment Page 30 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Due to thicker in nature, the tuck stitched fabric is heavier in weight per unit area than the knit stitches. 5. Tuck stitched structure is more open and porous than the knit stitched fabric. Tuck stitch is also used to get fancy effects by using colored yarns. Feeder Stripe: By carefully arrangement of the package of colored yarn on a large diameter , multi feeder m/c, on elaborate sequence of stripe having a depth that is repeated at each m/c revelation, is obtained the depth of the stripe may vary depends on fabric style , total no. of feeder of the m/c and stitch length. Machine with few fees particularly garments length m/c and hosiery knitting m/c would have severely restricted capabilities. In this m/c choice of yarn may include elastic yarn and separated yarn as well as colored yarn. Engineering stripe: The stripe can produce on auto stripe, m/c with any depth of stripe. Fabric structure may be single jersey or double jersey. Auto stripe may use at each feed for selection of colour. The facility of yarn changing by “stopping finger” selection , which can provide a choice of one from four or five yarn at a particular feed point during each m/c revolution. Striping finger changes must occur while the needle bed rotates. A slight overlap of two interchanging yarn is essential, to maintain a continuous yarn flow at the knitting point.
  • 31. Industrial Attachment Page 31 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle timing: Needle timing(Fig. 7.11) is the relationship between the loop-forming positions of the dial and cylinder needles measured as the distance in needles between the two stitches cam knock-over points. Collective timing adjustment is achieved by moving the dial cam- plate clockwise or anti-clockwise relative to the cylinder; individual adjustment at particular feeders (as required) is obtained by moving or changing the stitch cam profile. Fig. 7.11 Needle cam timing for a circular rib machine. Industrial Attachment Page 31 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle timing: Needle timing(Fig. 7.11) is the relationship between the loop-forming positions of the dial and cylinder needles measured as the distance in needles between the two stitches cam knock-over points. Collective timing adjustment is achieved by moving the dial cam- plate clockwise or anti-clockwise relative to the cylinder; individual adjustment at particular feeders (as required) is obtained by moving or changing the stitch cam profile. Fig. 7.11 Needle cam timing for a circular rib machine. Industrial Attachment Page 31 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle timing: Needle timing(Fig. 7.11) is the relationship between the loop-forming positions of the dial and cylinder needles measured as the distance in needles between the two stitches cam knock-over points. Collective timing adjustment is achieved by moving the dial cam- plate clockwise or anti-clockwise relative to the cylinder; individual adjustment at particular feeders (as required) is obtained by moving or changing the stitch cam profile. Fig. 7.11 Needle cam timing for a circular rib machine.
  • 32. Industrial Attachment Page 32 Southeast University Department of Textile Synchronized timing(Fig. 7.12), also known as point, jacquard and 2 ¥ 2 timing, is the term used when the two positions coincide with the yarn being pulled in an alternating manner in two directions by the needles, thus creating a high tension during loop formation. With delayed timing, also called rib or interlock timing (Fig. 7.13) the dial knock over occurs after about four cylinder needles have drawn loops and are rising slightly to relieve the strain.The dial loops are therefore composed of the extended loops drawn over the dial needle stems during cylinder knock-over, plus a little yarn robbed from the cylinder loops.The dial loops are thus larger than the cylinder loops and the fabric is tighter and has better rigidity; it is also heavier and wider, and less strain is produced on the yarn. Industrial Attachment Page 32 Southeast University Department of Textile Synchronized timing(Fig. 7.12), also known as point, jacquard and 2 ¥ 2 timing, is the term used when the two positions coincide with the yarn being pulled in an alternating manner in two directions by the needles, thus creating a high tension during loop formation. With delayed timing, also called rib or interlock timing (Fig. 7.13) the dial knock over occurs after about four cylinder needles have drawn loops and are rising slightly to relieve the strain.The dial loops are therefore composed of the extended loops drawn over the dial needle stems during cylinder knock-over, plus a little yarn robbed from the cylinder loops.The dial loops are thus larger than the cylinder loops and the fabric is tighter and has better rigidity; it is also heavier and wider, and less strain is produced on the yarn. Industrial Attachment Page 32 Southeast University Department of Textile Synchronized timing(Fig. 7.12), also known as point, jacquard and 2 ¥ 2 timing, is the term used when the two positions coincide with the yarn being pulled in an alternating manner in two directions by the needles, thus creating a high tension during loop formation. With delayed timing, also called rib or interlock timing (Fig. 7.13) the dial knock over occurs after about four cylinder needles have drawn loops and are rising slightly to relieve the strain.The dial loops are therefore composed of the extended loops drawn over the dial needle stems during cylinder knock-over, plus a little yarn robbed from the cylinder loops.The dial loops are thus larger than the cylinder loops and the fabric is tighter and has better rigidity; it is also heavier and wider, and less strain is produced on the yarn.
  • 33. Industrial Attachment Page 33 Southeast University Department of Textile Rib jacquard or broad ribs cannot be produced in delayed timing because there will not always be cylinder needles knitting either side of the dial needles from which to draw yarn. Although the dial knock-over is delayed, it is actually achieved by advancing the timing of the cylinder knock-over (Fig. 7.11). “GSM” Itisthecriticalparameterthatischeckedandcontrolledatdifferentstagedof processingthefabricafterknittingtofinishing.FabricGSMcanbecontrolledbythe followingways: ByvaryingthelooplengthbyVDQpulley. Byvaryingtheno.ofloopsby needlegaugesetting. Byusingdifferentcountofyarn. Theyarncount,inallcases,hasprescribedby thebuyers.Som/csettingisthe onlywaytocontrolthegreyGSM.ThefinalGSMinthefinishedfabricdependon thefinishingtreatmentsandparametersoffinishingmachineries. VDQpulley: Count with corresponding GSM Count (Ne) GSM 40/1 100-120 36/1 120-130 32/1 130-140 30/1 140-150 28/1 150-160 26/1 160-170 24/1 170-180 20/1 180-210 Yarn Tension in Circular Knitting M/c Fabric Name Yarn Tension (CN) Plain Single Jersey 6-8 Industrial Attachment Page 33 Southeast University Department of Textile Rib jacquard or broad ribs cannot be produced in delayed timing because there will not always be cylinder needles knitting either side of the dial needles from which to draw yarn. Although the dial knock-over is delayed, it is actually achieved by advancing the timing of the cylinder knock-over (Fig. 7.11). “GSM” Itisthecriticalparameterthatischeckedandcontrolledatdifferentstagedof processingthefabricafterknittingtofinishing.FabricGSMcanbecontrolledbythe followingways: ByvaryingthelooplengthbyVDQpulley. Byvaryingtheno.ofloopsby needlegaugesetting. Byusingdifferentcountofyarn. Theyarncount,inallcases,hasprescribedby thebuyers.Som/csettingisthe onlywaytocontrolthegreyGSM.ThefinalGSMinthefinishedfabricdependon thefinishingtreatmentsandparametersoffinishingmachineries. VDQpulley: Count with corresponding GSM Count (Ne) GSM 40/1 100-120 36/1 120-130 32/1 130-140 30/1 140-150 28/1 150-160 26/1 160-170 24/1 170-180 20/1 180-210 Yarn Tension in Circular Knitting M/c Fabric Name Yarn Tension (CN) Plain Single Jersey 6-8 Industrial Attachment Page 33 Southeast University Department of Textile Rib jacquard or broad ribs cannot be produced in delayed timing because there will not always be cylinder needles knitting either side of the dial needles from which to draw yarn. Although the dial knock-over is delayed, it is actually achieved by advancing the timing of the cylinder knock-over (Fig. 7.11). “GSM” Itisthecriticalparameterthatischeckedandcontrolledatdifferentstagedof processingthefabricafterknittingtofinishing.FabricGSMcanbecontrolledbythe followingways: ByvaryingthelooplengthbyVDQpulley. Byvaryingtheno.ofloopsby needlegaugesetting. Byusingdifferentcountofyarn. Theyarncount,inallcases,hasprescribedby thebuyers.Som/csettingisthe onlywaytocontrolthegreyGSM.ThefinalGSMinthefinishedfabricdependon thefinishingtreatmentsandparametersoffinishingmachineries. VDQpulley: Count with corresponding GSM Count (Ne) GSM 40/1 100-120 36/1 120-130 32/1 130-140 30/1 140-150 28/1 150-160 26/1 160-170 24/1 170-180 20/1 180-210 Yarn Tension in Circular Knitting M/c Fabric Name Yarn Tension (CN) Plain Single Jersey 6-8
  • 34. Industrial Attachment Page 34 Southeast University Department of Textile Single Lacoste 7-8 1×1 Rib 0-2 Interlock 4-6 Mesh eye let 6-8 2-Thread Fleece K (4-6), L (6-8) 3-Thread Fleece K (4-8), B (2-4) , L (10-12) “Fabric Spreader” Industrial Attachment Page 34 Southeast University Department of Textile Single Lacoste 7-8 1×1 Rib 0-2 Interlock 4-6 Mesh eye let 6-8 2-Thread Fleece K (4-6), L (6-8) 3-Thread Fleece K (4-8), B (2-4) , L (10-12) “Fabric Spreader” Industrial Attachment Page 34 Southeast University Department of Textile Single Lacoste 7-8 1×1 Rib 0-2 Interlock 4-6 Mesh eye let 6-8 2-Thread Fleece K (4-6), L (6-8) 3-Thread Fleece K (4-8), B (2-4) , L (10-12) “Fabric Spreader”
  • 35. Industrial Attachment Page 35 Southeast University Department of Textile “Stop Motion” Needle Detector: This part detect the any type of faults of needles. Photo: Needle Detector. Lycra Stop Motion:It is one kind of stop motion to stop the machine when the Lycra is break. Photo: Lycra Stop Motion. Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion: It is an important part of the machine. It stops the machine instantly when a yarn is break. Industrial Attachment Page 35 Southeast University Department of Textile “Stop Motion” Needle Detector: This part detect the any type of faults of needles. Photo: Needle Detector. Lycra Stop Motion:It is one kind of stop motion to stop the machine when the Lycra is break. Photo: Lycra Stop Motion. Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion: It is an important part of the machine. It stops the machine instantly when a yarn is break. Industrial Attachment Page 35 Southeast University Department of Textile “Stop Motion” Needle Detector: This part detect the any type of faults of needles. Photo: Needle Detector. Lycra Stop Motion:It is one kind of stop motion to stop the machine when the Lycra is break. Photo: Lycra Stop Motion. Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion: It is an important part of the machine. It stops the machine instantly when a yarn is break.
  • 36. Industrial Attachment Page 36 Southeast University Department of Textile Photo: Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion. “Adjustment of Cylinder & Dial” Cylinder Balancer:It helps the cylinder to set in a proper alignment. Dial Balancer:It helps the dial to set in a proper alignment. Industrial Attachment Page 36 Southeast University Department of Textile Photo: Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion. “Adjustment of Cylinder & Dial” Cylinder Balancer:It helps the cylinder to set in a proper alignment. Dial Balancer:It helps the dial to set in a proper alignment. Industrial Attachment Page 36 Southeast University Department of Textile Photo: Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion. “Adjustment of Cylinder & Dial” Cylinder Balancer:It helps the cylinder to set in a proper alignment. Dial Balancer:It helps the dial to set in a proper alignment.
  • 37. Industrial Attachment Page 37 Southeast University Department of Textile “Spirality” The ever increasing demand of knitted apparels has attracted attention in global niche market. In comparison to woven garment, around 50% of the clothing needs are met by the knitted goods. It is well known that weft knitted fabrics tend to undergo certain dimensional change that causes distortion in which there is a tendency of the knitted loops to bend over, causing the wales to be at diagonal instead of perpendicular to the courses (Figure 1). In other words, spirality occurs in knitted fabric because of asymmetric loops which turns in the wales and course of a fabric into an angular relationship other than 90 degree. This is a very common problem in single jersey knits and it may exist in grey, washed or finished state and has an obvious influence on both the aesthetic and functional performance of knitwear. However, it does not appear in interlock and rib knits because the wale on the face is counter balanced by a wale on the back. Course Spirality is a very common inherent problem in plain knitted fabrics. Some of the practical problems arising out of the loop Spirality in knitted garments are: displacement or shifting of seams, mismatched patterns and sewing difficulties. Fig.1: Angular relationship of course and Wales in a knitted structure These problems are often corrected by finishing steps such as setting / treatment with resins, heat and steam, so that wale lines are perpendicular to the course lines. Such setting is often not stable, and after repeated washing cycles, skewing of the Wales normally re-occurs. Causes of generation: The residual torque in the component yarn caused due to bending and twisting is the most important phenomenon contributing to spirality. The residual torque is shown by its twist liveliness. Hence the greater the twist liveliness, the greater is the spirality. Twist liveliness of yarn is affected by the twist factor or twist multiple. Besides the torque, spirality is also governed by fibre parameters, cross-section, yarn formation system, yarn geometry, knit structure and fabric finishing. Machine parameters do contribute to spirality. For instance, with multi-feeder circular knitting machines, course inclination will be more, thus exhibit spirality. Industrial Attachment Page 37 Southeast University Department of Textile “Spirality” The ever increasing demand of knitted apparels has attracted attention in global niche market. In comparison to woven garment, around 50% of the clothing needs are met by the knitted goods. It is well known that weft knitted fabrics tend to undergo certain dimensional change that causes distortion in which there is a tendency of the knitted loops to bend over, causing the wales to be at diagonal instead of perpendicular to the courses (Figure 1). In other words, spirality occurs in knitted fabric because of asymmetric loops which turns in the wales and course of a fabric into an angular relationship other than 90 degree. This is a very common problem in single jersey knits and it may exist in grey, washed or finished state and has an obvious influence on both the aesthetic and functional performance of knitwear. However, it does not appear in interlock and rib knits because the wale on the face is counter balanced by a wale on the back. Course Spirality is a very common inherent problem in plain knitted fabrics. Some of the practical problems arising out of the loop Spirality in knitted garments are: displacement or shifting of seams, mismatched patterns and sewing difficulties. Fig.1: Angular relationship of course and Wales in a knitted structure These problems are often corrected by finishing steps such as setting / treatment with resins, heat and steam, so that wale lines are perpendicular to the course lines. Such setting is often not stable, and after repeated washing cycles, skewing of the Wales normally re-occurs. Causes of generation: The residual torque in the component yarn caused due to bending and twisting is the most important phenomenon contributing to spirality. The residual torque is shown by its twist liveliness. Hence the greater the twist liveliness, the greater is the spirality. Twist liveliness of yarn is affected by the twist factor or twist multiple. Besides the torque, spirality is also governed by fibre parameters, cross-section, yarn formation system, yarn geometry, knit structure and fabric finishing. Machine parameters do contribute to spirality. For instance, with multi-feeder circular knitting machines, course inclination will be more, thus exhibit spirality. Industrial Attachment Page 37 Southeast University Department of Textile “Spirality” The ever increasing demand of knitted apparels has attracted attention in global niche market. In comparison to woven garment, around 50% of the clothing needs are met by the knitted goods. It is well known that weft knitted fabrics tend to undergo certain dimensional change that causes distortion in which there is a tendency of the knitted loops to bend over, causing the wales to be at diagonal instead of perpendicular to the courses (Figure 1). In other words, spirality occurs in knitted fabric because of asymmetric loops which turns in the wales and course of a fabric into an angular relationship other than 90 degree. This is a very common problem in single jersey knits and it may exist in grey, washed or finished state and has an obvious influence on both the aesthetic and functional performance of knitwear. However, it does not appear in interlock and rib knits because the wale on the face is counter balanced by a wale on the back. Course Spirality is a very common inherent problem in plain knitted fabrics. Some of the practical problems arising out of the loop Spirality in knitted garments are: displacement or shifting of seams, mismatched patterns and sewing difficulties. Fig.1: Angular relationship of course and Wales in a knitted structure These problems are often corrected by finishing steps such as setting / treatment with resins, heat and steam, so that wale lines are perpendicular to the course lines. Such setting is often not stable, and after repeated washing cycles, skewing of the Wales normally re-occurs. Causes of generation: The residual torque in the component yarn caused due to bending and twisting is the most important phenomenon contributing to spirality. The residual torque is shown by its twist liveliness. Hence the greater the twist liveliness, the greater is the spirality. Twist liveliness of yarn is affected by the twist factor or twist multiple. Besides the torque, spirality is also governed by fibre parameters, cross-section, yarn formation system, yarn geometry, knit structure and fabric finishing. Machine parameters do contribute to spirality. For instance, with multi-feeder circular knitting machines, course inclination will be more, thus exhibit spirality.
  • 38. Industrial Attachment Page 38 Southeast University Department of Textile Fig: Causes of Spirality “Dimensional Stability” This is a test method for measuring the changes in fabric dimension when subjected to changing humidity conditions. The dimensional stability relating properties, namely relaxation shrinkage and hygral expansion, are measured. Relaxation shrinkage is defined as the percentage change in dry dimensions of fabric measured after 30-minute relaxation in water at room temperature. Hygral expansion is defined as the percentage change in dimensions of relaxed fabric from wet condition to dry condition. A dimensional change resulting in a decrease in the length or width of a specimen subjected to specified conditions is known shrinkage. Reduction in length and width of fabric induced by conditioning, wetting, steaming, chemical treatment, wet processing as in laundering, in chemical practice and in literature The following terms have been used to describe the shrinkage which occurs in testing procedure:  Relaxation shrinkage  Felting shrinkage  Compressive shrinkage  Residual shrinkage Industrial Attachment Page 38 Southeast University Department of Textile Fig: Causes of Spirality “Dimensional Stability” This is a test method for measuring the changes in fabric dimension when subjected to changing humidity conditions. The dimensional stability relating properties, namely relaxation shrinkage and hygral expansion, are measured. Relaxation shrinkage is defined as the percentage change in dry dimensions of fabric measured after 30-minute relaxation in water at room temperature. Hygral expansion is defined as the percentage change in dimensions of relaxed fabric from wet condition to dry condition. A dimensional change resulting in a decrease in the length or width of a specimen subjected to specified conditions is known shrinkage. Reduction in length and width of fabric induced by conditioning, wetting, steaming, chemical treatment, wet processing as in laundering, in chemical practice and in literature The following terms have been used to describe the shrinkage which occurs in testing procedure:  Relaxation shrinkage  Felting shrinkage  Compressive shrinkage  Residual shrinkage Industrial Attachment Page 38 Southeast University Department of Textile Fig: Causes of Spirality “Dimensional Stability” This is a test method for measuring the changes in fabric dimension when subjected to changing humidity conditions. The dimensional stability relating properties, namely relaxation shrinkage and hygral expansion, are measured. Relaxation shrinkage is defined as the percentage change in dry dimensions of fabric measured after 30-minute relaxation in water at room temperature. Hygral expansion is defined as the percentage change in dimensions of relaxed fabric from wet condition to dry condition. A dimensional change resulting in a decrease in the length or width of a specimen subjected to specified conditions is known shrinkage. Reduction in length and width of fabric induced by conditioning, wetting, steaming, chemical treatment, wet processing as in laundering, in chemical practice and in literature The following terms have been used to describe the shrinkage which occurs in testing procedure:  Relaxation shrinkage  Felting shrinkage  Compressive shrinkage  Residual shrinkage
  • 39. Industrial Attachment Page 39 Southeast University Department of Textile Shrinkage is mainly due to yarn swelling and the resulting crimp increase during washing in case of cotton fabrics. Yarn swelling percentage is more than polyester cotton blending yarn. a. Relaxation shrinkage: During manufactures fabrics and their component yarns are subjected to tension under varying conditions of temperature and moisture content, after manufacturing when the fabric is taken from the machine and keep on floor or store room, then the fabric tends to shrink, this type shrinkage is called relaxation shrinkage. b. Felting shrinkage: In case of wool fibers dimensional changes can be magnified by felting shrinkage. When untreated wool fibers are subjected to mechanical action in the presence of moisture c. Compressive shrinkage: A process in which fabric is caused to shrink in length by compression. The process often referred to as controlled compressive shrinkage d. Residual shrinkage: After washing the fabric is shrunk. This type of shrinkage is called residual shrinkage. Residual shrinkage is the main factor of garments industry. Remedy:Shrinkage can be control by use of higher count or Tumble Dry. “Relation between Stitch Length & Color” Stitch length is increased with the corresponding dark color of knit fabric. That is clearly observed by the flowing table. Stitch length for light, medium and dark colored fabric: Buyer & Order Dia ×Gauge Count Brand Lot Stitch Length Colour Gaastra Patch 3rd lot 34×28 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.65 White 34×28 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.70 AVG 38×24 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.80 Navy 34×18 26/1 CB + 40D Lycra S.K 648 2.70 AVG Gina Bridget top-2nd lot 30×28 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.55 Black 34×28 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.30 Off White 34×18 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.30 AVG Industrial Attachment Page 39 Southeast University Department of Textile Shrinkage is mainly due to yarn swelling and the resulting crimp increase during washing in case of cotton fabrics. Yarn swelling percentage is more than polyester cotton blending yarn. a. Relaxation shrinkage: During manufactures fabrics and their component yarns are subjected to tension under varying conditions of temperature and moisture content, after manufacturing when the fabric is taken from the machine and keep on floor or store room, then the fabric tends to shrink, this type shrinkage is called relaxation shrinkage. b. Felting shrinkage: In case of wool fibers dimensional changes can be magnified by felting shrinkage. When untreated wool fibers are subjected to mechanical action in the presence of moisture c. Compressive shrinkage: A process in which fabric is caused to shrink in length by compression. The process often referred to as controlled compressive shrinkage d. Residual shrinkage: After washing the fabric is shrunk. This type of shrinkage is called residual shrinkage. Residual shrinkage is the main factor of garments industry. Remedy:Shrinkage can be control by use of higher count or Tumble Dry. “Relation between Stitch Length & Color” Stitch length is increased with the corresponding dark color of knit fabric. That is clearly observed by the flowing table. Stitch length for light, medium and dark colored fabric: Buyer & Order Dia ×Gauge Count Brand Lot Stitch Length Colour Gaastra Patch 3rd lot 34×28 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.65 White 34×28 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.70 AVG 38×24 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.80 Navy 34×18 26/1 CB + 40D Lycra S.K 648 2.70 AVG Gina Bridget top-2nd lot 30×28 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.55 Black 34×28 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.30 Off White 34×18 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.30 AVG Industrial Attachment Page 39 Southeast University Department of Textile Shrinkage is mainly due to yarn swelling and the resulting crimp increase during washing in case of cotton fabrics. Yarn swelling percentage is more than polyester cotton blending yarn. a. Relaxation shrinkage: During manufactures fabrics and their component yarns are subjected to tension under varying conditions of temperature and moisture content, after manufacturing when the fabric is taken from the machine and keep on floor or store room, then the fabric tends to shrink, this type shrinkage is called relaxation shrinkage. b. Felting shrinkage: In case of wool fibers dimensional changes can be magnified by felting shrinkage. When untreated wool fibers are subjected to mechanical action in the presence of moisture c. Compressive shrinkage: A process in which fabric is caused to shrink in length by compression. The process often referred to as controlled compressive shrinkage d. Residual shrinkage: After washing the fabric is shrunk. This type of shrinkage is called residual shrinkage. Residual shrinkage is the main factor of garments industry. Remedy:Shrinkage can be control by use of higher count or Tumble Dry. “Relation between Stitch Length & Color” Stitch length is increased with the corresponding dark color of knit fabric. That is clearly observed by the flowing table. Stitch length for light, medium and dark colored fabric: Buyer & Order Dia ×Gauge Count Brand Lot Stitch Length Colour Gaastra Patch 3rd lot 34×28 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.65 White 34×28 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.70 AVG 38×24 26/1 CB S.K 648 2.80 Navy 34×18 26/1 CB + 40D Lycra S.K 648 2.70 AVG Gina Bridget top-2nd lot 30×28 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.55 Black 34×28 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.30 Off White 34×18 40/1 CB CHESLIND 4794 2.30 AVG
  • 40. Industrial Attachment Page 40 Southeast University Department of Textile Fabric Structure & Design Plain single jersey KKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKKK Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement Single Lacoste KKKKKK TKTKTK KKKKKK KTKTKT Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 1 2 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 2-Thread Fleece Industrial Attachment Page 40 Southeast University Department of Textile Fabric Structure & Design Plain single jersey KKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKKK Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement Single Lacoste KKKKKK TKTKTK KKKKKK KTKTKT Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 1 2 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 2-Thread Fleece Industrial Attachment Page 40 Southeast University Department of Textile Fabric Structure & Design Plain single jersey KKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKKK Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement Single Lacoste KKKKKK TKTKTK KKKKKK KTKTKT Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 1 2 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 2-Thread Fleece
  • 41. Industrial Attachment Page 41 Southeast University Department of Textile KKKKKK MMMTMM KKKKKK MTMMMM Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 5 4 5 4 6 1 2 2 3 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 3-Thread Fleece KKKKKK KKKKKK MMMTMM KKKKKK KKKKKK MTMMMM Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 5 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 5 4 4 6 1 2 3 4 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 1×1 Rib Industrial Attachment Page 41 Southeast University Department of Textile KKKKKK MMMTMM KKKKKK MTMMMM Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 5 4 5 4 6 1 2 2 3 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 3-Thread Fleece KKKKKK KKKKKK MMMTMM KKKKKK KKKKKK MTMMMM Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 5 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 5 4 4 6 1 2 3 4 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 1×1 Rib Industrial Attachment Page 41 Southeast University Department of Textile KKKKKK MMMTMM KKKKKK MTMMMM Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 5 4 5 4 6 1 2 2 3 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 3-Thread Fleece KKKKKK KKKKKK MMMTMM KKKKKK KKKKKK MTMMMM Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 5 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 5 4 4 6 1 2 3 4 Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement 1×1 Rib
  • 42. Industrial Attachment Page 42 Southeast University Department of Textile Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 4 4 Dial Cylinder Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement Single jersey Derivatives: 1. Single jersey with lycra and without lycra 2. Single lacoste with half feeder lycra(inlacoste never used full feeder lycra) 3. Pique & double lacoste 4. Two thread terry 5. Denim single jersey 6. Three thread fleece Double jersey derivatives: 1. (1x1) Rib 2. (1x1) half feeder lycra Rib 3. (1x1) Full feeder lycra Rib 4. (2x1) Rib 5. (2x1) half feeder 6. (2x1) full feeder lycra 7. (2x1) Rib 8. Offal Fabrics 9. I-lack fabric 10. Flat Back Rib Different Knitting Calculation 44 44 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 Industrial Attachment Page 42 Southeast University Department of Textile Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 4 4 Dial Cylinder Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement Single jersey Derivatives: 1. Single jersey with lycra and without lycra 2. Single lacoste with half feeder lycra(inlacoste never used full feeder lycra) 3. Pique & double lacoste 4. Two thread terry 5. Denim single jersey 6. Three thread fleece Double jersey derivatives: 1. (1x1) Rib 2. (1x1) half feeder lycra Rib 3. (1x1) Full feeder lycra Rib 4. (2x1) Rib 5. (2x1) half feeder 6. (2x1) full feeder lycra 7. (2x1) Rib 8. Offal Fabrics 9. I-lack fabric 10. Flat Back Rib Different Knitting Calculation 44 44 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 Industrial Attachment Page 42 Southeast University Department of Textile Chain Notation Fabric Sample 4 4 4 4 Dial Cylinder Cam Arrangement Needle Arrangement Single jersey Derivatives: 1. Single jersey with lycra and without lycra 2. Single lacoste with half feeder lycra(inlacoste never used full feeder lycra) 3. Pique & double lacoste 4. Two thread terry 5. Denim single jersey 6. Three thread fleece Double jersey derivatives: 1. (1x1) Rib 2. (1x1) half feeder lycra Rib 3. (1x1) Full feeder lycra Rib 4. (2x1) Rib 5. (2x1) half feeder 6. (2x1) full feeder lycra 7. (2x1) Rib 8. Offal Fabrics 9. I-lack fabric 10. Flat Back Rib Different Knitting Calculation 44 44 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
  • 43. Industrial Attachment Page 43 Southeast University Department of Textile “Production Calculation for Single Jersey” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 25 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of Single Jersey = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =116.32 Kg “Production Calculation for 1×1 Interlock” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 22 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of 1×1 Interlock= . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =204 Kg Industrial Attachment Page 43 Southeast University Department of Textile “Production Calculation for Single Jersey” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 25 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of Single Jersey = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =116.32 Kg “Production Calculation for 1×1 Interlock” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 22 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of 1×1 Interlock= . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =204 Kg Industrial Attachment Page 43 Southeast University Department of Textile “Production Calculation for Single Jersey” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 25 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of Single Jersey = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =116.32 Kg “Production Calculation for 1×1 Interlock” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 22 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of 1×1 Interlock= . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =204 Kg
  • 44. Industrial Attachment Page 44 Southeast University Department of Textile “Production Calculation for 1×1 Rib” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 25 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of 1×1 Rib = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =232 Kg “3 Thread Fleece Productions” Required Specification: Dia = 30 Gauge=24 Feeder=102 RPM=25 Efficiency=85% Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 26/1 for binding yarn; 26/2 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 4.25 for knit yarn; 3.35 for binding yarn; 1.70 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =75.73 kg. Production for binding yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . Industrial Attachment Page 44 Southeast University Department of Textile “Production Calculation for 1×1 Rib” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 25 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of 1×1 Rib = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =232 Kg “3 Thread Fleece Productions” Required Specification: Dia = 30 Gauge=24 Feeder=102 RPM=25 Efficiency=85% Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 26/1 for binding yarn; 26/2 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 4.25 for knit yarn; 3.35 for binding yarn; 1.70 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =75.73 kg. Production for binding yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . Industrial Attachment Page 44 Southeast University Department of Textile “Production Calculation for 1×1 Rib” Required Specification: Machine Dia, D=28ʺ Machine Gauge, G =24 Stitch length, SL =2.80mm Yarn count, Ne=30 Machine RPM= 25 No. of Feeder= 98 Efficiency= 85% Solution: Production of 1×1 Rib = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =232 Kg “3 Thread Fleece Productions” Required Specification: Dia = 30 Gauge=24 Feeder=102 RPM=25 Efficiency=85% Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 26/1 for binding yarn; 26/2 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 4.25 for knit yarn; 3.35 for binding yarn; 1.70 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =75.73 kg. Production for binding yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × .
  • 45. Industrial Attachment Page 45 Southeast University Department of Textile = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =59.69Kg Production for pile yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =60.58kg Total Fabric Production=75.73+59.69+60.58 = 196Kg “2 Thread Fleece Productions” Required Specification: Dia = 30 Gauge=24 Feeder=96 RPM=25 Efficiency=85% Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 20/1 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 3.25 for knit yarn; 1.80 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =81.75 kg. Production for pile yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =58.86 kg Total Fabric Production=81.75+58.86 =140.62 Kg “Percentage (%) of pile yarn calculation” Required Specification: Industrial Attachment Page 45 Southeast University Department of Textile = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =59.69Kg Production for pile yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =60.58kg Total Fabric Production=75.73+59.69+60.58 = 196Kg “2 Thread Fleece Productions” Required Specification: Dia = 30 Gauge=24 Feeder=96 RPM=25 Efficiency=85% Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 20/1 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 3.25 for knit yarn; 1.80 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =81.75 kg. Production for pile yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =58.86 kg Total Fabric Production=81.75+58.86 =140.62 Kg “Percentage (%) of pile yarn calculation” Required Specification: Industrial Attachment Page 45 Southeast University Department of Textile = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =59.69Kg Production for pile yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =60.58kg Total Fabric Production=75.73+59.69+60.58 = 196Kg “2 Thread Fleece Productions” Required Specification: Dia = 30 Gauge=24 Feeder=96 RPM=25 Efficiency=85% Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 20/1 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 3.25 for knit yarn; 1.80 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =81.75 kg. Production for pile yarn = . ( )× . × × × × × × . × × × × . = × × × × × . × × × . × . × × × × . =58.86 kg Total Fabric Production=81.75+58.86 =140.62 Kg “Percentage (%) of pile yarn calculation” Required Specification:
  • 46. Industrial Attachment Page 46 Southeast University Department of Textile Dia = 30 Gauge=20 Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 26/1 for binding yarn; 26/2 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 4.25 for knit yarn; 3.35 for binding yarn; 1.70 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = 0.000182 kg. Production for binding yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = .000143 kg. Production for pile yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = .000146 kg. % of pile or loop yarn = . . . . × 100 = 0.000146 0.000471 × 100 = 30.99% ≈ 31% “Lycra Percentage (%) calculation” Required specification: Dia of Lycra stand, D=1cm. Lycra Denier =20D Machine Dia =28ʺ Machine Gauge =24 Stitch length =2.80mm Yarn count Ne=30 Solution: Circumference of Lycra stand =π×D =3.1416×1 =3.1416 cm Lycra feed per revolution of cylinder = Circumference of Lycra stand × No. of revolution Lycra stand per revolution of cylinder = 3.1416×55 =172.788 cm Industrial Attachment Page 46 Southeast University Department of Textile Dia = 30 Gauge=20 Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 26/1 for binding yarn; 26/2 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 4.25 for knit yarn; 3.35 for binding yarn; 1.70 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = 0.000182 kg. Production for binding yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = .000143 kg. Production for pile yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = .000146 kg. % of pile or loop yarn = . . . . × 100 = 0.000146 0.000471 × 100 = 30.99% ≈ 31% “Lycra Percentage (%) calculation” Required specification: Dia of Lycra stand, D=1cm. Lycra Denier =20D Machine Dia =28ʺ Machine Gauge =24 Stitch length =2.80mm Yarn count Ne=30 Solution: Circumference of Lycra stand =π×D =3.1416×1 =3.1416 cm Lycra feed per revolution of cylinder = Circumference of Lycra stand × No. of revolution Lycra stand per revolution of cylinder = 3.1416×55 =172.788 cm Industrial Attachment Page 46 Southeast University Department of Textile Dia = 30 Gauge=20 Count = 26/1 for knit yarn; 26/1 for binding yarn; 26/2 for loop or pile yarn Stitch length = 4.25 for knit yarn; 3.35 for binding yarn; 1.70 for pile yarn. Solution: Production for knit yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = 0.000182 kg. Production for binding yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = .000143 kg. Production for pile yarn calculation = . × × × . × . × × × × . = .000146 kg. % of pile or loop yarn = . . . . × 100 = 0.000146 0.000471 × 100 = 30.99% ≈ 31% “Lycra Percentage (%) calculation” Required specification: Dia of Lycra stand, D=1cm. Lycra Denier =20D Machine Dia =28ʺ Machine Gauge =24 Stitch length =2.80mm Yarn count Ne=30 Solution: Circumference of Lycra stand =π×D =3.1416×1 =3.1416 cm Lycra feed per revolution of cylinder = Circumference of Lycra stand × No. of revolution Lycra stand per revolution of cylinder = 3.1416×55 =172.788 cm
  • 47. Industrial Attachment Page 47 Southeast University Department of Textile =1.72788 m Lycra weight = × = . × =0.0038397 gm. Yarn feed per revolution of cylinder = Total no. of needle (π×D×G) × Stitch length = 2111 × 2.80 mm = 5910.8 mm = 5.9108 m = 6.464 yds. Yarn weight = . × × × . = 0.1164 gm. Lycra percentage (%) = × 100 % = . . × . × 100 % = 0.03193 × 100% =3.193 % ≅ 3.20 % “GSM Calculation” Required Specification: Fabric Type = Single Lacoste Wales per Inch (WPI) = 22 Course per Inch (CPI) = 64 Stitch Length (S.L) = 2.70 mm Count of Yarn = 24 Ne Solution: G.S.M = × × . ( ) × 0.9158 = × × . × 0.9158 = 145.06 “Flat knitting” Industrial Attachment Page 47 Southeast University Department of Textile =1.72788 m Lycra weight = × = . × =0.0038397 gm. Yarn feed per revolution of cylinder = Total no. of needle (π×D×G) × Stitch length = 2111 × 2.80 mm = 5910.8 mm = 5.9108 m = 6.464 yds. Yarn weight = . × × × . = 0.1164 gm. Lycra percentage (%) = × 100 % = . . × . × 100 % = 0.03193 × 100% =3.193 % ≅ 3.20 % “GSM Calculation” Required Specification: Fabric Type = Single Lacoste Wales per Inch (WPI) = 22 Course per Inch (CPI) = 64 Stitch Length (S.L) = 2.70 mm Count of Yarn = 24 Ne Solution: G.S.M = × × . ( ) × 0.9158 = × × . × 0.9158 = 145.06 “Flat knitting” Industrial Attachment Page 47 Southeast University Department of Textile =1.72788 m Lycra weight = × = . × =0.0038397 gm. Yarn feed per revolution of cylinder = Total no. of needle (π×D×G) × Stitch length = 2111 × 2.80 mm = 5910.8 mm = 5.9108 m = 6.464 yds. Yarn weight = . × × × . = 0.1164 gm. Lycra percentage (%) = × 100 % = . . × . × 100 % = 0.03193 × 100% =3.193 % ≅ 3.20 % “GSM Calculation” Required Specification: Fabric Type = Single Lacoste Wales per Inch (WPI) = 22 Course per Inch (CPI) = 64 Stitch Length (S.L) = 2.70 mm Count of Yarn = 24 Ne Solution: G.S.M = × × . ( ) × 0.9158 = × × . × 0.9158 = 145.06 “Flat knitting”
  • 48. Industrial Attachment Page 48 Southeast University Department of Textile Flat knitting is a method for producing knitted fabrics, in which the work is turned periodically, i.e., the fabric is worked with alternating sides facing the knitter. Another method of reaching the same result is to knit alternately from right to left and left to right without turning; this back-and-forth technique requires either innate or learned ambidextrous motor skills. The two sides (or "faces") of the fabric are usually designated as the right side (the side that faces outwards, towards the viewer and away from the wearer's body) and the wrong side (the side that faces inwards, away from the viewer and towards the wearer's body). Flat knitting is usually contrasted with circular knitting, in which the fabric is always knitted from the same side. Flat knitting can complicate knitting somewhat compared to circular knitting, since the same stitch (as seen from the right side) is produced by two different movements when knitted from the right and wrong sides. Thus, a knit stitch (as seen from the right side) may be produced by a knit stitch on the right side, or by a purl stitch on the wrong side. This may cause the gauge of the knitting to vary in alternating rows of stockinette fabrics; however, this effect is usually not noticeable, and may be eliminated with practice (the usual way) or by using needles of two different sizes (an unusual and less effective way). In flat knitting, the fabric is usually turned after every row. However, in some versions of double knitting with two yarns and double-pointed knitting needles, the fabric may turned after every second row. Flat bed/ V-bed knitting machine Industrial Attachment Page 48 Southeast University Department of Textile Flat knitting is a method for producing knitted fabrics, in which the work is turned periodically, i.e., the fabric is worked with alternating sides facing the knitter. Another method of reaching the same result is to knit alternately from right to left and left to right without turning; this back-and-forth technique requires either innate or learned ambidextrous motor skills. The two sides (or "faces") of the fabric are usually designated as the right side (the side that faces outwards, towards the viewer and away from the wearer's body) and the wrong side (the side that faces inwards, away from the viewer and towards the wearer's body). Flat knitting is usually contrasted with circular knitting, in which the fabric is always knitted from the same side. Flat knitting can complicate knitting somewhat compared to circular knitting, since the same stitch (as seen from the right side) is produced by two different movements when knitted from the right and wrong sides. Thus, a knit stitch (as seen from the right side) may be produced by a knit stitch on the right side, or by a purl stitch on the wrong side. This may cause the gauge of the knitting to vary in alternating rows of stockinette fabrics; however, this effect is usually not noticeable, and may be eliminated with practice (the usual way) or by using needles of two different sizes (an unusual and less effective way). In flat knitting, the fabric is usually turned after every row. However, in some versions of double knitting with two yarns and double-pointed knitting needles, the fabric may turned after every second row. Flat bed/ V-bed knitting machine Industrial Attachment Page 48 Southeast University Department of Textile Flat knitting is a method for producing knitted fabrics, in which the work is turned periodically, i.e., the fabric is worked with alternating sides facing the knitter. Another method of reaching the same result is to knit alternately from right to left and left to right without turning; this back-and-forth technique requires either innate or learned ambidextrous motor skills. The two sides (or "faces") of the fabric are usually designated as the right side (the side that faces outwards, towards the viewer and away from the wearer's body) and the wrong side (the side that faces inwards, away from the viewer and towards the wearer's body). Flat knitting is usually contrasted with circular knitting, in which the fabric is always knitted from the same side. Flat knitting can complicate knitting somewhat compared to circular knitting, since the same stitch (as seen from the right side) is produced by two different movements when knitted from the right and wrong sides. Thus, a knit stitch (as seen from the right side) may be produced by a knit stitch on the right side, or by a purl stitch on the wrong side. This may cause the gauge of the knitting to vary in alternating rows of stockinette fabrics; however, this effect is usually not noticeable, and may be eliminated with practice (the usual way) or by using needles of two different sizes (an unusual and less effective way). In flat knitting, the fabric is usually turned after every row. However, in some versions of double knitting with two yarns and double-pointed knitting needles, the fabric may turned after every second row. Flat bed/ V-bed knitting machine
  • 49. Industrial Attachment Page 49 Southeast University Department of Textile Main parts: 1. Yarn package 2. Front needle bed 3. Yarn guide 4. Needle spring 5. Tension spring 6. Fabric 7. Cymbal tension 8. Dead weighting system 9. Yarn take-up 10.Latch needle 11.Fabric comb 12.Yarn carrier 13.Back needle bed M/c description: Industrial Attachment Page 49 Southeast University Department of Textile Main parts: 1. Yarn package 2. Front needle bed 3. Yarn guide 4. Needle spring 5. Tension spring 6. Fabric 7. Cymbal tension 8. Dead weighting system 9. Yarn take-up 10.Latch needle 11.Fabric comb 12.Yarn carrier 13.Back needle bed M/c description: Industrial Attachment Page 49 Southeast University Department of Textile Main parts: 1. Yarn package 2. Front needle bed 3. Yarn guide 4. Needle spring 5. Tension spring 6. Fabric 7. Cymbal tension 8. Dead weighting system 9. Yarn take-up 10.Latch needle 11.Fabric comb 12.Yarn carrier 13.Back needle bed M/c description:
  • 50. Industrial Attachment Page 50 Southeast University Department of Textile In the following figure shows a cross section of a simple hand powered and manipulated V-bed rib flat machine. The trick walls are replaced at the needle bed verges by fixed, thinner, polished and specially shaped knock-over bit edges. In rib gating, a knock-over bit in one bed will be aligned opposite to a needle trick in the other bed. During knitting, the edges of the knock-over bits restrain the sinker loops as they pass between the needles and thus assist in the knocking over of the old loops and in the formation of the new loops. The cover plate is a thin metal blade, located in a slot across the top of the needle bed tricks. It prevents the stems of the needles from pivoting upwards out of the tricks as a result of the fabric take down tension drawing the needle hooks downwards whilst allowing the needles to slide freely in their tricks. Latch opening brushes are attached to the cam plates of both needle beds to ensure that the needle latches are fully opened. The supports of the brushes are adjustable to ensure precise setting of the bristles relative to the needles.The cam-carriage either slides or runs on ball bearings or wheels, along guide rails, one of which is fixed over the lower end of each needle bed. It is propelled either by hand or from a motor driven continuous roller chain or rubber belt.Each yarn carrier is attached to a block which slides along a bar, which, like the carriage guide rails, passes across the full width of the machine.Two levers are usually provided, one at each end of the needle bed. One is for racking the back needle bed, to change the gating of the needle beds for changes of rib set out or rib loop transfer. Cam system of the V-bed hand flat machine: The following figure illustrates the knitting action of a V-bed hand flat machine and the another figure shows the underside of the cam carriage and the cams forming the tracks that guide the needle butts through the knitting system.The needle butts will enter the traversing cam system from the right during a left to right carriage traverse and from the left during a right to left traverse. For each needle bed there are two raising cams (R), two cardigan cams (C) and two stitch cams (S). The arrangement as shown in the following figure is referred to as a knitting system. A single system machine will knit one course of rib in one traverse whereas a double system machine will knit two courses of rib per traverse. Sometimes a set of cams in one bed is referred to as a lock. A (L) – Raising cam (left) B (R) – Raising cam (right) C – Tuck cam (left & right) D (L) – stitch cam (left) D (R) – stitch cam (right) E – Guard cam The knitting action of the V-bed machine: Industrial Attachment Page 50 Southeast University Department of Textile In the following figure shows a cross section of a simple hand powered and manipulated V-bed rib flat machine. The trick walls are replaced at the needle bed verges by fixed, thinner, polished and specially shaped knock-over bit edges. In rib gating, a knock-over bit in one bed will be aligned opposite to a needle trick in the other bed. During knitting, the edges of the knock-over bits restrain the sinker loops as they pass between the needles and thus assist in the knocking over of the old loops and in the formation of the new loops. The cover plate is a thin metal blade, located in a slot across the top of the needle bed tricks. It prevents the stems of the needles from pivoting upwards out of the tricks as a result of the fabric take down tension drawing the needle hooks downwards whilst allowing the needles to slide freely in their tricks. Latch opening brushes are attached to the cam plates of both needle beds to ensure that the needle latches are fully opened. The supports of the brushes are adjustable to ensure precise setting of the bristles relative to the needles.The cam-carriage either slides or runs on ball bearings or wheels, along guide rails, one of which is fixed over the lower end of each needle bed. It is propelled either by hand or from a motor driven continuous roller chain or rubber belt.Each yarn carrier is attached to a block which slides along a bar, which, like the carriage guide rails, passes across the full width of the machine.Two levers are usually provided, one at each end of the needle bed. One is for racking the back needle bed, to change the gating of the needle beds for changes of rib set out or rib loop transfer. Cam system of the V-bed hand flat machine: The following figure illustrates the knitting action of a V-bed hand flat machine and the another figure shows the underside of the cam carriage and the cams forming the tracks that guide the needle butts through the knitting system.The needle butts will enter the traversing cam system from the right during a left to right carriage traverse and from the left during a right to left traverse. For each needle bed there are two raising cams (R), two cardigan cams (C) and two stitch cams (S). The arrangement as shown in the following figure is referred to as a knitting system. A single system machine will knit one course of rib in one traverse whereas a double system machine will knit two courses of rib per traverse. Sometimes a set of cams in one bed is referred to as a lock. A (L) – Raising cam (left) B (R) – Raising cam (right) C – Tuck cam (left & right) D (L) – stitch cam (left) D (R) – stitch cam (right) E – Guard cam The knitting action of the V-bed machine: Industrial Attachment Page 50 Southeast University Department of Textile In the following figure shows a cross section of a simple hand powered and manipulated V-bed rib flat machine. The trick walls are replaced at the needle bed verges by fixed, thinner, polished and specially shaped knock-over bit edges. In rib gating, a knock-over bit in one bed will be aligned opposite to a needle trick in the other bed. During knitting, the edges of the knock-over bits restrain the sinker loops as they pass between the needles and thus assist in the knocking over of the old loops and in the formation of the new loops. The cover plate is a thin metal blade, located in a slot across the top of the needle bed tricks. It prevents the stems of the needles from pivoting upwards out of the tricks as a result of the fabric take down tension drawing the needle hooks downwards whilst allowing the needles to slide freely in their tricks. Latch opening brushes are attached to the cam plates of both needle beds to ensure that the needle latches are fully opened. The supports of the brushes are adjustable to ensure precise setting of the bristles relative to the needles.The cam-carriage either slides or runs on ball bearings or wheels, along guide rails, one of which is fixed over the lower end of each needle bed. It is propelled either by hand or from a motor driven continuous roller chain or rubber belt.Each yarn carrier is attached to a block which slides along a bar, which, like the carriage guide rails, passes across the full width of the machine.Two levers are usually provided, one at each end of the needle bed. One is for racking the back needle bed, to change the gating of the needle beds for changes of rib set out or rib loop transfer. Cam system of the V-bed hand flat machine: The following figure illustrates the knitting action of a V-bed hand flat machine and the another figure shows the underside of the cam carriage and the cams forming the tracks that guide the needle butts through the knitting system.The needle butts will enter the traversing cam system from the right during a left to right carriage traverse and from the left during a right to left traverse. For each needle bed there are two raising cams (R), two cardigan cams (C) and two stitch cams (S). The arrangement as shown in the following figure is referred to as a knitting system. A single system machine will knit one course of rib in one traverse whereas a double system machine will knit two courses of rib per traverse. Sometimes a set of cams in one bed is referred to as a lock. A (L) – Raising cam (left) B (R) – Raising cam (right) C – Tuck cam (left & right) D (L) – stitch cam (left) D (R) – stitch cam (right) E – Guard cam The knitting action of the V-bed machine:
  • 51. Industrial Attachment Page 51 Southeast University Department of Textile Position 1: The rest position. The tops of the heads of the needles are level with the edge of the knock-over bits. Position 2: Clearing. The needle butts are lifted until the latches clear the old loops Position 3: Yarn Feeding. Yarn is fed to the needles as they begin to descend Position 4: Knocking –over. The new loops are drawn through the old loops, thus completing thecycle. Specification of flat knitting machine: Machine brand Origin No. of machine Machine gauge Machine width No. of carriage Matsuya China 2 14 80" 2 " " 8 14 68" 2 " " 8 14 40" 1 Shima Seiki Japan 4 14 60" 2 Total m/c = 22 Design of collar (TIL): 1. Solid collar 2. Tipping collar 3. Ambos collar 4. Picot collar 5. Bird’s eye collar 6. Double face collar Industrial Attachment Page 51 Southeast University Department of Textile Position 1: The rest position. The tops of the heads of the needles are level with the edge of the knock-over bits. Position 2: Clearing. The needle butts are lifted until the latches clear the old loops Position 3: Yarn Feeding. Yarn is fed to the needles as they begin to descend Position 4: Knocking –over. The new loops are drawn through the old loops, thus completing thecycle. Specification of flat knitting machine: Machine brand Origin No. of machine Machine gauge Machine width No. of carriage Matsuya China 2 14 80" 2 " " 8 14 68" 2 " " 8 14 40" 1 Shima Seiki Japan 4 14 60" 2 Total m/c = 22 Design of collar (TIL): 1. Solid collar 2. Tipping collar 3. Ambos collar 4. Picot collar 5. Bird’s eye collar 6. Double face collar Industrial Attachment Page 51 Southeast University Department of Textile Position 1: The rest position. The tops of the heads of the needles are level with the edge of the knock-over bits. Position 2: Clearing. The needle butts are lifted until the latches clear the old loops Position 3: Yarn Feeding. Yarn is fed to the needles as they begin to descend Position 4: Knocking –over. The new loops are drawn through the old loops, thus completing thecycle. Specification of flat knitting machine: Machine brand Origin No. of machine Machine gauge Machine width No. of carriage Matsuya China 2 14 80" 2 " " 8 14 68" 2 " " 8 14 40" 1 Shima Seiki Japan 4 14 60" 2 Total m/c = 22 Design of collar (TIL): 1. Solid collar 2. Tipping collar 3. Ambos collar 4. Picot collar 5. Bird’s eye collar 6. Double face collar
  • 52. Industrial Attachment Page 52 Southeast University Department of Textile Capacity of Flat Knitting: Name of product Dimension (cm) Capacity (Pcs) Collar 45×9.0 10000 Cuff 40×3.5 20000 Industrial Attachment Page 52 Southeast University Department of Textile Capacity of Flat Knitting: Name of product Dimension (cm) Capacity (Pcs) Collar 45×9.0 10000 Cuff 40×3.5 20000 Industrial Attachment Page 52 Southeast University Department of Textile Capacity of Flat Knitting: Name of product Dimension (cm) Capacity (Pcs) Collar 45×9.0 10000 Cuff 40×3.5 20000

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