Industrial attachment of northern corporation limited

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Industrial attachment of northern corporation limited

  1. 1. Industrial Attachment Page 1 Southeast University Department of Textile INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Northern Corporation Limited Industrial Attachment Page 1 Southeast University Department of Textile INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Northern Corporation Limited Industrial Attachment Page 1 Southeast University Department of Textile INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Northern Corporation Limited
  2. 2. Industrial Attachment Page 2 Southeast University Department of Textile Industrial Attachment Page 2 Southeast University Department of Textile Industrial Attachment Page 2 Southeast University Department of Textile
  3. 3. Industrial Attachment Page 3 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting floor Organogram of Fabric Division BuyerWise Production Officer (3) Knitting Supervisor (3) M/c Operator & Helper Out Supervisor (10) Industrial Attachment Page 3 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting floor Organogram of Fabric Division AGM (Fabric Division) BuyerWise Production Officer (3) Out Supervisor (10) Sr Executive (1) Excutive (1) Quality Excutive Mechanica lTeam Fitterman Incharge (1) Fitterman (4) Quality Supervisor (3) Industrial Attachment Page 3 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting floor Organogram of Fabric Division Quality Excutive Mechanica lTeam Fitterman (4)
  4. 4. Industrial Attachment Page 4 Southeast University Department of Textile 0 EXIT EXITEXIT FlatKnittingArea EXIT EXIT E X I TDark Room L i f t Of fi ce Ma na ge r L i f Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e EXITEXITEXIT Accessories Store Yarn Distribution Area Maintenance L i f t ToiletToilet Inspection M/c Keep Fabric Roll Keep Fabric Roll S N E W LAYOUT PLAN Industrial Attachment Page 4 Southeast University Department of Textile 0 EXIT EXITEXIT FlatKnittingArea EXIT EXIT E X I TDark Room L i f t Of fi ce Ma na ge r L i f Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e EXITEXITEXIT Accessories Store Yarn Distribution Area Maintenance L i f t ToiletToilet Inspection M/c Keep Fabric Roll Keep Fabric Roll S N E W LAYOUT PLAN Industrial Attachment Page 4 Southeast University Department of Textile 0 EXIT EXITEXIT FlatKnittingArea EXIT EXIT E X I TDark Room L i f t Of fi ce Ma na ge r L i f Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e Ci rc ul ar Kn it ti ng Ma ch in e EXITEXITEXIT Accessories Store Yarn Distribution Area Maintenance L i f t ToiletToilet Inspection M/c Keep Fabric Roll Keep Fabric Roll S N E W LAYOUT PLAN
  5. 5. Industrial Attachment Page 5 Southeast University Department of Textile Specification of Circular Knitting M/c M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Dia Gauge Feeder 01 Top Knit Korea Single Jersey 34 28 102 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 28 102 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 102 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 24 102 05 Monarch England ʺ 30 28 90 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock /Rib 34 24 82 09 ʺ ʺ Single Jersey 34 24 82 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 82 11 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 28 96 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ 34 24 108 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 90 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock/Rib 32 18 68 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 32 18 68 16 Fukuhara Japan Single Jersey 36 24 102 17 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 12 96 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 88 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 34 24 108 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock/Rib 30 22 72 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 22 72 22 Top knit Korea Interlock/Rib 30 24/28 72 23 Mayer &Cie Germany Single Jersey 38 24 123 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 20 96 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ 36 24 114 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 34 18 72 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 36 24 72 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 30 18 64 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard - - - 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - 31 ʺ ʺ Engineering Stripe 30 20 48 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - Industrial Attachment Page 5 Southeast University Department of Textile Specification of Circular Knitting M/c M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Dia Gauge Feeder 01 Top Knit Korea Single Jersey 34 28 102 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 28 102 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 102 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 24 102 05 Monarch England ʺ 30 28 90 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock /Rib 34 24 82 09 ʺ ʺ Single Jersey 34 24 82 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 82 11 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 28 96 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ 34 24 108 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 90 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock/Rib 32 18 68 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 32 18 68 16 Fukuhara Japan Single Jersey 36 24 102 17 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 12 96 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 88 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 34 24 108 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock/Rib 30 22 72 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 22 72 22 Top knit Korea Interlock/Rib 30 24/28 72 23 Mayer &Cie Germany Single Jersey 38 24 123 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 20 96 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ 36 24 114 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 34 18 72 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 36 24 72 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 30 18 64 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard - - - 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - 31 ʺ ʺ Engineering Stripe 30 20 48 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - Industrial Attachment Page 5 Southeast University Department of Textile Specification of Circular Knitting M/c M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Dia Gauge Feeder 01 Top Knit Korea Single Jersey 34 28 102 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 28 102 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 102 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 24 102 05 Monarch England ʺ 30 28 90 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 28 90 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock /Rib 34 24 82 09 ʺ ʺ Single Jersey 34 24 82 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ 34 24 82 11 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 28 96 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ 34 24 108 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 90 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock/Rib 32 18 68 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 32 18 68 16 Fukuhara Japan Single Jersey 36 24 102 17 Terrot Germany ʺ 30 12 96 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ 30 24 88 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ 34 24 108 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock/Rib 30 22 72 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 22 72 22 Top knit Korea Interlock/Rib 30 24/28 72 23 Mayer &Cie Germany Single Jersey 38 24 123 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ 30 20 96 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ 36 24 114 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 34 18 72 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 36 24 72 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock/Rib 30 18 64 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard - - - 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - - 31 ʺ ʺ Engineering Stripe 30 20 48 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ - - -
  6. 6. Industrial Attachment Page 6 Southeast University Department of Textile “Dimension of Knitting Machinery” M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Creel Position Length (Inch) Width (Inch) Height (Inch) Creel capacity 01 Top Knit Korea S/J Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 05 Monarch England ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 09 ʺ ʺ S/J Side Creel 174" 143" 105" 176 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 190" 126" 105" 176 11 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 238" 160" 105" 192 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ Side Creel 270" 150" 125" 224 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 222" 158" 106" 192 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock Side Creel 205" 145" 130" 144 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 16 Fukuhara Japan S/J Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 17 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 205" 160" 105" 192 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 220" 160" 105" 192 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 22 Top knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 23 Mayer &Cie Germany S/J Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 31 ʺ ʺ Engineerin g Stripe Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 Industrial Attachment Page 6 Southeast University Department of Textile “Dimension of Knitting Machinery” M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Creel Position Length (Inch) Width (Inch) Height (Inch) Creel capacity 01 Top Knit Korea S/J Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 05 Monarch England ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 09 ʺ ʺ S/J Side Creel 174" 143" 105" 176 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 190" 126" 105" 176 11 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 238" 160" 105" 192 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ Side Creel 270" 150" 125" 224 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 222" 158" 106" 192 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock Side Creel 205" 145" 130" 144 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 16 Fukuhara Japan S/J Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 17 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 205" 160" 105" 192 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 220" 160" 105" 192 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 22 Top knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 23 Mayer &Cie Germany S/J Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 31 ʺ ʺ Engineerin g Stripe Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 Industrial Attachment Page 6 Southeast University Department of Textile “Dimension of Knitting Machinery” M/c No. M/C Brand Origin Machine Type Creel Position Length (Inch) Width (Inch) Height (Inch) Creel capacity 01 Top Knit Korea S/J Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 02 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 03 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 04 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 205" 140" 106" 208 05 Monarch England ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 06 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 07 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 295" 140" 106" 192 08 Top Knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 09 ʺ ʺ S/J Side Creel 174" 143" 105" 176 10 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 190" 126" 105" 176 11 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 238" 160" 105" 192 12 Mayer &Cie ʺ ʺ Side Creel 270" 150" 125" 224 13 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 222" 158" 106" 192 14 Mayer &Cie Germany Interlock Side Creel 205" 145" 130" 144 15 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 16 Fukuhara Japan S/J Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 17 Terrot Germany ʺ Side Creel 205" 160" 105" 192 18 Top Knit Korea ʺ Side Creel 220" 160" 105" 192 19 Mayer &Cie Germany ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 20 Fukuhara Japan Interlock Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 21 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 22 Top knit Korea Interlock Side Creel 190" 127" 105" 176 23 Mayer &Cie Germany S/J Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 24 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 25 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 255" 175" 140" 224 26 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 27 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 28 ʺ ʺ Interlock Side Creel 260" 130" 130" 144 29 Fukuhara Japan Semi Jacquard Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 30 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 31 ʺ ʺ Engineerin g Stripe Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208 32 ʺ ʺ ʺ Side Creel 245" 180" 105" 208
  7. 7. Industrial Attachment Page 7 Southeast University Department of Textile Northern Corporation Limited Tongi, Gopalpur, Gazipur, Dhaka Knitting charge/kg for TIL: Fabric Type M/C Gauge Yarn Count Charges/kg S/J 24 20/1-34/1 9 S/J 24 36/1-40/1 10 S/J 20 16/1-20/1 10 S/J Y/D 24 (20/1-34/1) 16 S/J Y/D 20 Y/D(18/1-30/1) 16 Heavy S/J 20 Double Yarn (26/2-40/2) 16 S/J 28 50/1-80/1 16 S/J Slub 24 24/1-36/1 12 S/J Slub 20 20/1-30/1 13 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 100 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 120 Eng.stripe L-S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 180 Eng.stripe L-PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 190 Eng.stripe S/J (Double Yarn) 20 Double Yarn 125 L-S/J 24-28 TUBE 25 L-S/J 24-28 OPEN 28 L-S/J 24-28 Y/D 35 S/Lacoste, PK 24 Single Yarn 14 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Single Yarn 15 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Double Yarn 16 L-S/Lacoste 20-24 H/Feeder 33 2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 15 L-2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 35 1×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 14 1×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 20 1×1 RIB 18 Y/D, Single Yarn 20 2×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 21 Waffle 18 Single Yarn 28 2×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 30 D/Yarn RIB 18 Single Yarn 22 2×1 RIB 18 60/2 35 2×1 L-RIB 18 60/2 45 P/Interlock 24 Cotton 16 P/Interlock 24 Polyester 38 Mesh/ Mini eyelet/ Birds eye 24 Polyester 45 Flat Rib 14 Cotton 110 Collar per sets 14 Cotton 4 Industrial Attachment Page 7 Southeast University Department of Textile Northern Corporation Limited Tongi, Gopalpur, Gazipur, Dhaka Knitting charge/kg for TIL: Fabric Type M/C Gauge Yarn Count Charges/kg S/J 24 20/1-34/1 9 S/J 24 36/1-40/1 10 S/J 20 16/1-20/1 10 S/J Y/D 24 (20/1-34/1) 16 S/J Y/D 20 Y/D(18/1-30/1) 16 Heavy S/J 20 Double Yarn (26/2-40/2) 16 S/J 28 50/1-80/1 16 S/J Slub 24 24/1-36/1 12 S/J Slub 20 20/1-30/1 13 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 100 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 120 Eng.stripe L-S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 180 Eng.stripe L-PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 190 Eng.stripe S/J (Double Yarn) 20 Double Yarn 125 L-S/J 24-28 TUBE 25 L-S/J 24-28 OPEN 28 L-S/J 24-28 Y/D 35 S/Lacoste, PK 24 Single Yarn 14 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Single Yarn 15 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Double Yarn 16 L-S/Lacoste 20-24 H/Feeder 33 2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 15 L-2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 35 1×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 14 1×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 20 1×1 RIB 18 Y/D, Single Yarn 20 2×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 21 Waffle 18 Single Yarn 28 2×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 30 D/Yarn RIB 18 Single Yarn 22 2×1 RIB 18 60/2 35 2×1 L-RIB 18 60/2 45 P/Interlock 24 Cotton 16 P/Interlock 24 Polyester 38 Mesh/ Mini eyelet/ Birds eye 24 Polyester 45 Flat Rib 14 Cotton 110 Collar per sets 14 Cotton 4 Industrial Attachment Page 7 Southeast University Department of Textile Northern Corporation Limited Tongi, Gopalpur, Gazipur, Dhaka Knitting charge/kg for TIL: Fabric Type M/C Gauge Yarn Count Charges/kg S/J 24 20/1-34/1 9 S/J 24 36/1-40/1 10 S/J 20 16/1-20/1 10 S/J Y/D 24 (20/1-34/1) 16 S/J Y/D 20 Y/D(18/1-30/1) 16 Heavy S/J 20 Double Yarn (26/2-40/2) 16 S/J 28 50/1-80/1 16 S/J Slub 24 24/1-36/1 12 S/J Slub 20 20/1-30/1 13 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 100 Eng.stripe S/J (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 110 Eng.stripe PK (4-colour) 20 Single Yarn 120 Eng.stripe L-S/J (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 180 Eng.stripe L-PK (4-colour) 24 Single Yarn 190 Eng.stripe S/J (Double Yarn) 20 Double Yarn 125 L-S/J 24-28 TUBE 25 L-S/J 24-28 OPEN 28 L-S/J 24-28 Y/D 35 S/Lacoste, PK 24 Single Yarn 14 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Single Yarn 15 S/Lacoste, PK 20 Double Yarn 16 L-S/Lacoste 20-24 H/Feeder 33 2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 15 L-2T-FLEE 20-26 Single Yarn 35 1×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 14 1×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 20 1×1 RIB 18 Y/D, Single Yarn 20 2×1 RIB 18 Single Yarn 21 Waffle 18 Single Yarn 28 2×1 L-RIB 18 Single Yarn 30 D/Yarn RIB 18 Single Yarn 22 2×1 RIB 18 60/2 35 2×1 L-RIB 18 60/2 45 P/Interlock 24 Cotton 16 P/Interlock 24 Polyester 38 Mesh/ Mini eyelet/ Birds eye 24 Polyester 45 Flat Rib 14 Cotton 110 Collar per sets 14 Cotton 4
  8. 8. Industrial Attachment Page 8 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle and Sinker numbering system M/C No. Machine Brand Gauge M/C Type Position Needle Brand Name Needle No. 1,2,3 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-94.41 G031 V0-94.41 G032 Sinker 209202673 G00 4,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO Ls-136.41 G0029 VO Ls-136.41 G0030 VO Ls-136.41 G0031 VO Ls-136.41 G0032 Sinker 209202673 G00 1,,2,3,4 ,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 32 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-141.36 G001 V0-141.36 G002 V0-141.36 G003 V0-141.36 G004 Sinker 209202673 G00 8,9,10,1 2 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 V0-65.48 G0013 V0TA-105.48 G006 28 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.41 G005 V0-105.41 G006 V0-65.41 G007 V0TA-65.41 G004 12,19,2 3,25 Mayer &Cie 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VOLS-140.50 G0036 VOLS-140.50 G0038 Sinker 206085204 G00 12,19 Mayer &Cie 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-140.41 G0040 VO-140.41 G0042 Sinker 206080204 G00 27,15 Mayer &Cie 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 Dial V0-65.48 G0013 VOTA-65.48 G006 28 Mayer &Cie 18 Rib Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-91.50 G0011 VOTA-62.50 G0011 Dial V0-147.41 G005 Industrial Attachment Page 8 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle and Sinker numbering system M/C No. Machine Brand Gauge M/C Type Position Needle Brand Name Needle No. 1,2,3 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-94.41 G031 V0-94.41 G032 Sinker 209202673 G00 4,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO Ls-136.41 G0029 VO Ls-136.41 G0030 VO Ls-136.41 G0031 VO Ls-136.41 G0032 Sinker 209202673 G00 1,,2,3,4 ,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 32 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-141.36 G001 V0-141.36 G002 V0-141.36 G003 V0-141.36 G004 Sinker 209202673 G00 8,9,10,1 2 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 V0-65.48 G0013 V0TA-105.48 G006 28 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.41 G005 V0-105.41 G006 V0-65.41 G007 V0TA-65.41 G004 12,19,2 3,25 Mayer &Cie 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VOLS-140.50 G0036 VOLS-140.50 G0038 Sinker 206085204 G00 12,19 Mayer &Cie 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-140.41 G0040 VO-140.41 G0042 Sinker 206080204 G00 27,15 Mayer &Cie 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 Dial V0-65.48 G0013 VOTA-65.48 G006 28 Mayer &Cie 18 Rib Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-91.50 G0011 VOTA-62.50 G0011 Dial V0-147.41 G005 Industrial Attachment Page 8 Southeast University Department of Textile Needle and Sinker numbering system M/C No. Machine Brand Gauge M/C Type Position Needle Brand Name Needle No. 1,2,3 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-94.41 G031 V0-94.41 G032 Sinker 209202673 G00 4,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-136.50 G001 VO-136.50 G002 VO-136.50 G003 VO-136.50 G004 Sinker 209202660 G00 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO Ls-136.41 G0029 VO Ls-136.41 G0030 VO Ls-136.41 G0031 VO Ls-136.41 G0032 Sinker 209202673 G00 1,,2,3,4 ,13,18 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 32 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-141.36 G001 V0-141.36 G002 V0-141.36 G003 V0-141.36 G004 Sinker 209202673 G00 8,9,10,1 2 Keum Yong (Top Knit) 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 V0-65.48 G0013 V0TA-105.48 G006 28 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.41 G005 V0-105.41 G006 V0-65.41 G007 V0TA-65.41 G004 12,19,2 3,25 Mayer &Cie 24 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VOLS-140.50 G0036 VOLS-140.50 G0038 Sinker 206085204 G00 12,19 Mayer &Cie 28 S/J Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-140.41 G0040 VO-140.41 G0042 Sinker 206080204 G00 27,15 Mayer &Cie 24 Interlock Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle V0-105.48 G001 V0-105.48 G002 Dial V0-65.48 G0013 VOTA-65.48 G006 28 Mayer &Cie 18 Rib Cylinder Groz- Beckert Needle VO-91.50 G0011 VOTA-62.50 G0011 Dial V0-147.41 G005
  9. 9. Industrial Attachment Page 9 Southeast University Department of Textile Machine With Brand Name M/c Brand Origin No. of M/c Top Knit Korea 09 Fukuhara Japan 06 Mayer &Cie Germany 10 Terrot Germany 04 Monarch England 03 Total M/c = 32 Industrial Attachment Page 9 Southeast University Department of Textile Machine With Brand Name M/c Brand Origin No. of M/c Top Knit Korea 09 Fukuhara Japan 06 Mayer &Cie Germany 10 Terrot Germany 04 Monarch England 03 Total M/c = 32 Industrial Attachment Page 9 Southeast University Department of Textile Machine With Brand Name M/c Brand Origin No. of M/c Top Knit Korea 09 Fukuhara Japan 06 Mayer &Cie Germany 10 Terrot Germany 04 Monarch England 03 Total M/c = 32
  10. 10. Industrial Attachment Page 10 Southeast University Department of Textile Knitting Industrial Attachment Page 10 Southeast University Department of Textile Knitting Industrial Attachment Page 10 Southeast University Department of Textile Knitting
  11. 11. Industrial Attachment Page 11 Southeast University Department of Textile What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction. Industrial Attachment Page 11 Southeast University Department of Textile What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction. Industrial Attachment Page 11 Southeast University Department of Textile What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction.
  12. 12. Industrial Attachment Page 12 Southeast University Department of Textile History of knitting Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old Englishcnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical Background of Knitting Technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: JedediahStrutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: MonsierDecroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie. Industrial Attachment Page 12 Southeast University Department of Textile History of knitting Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old Englishcnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical Background of Knitting Technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: JedediahStrutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: MonsierDecroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie. Industrial Attachment Page 12 Southeast University Department of Textile History of knitting Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old Englishcnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical Background of Knitting Technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: JedediahStrutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: MonsierDecroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie.
  13. 13. Industrial Attachment Page 13 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting Machine: Circular knitting machine is widely used throughout the knitting industry to produce fabric. This machine can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This machine can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular machines because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. The main features of the knitting machine: Originally, the term ‘machine’ used to refer to a mechanism on a bearded needle frame such as the fashioning mechanism on the straight bar frame. Today, it refers to the complete assembly. A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying mechanical movement, either hand or power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into knitted loop structures. The machine incorporates and co-ordinates the action of a number of mechanisms and devices, each performing specific functions that contribute towards the efficiency of the knitting action. The main features of a knitting machine are as follows: 1. Frame: The frame, normally free-standing and either circular or rectilinear according to needle bed shape, provides the support for the majority of the machines mechanisms. Industrial Attachment Page 13 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting Machine: Circular knitting machine is widely used throughout the knitting industry to produce fabric. This machine can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This machine can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular machines because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. The main features of the knitting machine: Originally, the term ‘machine’ used to refer to a mechanism on a bearded needle frame such as the fashioning mechanism on the straight bar frame. Today, it refers to the complete assembly. A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying mechanical movement, either hand or power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into knitted loop structures. The machine incorporates and co-ordinates the action of a number of mechanisms and devices, each performing specific functions that contribute towards the efficiency of the knitting action. The main features of a knitting machine are as follows: 1. Frame: The frame, normally free-standing and either circular or rectilinear according to needle bed shape, provides the support for the majority of the machines mechanisms. Industrial Attachment Page 13 Southeast University Department of Textile Circular Knitting Machine: Circular knitting machine is widely used throughout the knitting industry to produce fabric. This machine can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This machine can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular machines because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. The main features of the knitting machine: Originally, the term ‘machine’ used to refer to a mechanism on a bearded needle frame such as the fashioning mechanism on the straight bar frame. Today, it refers to the complete assembly. A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying mechanical movement, either hand or power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into knitted loop structures. The machine incorporates and co-ordinates the action of a number of mechanisms and devices, each performing specific functions that contribute towards the efficiency of the knitting action. The main features of a knitting machine are as follows: 1. Frame: The frame, normally free-standing and either circular or rectilinear according to needle bed shape, provides the support for the majority of the machines mechanisms.
  14. 14. Industrial Attachment Page 14 Southeast University Department of Textile 2. Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the Drive of the devices and mechanisms. 3. Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam accommodation, tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides. 4. Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing, drive and control, as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control devices (if equipped). 5. Fabric Take-away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning, windup and accommodation devices. 6. Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, fault detectors, automatic oilers and lint removal systems. Machines may range from high-production, limited-capability models to versatile, multi- purpose models having extensive patterning capabilities. The more complex the structure being knitted, the lower the knitting speed and efficiency. The simplest of the knitting machines would be hand- powered and manipulated where as power-driven machines may be fully automatically-programmed and controlled from a computer system. Important Parts of Circular Knitting Machine: Industrial Attachment Page 14 Southeast University Department of Textile 2. Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the Drive of the devices and mechanisms. 3. Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam accommodation, tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides. 4. Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing, drive and control, as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control devices (if equipped). 5. Fabric Take-away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning, windup and accommodation devices. 6. Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, fault detectors, automatic oilers and lint removal systems. Machines may range from high-production, limited-capability models to versatile, multi- purpose models having extensive patterning capabilities. The more complex the structure being knitted, the lower the knitting speed and efficiency. The simplest of the knitting machines would be hand- powered and manipulated where as power-driven machines may be fully automatically-programmed and controlled from a computer system. Important Parts of Circular Knitting Machine: Industrial Attachment Page 14 Southeast University Department of Textile 2. Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the Drive of the devices and mechanisms. 3. Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam accommodation, tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides. 4. Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing, drive and control, as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control devices (if equipped). 5. Fabric Take-away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning, windup and accommodation devices. 6. Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, fault detectors, automatic oilers and lint removal systems. Machines may range from high-production, limited-capability models to versatile, multi- purpose models having extensive patterning capabilities. The more complex the structure being knitted, the lower the knitting speed and efficiency. The simplest of the knitting machines would be hand- powered and manipulated where as power-driven machines may be fully automatically-programmed and controlled from a computer system. Important Parts of Circular Knitting Machine:
  15. 15. Industrial Attachment Page 15 Southeast University Department of Textile Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in the machine. VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Brush: Its clean the pulley belt. Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn. Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder. Industrial Attachment Page 15 Southeast University Department of Textile Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in the machine. VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Brush: Its clean the pulley belt. Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn. Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder. Industrial Attachment Page 15 Southeast University Department of Textile Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in the machine. VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Brush: Its clean the pulley belt. Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn. Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder.
  16. 16. Industrial Attachment Page 16 Southeast University Department of Textile MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel. MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give positive feed to the machine. Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together. Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together. Cam Box: Where the cam are set horizontally. Industrial Attachment Page 16 Southeast University Department of Textile MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel. MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give positive feed to the machine. Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together. Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together. Cam Box: Where the cam are set horizontally. Industrial Attachment Page 16 Southeast University Department of Textile MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel. MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give positive feed to the machine. Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together. Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together. Cam Box: Where the cam are set horizontally.
  17. 17. Industrial Attachment Page 17 Southeast University Department of Textile Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine. Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear. Dial: Dial is upper steel needle bed used in double knit machines. Into the grooves of the dial the needle are mounted horizontally and are allowed to move radially in and out by their dial cams. UNIWAVE Lubrication: The UNIWAVE lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles, cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil. Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fibre from yarn and others. To clean the dust by air flow. Industrial Attachment Page 17 Southeast University Department of Textile Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine. Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear. Dial: Dial is upper steel needle bed used in double knit machines. Into the grooves of the dial the needle are mounted horizontally and are allowed to move radially in and out by their dial cams. UNIWAVE Lubrication: The UNIWAVE lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles, cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil. Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fibre from yarn and others. To clean the dust by air flow. Industrial Attachment Page 17 Southeast University Department of Textile Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine. Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear. Dial: Dial is upper steel needle bed used in double knit machines. Into the grooves of the dial the needle are mounted horizontally and are allowed to move radially in and out by their dial cams. UNIWAVE Lubrication: The UNIWAVE lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles, cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil. Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fibre from yarn and others. To clean the dust by air flow.
  18. 18. Industrial Attachment Page 18 Southeast University Department of Textile Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses. Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be reduced. Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose. Primary Knitting Element Primary Knitting Elements are mainly three types. There are as flow: 1. Needle 2. Cam 3. Sinker Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle Industrial Attachment Page 18 Southeast University Department of Textile Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses. Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be reduced. Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose. Primary Knitting Element Primary Knitting Elements are mainly three types. There are as flow: 1. Needle 2. Cam 3. Sinker Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle Industrial Attachment Page 18 Southeast University Department of Textile Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses. Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be reduced. Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose. Primary Knitting Element Primary Knitting Elements are mainly three types. There are as flow: 1. Needle 2. Cam 3. Sinker Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle
  19. 19. Industrial Attachment Page 19 Southeast University Department of Textile Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines. Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self-acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine. 2. Flat Bar Machine. 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. Industrial Attachment Page 19 Southeast University Department of Textile Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines. Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self-acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine. 2. Flat Bar Machine. 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. Industrial Attachment Page 19 Southeast University Department of Textile Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines. Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self-acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine. 2. Flat Bar Machine. 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine.
  20. 20. Industrial Attachment Page 20 Southeast University Department of Textile Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick. The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1) The rest position: The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2) Latch opening: As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3) Clearing height: When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4) Yarn feeding and latch closing: The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook. Industrial Attachment Page 20 Southeast University Department of Textile Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick. The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1) The rest position: The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2) Latch opening: As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3) Clearing height: When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4) Yarn feeding and latch closing: The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook. Industrial Attachment Page 20 Southeast University Department of Textile Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick. The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1) The rest position: The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2) Latch opening: As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3) Clearing height: When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4) Yarn feeding and latch closing: The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook.
  21. 21. Industrial Attachment Page 21 Southeast University Department of Textile 5) Knocking-over and loop length formation: As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted. Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle. Industrial Attachment Page 21 Southeast University Department of Textile 5) Knocking-over and loop length formation: As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted. Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle. Industrial Attachment Page 21 Southeast University Department of Textile 5) Knocking-over and loop length formation: As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted. Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle.
  22. 22. Industrial Attachment Page 22 Southeast University Department of Textile CAMS: Cam is a primary weft knitting element. Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action to the needles and other elements. There are three types of knitting cam. Knit cam Tuck cam Miss cam The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams Industrial Attachment Page 22 Southeast University Department of Textile CAMS: Cam is a primary weft knitting element. Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action to the needles and other elements. There are three types of knitting cam. Knit cam Tuck cam Miss cam The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams Industrial Attachment Page 22 Southeast University Department of Textile CAMS: Cam is a primary weft knitting element. Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action to the needles and other elements. There are three types of knitting cam. Knit cam Tuck cam Miss cam The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams
  23. 23. Industrial Attachment Page 23 Southeast University Department of Textile Sinker: The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action. It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. Different Parts of Sinker Industrial Attachment Page 23 Southeast University Department of Textile Sinker: The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action. It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. Different Parts of Sinker Industrial Attachment Page 23 Southeast University Department of Textile Sinker: The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action. It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. Different Parts of Sinker
  24. 24. Industrial Attachment Page 24 Southeast University Department of Textile General Terms of Knitting Technology The knitted stitch: The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops. The center loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it. The repeat unit of a stitch is the minimum repeat of intermeshed loops that can be placed adjoining other repeat units in order to build up an unbroken sequence in width and depth. A needle loop only has its characteristic appearance because its legs are pre-vented from spreading outwards by being intermeshed through the head of the loop below it. If there is no previous loop to mesh through, the legs of the new loop will spread outwards. The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength. The face loop stitch: The face side of the stitch (Fig. 5.8) shows the new loop coming towards the viewer as it passes over and covers the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the right side in mainland Europe. Face loop stitches tend to show the side limbs of the needle loops or overlaps as a series of inter fitting ‘V’s. The face loop-side is the underside of the stitch on the needle. Fig. The knitted stitch. Industrial Attachment Page 24 Southeast University Department of Textile General Terms of Knitting Technology The knitted stitch: The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops. The center loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it. The repeat unit of a stitch is the minimum repeat of intermeshed loops that can be placed adjoining other repeat units in order to build up an unbroken sequence in width and depth. A needle loop only has its characteristic appearance because its legs are pre-vented from spreading outwards by being intermeshed through the head of the loop below it. If there is no previous loop to mesh through, the legs of the new loop will spread outwards. The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength. The face loop stitch: The face side of the stitch (Fig. 5.8) shows the new loop coming towards the viewer as it passes over and covers the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the right side in mainland Europe. Face loop stitches tend to show the side limbs of the needle loops or overlaps as a series of inter fitting ‘V’s. The face loop-side is the underside of the stitch on the needle. Fig. The knitted stitch. Industrial Attachment Page 24 Southeast University Department of Textile General Terms of Knitting Technology The knitted stitch: The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops. The center loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it. The repeat unit of a stitch is the minimum repeat of intermeshed loops that can be placed adjoining other repeat units in order to build up an unbroken sequence in width and depth. A needle loop only has its characteristic appearance because its legs are pre-vented from spreading outwards by being intermeshed through the head of the loop below it. If there is no previous loop to mesh through, the legs of the new loop will spread outwards. The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength. The face loop stitch: The face side of the stitch (Fig. 5.8) shows the new loop coming towards the viewer as it passes over and covers the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the right side in mainland Europe. Face loop stitches tend to show the side limbs of the needle loops or overlaps as a series of inter fitting ‘V’s. The face loop-side is the underside of the stitch on the needle. Fig. The knitted stitch.
  25. 25. Industrial Attachment Page 25 Southeast University Department of Textile The reverse loop stitch: This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop-side and shows the new loop meshing away from the viewer as it passes under the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the under laps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface. The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop (Figures 5.8). The needle loop The needle loop (H +L in Fig. 5.1) is the basic unit of knitted structure. When tension in the fabric is balanced and there is sufficient take-away tension during knitting, it is an upright noose formed in the needle hook. It consists of a head (H) and two side limbs or legs (L). At the base of each leg is a foot (F), which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle. The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. (NB: If the loop is the first loop knitted on that needle, its feet and legs will not be restricted and it will open out to give the appearance of a tuck loop. If the loops are knitted on a flat machine with a pressing down device and no take-down tension, the loops will be more rounded and will tend to incline due to the traversing movement of the presser.) Fig. 5.1 Intermeshing points of a needle loop. In weft knitting, the feet are normally open because the yarn continues to be sup-plied in one direction (except at the selvedges of straight knitting machines). Exceptionally, closed loops have occasionally been produced in the past on the bearded needle sinker wheel machine, by twisting a loop over as it is transferred to another needle, or by using a twizzle beard which closes onto the back of the needle so that, as the loop is cast-off, it twists over itself. Industrial Attachment Page 25 Southeast University Department of Textile The reverse loop stitch: This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop-side and shows the new loop meshing away from the viewer as it passes under the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the under laps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface. The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop (Figures 5.8). The needle loop The needle loop (H +L in Fig. 5.1) is the basic unit of knitted structure. When tension in the fabric is balanced and there is sufficient take-away tension during knitting, it is an upright noose formed in the needle hook. It consists of a head (H) and two side limbs or legs (L). At the base of each leg is a foot (F), which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle. The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. (NB: If the loop is the first loop knitted on that needle, its feet and legs will not be restricted and it will open out to give the appearance of a tuck loop. If the loops are knitted on a flat machine with a pressing down device and no take-down tension, the loops will be more rounded and will tend to incline due to the traversing movement of the presser.) Fig. 5.1 Intermeshing points of a needle loop. In weft knitting, the feet are normally open because the yarn continues to be sup-plied in one direction (except at the selvedges of straight knitting machines). Exceptionally, closed loops have occasionally been produced in the past on the bearded needle sinker wheel machine, by twisting a loop over as it is transferred to another needle, or by using a twizzle beard which closes onto the back of the needle so that, as the loop is cast-off, it twists over itself. Industrial Attachment Page 25 Southeast University Department of Textile The reverse loop stitch: This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop-side and shows the new loop meshing away from the viewer as it passes under the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the under laps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface. The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop (Figures 5.8). The needle loop The needle loop (H +L in Fig. 5.1) is the basic unit of knitted structure. When tension in the fabric is balanced and there is sufficient take-away tension during knitting, it is an upright noose formed in the needle hook. It consists of a head (H) and two side limbs or legs (L). At the base of each leg is a foot (F), which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle. The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. (NB: If the loop is the first loop knitted on that needle, its feet and legs will not be restricted and it will open out to give the appearance of a tuck loop. If the loops are knitted on a flat machine with a pressing down device and no take-down tension, the loops will be more rounded and will tend to incline due to the traversing movement of the presser.) Fig. 5.1 Intermeshing points of a needle loop. In weft knitting, the feet are normally open because the yarn continues to be sup-plied in one direction (except at the selvedges of straight knitting machines). Exceptionally, closed loops have occasionally been produced in the past on the bearded needle sinker wheel machine, by twisting a loop over as it is transferred to another needle, or by using a twizzle beard which closes onto the back of the needle so that, as the loop is cast-off, it twists over itself.
  26. 26. Industrial Attachment Page 26 Southeast University Department of Textile The sinker loop: The sinker loop (S in Fig. 5.1) is the piece of yarn that joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next. On bearded needle weft knitting machines, loop-forming sinkers form the sinker loops in succession between the needles – hence the origin of the term sinker loop. On latch needle weft knitting machines, however, the sinker loops are automatically formed as the needles, in succession, draw their new loops. Sinker loops show on the opposite side of the fabric to the needle loops because the needle loop is drawn onto the opposite side from which the yarn was originally fed. The terms ‘sinker loop’ and ‘needle loop’ are convenient descriptive terms but their precise limits within the same loop length are impossible to exactly define. A Course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A Course Length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unweave from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding-off. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles. A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit.  When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. (If needle B knits continuously, the wale knitted by needle A will merge into it).  In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles.  Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting).  Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric. Industrial Attachment Page 26 Southeast University Department of Textile The sinker loop: The sinker loop (S in Fig. 5.1) is the piece of yarn that joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next. On bearded needle weft knitting machines, loop-forming sinkers form the sinker loops in succession between the needles – hence the origin of the term sinker loop. On latch needle weft knitting machines, however, the sinker loops are automatically formed as the needles, in succession, draw their new loops. Sinker loops show on the opposite side of the fabric to the needle loops because the needle loop is drawn onto the opposite side from which the yarn was originally fed. The terms ‘sinker loop’ and ‘needle loop’ are convenient descriptive terms but their precise limits within the same loop length are impossible to exactly define. A Course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A Course Length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unweave from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding-off. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles. A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit.  When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. (If needle B knits continuously, the wale knitted by needle A will merge into it).  In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles.  Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting).  Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric. Industrial Attachment Page 26 Southeast University Department of Textile The sinker loop: The sinker loop (S in Fig. 5.1) is the piece of yarn that joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next. On bearded needle weft knitting machines, loop-forming sinkers form the sinker loops in succession between the needles – hence the origin of the term sinker loop. On latch needle weft knitting machines, however, the sinker loops are automatically formed as the needles, in succession, draw their new loops. Sinker loops show on the opposite side of the fabric to the needle loops because the needle loop is drawn onto the opposite side from which the yarn was originally fed. The terms ‘sinker loop’ and ‘needle loop’ are convenient descriptive terms but their precise limits within the same loop length are impossible to exactly define. A Course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A Course Length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unweave from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding-off. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles. A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit.  When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. (If needle B knits continuously, the wale knitted by needle A will merge into it).  In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles.  Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting).  Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric.
  27. 27. Industrial Attachment Page 27 Southeast University Department of Textile Stitch Density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters). The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. The four primary base weft knitted structures Four primary structures – plain, rib, interlock and purl are the base structures from which all weft knitted fabrics and garments are derived. Each is composed of a different combination of face and reverse meshed stitches, knitted on a particular arrangement of needle beds. Each primary structure may exist alone, in a modified form with stitches other than normal cleared loops, or in combination with another primary structure in a garment-length sequence. All weft knitted fabric is liable to unrove (unravel), or ladder, from the course knitted last, unless special ‘locking courses’ are knitted, or unless it is specially seamed or finished. 1. Plain is produced by the needles knitting as a single set, drawing the loops away from the technical back and towards the technical face side of the fabric. 2. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in between each other so that wales of face stitches and wales of reverse stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. 3. Interlock was originally derived from rib but requires a special arrangement of needles knitting back-to-back in an alternate sequence of two sets, so that the two courses of loops show wales of face loops on each side of the fabric exactly in line with each other, thus hiding the appearance of the reverse loops. Industrial Attachment Page 27 Southeast University Department of Textile Stitch Density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters). The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. The four primary base weft knitted structures Four primary structures – plain, rib, interlock and purl are the base structures from which all weft knitted fabrics and garments are derived. Each is composed of a different combination of face and reverse meshed stitches, knitted on a particular arrangement of needle beds. Each primary structure may exist alone, in a modified form with stitches other than normal cleared loops, or in combination with another primary structure in a garment-length sequence. All weft knitted fabric is liable to unrove (unravel), or ladder, from the course knitted last, unless special ‘locking courses’ are knitted, or unless it is specially seamed or finished. 1. Plain is produced by the needles knitting as a single set, drawing the loops away from the technical back and towards the technical face side of the fabric. 2. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in between each other so that wales of face stitches and wales of reverse stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. 3. Interlock was originally derived from rib but requires a special arrangement of needles knitting back-to-back in an alternate sequence of two sets, so that the two courses of loops show wales of face loops on each side of the fabric exactly in line with each other, thus hiding the appearance of the reverse loops. Industrial Attachment Page 27 Southeast University Department of Textile Stitch Density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters). The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. The four primary base weft knitted structures Four primary structures – plain, rib, interlock and purl are the base structures from which all weft knitted fabrics and garments are derived. Each is composed of a different combination of face and reverse meshed stitches, knitted on a particular arrangement of needle beds. Each primary structure may exist alone, in a modified form with stitches other than normal cleared loops, or in combination with another primary structure in a garment-length sequence. All weft knitted fabric is liable to unrove (unravel), or ladder, from the course knitted last, unless special ‘locking courses’ are knitted, or unless it is specially seamed or finished. 1. Plain is produced by the needles knitting as a single set, drawing the loops away from the technical back and towards the technical face side of the fabric. 2. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in between each other so that wales of face stitches and wales of reverse stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. 3. Interlock was originally derived from rib but requires a special arrangement of needles knitting back-to-back in an alternate sequence of two sets, so that the two courses of loops show wales of face loops on each side of the fabric exactly in line with each other, thus hiding the appearance of the reverse loops.
  28. 28. Industrial Attachment Page 28 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Purl is the only structure having certain wales containing both face and reverse meshed loops. A garment-length sequence, such as a ribbed half-hose, is defined as purl, whereas smaller sections of its length may consist of plain and rib sections. Although in the past structures of this type were knitted only on flat bed and double cylinder purl machines employing double-ended latch needles, electronically-controlled V-bed flat machines with rib loop transfer and racking facilities are now used.  Single-jersey machines can only produce one type of base structure.  Rib machines, particularly of the garment-making type, can produce sequences of plain knitting by using only one bed of needles.  Interlock machines can sometimes be changed to rib knitting.  Purl machines are capable of producing rib or plain knitting sequences by retaining certain needle arrangements during the production of a garment or other knitted article. Knit Stitch:The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on. Float Stitch:A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop; one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. The float Industrial Attachment Page 28 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Purl is the only structure having certain wales containing both face and reverse meshed loops. A garment-length sequence, such as a ribbed half-hose, is defined as purl, whereas smaller sections of its length may consist of plain and rib sections. Although in the past structures of this type were knitted only on flat bed and double cylinder purl machines employing double-ended latch needles, electronically-controlled V-bed flat machines with rib loop transfer and racking facilities are now used.  Single-jersey machines can only produce one type of base structure.  Rib machines, particularly of the garment-making type, can produce sequences of plain knitting by using only one bed of needles.  Interlock machines can sometimes be changed to rib knitting.  Purl machines are capable of producing rib or plain knitting sequences by retaining certain needle arrangements during the production of a garment or other knitted article. Knit Stitch:The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on. Float Stitch:A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop; one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. The float Industrial Attachment Page 28 Southeast University Department of Textile 4. Purl is the only structure having certain wales containing both face and reverse meshed loops. A garment-length sequence, such as a ribbed half-hose, is defined as purl, whereas smaller sections of its length may consist of plain and rib sections. Although in the past structures of this type were knitted only on flat bed and double cylinder purl machines employing double-ended latch needles, electronically-controlled V-bed flat machines with rib loop transfer and racking facilities are now used.  Single-jersey machines can only produce one type of base structure.  Rib machines, particularly of the garment-making type, can produce sequences of plain knitting by using only one bed of needles.  Interlock machines can sometimes be changed to rib knitting.  Purl machines are capable of producing rib or plain knitting sequences by retaining certain needle arrangements during the production of a garment or other knitted article. Knit Stitch:The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on. Float Stitch:A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop; one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. The float

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