Industrial attachment of niagara textile ltd


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Industrial attachment of niagara textile ltd

  1. 1. 1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Niagara Textile Ltd
  2. 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A number of people have made significant contributions in preparing this report. Their insights, advice and suggestions helped me a lot. I would like to pay special thanks to Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan, the Head of the department of Textile Engineering, “Southeast University”, for continuously guiding us about the development and preparation of the report. He has enriched us with necessary ideas and concepts for incessant improvement of the report. I would also like to express my heartfelt thanks to my supervising teacher Mr. Adnan Zaber Mahmud for his encouragement & valuable suggestions for incessant improvement of the report. I would like to express our sincere gratitude to Md. Abraruzzaman Diamond, General Manager, “Niagara Textile Ltd”, who has allowed me to work in his organization within a congenial atmosphere during the industrial training period. I recognize Md. Feroj Iftekhar, Deputy Manager (Admin) for managing my internship and for providing sincere help in all administrative and technical matters while working in the organization. My heartfelt thanks go to him for allowing me to perform my industrial attachment in the NIAGARA Textiles Limited. I express my heartiest thanks to Deputy Manager & Assistant Manager, Knitting, Dyeing & Fishing, Garment, Accessories and merchandising for helping to get proper information about every section during industrial training. I would like to especially thank to my all of seniors of my university whom are working in the “NIAGARA Textiles Ltd.” for helping me practically & for showing me the right path. My sincere appreciation goes to the entire “NIAGARA Textiles Ltd.” team for extending their hands of cooperation throughout the training period.
  3. 3. 3 Executive Summary Since 1980 to till date the Apparel sector of Bangladesh has conceded through different huddles & obstacles and now has reached a stage where it can compete with all its competitors in price and quality as well as assortment in this scenario. Niagara Textile LTD. is a young & dynamic composite Knit Garment Industry. Though incorporated in the year 2000 as a private limited company it came into existence in late March 2001. The mill being established at Chandra circleUnion-Atabaha, Kaliakair Gazipur, Bangladesh aspires to create a niche within a short period of time in the highly competitive global market of knit garments. Promoted by a team of young and dynamic visionaries, Niagara Textile LTD is a 100% export oriented composite knit garment industry. It possesses all the latest machineries from the European countries with few from the United States of America, Japan, & Taiwan. The entire plant has been installed & erected by foreign and local engineers jointly under the same roof. The total plant is located in total 16 floor with an area of more than 2,65,500 square feet. The factory is well equipped with high performance machinery and experienced technicians & a group of Smart executives are engaged here to ensure the Compliance management for quality and customer happiness. We can produce international standard fabric and garments of any quality and quantity. Niagara Textile LTD always keeps pace with latest technology of Textiles industry. The products of the unit have been classified in such a manner which shall meet the increased demand of the Europeans, USA etc. market fulfilling all the criteria required by the buyer. Introduction
  4. 4. 4 If the theoretical knowledge is a glass of water then the practical knowledge would be drinking of the water. It is always very easy to make a man understand about a firebox by showing and lighting practically rather than describing theoretically who has not ever seen a firebox. So, for any technical education the practical experience is the most important as well as the theoretical knowledge. As we are studying in a technical line, it is always important for us to gather the practical knowledge. Through our study life the only biggest chance for us to combine the theoretical knowledge with the practical knowledge is the “Industrial Attachment period” that comes only once in the education life. So we can easily realize the importance of Industrial Attachment. And in addition the knowledge we gathered from the industrial training reflects in the report of industrial attachment note book. So industrial attachment is the process where the trainee can blend his theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge increasing his/ her ability of work, skillness, performance and attitude and so on. It also provides sufficient knowledge about production management, productivity evaluation, work study & efficiency, industrial management, production planning and control, production cost analysis, inventory management, utility, maintenance and so on. Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and also improve courage and inspiration to take self-responsibility. As Industrial training is an integral part of the study for the students of Textile Technology, so after the final exam of 4th year 2nd semester, I have taken this training at “NIAGARA Textiles Limited”, a 100% export oriented apparel manufacturing industry. I tried my best to prepare this note book applying my best efforts. I tried to gather all the necessary information to make it a valuable for me as well as for everyone. I think it will help me a lot in future in my practical life. Place: I have performed our industrial training at “NIAGARA Textiles Limited” which is located at Chandra circle, Union-Atabaha, Kaliakair, Gazipur, Bangladesh. This is a 100% export oriented knit garments factory. It consists of knitting, knit dyeing, finishing & knit garments. Duration: Total duration of training period was from 15th October 2012 to 15th December 2012 (eight weeks).
  5. 5. 5 Table of Contents Acknowledgement………………………………………………………01 Executive Summary…………………………………………………….02 Introduction……………………………………………………………..03 Table of Content ………………………………………………………..04 Chapter No Topic Name Page Number 01 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FACTORY 05-19 02 KNITTING 20-29 03 BATCH SECTION 30-32 04 DYEING SECTION 33-46 05 LAB DIP DEPARTMENT 47-51 06 FINISHING SECTION 52-63 07 QUALITY ASSURANCE SECTION 64-67 08 GARMENT’S SECTION 68-100 09 MARCHENDISING 101-108 10 QUALITY CONTROL LABORATORY 109-111 11 PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL 112-113 12 MARKETING ACTIVITIES 114-116 13 MAINTENANCE SECTION 117-120 14 UTILITY SECTION 121-124 15 COMPLIANCE 125-127 16 CONCLUSION 128-130
  7. 7. 7 1.0 General Information about the Factory Textiles and Clothing are the leading industries of Bangladesh in Respect of foreign Currency Earning and Employment. We are a Knit Composite Unit Having Knitting, Dyeing, and Finishing & Sewing Units under the same roof. It is housed in its own building surrounding an area of 2,65,500 Sft. feet included Office, CAD & Sample 1 floor, Knitting 2 floor, Dyeing 1 floor, Dyeing Finishing 1 floor, Cutting 1 floor, Printing 1 floor, Sewing 8 floor, Finishing 1 floor & total 16 floor, in our highly protected area surrounded by wall and 4996 workers and stuff. Niagara never allows slave, child or prison labor or even force labor. It always provides all necessary safety measures & ensures the workplace safe, healthy & comfortable. Niagara is going ahead to achieve their vision plan with our dynamic team members. Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) established for hazard free environment. The determination to achieve superior customer service and on time delivery has earn Niagara’s recognition as an invaluable player and the desire to succeed in customer satisfaction with every order makes the Niagara’s team even stronger its these fundamental that keep this unit in the game and wining every time. Since the beginning it has a very good reputation as a financially sound and ethical business house. It has a long term association with selected factories, some of them are certified in terms of social and quality compliance by world’s highest rating bodies, and outstanding sourcing capabilities. Thus Niagara’s has been able to prove itself to be a reliable supplier for knit item in any style and design. Niagara is also ISO & WRAP certified.
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 1.1 Factory Profile In Brief Corporate and Financial Information Corporate Name : Niagara Textiles Limited Incorporation : C-41635(994)/2000 Type of ownership : Private Limited Company Nature of the Project : 100% export Oriented Company Number of Owners : 04 Motto : Niagara is committed for excellence Workforce : 5000 (Approx.) Membership : BGMEA – BKMEA – Membership no : 594-A/2001 IBWF – Year of the establishment : 2000 Year of the Operation Started : 2001 Our Bankers : Shahjalal Islami Bank Ltd. Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. Bank Alfalah Ltd. Dutch Bangla Bank Ltd. General Terms : All payments have to be made with confirmed Irrevocable letter of credit at sight. Our Wings : Knitting Dyeing Printing Garments - Cutting - Sewing - Finishing
  10. 10. 10 Contact Address : Our Board of Directors Chairman : Mr. Ahsan Habib Managing Director : Mr. Md. Nurul Hasan Director : Md. Shahinoor Islam Contact Person Concern department Contact Information Md. Abraruzzaman Diamond Genaral Manager Plant G M Taj Mahmud Deputy General Manager Marketing E-mail: Md. Mabubur Rahman Manager – Merchandising Merchandising Md. Faruque Hossain Manager – Compliance Compliance E-mail: Md. Feroj Iftekhar Deputy Manager, Admin Administration Email: Head Office : 27, Bijoy Nagar Suit No. C – 1 (1st floor) Dhaka - 1000 Bangladesh Phone # 088-02- 9352328, 9340945, 9347303 Fax # 088-02-9353480 Web Address: E-mail: Factory : Niagara Textiles Ltd Chandra circle Union-Atabaha, Kaliakair, Gazipur, Bangladesh Tel: 88 02 9289127, 06822 – 51233-4 Fax: 06822 – 51231 Web Address: E-mail:
  11. 11. 11 1.2 Main Product: T-shirt, Polo shirt and different types of Men’s, Lady’s & Kid’s wear in varies kinds of knit fabric. 1.3 Office Staff: A large team of Technical personnel are directly working, assisting the workers & Coordinating pattern, cutting, sewing, quality & finishing-packing. About 575 people are working as a Supervisor, Line chief, Floor in-charge, Section Manager. 1.4 Quality Policy: Niagara Textiles Ltd. Is totally committed to provide quality products that always meet the needs and expectations of customers for reliability, safety, economy and on-time delivery of shipments. To achieve this objective, Niagara Textiles Ltd. provides all the necessary resources to ensure a well equipped and adequately trained, and experienced manpower to take proper care of customer requirements. Niagara Textiles Ltd. Emphasized that quality is the shared responsibility of its entire staff. The company ensures that all personnel are familiar with, and work to the company’s work practices as well in conformity with the legal and other obligatory requirements and are determined to comply with the requirements of Buyer’s expectation e.g. code of conduct, social compliance and continually improve its production and Quality Assurance Department. To manufacture quality products and Customer satisfaction is the company’s goal. 1.4.1 Quality Vision: We have set a vision for our quality management by the named Vision 2020 (Quality). By this time period we are committed to be best one arena of Quality in Textile Manufacturing. 1.4.2 Quality Team: We have developed and maintained a skilled and experienced Quality Team to implement our quality policy and to ensure the quality of our products. 1.4.3 Quality Control Circles: We have developed 18 Quality Control Circles at our factory who are working dedicatedly (self) for the workplace problem solving which problems could be hampered the quality of our products. 1.4.4 Training and Development: We conduct different types of Training, Seminar and Workshop on Quality Improvement for personnel of quality department regularly. 1.4.5 Quality Checking and Maintenance:
  12. 12. 12 • Total goods are checked before shipment for quality assurance. • Yarns are lab-tested for pilling resistance, color fastness etc. • All kinds of raw materials are preserved in warehouses in a professional manner. • Production only starts after their approval & also prior approval on quality. • All production floors keep clean and maintain all necessary safety measures according to compliance. 1.5 Our Current Strength:  We offer best quality products and services in a cost effective and efficient manner for our valued clients /buyers.  As part of automation, implemented in-house developed ERP database software for MIS (Management Information System).  We have an in-house printing facility.  We have own carrying facility by own covered van for timely shipment.  We have in-house CAD/CAM systems.  We provide special and separate inspection room for our respected buyers.  We have skilled and dedicated manpower (e.g. Operator and Helper) for our different respected buyers.  We have modern production machineries /equipments with updated technologies for our quality based production.  We belief in quality. To maintain the quality of our product we nursing a skilled and dedicated Quality Team who are well informed about quality bench of respected buyers.  We have a Training and Development wing under the Compliance Department for Workers and Employees Skills Development. We are very much careful to bring the maximum output from our staffs and workers through proper training and performance counseling. 1.6 Welfare Facilities:
  13. 13. 13  Induction of workers welfare committee aimed at improving workers morale, Job satisfaction & attendance.  Law, Rules and Regulations are followed by Bangladesh Labor Act’ 2006 and the Code of Conduct of our respected buyers. We provide all necessary Personal Protective Equipments and monitor its proper uses for our workers. We provide PPE to our workers according the department and the nature of their activities We provide tested pure drinking water to our workers and staffs. The Factory has separate Prayer facilities for male and female workers and staff. We provide transportation to our workers who come from a long distance. We have set CC Camera at our factory to maintain the safety and security at the workplace. We have a training wing under compliance department to counsel, train and develop our workers and staffs through different types of training and counseling programs.  We are always very much concerned about the safety issues of our workers. We manage all necessary functions of safety issues very carefully.  Subsidized lunch for staff.  Free snacks for workers.  Full time free of medical service provide by a professional doctor.  Provision day care center for workers children & annual picnic.  Cultural function.  Each floor has sufficient number of washroom.  Each floor has sufficient lighting to facilitate production.  A large dining hall is in our factory including pure drinking water & well sitting Arrangement.  We provide maternity leave and benefit according to the Bangladesh Lbour Act’ 2006. 1.7 Our Philosophy:  We all work towards a common goal of total client satisfaction by providing prompt reliable and effective services to them.
  14. 14. 14  We will give our best to our client to make them have a pleasant experience with us.  Our company is committed to offer best service by following a strict protocol of our equipment.  We will use best components and give high quality product, which we would do for ourselves.  We will constantly update our knowledge base and shall continuously engage in using new techniques and procedures and thus deliver the best service possible to our clients in the shortest possible time at most cost effective rates. 1.8 Our Core Values: New Philosophy – Adopting new philosophy of continuous improvement and TQM Integrity – Doing what is right Accountability – Taking personal responsibility Goal Oriented – Working to achieve our goal Advancement – Committing to the advancement of quality in all aspects at all time Respect – Treating people with dignity Attitude – Demonstrating positive and professional attitude in all our dealings 1.9 Compliance: Factory are obeying and maintaining international and local laws, Human rights, Social compliance, Labor law and other rules and instruction by related department of Government. 1.10 Recruitment Policy:  No child labor in our factory. No gender discrimination in our recruitment procedure.  There is no force labor. 1.11 Fire Safety Issues
  15. 15. 15 We have a detailed and realistic fire safety policy and plan to protect and manage fire accident at our factory. To protect and to manage fire accident we maintain and monitor following issues: Fire Safety Equipments Details: Trained up Fire Fighter Team: We have a fully trained fire Fighter team of 508 members Fire Safety Committee: We have a fire safety committee 43 members Rescue Team: We maintain a well trained up rescue team of 452 members First Aid Team: We have developed and trained up a team of 176 first aid man. 1.12 Present Buyer’s/ Clients & Export Countries: H&M Fire Extinguisher : 209 ABC : 161 Co2 : 48 Emergency Exit Lights : 85 Fire Alarm Switch : 45 Hammer : 43 Sound Box : 24 First Aid Box : 43 Hose Reel : 43 Smoke Detector : 75 Gas Musk : 25 Visual Alarm : 08
  16. 16. 16 Tchibo Target stores US Polo Lazy Jacks Big Star Charles Vogele Dunnes stores Woolworth New Look Unitessile MASCOT LOBLAWS POINT ZERO SEARS Our Exported Countries  European Union  Japan  Canada  Middle East  United States of America 1.13 Our Achievement: - We have awarded as one of the best compliant factory for fulfilling major compliance issues which was jointly organized by Labor Ministry of Bangladesh Govt. and BKMEA on 1st May, Labor Fair-2008. - We have also awarded by Naari Uddug Kendra (NUK) for fulfilling core standards on social compliance issues. - WRAPB, BSCI & Oekotex 100 certified. - Fully Compliant with environmental ETP & other social welfare issues
  17. 17. 17 1.14 Our Production Capacity Section Capacity Textile division : 20,000 kg fabric / day Knitting : 12,000 kg / day Dyeing & Finishing : 20,000 kg / day Cutting : 65,000 pcs./ day Printing division : 50,000 pcs/ day (One color basic rubber print items) Sewing : 60,000 pcs/ day (based on basic items) Finishing : 60,000 pcs. /day Production lead time : 45-90 Days
  18. 18. 18 1.15 Area Details of our Factory: Niagara Textiles Limited is a Garments factory with area of total 2,65,500 Sft. The detail area description of our factory is following – Garments Division: Area (Smt) Area (Sft) Sewing 5574 sqm 67,000 Sft Cutting 1858 sqm 20,000 Sft Finishing 1858 sqm 20,000 Sft Sample 186 sqm 2,000 Sft Office 465 sqm 5,000 Sft Store 604 sqm 6,500 Sft Total 10454 sqm 1,20,500 Sft Area (Smt) Area (Sft) Bonded Warehouse 3716 sqm 40,000 Sft Free Space 2787 sqm 30,000 Sft Gross Total 22067 sqm 2,45,500 Sft New Addition in Dyeing Finishing 20,000 Sft Grand Total 2,65,500 Sft Textiles Division Area (Smt) Area (Sft) Knitting 1394 Sqm 15,000 Sft Dyeing 3716 Sqm 40,000 Sft Total 5110 sqm 55,000 Sft
  19. 19. 19 1.15.1 Area Details According to the Floor Distribution: Section No. of Floor Office, CAD & Sample 01 Knitting 02 Dyeing 01 Dyeing Finishing 01 Cutting 01 Printing 01 Sewing Floor 08 Finishing 01 Total Floor 16 1.15.2 Different facilities and its quantity at factory infrastructure for our staffs and workers are following Facility Quantity Dining 02 Prayer Place for Male 01 Prayer Place for Female 01 Staff Toilet 17 Male Toilet 98 Female Toilet 58 Total Toilet 156 Medical Center 01 Childcare Center 01 (07 Childs) Canteen 01 Photocopy Center 01 Training & Seminar Hall 01
  20. 20. 20 1.16 ORGANOGRAMME (FACTORY)
  21. 21. 21 CHAPTER 2 KNITTING
  22. 22. 22 2.0 MACHINE PROFILE FOR KNITTING SECTION Serial Machine Brand Origin M/C diameter Gauge Feeder QTY 1 Single jersey Pailung Taiwan 20" 24 80 1 SET 2 " Pailung " 21" 24 88 1 SET 3 " Pailung " 22" 24 72 1 SET 4 " Pailung " 23" 24 78 1 SET 5 " Pailung " 24" 24 78 1SET 6 " Pailung " 25" 24 90 1 SET 7 " Pailung " 34" 24 64 5 SET 8 " Pailung " 36" 24 69 1 SET 9 " Orizio Italy 30" 24 75 2 SET 10 Rib (8- Lock) Terrot Germany 30" 18 102 1 SET 11 " Terrot " 36" 18 108 1 SET 12 " Pailung Taiwan 34" 18 114 1 SET 12 " Pailung " 36" 18 120 1 SET 13 " Pailung " 38" 18 96 1 SET 14 " Pailung " 40" 18 102 1 SET 15 " Pailung " 42" 18 108 1 SET 16 Interlock(8-Lock) Terrot Germany 30” 22 120 1 SET 17 " Terrot Germany 34” 22 1 SET 18 " Terrot Germany 36” 22 2 SET 19 3–Thread Fleece Orizio Italy 30” 20 2 SET 20 Flat Knit (Computerized) Stoll Italy 84” 14 1 SET 21 " Kaohang Taiwan 54” 14 25 SET Total No of machines 53 SET
  23. 23. 23 2.1 Knitting: I started from knitting section as a part of my industrial training. To be a good Textile Engineer it is necessary to know about different types of knitted fabric used in dyeing section and also need to know different fabric faults, raw material of fabric, fabric composition, fabric production process, quality assurance system and last of all maintenance system of the machinery. Source of Yarn for knitting:  India (major)  Local Zarina knit composite Squre yarn Shohagpur textile Malek Spinning Hanif Spinning Bextex Ltd Kaya spinning Jumuna spinning Badshah textile Saiham Cotton Mills 2.2 Process flow chart of knitting- Yarn in cone form ↓ Feeding the yarn cone in the creel ↓ Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and tensioning ↓ Knitting ↓ Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting ↓ Inspection ↓ Numbering
  24. 24. 24 2.3 Types of Fabric Knitted In the Industry: 2.4 Cost of yarn: Yarn Count Combed Yarn Carded Yarn 40/1 3.65 $/Kg 2.65-2.7 $/Kg 36/1 3.00 $/Kg 2.5-2.6 $/Kg 32/1 2.90 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 30/1 2.70 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 28/1 2.65 $/Kg 2.25 $/Kg 26/1 2.60 $/Kg 2.25 $/Kg 24/1 2.55 $/Kg 2.20 $/Kg 20/1 2.50 $/Kg 2.15- 2.2 $/Kg Types of yarn Count 100%Cotton 20s , 22s , 24s , 26s , 28s , 30s , 32s , 34s , 40s Spandex yarn 20D,30D, 40D PC (65% polyester & 35% cotton) 24s , 26s , 28s , 30s CVC(40% polyester & 60% cotton,20% polyester & 80% cotton) 24s , 26s , 28s , 30s Grey Mélange(1%,5%,7.5%,10%,15% viscose) 24s , 26s , 30s
  25. 25. 25 2.5 Knitting charge: Sl No. Type of Knitted Fabric M/c gg Y.Count Off Season (April- September) Pick Season (October- March) Rate/kg (Tk.) Rate/kg (Tk.) 01 Single Jersey 24 18-30 s/1 8.00 9.00 02 Single Jersey 24 32-40s/1 9.00 10.00 03 Single Jersey 28 28-40s/1 9.00 11.00 04 Single Jersey 20 16-20s/1 10.00 12.00 05 Slub Single Jersey 24 18-30s/1 10.00 11.00 06 Slub Single Jersey 24 32-40s/1 11.00 12.00 07 Heavy jersey 20 Any Count 15.00 16.00 08 Feeder Stripe Single Jersey 24 Full Feeder 16.00 18.00 09 Feeder Stripe Single Jersey 24 Ab.20%F.Miss 20.00 22.00 10 S/L,Polo Pk, Double Lacoste 24 Any Count 13.00 14.00 11 F.F. Lycra Jersey 24 Any Count 24.00 25.00 12 H.F. Lycra Jersey 24 Any Count 20.00 22.00 13 Lycra Pique 24 Any Count 30.00 30.00 14 Two Thread Terry 24 Any Count 16.00 18.00 15 Lacra Terry 24 Any Count 28.00 30.00 16 Fleece 20 40-10s/1 18.00 20.00 17 Fleece 20 34/10-18-10s/1 16.00 16.00 18 1X1 Rib 18 18-34s/1 13.00 14.00 19 1X1 Rib 18 34-40s/1 14.00 15.00 20 1X1 Lycra Rib 18 Any Count 20.00 20.00 21 2X1 Rib 18 Any Count 18.00 18.00 22 H.F.2X1 Lacra Rib 18 Any Count 25.00 25.00 23 F.F.2X1 Lacra Rib 18 Any Count 30.00 32.00 24 1X1 Rib Stripe 18 Any Count 20.00 20.00 25 2X1 Rib Stripe 18 Any Count 25.00 25.00 26 Waffle / Flat Back Rib 18 Any Count 30.00 35.00 27 Plain Interlock 24 Any Count 17.00 18.00 28 D.N.Interlock 24 Any Count 22.00 25.00 29 Interlock Stripe 24 Any Count 25.00 30.00 30 Lycra Interlock 24 Any Count 30.00 35.00 31 Pointal Rib (Jacquard) 18 Any Count 70.00 80.00 32 Engg. Stripe S/J (3 Colour) 24 Any Count 90.00 100.00 33 Engg. Stripe S/J (6 Colour) 24 Any Count 100.00 110.00 34 Engg. Stripe Lycra S/J 24 Any Count 200.00 250.00 35 Engg. Stripe Pique 24 Any Count 110.00 120.00 36 Engg. Stripe Terry 24 Any Count 160.00 180.00 37 Engg. Stripe Rib/ Interlock 18/24 Any Count 170.00 180.00 38 Solid Collar Set 14 Any Count 3.50 4.00 39 Tipping Collar Set 14 Any Count 4.50 5.00 40 Bitt Collar Set 14 Any Count 4.50 5.00 41 Flat Knit Bottom/Kg 14 Any Count 75.00 100.00
  26. 26. 26 2.6 different parts of knitting m/c parts: Needle cam Feede sinker cam needle MPF yarn breakage detector VDQ pulley Fabric takedown mechanism
  27. 27. 27 2.7 Description of Production Process: In every mill there maintains a sequence in production processing. It is also followed in this mill where we were in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below: 1. Firstly knitting manager gets a production shit from the merchandiser as according as consumer requirements then he informs or orders production officer about it. 2. Production officer informs technical in charge & knows about machine in which the production will be running. 3. Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about machine for production considering machine condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity etc. 4. Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length & grey GSM for required final GSM. 5. Supervisor checks daily production regularity & make operator conscious about finishing tin due time. 6. Operators operate machine in high attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabrics faults then he calls for the mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in charge. Then he comes in spot. 7. After required production & final inspection in 4- point system, they sent in dyeing section.
  28. 28. 28 2.8 Faults and Their Causes: A. Holes:  Thick thin place in the yarn.  High tension in the yarn.  Too much speed of the m/c.  Defective needle. B. Drop stitches:  Yarn is not properly fed during loop formation.  Insufficient yarn tension.  Badly set yarn feeder.  Defective needle. C. Needle mark:  Breakage of hook of needle.  Breakage of latch of needle.  Change of alignment of latch.  Due to improper schedule maintenance. D. Oil mark/ Grease mark:  Excess oil/grease use in the m/c.  Leakage in the oiling system.  Bad quality lubricant is used.  Mixing of one quality lubricant with another one.  Jamming of needle and sinker. E. Design variation:  Variation of stripe in the m/c.  Wrong cam arrangement. F. Count variation:  Different count of yarn package in the same lot.  Different quality of yarn use in the same order.  Variation of count in the same package in different places. G. GSM variation:  Variation in the stitch length.  Wrong position of the VDQ pulley.  Improper tension of the fabric during production.  Wrong selection of yarn count.
  29. 29. 29 2.9 Production Calculation: A. Production / shift in Kg at 100% efficiency B. Production/shift in meter = = C. Fabric width in meter = = D. GSM Calculation 1. = = 2 = = E. Length calculation =
  30. 30. 30 2.10 Maintenance in the Knitting Section: For proper running of the machine it is necessary to maintain the machine. This is done by cleaning the machine after every 7 days. This is basically the servicing of the machine. This is done because  To maintain the quality of the fabric.  To reduce the fabric fault.  Removal of dust from the m/c.  Cleaning of different parts of the m/c.  Overall to increase the production of the m/c. During servicing the following things are checked weather they are in good condition or not. These are cleaned and also replace if necessary. These are  Needle  Sinker  Sinker Cam  Cam Box  Cylinder  Full Body Remarks: Production runs with the help of mechanical fitters. For any kind of mechanical fault of any machine the fix and work under technical in charge. Production officers take account of daily production by running after the supervisor & workers so on.
  32. 32. 32 3.0 Objective of Batching:  To receive the grey fabric roll from knitting section or other sources.  Turn the grey fabric if require.  To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria  Order sheet (Received from buyer)  Dyeing shade (color or white, light or dark)  M/C capacity  M/C available  Type of fabrics (100% Cotton, PE, PC, CVC)  Emergency  To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card  To keep records for every previous dyeing 3.1 Knitting Fabric Inspection & Grading Based on the Forty points System: The inspection and grading of fabric quality is one of the important functions of Quality Control in the grey finished state, the grading of fabric is a difficult task, taking two primary considerations: as the frequency of effects and the seriousness of defects. The grading has two primary functions: first, to classify the fabrics according to standard qualities based on the end-use and customer demands and second, to supply information as to the qualities actually being produced. The Knitting fabric can be classified into three levels of quality, each one have a number of points for defects as follows. The First quality level 40 points per 100 Linear Yards The second quality level (40-80) points per Linear Yards The third quality level 80 points or more per 100 Linear Yards 3.2 General Instruction for the final inspection:
  33. 33. 33 All pieces will be graded on the base of 40 points per 100 linear yards Mapping will be done on each piece to insure proper grading. Do not count more than 4 points per one yard. a) All effects must be recorded and marked in final inspection and an accurate account of points made to insure proper grading. b) All fabric must meet specifications c) At the end of each piece of fabric, the inspector will add up total points and decide whether the piece can be shipped as first quality. d) The quality control supervisor must approve the grading of all quality levels and check the lower quality. e) Major or unsightly defects in the first and last yard of a roll of piece will be cut. All defects of one yard length or more will be cut out of the price. Defects within the first 2 inches or the last 2 inches of a piece will not be cut out or counted in the grading. f) Open defects on the back of fabric such as drops, runs and hanging picks are to be included in the grading of fabric. g) Pieces can be connected together, once each piece must be the same shade. h) All defects such as runs that extend more than a yard in length will be cut out. i) Defects within one inch of the fabric edge will not be counted except on tubular fabrics. All defects will be counted in tubular goods. 3.3 Proper Batching Criteria:  To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c  To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time.  To keep the no. of batch as less as possible for same shade.  To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade. M/C in Batch Section  Grey Inspection machine  Turning machine  The Machine is used to reverse the knitted face to back and back to face.  The Machine has capacity blower pipe, fabric turning pipe, roller and folding parts. Specification of grey inspection machine: No of m/c : 01 Brand : Glory Model : T1-02 Company name : Best leader machinery Manufacturing date : 2007-6 Country : china
  35. 35. 35 AGM ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Senior Manager (Dyeing) Manager (Finishing) Manager (Dyeing) Asst. manager Manager (Dyeing) In Charge Production Officer Supervisor Dyeing Master Operator Floor in charge Helper Supervisor Operator Helper
  36. 36. 36 4.1 Machine profile for Dyeing Section: SL Name of Machine Brand Capacity (kgs) No. of Set 01 Atmospheric winch PMM, Turkey 025 03 100 01 200 01 300 01 400 01 600 01 750 01 800 01 02 High Temperature Winch PMM, Turkey 025 01 300 01 DMS Turkey 025 01 150 01 300 01 450 01 ACMI, Taiwan 050 01 600 01 1200 02 1500 01 Total No. of Machines 21
  37. 37. 37 4.2 LIST OF DYES USED IN NO. NAME OF DYES TYPES SOURCE 1 FUCOZOL YELLOW 3RF Reactive dyes BE FUWELL ENTERPRISE CO LTD, P.T.FUCOLOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, INDONESIA. 2 FUCOZOL RED 3BF Reactive dyes Same 3 FUCOZOL BLUE EBL Reactive dyes Same 4 FUCOZOL BLUE EXN Reactive dyes Same 5 ELBEZOL YELLOW 3RS Reactive dyes ELBE INTERNATIONAL LTD, CHINA 6 ELBEZOL RED 3BSN Reactive dyes Same 7 ELBEZOL BLACK-B Reactive dyes Same 8 ELBEZOLBLACK-WNN Reactive dyes Same 9 ELBEZOL YELLOW 4GL Reactive dyes Same 10 ELBEZOLORANGE F2R Reactive dyes Same 11 ELBEZOLT/BLUE-G Reactive dyes Same 12 ELBEZOLBLUE RSP Reactive dyes Same 13 FUCOZOL YELLOW UCX Reactive dyes BE FUWELL ENTERPRISE CO LTD, P.T.FUCOLOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, INDONESIA. 14 FUCOZOL RED USB Reactive dyes Same 15 FUCOZOL RED USG Reactive dyes same 16 FUCOZOL NAVY BLUE USB Reactive dyes same 17 DIANIX YELLOW SEG Disperse dyes Dyestar, Germany 18 DIANIX RED EFB Disperse dyes same 19 DIANIX NAVY CC Disperse dyes same 20 DIANIX T/BLUE SBG Disperse dyes same 21 DIANIX BLUE ER Disperse dyes same 22 DIANIX YELLOW BROWN SER Disperse dyes same 23 TRICRON YELLOW E- ACT Disperse dyes T & T INDUSTRIES CORP, TAIWAN 24 TRICRON RED E -ACT Disperse dyes same 25 TRICRON BLUE E-ACT Disperse dyes same 26 Polar White 4B k
  38. 38. 38 4.3 Raw material for dyeing: Chemicals used: Basic chemicals:  Hydrogen peroxide  Acetic acid  Soda ash  Caustic soda  Common salt  Glubar salt  Bleaching acid  Hydrose Detergent: I. PCLF II. MA Scour AP III. FEROLZUM Anti-creasing agent: I. MARLAKT CONC II. ALBAFLUIDE C III. MA Lube C IV. Best anti-creasing Leveling agent: I. MARLADF CONC II. Seragal PLP (LPF) III. PRIMALEV R CONC IV. Best leveller 723 Sequestering: I. Hanko QUST II. MARLA DM CONC III. MA Stab XL IV. Best SCQ 710 Peroxide killer: I. P.Killer (PK) Stabilizer: I. MARLA PS CONC II. Ultrafresh NMV-2 III. Argaprep MSS IV. Primastab FF Conc
  39. 39. 39 Anti foam: I. Antifoam 39A II. Albafix SR III. Jontex Fix 500 IV. Serafast CNC V. Asufix EPF Enzyme agent: I. Boizep MC new II. UNIZYME 600L Softener agent: I. E-31 (white) II. Softener A-1000 (COLOR) III. Matsoft NISB IV. Softener S-300 V. Chemesoft CWS 4.4 Dyeing Process with Recipe Light Color Process 100% Cotton 1. Machine Wash: Hydrose (2g/L) +Caustic (2g/L) +Foaming Agent (0.5g/L) 30 min at 90o c Machine Washed A. Acid (0.7g/L) 20min at 70o c M/C Neutralized 2. Scouring & Bleaching: Detergent (1 g/L) Sequestering Agent (.5 g/L) Stabilizer (.8 g/L) Caustic (3 g/L) H2O2 (3 g/L) 60min at 98’c
  40. 40. 40 3. Neutralizations (Scouring & Bleaching): H2O2 Killer (.8 g/L) A.Acid (1 g/L) 20min at 80’c 4. Enzyme Wash: A.Acid (1 g/L) Enzyme (1%) 55min at 50’c, PH =4.5 5. Dyeing: Ant creasing Agent (.5 g/L) Leveling Agent (1 g/L) A.Acid (.2 g/L) Dyes (According to shade %) G.Salt (According to shade %) Soda Ash (According to shade %) 60min at 60’c 6. Neutralization: (Dyeing): A.Acid (1 g/L) 10min at 40-50’c 7. Soaping: Soaping Agent (.5 g/L) 20min at 70-80’c 8. Fixing & Softening: Fixing Agent (.5 g/l) 15min at 40’c A.Acid (.5 g/L) Softener (1.5 g/L)
  41. 41. 41 4.5 Main Component’s of a dyeing m/c: 1. Mixing tank: There is a tank in this machine. Every chemical are used to put here. There are some components here are as follows: a. Metallic mixing part: It is used to mix any solution b. Air flow mixing part: It is also to mix any solution. c. Steamer: It is used to delivery steam in mixing tank. d. Steam controller: It can control the amount of steam e. Filter: It is used to filter the solution which is transferred in to the main tank. 2. Main tank: The chemical from the tank is transferred here. The pretreatment and dyeing are completed here. 3. Monitor: It is situated at the right side of the machine. The commands are shown in the monitor & the operators can work from these commands. There are also some options for working properly & to obey these commands. 4. Unloading reel: There is an unloading reel for unloading the dyed fabric. 5. Three detectors: There are 3 detectors on the above of the nozzle are as follows: a. Temperature detector: It is at the left side between these 3 detectors which can detect the temperature of the main tank. b. Fabric turning pressure detector: It is at the middle of these 3 detectors. It can detect the pressure at which the fabric turning. c. Atmospheric pressure detector: It can detect the atmospheric pressure of the main tank. d. Panel board: There is a panel board at the right side of the machine by which programmed can be set up. 4.6 Checklist before operation: Checking the program Machine set-up. Fabric weight. Fabric quality. Collar design (Tipping/ solid). Rib designs (Normal/Lycra). Chemical availability. Power availability. Steam availability. Water availability. Compressed air. Manpower availability. Fabric stitch is done properly.
  42. 42. 42 4.7 Amount of Salt, Alkali & Fixation time On The Basis Of Shade%: Shade % Salt(g/l) Alkali(g/l) Fixing time(min) 0-0.1 30 10 20 0.1-0.5 30 15 30 0.5-01 40 20 40 1-1.5 50 20 50 1.51-2 60 20 60 2-2.5 70 20 60 2.5-5 80 20 60 Above 6 100 25 70 Black shade 100 10+0.5g/l NaOH 70 4.8 Dyeing Parameter: (pH) Bleaching bath pH 10.5 – 11 Neutralization or after bleaching pH 5.5 – 6.5 Bio polishing bath pH 4.5 Initial dye bath pH 5.5-6.5 After alkali addition pH 10.5-11 After dyeing pH 5.0-6.0 Fixation bath pH 4.5 – 5.5 Softener bath pH 4.0 – 5.0
  43. 43. 43 4.9.1 Temperature: For cotton Pretreatment 98 0 C For Cotton Biopolishing 550 C Cotton Dyeing 600 C During Turquise 800 C During Isothermal 600 C Red special 60 0 C White dyeing 80 0 C For Polyester Dyeing 1300 C For Cotton soaping 980 C Temperature during softening & fixing 400 C For cotton hot wash (70-90)0 C For cotton acid wash (50-60)0 C 4.10 List of dyes used in: NO. NAME OF DYES TYPES SOURCE 1 FUCOZOL YELLOW 3RF Reactive dyes BE FUWELL ENTERPRISE CO LTD, P.T.FUCOLOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, INDONESIA. 2 FUCOZOL RED 3BF Reactive dyes Same 3 FUCOZOL BLUE EBL Reactive dyes Same 4 FUCOZOL BLUE EXN Reactive dyes Same 5 ELBEZOL YELLOW 3RS Reactive dyes ELBE INTERNATIONAL LTD, CHINA 6 ELBEZOL RED 3BSN Reactive dyes Same 7 ELBEZOL BLACK-B Reactive dyes Same 8 ELBEZOLBLACK-WNN Reactive dyes Same 9 ELBEZOL YELLOW 4GL Reactive dyes Same 10 ELBEZOLORANGE F2R Reactive dyes Same 11 ELBEZOLT/BLUE-G Reactive dyes Same 12 ELBEZOLBLUE RSP Reactive dyes Same 13 FUCOZOL YELLOW UCX Reactive dyes BE FUWELL ENTERPRISE CO LTD, P.T.FUCOLOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, INDONESIA. 14 FUCOZOL RED USB Reactive dyes Same 15 FUCOZOL RED USG Reactive dyes Same 16 FUCOZOL NAVY BLUE USB Reactive dyes Same 17 DIANIX YELLOW SEG Disperse dyes Dyestar, Germany 18 DIANIX RED EFB Disperse dyes Same 19 DIANIX NAVY CC Disperse dyes Same 20 DIANIX T/BLUE SBG Disperse dyes Same 21 DIANIX BLUE ER Disperse dyes Same 22 DIANIX YELLOW BROWN SER Disperse dyes Same 23 TRICRON YELLOW E-ACT Disperse dyes T & T INDUSTRIES CORP,TAIWAN 24 TRICRON RED E -ACT Disperse dyes Same 25 TRICRON BLUE E-ACT Disperse dyes Same 26 Polar White 4B k
  44. 44. 44 4.11 Chemical used: Basic chemicals: 1. Hydrogen peroxide 2. Acetic acid 3. Soda ash 4. Caustic soda 5. Common salt 6. Glubar salt 7. Bleaching acid 8. Hydrose Detergent: 1. PCLF 2. MA Scour AP 3. FEROLZUM Anticreasing agent: a. MARLAKT CONC b. ALBAFLUIDE C c. MA Lube C d. Best anticreasing e. Leveling agent f. MARLADF CONC g. Seragal PLP (LPF) h. PRIMALEV R CONC i. Best leveller 723 Sequestering: i. Hanko QUST ii. MARLA DM CONC iii. MA Stab XL iv. Best SCQ 710 Peroxide killer: 1. P.Killer (PK) 2. Stabilizer 3. MARLA PS CONC 4. Ultrafresh NMV-2 5. Argaprep MSS 6. Primastab FF Conc 7. Anti foam 8. Antifoam 39A 9. Fixing Agent 10. Albafix SR 11. Jontex Fix 500 12. Serafast CNC 13. Asufix EPF
  45. 45. 45 Enzyme agent:  Boizep MC new  UNIZYME 600L Softener agent: 1. E-31 (white) 2. Softener A-1000 (COLOR) 3. Matsoft NISB 4. Softener S-300 5. Chemesoft CWS 4.12 Typical Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing Fill Water ↓ Fabric loading & m/c run ↓ Caustic soda dozing for 5min at 40ºC (PH 10.5-11) ↓ H2O2 dozing for 5 min at 60ºC ↓ Sequestering agent, anti-creasing agent, detergent dosing at 80ºC ↓ Temp. Rise at 98ºC for 60 min ↓ Bath Drop ↓ Wash ↓ Fill water 4.13 Dyeing Faults:  Uneven Dyeing: Causes:  Uneven pretreatment  Improper addition of chemicals  Improper addition of color  Using dyes of high fixation properties  Less control of dyeing machine  Less circulation time Remedies:  By ensuring even pretreatment  By proper addition of color and chemicals  Correct circulation time  By controlling the dyeing machine properly
  46. 46. 46  Batch to batch shade variation: Causes:  Using improper dyes and chemicals  Incorrect pretreatment procedure  Batch to batch weight variation of fabric  Batch to batch chemicals and dyes variation (lot variation)  Improper dosing of dyes and chemicals Remedies:  By ensuring even pretreatment  By proper addition of color and chemicals  Correct circulation time  By controlling the dyeing machine  Dark colored spots: Causes:  Dyestuff precipitation during dyeing  Incompatibility of dyestuff used for producing combined shade  Too high dyestuff concentration in the dyeing bath  Precipitation of unabsorbed dyestuff during after treatment Remedies:  By ensuring proper dyeing condition  By selecting proper dyestuff  By checking the solubility limit of the dyestuff before dyeing  By ensuring proper after treatment  Patchy dyeing: Causes:  Due to hardness of water  Due to faulty color addition  Due to faulty injection of alkali  Due to improper salt addition  Due to improper pH of the solution Remedies:  By using proper sequestering  By correcting the color addition  By correcting the salt addition  By proper injection of alkali  By maintaining the pH level of the solution
  47. 47. 47  Crease mark: Causes:  Poor opening of the fabric rope  Due to high speed of m/c running  Unequal pump pressure and reel speed Remedies:  By maintaining proper pump pressure and reel speed  By controlling the speed of the machine  Correct opening of the fabric rope  Roll to roll variation: Causes:  Poor migration property of dyes  Hardness of water  Improper dyes solubility  Faulty machine speed Remedies:  Use standard dyes and chemicals  Proper machine speed  Using soft water
  49. 49. 49 5.0 Definition: Lab Dip development means the sample which is dyed according to the buyer’s requirements. Depending on lab dip development sample dyeing and bulk production dyes planning done. The main objectives in lab dip are as follows:  To calculate the recipe for sample dyeing  To compare dyed sample with swatch by light Box or spectrophotometer.  To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.  Finally approved Lab Dip. (Grade: A B C) 5.1 Machine Profile For Dyeing Laboratory SL Name of Machine Brand No. of Set 01 Spectrophotometer attached with pentium-4 computer Datacolor 01 02 Spectra flash Model- SF 600x 01 03 Lab Sample Dyeing Ahiba Nuance, Swiss 01 Fongs, Hong Kong 03 04 Dimensional Stability Test. Wascator, Sewden 01 05 Color Assesment Cabinet Veri vide, England 04 06 Washing Machine Ariston 02 07 Rubbing Tester Crock Meter Roaches, England 01 Total No. of Machines 14
  50. 50. 50 Washing machine & Spectrophotometer Lighting Box 5.2 PANTONE BOOK (TCX, TPX): This book is used for shade matching. Sometime buyer gave the pantone no. in their order. Pantone no. indicates the shade of the garments. It’s a universal shade matching book. Full name : Pantone Textile Color Selector Color numbering system : 6 digit + suffix First two digits : 11 to 19 (range of lightness) Middle two digits : 01 to 64 (range of hue) Last two digits : 01 to 65 (range of chroma) 5.3 Necessary calculation: 5.4 Process flow chart of lab dip dyeing:
  51. 51. 51 Recipe correction Two or more option of lab dips send to the buyer for approval Approved Not approved Go for production Making re lap dip Approved Spectrophotometer Visually calculating Exact match with swatch Recipe formulation Checking the quality parameter Swatch from buyer Previous lap dipRecordSpectrophotometer Matching visually
  52. 52. 52 5.5 Lab dyeing process: Method: All in all Dyeing Procedure:  Liquor ratio 1: 10  Add auxiliaries (labeling), dye, salt & soda ash at room temperature.  Set temperature gradient 2o C/min up to 650 C for avg color & run for 60 min.  For turquoise dyes temperature gradient should be set 20 C/min up to 800 C & run for 40 min. Wash Off:  Rinse the sample in running cold water until clear water come out.  Soaping with 1 g/l detergent at 98ºC for 10 min.  Rinse with cold water.  Dry up and ironing is done before assessing the shade. Dyeing of Polyester Fabrics with Disperse Dyes: Method: All in all Dyeing Procedure:  Liquor ratio 1 : 10  Add dye, buffer solution, leveling agent at room temperature.  Set temperature gradient 20 C/min up to 1300 C.  Run time 30 min at 1300 C temperature.  Cool down the machine at 800 C with temperature 1.50 C/min. Wash Off:  Rinse the sample in running cold water until clear water come out.  Reduction clearing is done with 2 g/l caustic soda & hydrose.  Dry up and ironing is done before assessing the shade. Dyeing Scheme: 1300 C 1300 C, 30min (PES) 1000 C 800 C, 40 min (turquoise) 800 C 650 C, 60 min (avg color) 600 C 400 C 200 C A = Dye + Salt + Soda + Auxiliaries (cotton) Or dye + lebelling + buffer acid (PES) Washing 00 C
  54. 54. 54 After dyeing, knit fabric is required to finish. During dyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer’s requirement knit fabric are finished in Open form or tubular form. Finishing section is divided into two section, they are:  Open line  Tube line The machines that are used in open lines that are given bellow:  Slitting m/c & De-watering m/c  Stenter  Compactor The machines that are used in tube line that are given bellow:  De-watering m/c  Dryer  Calendaring & compactor  6.0 List of Finishing Machine SL Name Of Machine Brand Origin Capacity/ type No of Set 01 Dewatering & De twisting Bianco Italy Open width 01 Heliot France Tubular 01 Beneks Turkey Tubular 01 Dryer PPM Turkey Tube 8 Ton 01 02 Stenter LK & LH Taiwan Open 10 Ton 01 EHWHA Korea 10-11 Ton/day 01 03 Compactor Tubetex USA Tubular 06 Serteks Turkey Tubular 02 Bianco Italy Open width 01 Lafer Italy 8-12 Ton/day 01 6.1 Ballooning Squeezing m/c/De-Watering M/C:
  55. 55. 55 This is the process to remove the water from the fabric partially by squeezing. The basic function of the squeezing m/c:  To remove the water from the fabric.  To control the width of the fabric.  To control the length of the fabric.  To control the Spirality of the fabric.  To control the over feeding system  Apply chemicals specially to make the fabric soft.  To remove the crease mark of the fabric. Controlling points:  Dia setting must be accurate.  Padder pressure depends on fabric construction. Excess padder pressure may cause fabric damage. Speed must be optimum.  Higher the fabric speed leads less removal of water. Main parts:  De-twisting device (to deliver the fabric roll in untwisted form)  Expender (to control width)  Paddler (to remove water)  Folding device  Conveyer Belt  Compressed air(to form the tube fabric into balloon to ensure the delivered fabric to be crease free)
  56. 56. 56 6.2 Tensionless Dryer m/c: Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion of the solution is evaporated from the fabric. The basic function of the dryer:  To dry the fabric in tube form.  To control the over feed system (Shrinkage control)  To control the GSM of the fabric. Main parts of the machine:  Overfeed roller  Conveyor belt  Steam chamber(6)  Exhaust fan  Motor(6)  plaiter Checking parameters:  Overfeed ( %) : It depends on fabric structure & GSM  Temperature: It depends on color & GSM.( normally for single jersey -1600 C, for high GSM, like-fleece, it may be 2500 C )  Speed: It depends on fabric GSM. For higher GSM, lower the speed. GSM Over feed Up to 120 14-15% 120-140 12% 140-200 7-8% 200-250 5-6% Utility: Electricity, steam Heating system: Steam dryer.
  57. 57. 57 6.3 Tube compactor: Important parts:  Shaft & pulley(To control Dia)  Shoe  Blade  Overfeed Roller  Steam bar  Conveyor belt  Take off roller Blade No Req. GSM 110 Up to 125 125 Up to 140 140 Up to 180 170 Up to 240 200 Over 240 A pair of pulley: It controls the fabric width according to the buyer’s requirements. Steam zone: It is given steam on the fabric surface for softness which helps in compacting zone to compact the fabric. Fig: Steam spray on fabric surface Compacting zone: It consists of edge roller, retard roller, steel plates and compacting shoe. Fabric’s shrinkage, finished GSM and Dia permanent by compacting shoe & edge roller at 950 c. Steel plate remove the crease mark on the fabric surface and retard roller smooth the upper portion of the fabric surface at 950 c. Shaper: It looks like a ladder which straightens the fabric and passing through the pulley. Fabric
  58. 58. 58 The basic function of the tube compactor:  To control the GSM (Increase & decrease)  To control the Dia of the fabric  To control shrinkage (Increase & decrease) Controlling points of the tube compactor:  Temperature- it depends on construction & composition and color of the fabric.  Speed- it depends on temperature and fabric construction.  Blanket pressure- fabric smoothness depends on blanket pressure.  Over feed- over should be optimum. It increase GSM but higher over feed leads to the formation of crease mark. Utility:  Electricity  steam Front view of m/c compacting zone Steaming zone 6.4 Tubular knitted Fabric slitting machine: Important parts:
  59. 59. 59  Automatic Detwister unit with sensor  J box rope fabric squeezer  cutter unit with slitter basket  automatic needle path detector  drive reduction unit  full width fabric squeezer  Plaiter  triangle Basic function:  Dewatering  Slitting Utility:  Electricity  Compressed air Detwister Slitter Basket Cutter unit with automatic needle path detector
  60. 60. 60 6.5 Stenter machine:  Important parts:  Dewatering (3.5 -4 bar)  Spreader roller  Balancing roller  Cylinder type weft straightened (weft reading & correction system) Sensor number 12  Selvedge sensor (2)  Selvedge Locking System  Fabric Transfer System (Prevention against loosening of fabric, curvature phenomenon and contamination)  Over feed roller: The over feed works up to (-10 to 80%) against Stenter chain speed.  No. of chamber: 7  Heating method: direct gas heating system  Blower (7)  Burner( 7)  Exhaust motor ( max 1800rpm)  Wheel speed (30 rpm)  Consisting of:  Cloth entrance 1 set  1 bowl padding mangle 1 set  Cloth feeding and over feeding system 1 set  Rail and conveyor system 1 set  Drying and heat setting chamber 7 set  Cutting device  cooling & exit zone 1 set  Cloth plaiting device 1 set 6.6 Basic function:
  61. 61. 61  To control width  To control GSM  To control shrinkage  To control Spirality  To drying  To remove edge curl of the fabric  To remove crease mark  To soften  To get better shade properties  Heat setting Fabric Entry Section: The basic structure of the fabric entry section consists of the texture guider for de-twisting and opening of the fabric and centering, padded mangle for dehydration and padding of chemicals and the swing roller compensator for the interlocking with over-feed system. Over feed zone
  62. 62. 62 Selvedge sensor & Wheel Fabric Transfer System WEFT STRAIGHTENER HEATING SYSTEM FABRIC OUTPUT
  63. 63. 63 6.7 Open compactor: Important parts:  Dogal vaporizer  Chain vaporizer (2)  Overfeed  Underfeed  Wheel  Felt (2) .Upper & lower felt temperature max 1300 C.  Chain width ( Max 110” & mini 35”)  Spreader roller (4)  Cylinder (2)  Selvedge sensor  Plaiter Basic function:  To control GSM (both increase & decrease). Compacting is done up to - 6%.  To control Dia  To control Shrinkage  Controlling points:  Temperature-It depends on construction & composition & color of fabric.  Speed-It depends on temperature & fabric construction.  Overfeed, underfeed, wheel-depends on GSM.  Chain width-depends on fabric width.  Upper & lower felt tension set up.  Chain drug overfeeding  Lower felt extract tension setup Over feed zone
  64. 64. 64 Compacting Zone Fabric Transfer System Selvedge sensor Spreader roller Chain vaporizer
  66. 66. 66 7.0 Quality Assurance: Quality assurance is defined as all those possible planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence than a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of manufacturing. 7.1 Object Of Quality Control:  Specification test  Raw materials control  Process control  Process development  Product testing  Research 7.2 Quality Assurance System: Quality assurance procedure may be divided into two major parts: 1) Online quality control 2) Offline quality control 7.2.1Online Quality Control: Online quality control comprises with the 1) Raw material control, 2) Process control 3) Finish fabric inspection. Raw material control: As the quality product depends upon the raw material quality, quality assurance department must ensure the best qualities of raw material (with economical consideration) are used in production.  The chemical should be with a known concentration and high degree of purity.  The dyes and chemical should be compatible with each other.  The fabric must be without faults, with proper absorbency, whiteness as per requirement of the subsequent process. Process control:  The method chosen for process must be provided with necessary parameters.  Temperature, pH, water level specific gravity should be checked at each stage of process.  During dyeing, samples are taken and shade match with lab dip and when match, allow for bath drop.  If not properly match addition or topping is done until required shade come.  After neutralization sample is collected and match with lab dip.
  67. 67. 67  Sample is collected after fixation and matched.  Last of all after softening sample is collected and match with lab dip.  Each batch should be matched with other batch.  During finishing, temperature, speed, padder pressure, overfeed should be controlled as per requirement.  GSM, width, Spirality, shrinkage (both length & width) should be maintaining as per buyer requirement. Finish fabric inspection: Purpose: To ensure that an acceptable quality fabric is used for producing garments and proper quality of shipment is received from the supplier. Scope: All produced and incoming fabrics of SADMA FASHION WEAR LTD. Procedure:  Store in charge will check the received fabric with the report length, color and type of fabric with the stated shipment document quantity and the actual order quantity.  The finding will be recorded in inventory report and discrepancy regarding fabric type, color and length will be notified to the GM/Asst. Manager.  For in-house products quality control officer will guide all over inspection.  Quality inspector (fabric) shall check 100% receive fabric for quality. He will identify any defect, hole or stain in the fabric.  The fabric is also checked for shading defect in side by side and length. Any non- conformities/ shading will be notified to asst. manager using inspected reports. Roll wise color uniformly card is maintained for identification of shade variations.  During the fabric inspection if the yardage of any roll is reported more or less by the fabric inspection machine then the one specified in the roll, the roll will be measured manually using measuring tapes. Only calibrated measuring tape should be used.  The result of fabric inspection shall be recorded in fabric inspection report.
  68. 68. 68 7.3 Defects Found In the Final Inspection:  Uneven shade  Dia problem  GSM problem  Running shade  Oil spot  Color spot  Neps  Crease mark  Sinker mark  Needle mark  Caustic mark  Softener spot  Patta  Hole  Machine stoppage mark  Listing  Contamination  Dead cotton 7.4 Offline Quality Control: Offline quality control generally comprises different tests of final product so that it is possible to identify whether it pass against the norms given by buyer. The following test are generally done-  GSM test  Shrinkage test (Length wise, Width wise)  Dia measurement  Length measurement  Spirality test  Shade Check  Wash fastness test  Rubbing fastness test  Light fastness test
  70. 70. 70 8.1SAMPLE SECTION INTRODUCTION Sampling is the process by which a small number of garments are made so as to match the buyer requirement and to get approval from the buyer so as to start off the production. It also contributes in the domain of product development which helps to present the quality and capability of service to the buyer. This department executes as per the specifications of buyer’s order and ensures any correction or alteration before starting bulk production as per buyer purchase order. 8.1.1Flow process chart for sampling: Receives the technical package from merchandising department consisting of fabric swatches, patterning, cutting and stitching details. Pattern master develops the pattern Pattern is digitized and grading done with the help of CAD & pattern master Fabric consumption is calculated and Mini marker is developed Cut the fabric after approval from In- house QA and Buyer’s QA Stitches the required no. of samples Sending Samples for Further Processing
  71. 71. 71 8.1.2 Various samples which are being developed at different stages are being mentioned below:- A) Proto Sample B) Fit Sample C) Sales Sample D) Pre Production Sample / Top of Production Sample E) Size Set Sample. Proto Sample : Proto sample is the rough interpretation of the enquiry done to acquaint the tailors with the style. It is usually done on the substitute fabrics, and using accessories, what is available and then checked on the dress form. The quality inspectors from the respective buying houses or the buyer checks the sample, makes the necessary changes pertaining to the fit, the drape, the style details etc. Once this stage is completed, it’s time to move on to the next stage. Fit Sample: The fit of the garment assumes the pivotal importance in this sample. Usually done with the substitute/actual fabrics and substitute trims and accessories. It is sent directly to the buyer for necessary alterations to be made. Depending upon the changes or the comments of the buyer, the revised fit samples are made till the final approval is obtained. Sales Sample: The sales sample is done when the buyer requests for a certain no. of pieces for the promotion of the product yet to come. It gives the buyer certain types of feedback about his product and leaves him better equipped to decide on the production quantity. It usually consists of 6 to 7 pieces in each size and color. Pre production sample: It is done on the actual fabric using the actual trims and the fit has to be perfect. It is simply a prelude to the actual production. Size Set Sample: It is done according to the buyer’s request. It is almost equivalent of the pre production sample except that it was done in all the sizes or in the jumping sizes s per the buyer’s request. The samples were made in the base size in 3-4 copies- Buyer, Factory reference, Delhi Buying House( Corporate Office) and Bangalore Buying Office. The sampling process varies from buyer to buyer.
  72. 72. 72 8.2CUTTING DEPARTMENT: INTRODUCTION Cutting is one of the important department of the manufacturing unit. The first stage in the manufacture of the garments is the cutting of the materials into the necessary patterns shapes. These are then joined together by means of seams to create three-dimensional garments. Where large quantities of a garment style must be cut, a lay is created which consist of many plies of fabric spread one above the other. From this, all the garment pieces for all the sizes that have been planned for that lay are cut. The pattern shapes for these garments maybe drawn on a paper marker placed on top of the lay, or information as to their shape and position maybe held within a computer, to be plotted similarly on the paper marker or used to drive an automatic cutter. 8.2.1 Object of Cutting The object of cutting is to separate fabric parts from the spread of lay according to the dimension of the marker for the purpose of garments making according to the pattern pieces. 8.2.2 Requirements of Fabric Cutting The objective of cutting is to separate fabric parts as replicas of the pieces in the marker plan. In achieving this objective, certain requirements must be fulfilled.  Precision of cut.  Clean edges.  Unscathed, infused edges.  Support of the lay.  Consistent cutting.
  73. 73. 73 8.2.3 Process Flow of Cutting Section Cutting plan is prepared Receiving shipping date from merchandizing Department Delivery of fabric from Cutting section Fabric is stored in Sub store Marking paper is prepared Fabrics are spread in a table Marking paper is spread and attached Cutting is done Every piece and parts are numbered Parts are grouped Into bundles Some are sent for Washing Return to Cutting section Separated every bundle according to Cutting and lot Ready for delivery to Sewing section Panel check Is it qualified? Reject No Yes
  74. 74. 74 Work Process in Cutting Section
  75. 75. 75 8.2.4 Notes: After merchandizing department informs about all the shipping date to cutting section, the cutting section makes a plan about their working schedule and make a list of the fabrics which have to be cut. 8.2.5 Computerized marker making: There are two systems for marker making 1. Digitizing system. 2. Automatic system. Factors related to marker efficiency:  Marker planer  Size of garments  Marker length  Pattern engineering  Fabric Characteristics  Marker making method  Marker width.  Style of garments. Marker efficiency: The marker planner measures his success by the efficiency of the marker plan. The following formula is used to measure the efficiency: Minimization of fabric wastage outside the marker: There are four points for the fabric minimization outside the marker 1. Ends of ply losses. 2. Loss of fabric in roll. 3. Selvedge loss. 4. Purchase loss.
  76. 76. 76 Marker ratio: According to the types of fabric, types of sizes, number of pieces which have to be made, a marker ratio is decided. If there are some different sizes such as size : 6,8,10,12,16,18 which have to be made for an order and if the marker ratio is 2,2,2,2,2,2; then it means that two pieces of each size has to be made from each lay of fabric. Marking paper: When the sample section delivers the pattern, the design is made on a marking paper. The design is mainly according to the marker ratio. The pattern of certain design is first put on the marking paper and then the design is drawn. 8.2.6 Quality check: After all the parts are finished from cutting then a quality check is made for every piece or part. If any part is found defected then it is first seen whether the defect can be repaired by cutting. If it cannot be repaired then the part is rejected. 8.2.7 Exceptional cases: There are some cases for which some exceptional or extra actions have to be made.  One of the exceptional cases is for the fabric which has to be washed before the cutting is done. Those fabrics are first arranged and cut according to the length of the marker. Then they are sent for washing. After the return of the fabrics from washing the usual cutting process goes on.  Another exceptional case is the fabric of stripe type. Instead of making or spreading of long lay, lays are arranged in a small length in order to matching the stripes with one another.. After cutting, each piece is checked whether the stripe so matched according to the required design. If not matched, another worker cuts the stripe with a scissor to make the matching. This process continues for each piece of the stripe fabric. Then the usual numbering, bundling and quality checking continues. The cutting process or checking for the stripe normally takes longer time than any other types of fabric as here the stripes needs to be matched and that’s why each and every part has to be checked. 8.2.8 Fabric Spreading Spreading means the smooth laying out of the fabric in superimposed layer of specified length. The cutting marker is laid on the top most layers. The maximum width of the cutting marker is constrained by the usable width of the fabric.
  77. 77. 77 8.2.9 Objects of Fabric Spreading: The objects of fabric spreading are  To place the number of plies of fabric to the length of the marker plan correctly aligned as to length and width, without tension.  To cut garments in bulk and saving in fabric through the use of multi garments marker plans and the saving in putting time per garment that result from cutting many plies at a time.  To make every ply plain and flat.  To save the time by cutting many layers of fabric at a time. Types of Fabric Lay: Spreading means the smooth laying of the fabric in superimposed layer (plies) of specified length and after spreading the shape of fabric plies is called fabric lay. Fabric lay may be of different types. According to the direction of fabric spreading, fabric lay is of three types.  Fabric spreading from right to left.  Face to face fabric spreading and  Zigzag lay. In Niagara Textile Limited fabric lay is found by fabric spreading from right to left Fabric spreading. Figure Fabric spreading
  78. 78. 78 Determination of Lay Height: In Niagara Textile ltd. & the lay height level followed for different types of fabric is given bellow. Fabric type Maximum lay height 1. Single Jersey (2.5 – 3) inches 2. Lycra Single Jersey (2 – 2.5) inches 3. Interlock (2.5 – 3) inches 4. Lycra Interlock (2 – 2.5) inches 5. (1×1) Rib (3 – 3.5) inches 6. (1×1) Lycra Rib (2.5 – 3) inches 7. (2×2) Rib (3 – 3.5) inches 8. (2×2) Lycra Rib (2.5 – 3) inches 9. Pique & Lacoste (3 – 3.5) inches 10. Lycra Pique & Lacoste (2.5 – 3) inches 8.2.10 Types of Fabric Package: There are many fabric packages used in textile industry. Such as  Open fabric – rolled.  Tubular knitted fabric-rolled.  Folded fabric-rolled.  Folded fabric-cut.  Velvet hanging etc.
  79. 79. 79 8.2.11 Methods of Cutting: There are mainly three methods of cutting. They are 1. Completely by manual i.e. Hand operated scissor. 2. Manually operated powered knife.  Straight knife  Band knife.  Round knife.  Die cutter.  Notcher.  Drill. 3. Computerized Technique.  Knife cutting.  Laser cutting.  Plasma torch cutting  Cutting by water jet. 8.2.12 Problem in cutting section: 1. Dust. 2. Poor lighting system 3. Narrow passage 4. Haphazard arrangement of fabric store 5. Fabric wastage. Remarks: Cutting section is most sensitive section of garment. Many operation are done this section such as marker making, sorting, fabric spreading, cutting etc. There are some skillful people to do this job in this factory.
  80. 80. 80 8.3 SEWING SECTION: Introduction: Niagara Textile ltd has a strong set-up for sewing section. Right at the moment 31 sewing lines are running with full capacity. In existing all of the lines, we have all modern sewing machines compatible for all types of sewing. 8.3.1 Different parts of sewing m/c: M/C parts Picture Bobbin Bobbin Case Bobbin Winder Feed Dog Needle Clamp
  81. 81. 81 Pressure Foot Stitch Length Controller Throat Plate Thread Take-Up Lever Table M/C parts
  82. 82. 82 8.3.2 Process flow chart of sewing: Operation finished and product goes for Final inspection No Stain Oil spot removal in the finishing department Operation Quality check Does the quality parameter meet requirements? Next operation continues Rework or replace What type of defect? Sewing defect Fabric fault Design from the Sample section Preparation of layout Fit for Production Accessories from store Sub store Collection of cut parts Yes Yes Delivered to finishing department Delivered to Washing department No Qualified for Delivery Yes rejection
  83. 83. 83 8.3.3 Stitch: Stitch is the unit of seam made by three principles interloping, interlacing to join two ply of fabrics. A stitch is a single turn or loop of thread or yarn. Stitches are the fundamental elements of sewing, knitting, embroidery, crochet, and needle lace-making, whether by hand or machine. A variety of stitches, each with one or more names, are used for specific purposes. Stitch type: Stitches are of 70 types. All these types of stitches are grouped in six classes. According to British standard; 1. Stitch class-100 (Single thread chain stitch). 2. Stitch class-200 (Hand stitch). 3. Stitch class-300 (Lock stitch). 4. Stitch class-400 (Multi thread chain stitch). 5. Stitch class-500 (Over edge stitch). 6. Stitch class-600 (Covering chain stitch). 1. Stitch class-100(chain stitch):  In this stitch -one loop passing through the loop of same thread.  Security of this seam is poor/not satisfactory.  It can produce easily and high speed using one needle.  Only one needle thread is used for making this stitch.  Uses temporary purposes which can easily pick up  It is also used blind stitch purpose.  If one unit is break then whole stitch is open. Uses: Hemming, button attaching, button attaching, gathering and temporary positioning of garment component and purpose. 2. Stitch Class-200(hand stitch)  Stitches under this class are also produced with single thread by use of special types of sewing machine.  Stitch class-200 cannot be produced for longer length sewing.  Uses for stitches costly garments.
  84. 84. 84 3. Stitch class-300(Lock Stitch)  It require two types of sewing thread  Both side are same  It is difficult to pick up.  Less extensibility  More compact  Yarn consumption is comparatively less.  Stitch under this class is naturally secured.  It is widely used in garments factory. 4. Stitch class-400(multithread chain stitch)  One or more thread is used.  One group is called upper thread and another group is called lopper thread(under thread)  Security of this stitch higher than lock stitch about 30%  Higher production than lock stitch due to use large package.  This type of stitch is used to prevent the fraying of yarn of fabric.  It is widely use for making knitted garments. 5. Stitch class-500(Over edge chain stitch)  It required more than two threads  One group is called upper thread; another group is called lopper thread.  Security is higher than lock stitch about 30%  It is used for making knitted garments.  It is also used for decorative purposes.  It is only used in the edge of the fabric 6. Stitch class-600(Covering chain stitch & Flat)  Three or more sewing thread is used to make this stitch.  Three groups of sewing threads are used: 1) Needle thread 2) Lopper thread 3) Covering thread  Security is good.  This type of stitch is used to join side by side of fabric without increasing thickness.  This type of stitch is used for sewing under wear without increasing thickness. This type of stitch is used for sewing under wear for attaching lace, braid elastic etc
  85. 85. 85 8.3.4 Different Operations of Sewing M/C: 1. Plain sewing m/c:  Plackets join.  Lower placket close.  Placket 1/16 top stitch.  Placket box stitch.  Collars make.  Collar band top stitch.  Collar band make.  Collars join.  Collar top stitch with label.  Collar band join.  Side slit top stitch.  Zippers join.  Zipper top stitch.  Patch label attach.  Hanger loop attach.  Pockets join.  SLV in & out side tack.  Neck in & out side tack.  Neck V tack.  Nose tack 2. Over lock sewing m/c  Shoulder joins with tape.  SLV ribs attach.  SLV joins.  SLV lengths 1st side join.  SLV lengths 2nd side join.  Side seam.  Side seam with care label.  Side seam with placket edge over lock.  Neck rib joins.  Elastic attach at waist belt 3. Flat lock sewing m/c:  SLV hem.  SLV contrast hem.  Bottom hem.  Bottom contrast hem.  Leg hem.  Back neck binds.  Armhole binds.  Armhole top stitch.  Shoulder top stitch.  Wais belt top stitch.
  86. 86. 86 8.3.5 List of Garments Machineries SL Machine Name Brand Total Juki Pegasus Yamata Nagishing Kansai Hashima Idea 1 Plain 629 629 2 Over lock 55 243 21 319 3 Flat lock 22 147 05 174 4 Button Hole 16 16 5 Button Stitch 19 19 6 Snap Button 05 05 7 Peaconting 03 02 05 8 DFD 01 01 9 PMD 02 02 10 Feed of the Arm 02 02 11 Re-cone 02 02 12 Rib Cutting 08 08 13 Back tape 06 06 14 Bartack Computer 08 08 15 Two Needle 02 02 16 Fusing 01 01 17 Zic Zac Plain 02 02 18 Conver Stitch 02 02 Total 1203
  87. 87. 87 8.3.6 Sewing sequence of basic T-shirt in Niagara: Serial Operation Machine used 1. Solder Joint Over lock M/C Thread no.3 2. Neck rib make Plain M/C. Thread No 1 3. Neck joint Over lock M/C. Thread No 3 4. Main + Size level joint Plain M/C. Thread No 1 5. Main + Size level joint Plain M/C. Thread No 1 6. Piping Kansai M/C. Thread No 4 7. Sleeve ham Flat Lock M/C. Thread no.3 8. Sleeve joint O/L M/C. Thread no.4 9. Sleeve joint O/L M/C. Thread no.4 10. Level Attaching (Care Level) Plain M/C. Thread No 1 11. Side Seam O/L M/C. Thread no.4 12. Side Seam O/L M/C. Thread no.4 13. Side Seam O/L M/C. Thread no.4 14. Khara Tuck Plain M/C. Thread no.2 15. Chap Tuck Plain M/C. Thread no.2 16. Bottom Ham Flat Lock M/C(1) Thread No 3
  88. 88. 88 8.4 WORK-STUDY: Work-study is a management techniques to investigate all factors, which are affecting to the productivity. Two Techniques of Work Study: 1. Method Study 2. Work Measurement WORK STUDY
  89. 89. 89 8.5 IE: Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated system of man, machine and equipment drawing upon specialized knowledge and skill in the technical, economics and human sciences. Either with the principles or methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such system Responsibility of an IE officer:
  90. 90. 90 8.5.1Flow process chart of IE department:
  91. 91. 91 8.6 SMV: SMV means Standard Minute Value. A standard operator is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, who possesses the required intelligence and education and has acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and quality Parameter to be considered when giving SMV for an operation:  Handling– pick-up, Aligning, Dispose, Tool use, Machine Handling etc  Sewing – 1. Machine RPM, SPI/SPC and mc Features 2. Seam Length 3. Seam Type – (Visible/ Invisible, Straight, Curved etc). 4. Stopping accuracy (End back tack, Pivot, Runoff etc) 5. Attachment Use (Folders, Gauges.etc) 6. Personal, Machine Effectiveness 8.6.1 SMV calculation: SMV = BT + ALLOWANCES Direct Basic Time can be generated by GSD or any PMTS versions. In Stop watch Time study * *100 OT OR BT SR  BT- BASIC TIME OT- OBSERVED TIME OR- OBSERVED RATING SR- STANDARD RATING Z
  92. 92. 92 8.7 Sewing Problem: Sewing defect can be classified in three different groups: 1. Problems Of Stitching Formation. Slipped stitch: Stitches in the seam are present in a regular wise. If the interloping or interlacing between top & bottom thread of stitch is not take place or mossed is known as slipped stitch or skipped stitch. This is more harmful in case of chain stitch than lock stitch. The following are the causes and remedies of slipped stitch formation given by a table. No Cause Remedies 01 If hook or looper & needle are not inserted in loop of thread in time. Examine the setting and timing between needle and hook or looped. Placing of needle properly. More secured needle should be used. 02 Irregular thread tension on upper or lower loop. The tension of thread should again be adjusted. 03 Due to needle deflection. Needle to be changed. 04 If needle thread loop size is too small. Needle size & thread size must be adjusted. 05 When flagging of fabrics during sewing is happened. The pressure of pressure foot must be adjusted accurately. The hole of throat plate & needle size must be adjusted. Staggered stitch: If the stitches produced by needle are not parallel or become curvy to sewing line is known as staggered stitch. The following are the causes and remedies of staggered stitch formation given by a table: No. Causes Remedies 01 Needle deflection Increases the needle size. Tapered needle should be used. 02 Due to wrong or blunt needle point. Needle to be changed 03 Wrong adjustment of needle & thread size. Needle size and thread size should be changed. 04 Defected motion of feed dog. Motion of feed dog to be adjusted. 05 If fabrics are not controlled properly in the feed mechanism. The pressure of pressure foot must be adjusted accurately. Feed mechanism to be changed.
  93. 93. 93 Unbalanced Stitch: This type of defect is found in lock stitch machine. If the interlacement of thread are not taken place in the middle (i.e. if the interlacement is taken place in the upper or lower position from the middle) of two layers of fabrics then it is known as Unbalanced stitch. The following are the causes and remedies of unbalanced stitch formation given by a table: No. Causes Remedies 01 Wrong tension of sewing thread Setting of proper tension to the sewing threads. Proper care to the twisting of thread during sewing. 02 Used wrong thread path. Use of right thread path. 03 Wrong adjustment of needle thread path. Use of right thread path. 04 Snagging of needle with bobbin case & positioning finger. Bobbin case to be smooth. The positioning finger to be set again. 05 If the threads are not lubricated. Better qualities threads must be used. Table unbalanced stitch Frequent thread Breakage: This is the breakage of thread again and again during sewing. And also, there needs more time and which is harmful for production. Especially when there needs to open out of sewing to solve the problem. The following are the causes and remedies of frequent thread breakage formation given by a table. No Causes Remedies 01 Wrong winding of threads on to the bobbin. Proper winding of threads on to the bobbin. Pre-wound bobbin may be used. 02 More tension to the bobbin threads or more rotating of bobbin. The tension must be adjusted to the bobbin threads. Use of washer to prevent the more rotating of bobbin. 03 If the edges bobbin case, lopper eye and so on are more sharpened. The edges to be smooth. 04 Wrong fitting of bobbin case. Examine the size and type of bobbin. Examine the damaging of bobbin case. Problems of puckers: Figure Thread Breakage
  94. 94. 94 Unwanted waviness of the fabric along the seam line is called seam pucker. This may be apparent immediately after sewing or it may develop in later in use. Most of the times, sewing threads are referred as the responsible for seam pucker. But without sewing threads, there are so many reasons for occurring seam pucker. Such as fabric structure, seam structure, needle size, feeding problem, uneven thread tension and so on. This can be seen after sewing and sometimes after washing of garments. There is a great possibility of seeing seam pucker in case of more piles of fabrics sewing together. The following are the main reason of occurring seam pucker. 1. Variable or uneven stretch on fabric piles: ●There is a great possibility of seeing seam pucker in case of more piled of fabrics sewing together. ● Due to variable stretch on fabric piles they will not feed equally to sewing m/c & create seam pucker. ● this type of pucker is seen for the limitation of feed mechanism. 2. Fabric dimensional instability: ●If the shrinkage of sewn fabric piles are not same or equal than seam pucker will create after washing. ●To avoid this. It must be know the shrinkage property of different types of fabrics before sewing. ●If the shrinkage percentage of area of two pieces fabrics is more than 2, then seam pucker will occur after sewing the fabrics together. 3. Sewing threads shrinkage: ●Due to variable shrinkage percentage of sewing thread & fabric, seam pucker will create after washing or ironing. ●To protect this. It must know about the shrinkage percentage of fabric & thread before selection to sew. ●There is less possibility of occurring seam pucker when sewing is done by synthetic threads due to less shrinkage percentage of them. Remarks: Sewing section is the important section of garments. There are many processes in this section for making garments. This section needs skilful operator otherwise garments to be fault. 8.8 Finishing: Figure seam puckering
  95. 95. 95 INTRODUCTION Finishing is the last stage of garment production where garment gets its final look. In this department each garment undergoes different finishing processes. It undergoes for quality check for several number of time which sets the garment free from defects. Buyer specifications and instructions are strictly maintained. Our finishing section is equipped with modern pressing machines & trained workers. Like other operations, quality of garments is strictly being controlled here to secure acceptable quality level. Following are the different finishing processes- Trimming. Quality Check. Sewing Section Rivet / Buttons / Brand label Attachment. Sewing Section Rivet / Buttons / Brand label Attachment Ironing Darning Touch Up
  96. 96. 96 8.8.1 FLOW PROCESS CHART OF FINISHING SECTION: Scanner checks if there is any metal parts left in the clothing. Metal part is removed Product is dropped on the moving part of the scanner. Product is received from sewing section The clothes are ironed A quality check is done to see if there is any fault in ironing or in fabric. Cloths are folded or attached to hanger as per the requirement of buyer. Folded parts are packed into poly bag Folded parts are assorted and kept in cartons with H-tag as per the requirement of buyer. When the fault is in ironing it is sent for ironing and for other fault, step is taken to make it defect free. Yes Yes no No
  97. 97. 97 8.8.2 Ironing: This is a finishing process done by subjecting a cloth to heat & pressure with or without steam to remove unintended creases and to impart a flat appearance to the or garments. Also, pressing is done to introduce creases in the garments, in garments industries, pressing is called Ironing. 8.8.3Pressing: Pressing is the process to remove unwanted crease and crinkles from the fabric to give it smoothness, lustrous and fine appearance. Pressing is a finishing process which is done to garments by heat and pressure. It is also called ironing in garments factory. Categories of pressing:  No pressing: Here pressing is not required, e.g. knitted garments such as under garments, briefs etc.  Minimum pressing: Only heat is applied to garments, such as sweater, T-shirt etc.  Under pressing: Before sewing some parts of garments are pressed for its proper finishing, such as pants, coats/blazer etc.  Final pressing: After completing the garments final pressing is done then it is packed to a poly bag for shipment.  Permanent pressing: Many fabric effects are made by heavy pressing; this is known as permanent pressing, e.g. pleat of shirt, dirt of pant, lapel of coat etc. Objects of Ironing/ Pressing: 1. Remove of unwanted creases and crinkles. 2. To apply creases where necessary. 3. Shaping. 4. Under pressing. 5. Under pressing. 6. Final pressing. 8.8.4Folding: After pressing garments are given crinkle according to the specific volume or standard volume is known as folding. Folding types are depends on the different types fabric/garments.
  98. 98. 98 8.5 Types of Packaging: There are two types of packaging. Such as- A. Solid packaging. B. Assorted packaging 8.5.1Types of Assortment: A. Assorted color & Solid size B. Solid color & assorted size C. Assorted color & assorted size D. Solid color & Solid size 8.5.2 TYPES OF POLY: A. Single Poly. B. Blister poly C. Hanger poly. D. Master poly. E. Box poly. Poly measurement: Length=folding length+ allowance Width=folding width+ allowance.  Poly measurement= length* width Inner cartoon measurement: Length=Poly length+ allowance Width=Poly width+ allowance Height= each garment height*6+allowance  Inner cartoon measurement= length* width* height
  99. 99. 99 8.6 Care label symbols:
  100. 100. 100 8.7 Garments Defect: Garment defects can be separated into three categories: 1. Fabric defects: These are defects that are found in the fabric; mostly these are not caused by the sewing lines. E.g. running shade, selvedge-to-selvedge shade, holes, staining mark, missing yarn, foreign yarn, slub, hairiness etc. 2. Workmanship and handling defects: These are defects that are directly caused by production section, this would include both the cutting and sewing section. Buyer’s approved samples must be referred to maintain perfect workmanship. Workmanship & handling defects are given below; I. Cutting defects. II. Pattern defects. a. Sewing defects: 1. Seam puckering. 2. Broken seam/ open seam. 3. Broken stitch. 4. Slipped stitch. 5. Wavy/ staggered stitch. 6. Uncut/ loose thread. III. Ironing fault: a. Look crinkle (if poor ironing) b. Look shiny (if too much ironing) IV. Finishing fault: a. Misplacement of label, hangtag, stitches etc. b. Misaligned button, unfinished button whole, distance fault of button. c. Wrong folding. Note: Workmanship means all the details such as measurement, outlook, ways of attaching trims, packing etc. 3. Trims, accessories and embellishment defects: These defects include color, size and placement of trims such as labels, sewing thread, screen print, embroidery designs, zipper, hangtag, lining, button and any kind of trims. Defects are also classified (as per extent of defect) into Critical, Major and Minor defects.
  101. 101. 101 1. Critical defects are defects that are not allowed to be shipped and are the most serious of defects (0%). 2. Major defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (3%) depending on buyer’s requirements. 3. Minor defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (5%) depending on buyer’s requirements. Remarks: The term garments finishing mainly applies to pressing, folding and packing of garments. After compacting pressing, the garments have to be folded. Garments are folded according to the direction of buyer’s requirements or in standard area. So finishing department is important of garments.
  102. 102. 102 CHAPTER 9 Marchendising
  103. 103. 103 9.1 Process flow chart of Merchandising: Merchandiser Negotiation with buyer & collect order Costing Sample making Get approval & placement of order Collect accessories for production Line balancing Production monitoring Final Inspection Banking Shipment
  104. 104. 104 9.2 Merchandising: Merchandising refers to the techniques used to sell and buy products. A merchandiser is someone who purchases a product from a manufacturer, and then sells it to buyers. Easily it can be said that a merchandiser is he/ she who act like a buyer to a supplier and also act like a supplier to the buyer. There are numerous techniques that a merchandiser may use to convince buyers to buy the products he or she is selling. The term merchandising is defined as follows: * The term merchandising related with trade * Trade means buying & selling * The person who is involved with trade, he/she is a merchandiser * And the activities of a merchandiser is known as a merchandising 9.3 Responsibility of senior merchandiser:  Sample development  Price negotiation  Order confirmation  L/C opening  Opening summery  Sourcing  Material collection  Production planning  Production monitoring  Quality assurance  Arrange final inspection 9.4 Purchase order sheet: What is Purchase Order Sheet?  This is generally abbreviated to P.O.  The Purchase Order can be defined as a written sales contract between buyer and seller detailing the exact merchandise to be rend from a single vendor.  It will specify payment terms, delivery dates, item identification, quantities, shipping terms and all other obligations and conditions.  A contract to purchase merchandise may include a number of P.O. sheets defining them color-wise and size-wise quantity or as per buyers' wish.
  105. 105. 105 9.5 What does a P.O. Contain? The Purchase Order is provided to the vendor as a record of the Purchase. A sample Purchase Order sheet indicates the followings- A) Purchase Order Number - The number is assigned to the purchase order. This is used to identify a definite order and for departmental record keeping, B) vendor's Name and Address - The complete name and address of the individual or company which manufacture the merchandise. - The sequential line number which corresponds with the line on the requisition (i.e., the first item would be line 1; the second would be line 2, etc.). C) Quantity - The quantity of the item being purchased. D) UQP (Unit of Purchase) -The packaging of the item to be purchased (i.e., each, box, package, poly, dozen, carton etc.) E) Unit Price - The unit price of the item ordered. F) Extended Price/ Total Price - The total quantity of the item multiplied by its unit price. G) Description - The complete description of the item ordered in detail, i.e. color, size ratio, critical designs, buttons and other trims, printings, sewing thread used etc, H) Total  The total amount of all items on the purchase order.  During partial shipment, color-wise and size-wise quantity to be shipped is mentioned.
  106. 106. 106 9.6 Inquiry sheet: What is an Inquiry Sheet? This is the most important document sent by the buyer to a merchandiser to start the merchandising activities. The technical term of Inquiry Sheet is Product Specification Sheet (P, S, S,). But some buyer and some manufacturer also use the term of Tech-Pack or Style- Pack. The buyer specifies all the necessary points of a particular garment What they want to purchase- The merchandiser has to study the P, S.S. very well for farther Activities. He must reply within 24 hours. What does the Inquiry Sheet possess?  The Tech-Pack includes the following-  Styling of the garment  Sketch of the garment  Size range  Fabric (denoted with cut-able width )  Interlining  Pocketing(for shirt or pant)  Measurement sheet 9.7 Trims/Accessories- I. Label  Main label (with/without size)  Care label  Trucking label/DPCR label  Size label II. Tag III. Hang tag, joker tag and adjustable waist tag. IV. Thread: color & count specified. V. Button: Ligne number and types specified. VI. Zipper VII. Bow (for kids' item) VIII. Poly IX. Tag pin X. Gum tag XI. Carton ETC
  107. 107. 107  Washing details (for denim fabrics)  Embroidery details (if any)  Printing details on Art Sheet (if any) 9.8 SWATCH CARD: What is Swatch Card? When all the items (fabric and accessories) needed to manufacture a particular style of garment are attached on a board as a sample by using both side adhesive tapes, it is called Swatch Card. Separate swatch card is prepared for different style of garment. The objective of making 'Swatch Card1 is to assess the quality for production The items attached in a swatch card are -  Fabric - separately for each different color.  Thread - for different count and type  Button - for different Ligne Number  Label - for different types (main, size & care label etc) and for Différent size (2T, 3T etc).  Price tag  Poly bag  ETC Swatch Card has to made a few for each separate department, for example -  For Production Manager  For Quality Manager  For Store Office  For Buying house / Buyers representative  For Merchandiser own self  And for each production unit. 9.9 Importance of Swatch Card: For a merchandiser this is very important for continuing his job. Without this he cannot move his arena- It is chat where all materials and accessories are present with their color combination. For this, it is much more important to lake approval from the buyer as well as to give the appropriate instructions to the supplier to supply the necessary and appropriate goods.
  108. 108. 108 9.10 How can we get Fabric Consumption & Fabrics Price? Say: ** Body Length = 85, Chest Width = 52, Sleeve Length = 44 & G.S.M = 240 Fabric Description: 100 % Cotton S/J Fabric Need = [(85+5 +44+5 )  52+5 ]  2  12  240/10000000+10% = [(90+49)  57]  2  12  240/10000000+10% = (13957)  2  12  240/10000000+10% = 7923 12  240/10000000+10% = 45636480/10000000 + 10% = 4.563648 +10% = 4.563648 + .4563 = 5.02 Kgs Fabrics Say Per Kgs Price: US$ 6.00/Kgs 8.30 Fabrics Price: Total Fabric Need 5.00 Kg  $ 6.00 = $ 30.00 Trim/ Accessories (Minimum Charge) = $ 2.50 Cutting & Making Charge (C.M) = $ 5.00 Printing Charge (If any) = $ 0.00 Embroidery Charge (If any) = $ 0.00 Buying Commission (If necessary) 5% = $ 1.97 = $ 39.47/12 9.11 Poly bag costing : Total Length X width X Thickness = 36cm X 28cm X 10mm = 10080/72000 = 0.14pcs/lb
  109. 109. 109 I) Ship To - Receiving Department address J) Deliver To - The complete name and location of the individual who requested the ordered goods. K) Dale - The date at which the purchase order was received and also the date at which the order will have to be shipped. L) Payment Terms - Payment terms defined by Purchasing Department of the buyer. M) Ship Via - Shipping instructions entered by Purchasing Department. N) F.O.B. - Shipping terms defined by Purchasing Department. O) Freight Terms - Freight terms defined by Purchasing Department. P) P. O. Line No.
  111. 111. 111 10.0 Physical Tests: 1. Fabric weight (GSM) 2. Smoothness & appearance 3. Color fastness to rubbing 4. Color fastness to light 5. Dimensional Stability 6. Color fastness to wash 1. Fabric weight (GSM): Fabric is cut by GSM cutter and its weight is measured by electric balance. Then the result is multiplied by 100 to get the actual result. 2. Smoothness & appearance: Fabric smoothness & appearance is measured by hand feel. 3. Color fastness to rubbing: Rubbing time : 10 times Sample size : 14×5cm 2 Crocking cloth size: 5*5 cm 2 Process : Place the fabric in the given position of the crockmeter and attach it with a frame tightly with the crockmeter. Then start the machine and after 10 times rubbing both in dry & wet condition, take out the fabric from the crockmeter and compare it with the grey scale for staining. 4. Color fastness to light : Sample size: 12*5 cm 2 Process time : 40 hrs (according to buyer requirement) Process : Put the sample in the clamp and then put it in the machine. Start running the machine and keep it running for recommended hours of buyer. Then take it out and compare with the grey scale of color staining for rating. 5. Shrinkage & spirility test: Sample size : 50×50 cm 2 Process:  At first two fabric is cut as per above given dimension.  Then it is sewn in 4 sides.  Then area is req. marked inside the total area.  Then the sample fabric is taken out and washed & dried as per following:  Then measurement is taken again to find out shrinkage%.
  112. 112. 112 After washing Before washing Shrinkage%= {(before length- after length)/before length} *100 % Here A = Length measurement before wash B = Spiraled length. By this test spirality can also be measured by the following formula, Spirality % = (B÷A) × 100 % 6. Color fastness to Wash: Method: ISO 105 C06 Apparatus:  Grey scale  Multifibre fabric  ECE detergent  Sodium perborate  Steel ball Sample – 10*4 cm 2 Multifibre- 10*4 cm 2 Recipe: ECE detergent 4 g/l Sodium perborate 2 g/l M: L =1: 50 Temperature: 50 0 C Time: 30 min Steel ball – 15 pcs Evaluation: Compare the contrast between the treated and untreated sample with grey scales for changing color of dyed sample and staining of adjacent fabric in a color matching cabinet.
  113. 113. 113 Chapter 11 Production planning & control 11.0 Basic Procedure of Production Planning & Control:
  114. 114. 114 A planned work brings success. Without planning nothing is complete within the required time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. Planning gives a scheduled task and control completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. Its basic working procedure is as follows-  Taking order form marketing division  Analyzing the orders  Planning for knitting the fabric С