Industrial attachment of  naz bangladesh  ltd
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Industrial attachment of naz bangladesh ltd Document Transcript

  • 1. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Department of Textile Engineering INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd
  • 2. Acknowledgement A number of people have made significant contributions in preparing this report. Their insights, advice and suggestions helped me a lot. I would like to pay special thanks to Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan, C-Text. ATI, the Head of the department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University, for continuously guiding us about the development and preparation of the report. He has enriched us with necessary ideas and concepts for incessant improvement of the report.I would also like to express our heartfelt thanks to Md. Fazley Elahi, Assistant Professor, Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University for all necessary information for preparing this report. I would like to express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Monju, General Manager, N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd, who has allowed us to work in his organization within a congenial atmosphere during the industrial training period. I recognize Mr. Nipu, Manager (Dyeing) and Md. Shifon AGM (knitting) N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. for providing sincere help in all administrative and technical matters while working in the organization. I express my heartiest thanks to Deputy Manager & Assistant Manager, Knitting, Dyeing & Fishing, Garment and Accessories for enriching our knowledge on various fabric manufacturing and finishing processes with their excellent professional knowledge. My sincere appreciation goes to the entire N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. team for extending their hands of cooperation through out the training period.
  • 3. 1 Name:N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd.
  • 4. 2 1 CHAPTER : PROJECT DESCRIPTION
  • 5. 1 1.1. Introduction: Every one knows that learning is the best part of thinking possibility. In human life education is the primary source of learning process. We need to learn for particular points of theoretical parts it should be some lack of looking this function such a fabric making on a circular machine and dyeing and finishing process in practical. It should be looking and knows about the functions, running of this machine, Uses material, and manufacturing materials. It must be need for good practical knowledge and proper handling of the machine. Internship is making this opportunity. Because we have known theoretical knowledge but we have lack of industrial knowledge. It has to fill up for industrial attachment. N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. has getting this opportunity for me. NAZ Bangladesh Ltd is a knit composite industry. It is a 100% export oriented industry in Bangladesh. The factory is making about knitting, knit dyeing & finishing and knit garments. Due to the change in environment, the textile sector is facing a great challenge. But NAZ BD Ltd fully prepared to face this situation. The goal of NAZ BD Ltd is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics and clothing from Bangladesh. N.A.Z has highly develop advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, the Textile Division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation's growing ready made garments export sector. The rational behind the existing structure and future expansion of the Textile & fiber Division is to capture value-added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh's lack of indigenous cotton production capability, N.A.Z. has leveraged Bangladesh's labor cost advantage and export competitiveness to the maximum. This factory is fully complained and very much concern about the labor law and compliance. This factory also concerned about environmental issue as they have well established Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In NAZ Bangladesh Ltd., I have completed 2 months (8 weeks) long industrial training in knitting, dyeing, finishing and garments. During the training period we faced a lot of technical problem, which we solve by consulting with the related persons. Whatever knowledge we have gain during my training period, it will help us to build up our career as a Textile Technologist.
  • 6. Project Description 2 1.2. Layout of N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. ANSER CAMP Gate Dormitory POND Fabric store ACCESSORIES UNITE ETP POND CHEMIffCfAL STORE UNDERCONSTRUC TION 3 STD OFFICE AND GARMENTS Printing KNITTING SECTION Utility Building Chemical store WORKSHO P GATE N E SW
  • 7. Project Profile Industrial Training 3 | P a g e 1.3.Project Profile Type : 100% Export Oriented Composite Knit Industry. Legal Form of Company : Private Limited Company. Year of Incorporation : 1987 Commencement of Operations : 1987 Project cost : 250 crore Name of the Bank : Exim Bank Company name N. A. Z. BANGLADESH LIMITED. Head Office House #21 , Road # 13, Baridhara, Gulshan, Dhaka-1212 Tel No 880-2-9861831, 9860445, 8854101 Extn: 128 / 156 Fax 880-2-9889078 E-mail nasir@nazbd.com, shamim@nazbd.com; salauddin@nazbd.com; URL www.nazbd.com Factory 5, Bishuya Kuribari Bari, Mirzapur, Rajendrapur, Gazipur-1700 Tel No 880-2-9289054-6 Fax No 880-2-9289053 Location 45~50 minutes drive from HSJI Airport to towards North (Mymansingh) Contacted persons Mr. Nasir Uddin Ahmed (Managing Director) Contact Phone :+88 01711 814 912 Mr. Salauddin Jakir (Merchandising Manger) Contact Phone: +8801714302133 Mr. Shamim Khan ( Sr. Merchandiser – Marketing & Merchandising ) Contact Phone: +88 01711 465 336
  • 8. Project Profile Industrial Training 4 | P a g e Main Production : T-Shirt, Polo Shirt, Tank tock, Jacket, Trousers, Bottoms, etc. and all kinds of Knit fabric & garments. Factory space : 9, 07,200 sq.ft. Total Employees : 3350 persons No. Of employees : 350 persons No. Of workers : 3000 persons Working Period : 3 (Three) Shift Per Day Production Capacity Knitting : 20 Tons/Day Dyeing & Finishing : 16 Tons/Day Garments : 55,000 Pcs/Day PC Printing : 25,000 Pcs/ Day Embroidery : 50,000,000 Stitches/Day Garments Wash : 25000 Pcs/Day 1.4.Yearly Turn Over Serial No Year Turn Over (Per Year) 01 1996 US $ 7.02 Million 02 1997 US $ 8.20 Million 03 1998 US $ 9.65 Million 04 1999 US $ 10.56 Million 05 2000 US $ 12.76 Million 06 2001 US $ 15.86 Million 07 2002 US $ 17.65 Million 08 2003 US $ 20.00 Million 9 2004 US $ 22.00 Million 10 2005 US $ 25.00 Million 11 2006 US $ 25.00 Million 12 2007 US $ 26.00 Million 13 2008 US $ 28.00 Million
  • 9. Project Profile Industrial Training 5 | P a g e 1.5.Different Dipertment: Different sections of N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd. A. Knit section  Knitting  Inspection B. Dyeing section  Batch section  Dye house  Dyeing lab  Quality control  Finishing C. Garments section  Merchandising  Sample  Cutting section  Sewing section  Finishing section D. Sewing Thread Dyeing E. Printing Unit F. Embroidery Unit G. Accessories Unit H. Maintenance section  Electrical  Mechanical I. Utility:  Electricity  Gas  Water  Boiler  ETP J. Store section K. Administration section L. Security section M. Marketing section N. Production planning &control O. Human Resource & Development section Different sections
  • 10. Project Profile Industrial Training 6 | P a g e Supporting Department Personnel Administration Procurement Marketing HRD Finance & Accounting MIS (Management Information System) Work Study Complience & Safety Companies of N.A.Z. Group  N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd.  N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd. (Accessories Unit)  CA Knitwear Ltd.  Needle Touch Garments Ltd. Certifications: ISO Oeko Tex-100 Main Buyers of N.A.Z. Bangladesh LTD: SL BUYER COUNTRY 01 TARGET USA 02 TESCO UK 03 H&M SWEDEN 04 WAL MART USA, CANADA, MEXICO 05 PUNTORAMA SPAIN 06 TRR ITALY
  • 11. Project Profile Industrial Training 7 | P a g e 1.6.History of the project development After successful operation in N.A.Z. Group, the owner had decided to start a fully information & technology based along with the social accountability and quality controlled modern readymade composite knit garments industry in large scale. It is situated at 5, Bishuya Kuribari, Mirzapur, Gazipur-1700, Bangladesh. In the year 1987 to manufacture knitwear garments for the international market. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality knitwear in time. To meet the commitments of quality and prompt delivery, N.A.Z. Group Decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner. Over the years the entire process has been integrated by importing sophisticated machinery from world-renowned manufacturers. 1.7.Vision & mission of the project: The mission and vision of N.A.Z. Group is to manufacture and deliver high quality readymade garments (RMG) to its customers. The core objective is to attain and enhance customer satisfaction by providing on time delivery of desired quality readymade garments and also to increase efficiency of workforce. To attain these objectives, the management of N.A.Z. Group has decided to adopt the following-  To increase awareness regarding customers requirements throughout the organization.  By providing training to develop efficiency of the employee.  To collect customer’s feedback regularly to know about their conception about their company and to take timely appropriate action.  To reduce the percentage of wastage / rejection minimum by 2% per annum’s implement and monitor ISO 9001:2000 quality management system within the organization.
  • 12. Man Power Management Industrial Training 8 | P a g e 2 CHAPTER : MAN POWER MANAGEMENT
  • 13. Man Power Management Industrial Training 9 | P a g e 2.1.Manpower Organ gram Manpower organ gram of N. A. Z Bangladesh is as follows - Finishing & Q.C Manager Shift In-charge Q.C Technician Knitting Manager Managing Director Executive Director GM (Marketing) GM (Production) Asist. Manager Sr. Production Officer Shift In-charge Production Officer Assist. Production Officer Sr. Operator Operator Dyeing Manager Shift In-charge Production Officer Asist. Manager Deputy Manager Sr. Production Officer Assist. Production Officer Sr. Operator Operator
  • 14. Man Power Management Industrial Training 10 | P a g e 2.2.Management system  Buyer sample is send to G.M or merchandising manager.  Matching is done under lab manager.  Sample is prepared by asst. dyeing manager.  Sample is send to the buyer for approval.  Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. sample for bulk production.  Dyeing manager gives responsibilities to asst. dyeing manager.  Then shift in-charge with the supervisors start bulk production.  On line and off line quality check is done by lab in-charge and asst. dyeing manager.  After dyeing asst. manager (finishing) controls the finishing process with the supervision of shift in-charge.  Finally G.M checks the result with dyeing manager and decision is taken for delivery. Shifting: In N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. The whole day production time is divided into 3 shift. Per shift 8 hours. Shift Duration Shift A 6:00 am- 2:00 pm Shift B 2:00pm – 10:00 pm Shift C 10:00 pm- 6:00 am 2.3.Duties & Responsibilities of Different Post General Manager  To deal with the buyer and merchandiser.  To set up price for the product.  To plan apply and control all administrative functions.  To follow up the instruction of managing director and chairman. Manager  To supervise the personal working under him.  To plan the sequence of production.  To arrange necessary raw materials for the production problems.  To find out the possible reasons which are responsible for less production?  To follow up the instruction of Managing Director and Executive Director as well.
  • 15. Man Power Management Industrial Training 11 | P a g e Deputy General Manager (DGM) production  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for smooth dyeing.  Check the different log books in different areas and report to management.  Check the plan to control the best output  To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve the quality production.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machine.  Any other work as and when required. Senior Production Officer  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Batch preparation and pH check.  Dyes and chemicals requisition issue and check  Write loading/unloading time from machine.  Program making, sample checking color measurement.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machine.  Any other work as and when required. Production officer  To collect the necessary information and infrastructure from the previous shift for the smooth running of the section.  To match production sample with target shade.  To match production sample lot sample matching next production.  To observed dyed fabric during finishing running and also after finishing process.  To identify disputed fabrics and report to PM/GM for necessary action.  To discuss with PM about overall production if necessary.  T sign the store requisition and delivery challenge in the absence of PM.  To execute the overall floor work.  To maintain loading/unloading paper. Shift In charge  To follow the workers movement.  Should discuss with the production Officer about what is happening.  To maintain the production sequence.  To check the sample at certain time interval.
  • 16. Raw Materials Industrial Training 12 | P a g e 3 CHAPTER: RAW MATERIALS
  • 17. Raw Materials Industrial Training 13 | P a g e 3.1.Raw Materials Table 3. 1: Source of yarn for knitting Lycra: CREORA Made in Korea Type # H-100 (20D, 40D) Square Spinning mill Basher spinning mill Kamal spinning mill Prime Spinning mill Aman spinning mill RK Spinning mill Fariha spinning mill JK Spinning mill Shohagpur spinning mill AKIJ Spinning mill Amber cotton mill Pahartoli Spinning mill Rising spinning mill Youth Spinning mill Shirin spinning mill Kader Spinning mill NZ spinning mill Silver Spinning mill Karim spinning mill Shemem Spinning mill
  • 18. Knitting Section 14 | P a g e 3.2.Types of yarn used and their count: Table 3. 2: Types of yarns used in N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd Type of yarn Count Cotton 20S ,24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 36S ,40S , 45S Polyester 70D,100D,150D Spandex yarn 20D,40D,70D Grey Mélange (C-90% V-10%) 24S , 26S Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-15%) 24S , 26S , 28S Cotton Mélange (100%) 24S , 26S , 28S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC(60% Polyester & 40% Cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S 3.3.Cost of Raw Materials: Table 3.3: Cost of yarn Yarn Count Combed Yarn Carded Yarn 40/1 3.65 $/Kg 2.65-2.7$/Kg 36/1 3.00 $/Kg 2.5-2.6 $/Kg 32/1 2.90 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 30/1 2.70 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 28/1 2.65 $/kg 2.25 $/Kg 26/1 2.60 $/Kg 2.25 $/Kg 24/1 2.55 $/Kg 2.20 $/Kg 20/1 2.50 $/Kg 2.15-2.2$/Kg
  • 19. Knitting Section 15 | P a g e Lycra Yarn: 20 den - 12.70 $/Kg 40 den - 8.40 $/Kg 70 den - 7.50 $/Kg Cost of knitting Table 3.4: Cost of knitting for different fabrices Fabrics Taka/kg Rib (1x1) 12-13 Rib (2x2) 14-15 Interlock 15-16 Single Jersey 7-8 Lacost 8-9 Pique 8-9 Terry fleece 14-15 Remarks: As the yarn consumption totally depends on production and production depends on order of buyer, so recommendation of yarn type, source, price, requirements may vary.
  • 20. Knitting Section 16 | P a g e 4 CHAPTER : KNITTING UNIT
  • 21. Knitting Section 17 | P a g e 4.1.Organ gram of Knitting Department Shift A-4 Shift B-4 Shift C-4 Knitting Master Asst.Master Sr.Fitter Servicing -5 Production Floor In charge Asst.Manager Sr.Production Officer Shift A Production Officer Shift B Production Officer Production Officer Shift C Shift In Charge APO Operator-40 Shift In Charge APO Operator-40 Shift In Charge APO Operator-40 Asst. Manager R& D sample Supervisor Asst.Operator-2 Y/D In charge Supervisor QC- 3 QC- 3 Sub Contract Out Scorching Manager Sub Contract Inside Manager Asst.Manager GM AGM Manager
  • 22. Knitting Section 18 | P a g e 4.2. Layout of Knitting Department Fabric Store Office Room AGM Room Maintenance Room Gate
  • 23. Knitting Section 19 | P a g e 4.3.Knitting: Knitting is the method of making fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlooping loops, each row of such loops forms the one immediately preceding it. Types of weft knitting m/c: The N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. is a self- sufficient modern company. Its knitting section is divided into two sections- 1. Flat Knitting Section 2. Circular Knitting Section 4.4.Circular knitting section: Main parts of circular knitting m/c: 1. Yarn feed guide 2. Latch needle 3. Holding down sinker 4. Needle cylinder 5. Needle retaining spring 6. Needle operating cams 7. Cylinder driving wheel 8. Cylinder driving gear 9. Cylinder driving pinion attached to the main shaft 10. Sinker cam top 11. Cam box 12. Cam plate 13. Creel: Creel is used to place the cone. 14. Feeder: Feeder is used to feed the yarn. 15. Tensioning device: Tensioning device is used to give proper tension to the yarn. 16. VDQ pulley: VDQ pulley is used to control the GSM by controlling the stitch length. 17. Guide: Guide is used to guide the yarn. 18. Sensor: Sensor is used to seen & the m/c stops when any problem occurs. Fire Extinguisher Hose Pipe Fabric Rack Floor Marking Fabric inspection m/c V-Bed knitting m/c Circular knitting m/c
  • 24. Knitting Section 20 | P a g e 19. Spreader: Spreader is used to spread the knitted fabric before take up roller. 20. Take up roller: Take up roller is used to take up the fabric 4.5.Basic knitting element: 1. Needle. 2. Sinker. 3. Cam. Needle: Function of needles: Needle is used to clear the old loop from the hook & to receive the new loop above it on the needle steam. Types of needle: In general there are three types of needles. a. Bearded needle. b. Latch needle. c. Compound needle. Figure 4.1: Latch Needle CAM: Cams are the devices which convert the rotary m/c drive into a suitable reciprocating action for the needles or other elements. Types of cam: Two type of cam 1. Engineering cam Knit cam 2. Knitting cam Miss cam Tuck cam Latch Steam Hook Rivet Butt
  • 25. Knitting Section 21 | P a g e Function of CAM The functions of cam are as follows:  Produce motion to needles.  Loop formation.  Holding down.  Knocking over Sinker: This is secondary primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate with an individual and collective action approximate at right angles from the hook side between adjoining needles. Function of sinker: It may one or more of the following functions dependent upon the machines knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement. Others Equipments Used In Knitting Section:  GSM cutter  Electronic balance  Inspection m/c 4.6.Terms and definition of knitting: Course – A horizontal row of loops formed by the needles during one knitting cycle. Wales – A vertical column of loops formed by a single needle. Loop - It is a basic unit consisting of a loop of yarn meshed at its base with previously basic unit. Knitted loops are arranged in rows and columns roughly equivalent to the warp and weft of woven structures termed “Wales” and “courses” respectively Stitch - The smallest dimensionally stable unit of all knitted fabric is stitch. It consists of a yarn loop which is held together by being intermeshed with another stitch or other loop. Stitch length - Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needles of the needle loop & half of the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally the larger stitch length, the more extensible & lighter the fabric & the poorer the cover, capacity & bursting strength. Steps should be taken to change stitch length. - Check the S.L of the m/c prevailing. - Change the diameter of V. DLQ pulley. - Set of the position of carriage. - Set the speed of take- up roller
  • 26. Knitting Section 22 | P a g e - Maintain the optimum yarn tension. Yarn count: Yarn count is the numerical system of expressing length per unit weight or weight per unit length. Count express fineness or coarseness of yarn. Yarn count can be calculated in two systems: Direct system: In direct system, yarn count is directly related to the yarn fineness. So, lower the count finner the yarn and higher the count and coarser the yarn. This system is used for Polyester and Ly- cra and other synthetic fibers. W l Direct Count w L    Where, W=weight of the sample L=length of the sample w=unit weight of the system l=unit length of the system Table 4-1: Yarn Count in Direct system System Unit weight Unit length Uses Tex Grams 1,000m Polyester Denier Grams 9,000m Lycra D-Tex Grams 10,000m Lycra Pounds/Spyndle Pounds 14400yds Jute
  • 27. Knitting Section 23 | P a g e Indirect system: In indirect system, yarn count is inversely related to the yarn fineness. So, higher the count finner the yarn and lower the count and coarser the yarn. This system is used for cotton, worsted & woolen. w L Indirect Count W l    Where, W=weight of the sample L=length of the sample w=unit weight of the system l=unit length of the system Table 4-2: Yarn Count in Indirect system System Unit weight Unit length Uses English (Ne) 1 lb 840 yds Cotton yarn Metric (Nm) 1 kg 1 km Cotton yarn Worsted 1 lb 560 yds Worsted yarn Woolen 1 lb 256 yds Woolen yarn Stitch Density - Courses per inch (CPI) × Wales per inch (WPI) M/C Gauge - A number of needles per unit length in the knitting m/c, measured as the number of needles in one inch. This measure determines the number of Wales per unit length in the knitted fabric. 4.7.Flat Knitting Section Flat knitting section consists of Flat knitting machines. Its main production is Collar & Cuff. Different types of designed collar & Cuff is produced here matching with the body of the garments. Flat knitting machine is used to make collar and cuff with the required shape. Collar and cuff is usually with heavier gsm and thus multiple ply of yarn is used per feeder. No of yarn ply used will also depend on the yarn count. Lycra is also used when required.
  • 28. Knitting Section 24 | P a g e Table 4-3: No. of yarn ply according to yarn count for collar & cuff Yarn count (Ne) No. of yarn ply 20 3 22 3 24 4 26 4 30 4-5 34 6 Size of collar according to size of garments:  Boy’s collar :Length 29 to 36 cm x width 8cm  Boy’s cuff : Length 31 cm x width 3cm  Man’s: Table 4-4: Collar & Cuff measurements Size Collar measurement (cm) Cuff measurement (cm) S 40 x 9 40 x 3.5 M 42 x 9 40 x 3.5 L 44 x 9 40 x 3.5 XL 46 x 9 40 x 3.5 XXL 48 x 9 44 x 3.5 XXXL 50 x 9 44 x 3.5 Collar and cuff which is made with V-bed knitting machine has 3 edge and need not to cut. Those fabrics have following 4 parts: 1. Tube 2. Tube end 3. Body 4. Separation
  • 29. Knitting Section 25 | P a g e Sequence of operations in knitting section: Sample fabric Design analysis Sample fabric production Setting the machine for the specific design If Yes If NoBuyer approval Bulk Production QC Send to Batching section
  • 30. Knitting Section 26 | P a g e Table 4-5:Main Product - Fabrics :- Single Jersey - Single Jersey: - Single Jersey (Lycra) - Single Jersey (Auto Stripe) - Single Jersey (Singed) - Single Jersey (Pigment Dye) - Single Jersey (Sueded / Ultra Soft) Pique - Pique - Pique (Auto Stripe) - Pique (Sueded / Ultra Soft) - Pique (Mercerized) - Pique (Ultra soft) Interlock - Interlock - Interlock (Ultra soft) - Interlock (Pigment Dye) - Interlock D/N (Cotton) - Interlock D/N (Polyester) Rib - Rib: Any Drop Needle - Rib (Pigment Dye) - Rib (Ultra soft) - Rib Elastane - Flat Back Rib - Variegated Rib Jacquard - Semi Jacquard Mesh - Mesh Fleece - Fleece - Fleece (Inside Brush) - Fleece (Both Side Brush) - Terry Fleece - Polar Fleece - Terry Fleece (Pigment Dye) Lacoste - Lacoste - Lacoste (Auto Stripe) - Lacoste (Pigment Dye) Waffle - Waffle Valor - Valor
  • 31. Knitting Section 27 | P a g e Table 4.6: Analysis of structure, looping diagram, cam arrangement and needle arrangement of knit fabric Single Jersey Single jersey fabric vertical Wales’s line is shown on the face side of the fabric. On the back side sinker loops are produced. This fabric is produced by the needles of only one set needle. This fabric has curling effect on the edge after cut in relax state towards the back at the sides and towards the front at the top and bottom. End use: basic T-shirt, men’s vest, fine cardigans, ladies hosiery, full-fashioned knitwear etc. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K K K K Needle Arrangement 1x1 Rib Rib fabric shows the face loop on the both sides of the fabric. Rib requires two sets of needles operating in-between each other so that walse of face stitches and wales of back stitches are knitted on each side of the fabric. This fabric has good elasticity and has no curling effect. End use: waist bands, cuffs and collars and typical applications, skirt belt, various types of fancy borders, sweaters etc. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K M K M M K M K K M K M M K M K Needle Arrangement D C
  • 32. Knitting Section 28 | P a g e Interlock Interlock has same appearance on both sides, like face of plane, but its smooth surface cannot be stretched. Interlock process two sets of needles (short and long) in both cylinder and dial and at least two feeders. This fabric cannot be un roved from either sides and has no curling effect. End use: under wear, trouser, sportswear, t- shirts, polo shirts etc. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement M K K M M K K M Needle Arrangement Single Lacost Single lacost is a knit-tuck single jersey structure. Face and back side of the fabric is different & produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design appears on the back of the structure. The repeat of this structure completes on four courses. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K T K K K K K T Needle Arrangement D C
  • 33. Knitting Section 29 | P a g e Double Lacost Double lacost is a knit-tuck single jersey structure. Face and back side of the fabric is different & produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design near to the single lacost design. The repeat of this structure completes on six courses. Benzene structure is shown on back side of the fabric. Face Side Back Side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K K K K T T K T T K K K Needle Arrangement Single Pique Single pique is a knit-tuck single jersey structure and produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design appears on the back side of the fabric. Face side of this fabric is like face of s/j and benzene ring is produced on the back side of the fabric. The repeat of this structure completes on two courses. Face side Back side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K T T K Needle Arrangement
  • 34. Knitting Section 30 | P a g e Double pique Double pique is a knit-tuck single jersey structure and produced with cylinder needle only. The prominence of the design appears on the back side of the fabric. Face side of this fabric is like face of s/j and benzene ring is produced on the back side of the fabric. The repeat of this structure completes on four courses. Face side Back side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K K T T T T K K Needle Arrangement Fleece Fleece fabric is produced with the combination of knit, tuck and miss loops and this is s/j structure. Face side of the fabric is like face of s/j and miss loop will appear on the back side. If back side is brushed then called fleece fabric. Face side Face side Looping diagram Cam Arrangement K T K M K M K M K M K T Needle Arrangement
  • 35. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 31 | P a g e 4.8.Specifications of knitting machines used in N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. Table 4.7. 1Single Jersey SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEED ER QTY BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’S TYPE PRO. CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 S/J 19 24 57 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 200 2 S/J 20 24 60 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 225 3 S/J 21 24 63 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 450 4 S/J 22 24 66 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 500 5 S/J 23 24 69 3 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 750 6 S/J 22 24 66 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 500 7 S/J 23 24 69 3 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 750 8 S/J 25 24 75 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 300 Lycra Attachment 9 S/J 24 24 72 2 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 550 Lycra Attachment 10 S/J 25 24 75 1 ORIZIO ITALY S/J, Pique 300 Lycra Attachment 11 S/J 26 24 114 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY S/J, Pique 500 Lycra
  • 36. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 32 | P a g e Attachment 12 S/J 28 24 123 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY S/J, Pique 500 Lycra Attachment 13 S/J 26 24 114 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY S/J, Pique 500 Lycra Attachment Total 21 6025 Table 4-7. 2 Fleece + 2 Thread Fleece + 3 Thread Fleece SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEEDER QTY BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’S TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Fleece 28 20,24 90 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 400 Lycra Attachment 2 Fleece 30 20,24 96 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 400 Lycra Attachment 3 Fleece 32 20,24 102 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 450 Lycra Attachment 4 Fleece 34 20,24 108 1 MAYER & CIE GERMAN Y S/J ,Fleece 500 Lycra Attachment 5 Fleece 32 20,24,28 96 1 Fukahama TAIWAN S/J ,Fleece 350 Lycra
  • 37. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 33 | P a g e Attachment 6 Fleece 34 20,24,28 102 1 Fukahama TAIWAN S/J ,Fleece 400 Lycra Attachment Total 6 2500 Table 4-7. 3 Rib + Interlock + Flat Back Rib + Drop Needle SL/ No. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE Fee der QT Y BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’S TYPE Prod cap/kg REMARKS 1 Rib+Interlock 30 14,18 62 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 300 Lycra Attachment 2 Rib+Interlock 34 14,19 70 3 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 350 Lycra Attachment 3 Rib+Interlock 36 14,20 74 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment 4 Rib +Interlock 36 14,20 74 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment 5 Rib +Interlock 38 14,21 78 1 MAYER & CIE GERMANY Rib+I/L+F/Rib 500 Lycra Attachment 6 Rib +Interlock 36 16,22 72 1 Fukahama TAIWAN Rib+I/L+F/Rib 350 Lycra Attachment 7 Rib +Interlock 38 16,23 76 1 Fukahama TAIWAN Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment 8 Rib +Interlock 40 18,22 84 3 Juinn Long TAIWAN Rib+I/L+F/Rib 400 Lycra Attachment
  • 38. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 34 | P a g e 9 Rib 40 16 80 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN Rib +F/Rib 800 F/Look lycra Attach 10 Rib 42 18 84 4 Juinn Long TAIWAN Rib +F/Rib 400 F/Look lycra Attach 11 Interlock 38 24 114 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN INTERLOCK 400 Lycra Attachment 12 Interlock 40 24 120 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN INTERLOCK 400 Lycra Attachment 13 Interlock 42 24 126 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN INTERLOCK 400 Lycra Attachment 14 RIB 34 15 24 1 Juinn Long TAIWAN RIB 200 Lycra Attachment Total 21 5700 Table 4.7.1 Terry = S/J + Terry / Terry Fleece + Velor + Polar Fleece etc. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEEDER QTY BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC’ S TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Terry 42 20 68 2 MAYER & CIE Germany Terry 1000 Lycra Attachment Total 2 1000
  • 39. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 35 | P a g e Table 4.7. 4 Auto Stripe + Feeder Stripe (S/J + Pique + Lacoste + Other Design) SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEE DER QT Y BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Auto Stripe 34 24 48 4 Fukahama JAPAN Auto Stripe 300 Lycra Attachment 2 Auto Stripe 36 24 48 4 Fukahama JAPAN Auto Stripe 350 Lycra Attachment 3 Auto Stripe 38 24 48 2 Fukahama JAPAN Auto Stripe 400 Lycra Attachment Total 8 1050 Table 4.7. 5: V-bed knitting m/c SL/ NO. M/C TYPE MC/ DIA M/C GAUGE FEEDER QT Y BRAND ORIGIN FABRIC TYPE PROD CAP/KGS REMARKS 1 Flat Knit 0 14 8 6 Snima Seiki Japan Collar/Cuff 1400 Lycra Attachment 2 Flat Knit 0 14 12 1 Stoll Germany Collar/Cuff 700 Lycra Attachment Total 7 2100
  • 40. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 36 | P a g e 4.9.Quality Standard: N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. follows the four point grading system to inspect the body & rib fabric, by this four point system, the faults arc found by the inspection and points are given against the faults. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. Table 4.8: four point system for knit fabric Four Point Grading System Size Of Defects Penalty 3 inches or less 1 point Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch 2 point Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch 3 point Over 9 inch 4 point Any Hole 4 Point Typical knitting calculations: The calculations which are frequently used in the knitting section are discussed below: Gauge (G): Number of needles per inch. Total needles: Machine diameter× Gauge×3.416 Feeders of Single Jersey: Machine diameter×3 Feeders of Double Jersey: Machine diameter×2 Relation between yarn count and fabric Gsm For single jersey fabric: 4320 Yarn Count Fabric Gsm  For Double jersey fabric:
  • 41. Knitting Section Industrial Attachment 37 | P a g e 6000 Yarn Count Fabric Gsm  Relation between fabrics finished Gsm, stitch length, fabric gsm, yarn count: For Single Jersey fabric: 590 Ks Stitch Length Yarn Count Finished Gsm    Where, For s/j, Ks=19.6 For 1x1 rib, Ks=26 For Interlock, Ks=38 Fabric Thickness: Fabric thickness = 4D Here, D= yarn dia (in relaxed state) Tightness Factor: Tex Tightness Factor Stitch Length  , here stitch length is in mm Production per shift: . 60 8 Pr 1000 840 ( ) 36 2.2028 D G S L F RPM efficiency oduction per shift Kg yarncount Ne               Where,  D= Machine dia  G= Machine gauge  S.L.=Stitch length  F= No. of feeder 4.10. Remarks: knitting section is equipped with a large number of machines. But some modern knitting machine should purchased including engineering stripe machine with Lycra attachment facility.
  • 42. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 38 | P a g e 5 CHAPTER : BATCH SECTION
  • 43. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 39 | P a g e 5.1. Batching: Primarily batching is done by batching section which is supervised by dyeing manager. The main function of batching section is to prepare the batch for dyeing according to machine capacity, order and emergency. This section receive the grey fabric from knitting section and make batch according to order for particular shade. Then this batch delivers to dyeing section for dyeing. Function or purpose of Batch section:  To receive the grey fabric roll form knitting or other source.  Turn the gray fabric if require.  Prepare the batch for dyeing according to the following criteria:  Order sheet (Received from buyer)  Dyeing shade ( light or dark, color or white)  Machine capacity.  Type of fabric ( 100% Cotton, CVC, Stripe fabric)  Emergency order.  Fabric construction (Single jersey, Rib, Lycra Rib, Lacost, PK etc.)  To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card.  To keep record. Proper Batching Criteria:  To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing machine.  To minimize preparation time & machine stoppage time.  To use a particular machine for dyeing same shade. 5.2.Calculations related to batch section: ( ) 100 Dia cm GSM Grams per linear meter   1000kg per Chamber Meters Per Chember Grms per linear meter   Now, when a gram per linear meter is low then meters per chamber will be more. Thus, fabric loading should be reduced to avoid jamming in the winch. In this case 80-85% fabric
  • 44. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 40 | P a g e loading is given. But when gram per linear meter is more then rope length will reduce and in this case up to 90% fabric loading can be given. Preparing the fabric ropes The fabric ropes for each chamber should be prepared in batching section. The fabric rolls are correctly sewn together. This will minimize the time required to load the machine, and avoid the risk of rope entanglement. Fabric loading in the m/c will vary with the type of fabric and the width of the fabric and the amount is not less than 50% of the machine nominal load. 5.3.Calculating the chamber loading In the following table are listed general recommendations covering rope cycle times and speeds for a wide range of fabrics: Fabric Rope cycle times in minutes Rope circulation speed m/min Knit fabric PES unfixed 1 250 PES heat set 1-1.5 200 PC 1-2 250 Co - reactive 2-3 225-275 For calculation the following diagram shows the weight per running metre of a fabric in grams, and the corresponding rope weight and length. e.g. a fabric of 200 gm/running metrewith rope length of 800 metres will have a dry weight of 160 kg.
  • 45. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 41 | P a g e Kg 0 200 400 800600 1000 0 1200 20 40 60 80 100 120 200 140 160 180 220 260 280 300 320 340 360 240 100g125g150g175g200g225g 500g 400g 350g 300g 275g 250g 550g Grms/running meter Rope length(m)
  • 46. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 42 | P a g e Figure 5-1: Rope length (m) and fabric wt loading on m/c depending on the grams per running meter of fabric Turn over time The following diagram shows the relationship between winch speed and rope length necessary to reach a required turn over time. Figure 5-2: Rope length depending on winch speed It is also possible to reverse the procedure and calculate the maximum rope length with a fabric of a particular weight, having determined the winch speed and circulation time. For example: 100% Cotton, Reactive dyeing: Circulation time = 3 minutes Winch speed = 250 m/min Rope length = 3 mins x 250 m 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 100 200 300 400 500 m/min 600 Winchspeedm/min Rope length(m) 3 1 2 4 56
  • 47. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 43 | P a g e = 750 meters If the rope is shorter, so that the same rope circulation time and nozzle contacts are maintained during the cycle, the winch speed should be reduced. Rope length 690 m Circulation time 3 mins = 230 m/min (winch speed) Calculation of the the rope length If Rope weight is 105 kg (weightper running metre) 200 kg/rm = 525 m (rope length) Calculation of the winch speed If Rope length is 540 m Cycle time 3 mins Then Winch speed = 180 m/min Number of nozzle passages (Process time) 360 mins (Cycle time) 3 mins = 120 (nozzle passages) 5.4.Batch management Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager. Some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency Machines in Batch section: Fabric turning m/c: Machine Name : Air turning m/c Brand Name : Taida Origin : China M/c Speed : 300-500m/min Model : DF 200 Company : Shandong Taida Dyeing & Finishing Machinery Co. Ltd.
  • 48. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 44 | P a g e 5.5.Process flow chart of Batch preparation: Deliver the Fabric to dyeing section Receive the order sheet from in-charge Make the batch card on the priority of shipment date Take the Batch card which order have to deliver first Check the availability of the fabric Turn off the fabric (if necessary) Distribute the collar/cuff or Rib in each rope equally ensuring equal length. Take collar/cuff as per size and keep the total weight Take require quantity of body fabric from the store Stitch the fabric Write down weight against roll no. in the back side of the Batch card Write the total weight in the batch card Fill up the Production report form
  • 49. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 45 | P a g e Precautions during batch making Check whether count variation is occured or not Check whether lot variation is occured or not Check whether rib fabric is included or not Be sure about the packing instruction , whether it is Solid color solid size Solid color assorted size Assorted color assorted size Assorted color solid size
  • 50. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 46 | P a g e 6 CHAPTER : LAB SECTION
  • 51. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 47 | P a g e 6.1. Lab dip: Lab dip is a process by which buyers supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without help of “DATA COLOR” Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & and detaching the characteristics of the dyes and chemicals are to be used in the large scale of production so this is an important task before bulk production. Objective of Lab dip: The main objectives in lab are as follows:  To calculate the recipe for sample dyeing.  To compare dyed sample with swatch by light Box or spectrophotometer.  To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.  Finally approved lab dip (Grade: ABC) Table 6-1: Amount salt and soda used depending on the shade % Shade % Salt (g/l) Soda (g/l) 0.001-0.01 15 4 0.01-0.1 20 5 0.1-0.5 30 7 0.5-1.0 40 10 1.0-1.5 50 12 1.5-2 60 15 2-3 70 18 3 to above 80 20
  • 52. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 48 | P a g e 6.2.Instrumental Color matching Process: Spectrophotometer flow Chart Triangle shade Initial recipe Laboratory dyeing Use L*, a*, b* to match OK Production dyeing Use L*, a*, b* to match Recipe correction Not matched Production correction Not matched Input database History of the lab Recipe Prediction calculated by CCM Or calculated by smart shade library Finished OK
  • 53. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 49 | P a g e 6.3. Dyes and chemicals measuring formula for laboratory: ◘ The amount of dye solution (ml) is calculated as follow – Fabric weight x Shade % Amount of dye soln (ml) = ----------------------------------------------- Concentration of stock dye soln % Example – In recipe, Fabric wt. = 5gm Shade % = 2% [If used 0. 5 % stock soln of dyes] then, 5 x 2 Amount of dye soln (ml) = ----------- = 20ml. 0.5 ◘ The amount of chemical soln (ml) is measured as follow – Fabric wt. x M: L x g/l Amount of chemical soln (ml) = -------------------------------------- 1000 x Conc. of stock soln % Example – In recipe, The Fabric wt. = 5 gm Salt = 20 g/l M: L = 10 [If taken 25 % stock soln. of salt] then, 5 x 10 x 20 Amount of chemical soln (ml) = --------------------- = 4 ml 1000 x 0.25
  • 54. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 50 | P a g e 6.4. Stock solution preparation: SHADE % STOCK SOLUTION % 0.0001-0.009 0.1 0.10-0.99 0.5 1-1.99 1 2-3.99 2 4 ( or above) 4 6.5.Procedure of lab dip formation: A. For 100% cotton fabric:  Fabric weight measured by electric balance 5 gm sample is taken.  Calculate the recipe.  Make solution of required dyes and chemicals.  Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are taken to the pot by digital pipette.(M:L=1:7)  Wet the fabric with water.  Keep the fabric in the pot and immerse well with tong.  Cover the pot well and set to the m/c holder.  Start the program for dyeing.  The dyeing time and temperature depend on types of dyes being used. Program – 1: For light shade Fixed temp = 60 Time = 60 min. Program – 2: For dark shade Fixed temp = 80 Circulation Time = 60 min.  After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.  Acid wash for neutralization with 1g/l acetic acid.  Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 950 C  Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard.
  • 55. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 51 | P a g e B. For cotton/ blend fabric (all in one method):  Fabric weight measured by electric balance 5 gm sample is taken.  Calculate the recipe for polyester part. 1 to April 1  Make solution of required dyes and chemicals.  Then required amount of dyes, water, dispersing agent, acetic acid and sodium ace- tate are taken to the pot by digital pipette.  Wet the fabric with water.  Keep the fabric in the pot and immerse well with tong.  Cover the pot well and set to the m/c holder.  Start the program for dyeing.  The dyeing time and temperature are carried out for 30 min. at 1300 C  After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.  Then reduction clearing by hydrose, caustic & detergent for 20 min at 700 C  Cold wash then drying and match with the standard sample. Again, Dye the cotton part with cotton dyeing procedure. 6.6.Self shade formation: Dyeing lab in-charge will produce self shade for new dyes stored in the dye store. Self shade should be ok with the previous self shade of the dye or if any deviation is obtained then necessary steps should be taken. Development of self shade: Reactive Black B: 0.5%,30/8 1%,40/10 1.5%,40/1 0 2%,50/12 2.5%,50/1 2 3%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5 4%,70/18 4.5%,80/2 0 5%,80/20 6%,80/20
  • 56. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 52 | P a g e Reactive Yellow 4GL: Ciba Red FNR: Reactive Yellow RR: Reactive Blue: 0.05%,0/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,38/8 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5 5%,80/20 2%, 60/15 3.5%, 68/150.5%, 30/8 0.8%, 30/8 1%,48/10 0.05%,20/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5% 20/6 0.8%,20/6 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/1 5
  • 57. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 53 | P a g e Ciba Orange FNK: Ciba Yellow FN2R: Ciba Red FNR: 2%, 50/12 3%, 80/20 4%, 80/20 5.5%, 80/20 0.05%,20/6 0.1%, 20/6 0.25%,30/8 0.5%,30/8 1%,40/10 1.5%,40/10 1.0%,30/8 2.5%,80/20 3.5%,80/20 5.0%,80/20 5%,80/203.5%,80/200.1%,30/8 0.5%,30/8 1%,30/8 2.5%,80/20
  • 58. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 54 | P a g e Dimarine Scarlet HF3G: Dimarine Turquoise CIB: 0.005%, 20/6 0.01%,20/6 0.05%,20/6 0.1% 20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 1%, 40/10 2%, 60/15 3.5%,60/15 5%,60/15 0.005%, 20/6 0.01%,30/6 0.05%,20/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 1%, 40/10 2%, 40/10 3.5%,70/15 5%, 80/20 5.5%,80/20
  • 59. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 55 | P a g e Reactive Super Black RGB: Sola Blue RSPL: 0.005%,20/6 0.01%,20/6 0.05%,20/6 0.1%,20/6 0.5%,30/8 0.8%,30/8 1%,40/10 2%,60/15 3.5%,60/15 4%,70/18 0.1 %, 20/6 0.5 %, 38/8 1%, 40/10 1.5%, 48/10 2.5%, 58/12 3.5%, 60/15 4%, 78/18 4.5%, 80/20 5%, 80/20 5.5%, 80/20 7%, 80/20 8.5%, 80/20
  • 60. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 56 | P a g e 6.7.Machine Specification of Dyeing Lab: Machine No : 01 Machine Name : Power drum Manufacturer : Samsung Machine type : Fully automatic washing machine Machine No : 02 Manufacturer : Sharp Country of origin : Japan Machine type : Washing machine Machine No : 03 Machine Name :Labdyeing machine (Polyester dye) Manufacturer : Irdyer Machine No : 04 Machine Name :Electrolux washcotar Model : FOM71MP-lab Function :Dimensional stability (Shrinkage) Machine No : 05 Machine Name : Rota wash Function : colorfastness to wash Machine No : 06 Machine Name : Lab dyeing machine (Cotton dye) Manufacturer : IRDYER Machine No : 07 Machine Name : Dimensional stability to wash Manufacturer : LG Machine No : 08 Machine Name : Tumble dryer Manufacturer : Indesit Machine No : 09 Machine Name : Color fastness to light Manufacturer : SDL international Machine No : 10 Machine Name : ICI pilling tester Manufacturer : SDL international Country of origin : England Machine No : 11 Machine Name : 12
  • 61. Lab Section Industrial Attachment 57 | P a g e Machine Name : Gray Scale Manufacturer : SDL international Country of origin : England Machine Name : Incubator Manufacturer : SDL international Function : Colorfastness to water Machine No : 13 Machine Name : Crockmeter Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Co. Ltd. Country of origin : England Machine No : 14 Machine Name : Spectrophotometer Brand : Color-eye 7000A Manufacturer : SDL international Country of origin : England Machine No : 15 Machine Name : Light box Manufacturer : Verivide (CAC 120) Machine No : 16 Machine Name : Overlock sewing machine
  • 62. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 58 | P a g e 7 CHAPTER : DYEING SECTION
  • 63. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 59 | P a g e 7.1.Layout of Dyeing Department Hydro Extractor M/c Fabric Inspection M/c 1 to 12- Dilmenler Dyeing M/c (Except 10 & 11) 10-bangla Dyeing m/c, 30 kg capacity 11-bangla Dyeing m/c, 50 kg capacity BWM Bangla Washing M/c CMC- Color Matching Cabinet FTM-Fabric Turning M/c 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1050 kg 700 kg 525 kg 1400 kg 350 kg 175 kg 50 kg 50 kg Tumble Dryer Tumble Dryer Tumble Dryer Tumble Dryer FTM FTM Back sewing m/c Tube Compactor Relax Dryer Tube squeezer CM C Office Room Dyeing lab (1st floor) Open Compactor Bruckner Stenter Open Squeezer 1400 kg 12 10 kg 9 1110 BWM BW M
  • 64. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 60 | P a g e 7.2.Orgn gram of Dyeing Department: Chairman Managing Director General Manager Operation Manager Dyeing Supervisor Production Officer Worker Finishing In- Charge Quality Controller QA In-Charge Worker Assistant Manager QA Manager Dyeing Asst. Manager Dyeing Sr. Production Officer/In-Charge A.P.O Production Officer Supervisor & Worker Supervisor Officer R&D Worker Assistant Manager R&D
  • 65. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 61 | P a g e 7.3.Textile Dyeing: Dyeing is a coloration process of textile which is invariable carried out in an aqueous medium. In the other hand, dyeing can be define as a process by which a yarn, fabric, garments and any other materials that come to contact of dye by presence of auxiliaries that create the condition of dyeing environment Table 7. 1Classes of dyes on the basis of suitability of dyeing different fibers: Sl. no Name of dyes Suitable for Fibers 01 Acid dyes Wool, silk and Nylon 02 Basic dyes Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon, Silk, Wool and Jute 03 Direct dyes Cotton, Viscose Rayon, Linen, Nylon, Wool and Silk 04 Azoic dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 05 Vat dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 06 Sulpher dyers Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 07 Reactive dyes Cotton, Viscose, Linen, Wool, Silk and Nylon. 08 Disperse dyes Polyester, Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon and Triacetate Rayon. Cotton: The repeating unit in the cotton polymer is cellobiose, which consists of two glucose units. The most important chemical grouping on the cotton polymer is the hydroxyl groups or -OH groups. As a result Cotton is a natural Cellulose has an empirical formula of (C6H10O5)n. Figure 7.1: Cellulose, the polymer of cotton
  • 66. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 62 | P a g e Chemical Composition of Cotton: Table 7. 2: Chemical composition of raw cotton: Component Main location Relative amount Cellulose Secondary wall 86.8 % Oil and Wax Cuticle 0.70 % Pectins Primary cell wall 1.0 % Carbohydrates Primary cell wall 0.50 % Protein Lumen 1.2 % Salts Lumen 1.0 % Water Whole 6.8 % Others 2.0 % 7.4. Reactive dye: Reactive dyes are so called because their molecules react chemically with the fibre polymers of some fibres to form a covalent bond between the dye molecule and fibre polymer. The fibre most readily coloured with reactive dyes are the man-made and natural cellulose fibres, synthetic nylon, and natural protein fibres. History: In 1955, Rattee and Stephen, working for ICI in England, developed a procedure for dyeing cotton with fiber-reactive dyes containing dichlorotriazine groups. They established that dyeing cotton with these dyes under mild alkaline conditions resulted in a reactive chlorine atom on the triazine ring being substituted by an oxygen atom from a cellulose hydroxyl group This is shown below: Where Cell–OH is the cellulose with a reactive hydroxyl group, Dye–Cl- is the dye with its reactive chlorine atom, and Cell–O–Dye the dye linked to the cellulose by a covalent bond. The role of the alkali is to cause acidic dissociation of some of the hydroxyl groups in the cellulose, and it is the cellulosate ion (Cell–O-) that reacts with the dye. 2Cell OH HO Cell O H O Cell O Dye Cl Cell O Dye Cl                
  • 67. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 63 | P a g e Classification of Reactive dyes on the basis of functional group Mono-functional Multi-functional Bi-functional Homo-bifunctional Hetero-bifunctional Tri-functional Tetra-functional Penta- functional Bi-and poly-functional reactive dyes can be divided into four groups. If the two reactive groups in the dyestuff molecule are the same, they are known as homobifunctional dyes, and if they are different, they are known as heterobifunctional types. Figure 7.2: Bifunctional reactive dye (Remazol Black B, DyStar) Dyeing machine: The machine which is used to dyeing or coloring of materials like yarn, fabric, garments or any other materials is called dyeing machine.
  • 68. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 64 | P a g e 7.5.Winch Dyeing Machine: The winch or beck dyeing machine is quite simple and serves for all scouring, bleaching, dyeing, washing-off and softening processes. The machine contains a length of fabric with the ends sewn together, which is compressed to form a continuous rope. This rope passes from the dye bath over two elevated reels and then falls back into the bath. The first roller is free-running (jockey or fly roller). The second (winch reel) is driven and controls the rate of rope transport and the extent of pleating where the rope accumulates below and behind the winch. Both reels extend the full length of the machine and accommodate several fabric ropes running side by side. The fabric rope is held on the winch by friction and its own weight. Covering the winch with polypropylene or polyester tape increases the friction. Figure 7. 3: Dilmenlar Winch Dyeing m/c 7.6.Principle of winch dyeing machine  The basic principle of all winch dyeing machines is to have a number of loops or ropes of the fabric in the dye bath, these ropes are of equal length, which are mostly immersed in the liquor in the bath.  The upper part of each rope runs over two reels which are mounted over dye bath. At the front of the machine, above the top of the dye liquor, is a smaller reel, which is called jockey or fly roller. The fly roller remains freewheeling along with fabric rope.  At the back of winch tank is the winch wheel, which pulls the fabric rope from the dye bath over the jockey reel for dropping in the dye bath for immersion.  From the dropped location, the fabric rope travels back. To be lifted and fed to winch wheel.
  • 69. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 65 | P a g e  The dyeing process on winch dyeing machines is based on higher M: L as compared with other dyeing machines.  The process is conducted with very little tension.  The total dyeing time is lengthier as compared to other machines.  Table 7. 3: Production Parameters : Process Temp(▫C) pH Time min M : L ratio Scouring - Bleaching 98 10-11 30 1:8 Enzyme Wash 55 4.5-5 30 1:8 Reactive Dyeing (Light Shade) 60 10-11 60 1:8 Reactive Dyeing (Dark Shade) 60 11-12 60 1:8 White Shade 98 10.5-11.5 30 1:8 Turquish color dyeing 80-90 11-12 60 1:8 Polyester dyeing 130 4-4.5 45 1:8 7.7.Specification of Dyeing Machine used in N.A.Z Bangladesh LTD: Machine No # 01 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 50 kg No of nozzle 01 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 02 Manufacturer Dilmenler
  • 70. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 66 | P a g e Capacity 50 kg No of nozzle 01 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 03 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 1050 kg No of nozzle 06 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 04 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 175 kg No of nozzle 02 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 05 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 350 kg No of nozzle 02 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 06 Manufacturer Dilmenler
  • 71. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 67 | P a g e Capacity 1400 kg No of nozzle 08 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 07 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 525 kg No of nozzle 03 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 08 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 700 kg No of nozzle 03 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 09 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 10 kg No of nozzle 01 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Machine No # 10 Capacity 30 kg
  • 72. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 68 | P a g e Machine No # 11 Capacity 70 kg Machine No # 12 Manufacturer Dilmenler Capacity 1400 kg No of nozzle 08 Website www.dilmenler.com.tr Calculation realted to dyeing floor: 39.37 1000 . Machine Capacity Winch speed GSM fabric width no of Nozzle Cycle Timt       39.37 10000 . Machine Capacity Cycle Time Fabric GSM Fabric width No of Nozzle Winch speed       Re ( ) %quired Dye kg Shade Fabric weight in Kg  / Re 1000 g l required Total liquor quired Chemicals  
  • 73. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 69 | P a g e Figure 7. 4: Cross sectional view of Dilmenler Dyeing m/c 1-Minimum fabric tension with low level main Winch 2-Adjustable patented nozzle system 3-Horizontal type cylindrical filter with large filtering surface 4-Teflon lined J-BOX bottom 5-J-BOX system which provide non-tangle even for sensitive fabric 6-Large inspection port with platform with three combined security system 7-Halogen inner lighting 8-Elliptical fabric pipe 9-Rapid machine cleaning system 10-HAT-PRO 100% hot water preparation tank 11-Proportional heating & cooling valves 12-Heat exchanger with 70 C/min heating gradient INLETINL ET Dye Dosin g Tank Chemic al Dosing Tank 6 5 4 3 2 7 21 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Water Inlet
  • 74. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 70 | P a g e Figure 7. 5: Different valves used in Dilmenler winch Dyeing m/c Cold Soft Water Inlet Steam Inlet Hot Soft Water InletCondensate Return Line Cooling Water Return Line DN80 DN80 DN 20 Addition Tank (Auxiliaries) Addition Tank (Dye) DN 25 DN 80 DN 80 DN 80 DN 50 HeatExchanger DN 125 DN 125 DMS 140 DMS 140 DN8 0 DN 80 DMS 140 DMS 140 DN 125 8
  • 75. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 71 | P a g e Controlling Points:  Air min 6 bar to max 7 bar  Steam supply min 6 bar to max 8 bar  Water supply min 2 bar to max 5 bar Valve fig. Description Steam valve Steam valve Swing check valve Strainer Manual valve Flow scope Pressure Gauge ½” muff and dummy plug 7.8. Important parts of Dilmenler Winch Dyeing m/c: Winch: Winch is an important part of dyeing machine and used for moving the fabric through the whole dyeing machine. Winch is rotated with the help of motor. Fabric is passed over the winch and fabric dwell time depends on the winch speed. Winch speed will depend on the rope length and gsm of the fabric to be dyed. There is opening on the machine for winch to remove tangled fabric from winch. No. of nozzle per winch is normally 1 or 2 and total no. of winch per machine will depend on machine capacity. Figure 7.6: winch
  • 76. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 72 | P a g e Addition Motor: Addition motor is used to dissolve salt, soda dye and other chemicals. This motor ensures uniform dispersion of chemicals. This motor is used in the dosing tank and tiere is an agitator connected to the motor for addition. Dosing tank: Dosing tank is used for the application of dyes and chemicals to the dye bath in solution form. Steam line is connected to the dosing tank. This tank ensures dissolved chemicals and dyes to the dyeing machine to ensure fault free dyeing. Nozzle: Nozzle is the part of winch dyeing machine where dye pick up of the fabric is maximum. After the winch the fabric is passed through the nozzle. Main motor is connected to the nozzle and continuously circulate dyeing liquor to the machine via nozzle. Fabric passed with the pressure of water and used for controlling the speed of dye liquor. There is opening in the nozzle which can be controlled as required. Heat Exchanger: Heat exchanger is used for heating and cooling the dye bath liquor. Heat exchange process is achieved by passing steam or water through the coiled pipe line present in the heat exchanger. When heat is increased then steam valve is opened and passed through the coiled pipe line and dyeing liquor is passed through the heat exchanger. During the passage, heat increase of dyeing liquor. For reducing heat, water valve will opened and heat will reduce. J-Box: J-box of the machine is where fabric will stored after falling from the nozzle. J-shape helps the smooth passage of fabric. This box contains a deposition tube line attached to the fabric guide. This box is perforated and ensures easy circulation of dyeing liquor to the machine. Main motor: Centrifugal pump is used for circulating the liquor through the dyeing machine. Its capacity will depend on the capacity of the machine. Valves: Different types of valves are used in dyeing machine. Such as steam valve, water valve, pneumatic valve etc.
  • 77. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 73 | P a g e Viewing light: Viewing light is given in the dyeing machine to see how the dyeing of the fabric is advancing in the dyeing machine from outside of the dyeing machine as it is impossible to look into the dyeing machine due to high steam temperature. Filter Tube: Filter tube is used inside the circulating line and drain line through which dyeing liquor is passed to filter impurities. If the filter is jammed then removed from line and cleaned. Drain line: Drain line is used for extracting the liquor out of the dyeing automatically. 7.9.Machine Setup On The Basis Of Fabric Type & GSM Fabric Type GSM Pump Speed % Reel Speed(MPM) Single Jersey Up to 140 80 250 140 – 180 85 230 180 – above 90 210 Polo Pique, Back Pique & Bubble Knit Up to 160 85 280 160 – 200 90 260 220 – above 90 240 Interlock Up to 180 85 260 180 – 220 90 240 220 – above 90 220
  • 78. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 74 | P a g e 7.10. Stock Solution for Production: S.L no. SHADE % SALT SODA WATER 1 0.0001-0.01 7 5 1:8 2 0.01-0.08 10 6 3 0.08-0.15 12 7 1:7 4 0.15-0.8 15 8 5 0.8-1.5 18 9 6 1.5-2 20 10 7 2-2.5 30 13 8 2.5-3 40 15 9 3-3.5 50 16 10 3.5-4 60 18 11 4-4.5 70 20 1:6 12 4.5 and over 80 20 7.11. Water level for different dyeing m/c on the basis of shade %: Machine No Light Shade ≤ 0.49 % Medium Shade 0.5 – 1.99 % Deep Shade ≥ 2.0 % DM – 01 4200 Litter 3800 Litter 3600 Litter DM – 02 3000 Litter 2800 Litter 2600 Litter DM – 03 3000 Litter 2800 Litter 2600 Litter
  • 79. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 75 | P a g e DM – 04 1900 Litter 1750 Litter 1600 Litter DM – 05 6200 Litter 5800 Litter 5600 Litter DM – 06 4200 Litter 3800 Litter 3600 Litter DM – 07 3200 Litter 3000 Litter 2800 Litter SM – 01 180 Litter 150 Litter 120 Litter SM – 02 300 Litter 250 Litter 230 Litter SM – 03 180 Litter 150 Litter 120 Litter SM – 04 160 Litter 140 Litter 120 Litter SM – 05 160 Litter 140 Litter 120 Litter SM – 06 160 Litter 140 Litter 120 Litter 7.12. Amount of Salt & Alkali on the basis of Shade% Shade % ( owf ) Glauber salt ( g/l ) Soda ash ( g/l ) 0.0010 – 0.2 20 5 0.2 – 1 40 10 1 – 2.5 60 15 2.5 – 4 70 20 4 – 8 80 20 Above 8 100 20
  • 80. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 76 | P a g e 7.13. Raw Material Used for Dyeing: Gray fabrics Dyes Chemicals Table 7.4: Dyes, Chemicals & Cuxiliaries Use in N.A.Z: Basic Chemicals Suppliers name Country of Origine Basic acitic acid SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Basic common salt Osman Enterprise Local Basic gluber salt chemical SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Basic caustic soda SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Basic hydrogen per oxide ASM CHEMICALS Bangladesh Basic soda ash light SINTEX & CHEM.PTV.LTD China Auxiliaries Peroxide killer geizyme OEM SM COLOR CHEM USA Peroxide tesbilizerSR/Stopa-52 chemical SM COLOR CHEM USA Polyester leveling Melevel -lpf MATEX BANGLADESH LTD Bangladesh Sequestering austol AUSTEX SPAIN Soaping asugal-ALBI AUSTEX SPAIN Wetting agent –proder-SCPC/LF AUSTEX SPAIN White softener gensoft AUSTEX SPAIN Fixing ecofix DR/SR Ecochem/AUTEX Sri-lanka Leveling drimegen E2R/ Texotech FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Anticrease-Pac(8460) Jintex ECO GD CONE FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Gintex ECO GS CONE FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Genifoam NS FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Special Chemicals Brightener Leuco phor BSB Clariant INDONESEIA Brightener sun white SUN RISE CHEM. Taiwan Enzyme producto _EAPS-A/Genincor- Bf-1600/3500 GENENCOR Singapore Dyebath Enzyme Techzymr-p 1600 GENENCOR Singapore
  • 81. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 77 | P a g e Silicon softener Gensoft-SA 852 FORTUNE TOP INC Taiwan Others Others Sodium Hydrose Chemicals Alif Chemicals China Dyes Ciba blue FNR Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba brill Blue FNG FyesFGFN Swiss color Switzerland Ciba red FN3G Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba red FNR Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba red WB Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Navy SG Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Red C2BL Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Navy WB Swiss color Switzerland Ciba yellow CRG Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba yellow S3R Swiss color Switzerland Ciba yellow H2G Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Navy FNB Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Yellow F4G Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Yellow DN2R Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Orange FNR Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Ciba Orange W3R Dyes Swiss color Switzerland Dianix black CCR Dyes DyStar Switzerland Dianix Blue SSB Dyes DyStar Switzerland Dianix Navy CC Dyes DyStar Singapore Dianix Yellow SEG Dyes DyStar Singapore Drimarine Blue HFRL Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine BlueCLBRDyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Red CL5B Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Red RH3b Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Scariate HF3G Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Tarquise CLB Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Yellow CL2R Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Drimarine Yellow HFR Dyes Clariant China/Pakistan Reactive G. Yellow 3RS/MERL Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive black B Dyes /AB/5 Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Red ME4BL Dyes Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Yellow H4GL Dyes Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Super black G Dyes/AG Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactobond yellow HW Dyes/AEY Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA
  • 82. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 78 | P a g e Reactobond Red Hw Dyes Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reactive Navy WB Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Reattofex orange ME2RL Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA Remazol Navy RGB Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Red RGB Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Blue RSPL Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol RED RR Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Blue RR Dyes DyStar Singapore Remazol Yellow RR Dyes DyStar Singapore Synozol Black DR Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Synozol Red HF 6BN Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Synozol Yellow H F2GR Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Synozol brilliant blue KRL Kyung-in-Synthetic Corporation Korea Solacion red HE Solarfine Chemicals China Reactive Turkish Blue Kiri Dyes & Chemicals INDIA 7.14. Amount of Salt & Alkali (mixed) on the basis of Shade% Shade% (owf) Glauber salt (g/l) Soda ash (g/l) Caustic (g/l) Red ≤ 4 80 5 1.2 Navy ≤ 4 80 5 1.2 Black ≤ 4 100 5 1.2
  • 83. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 79 | P a g e 7.15.Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing: For Pink color Fabric : Single Jersey Quantity : 1310 kg GSM : 180 M: L=1:7 (During Pretreatment) 1.8 (During Dyeing) Color : Pink Water - 9200 lit (Pretreatment) 10500 lit (During Dyeing) Recipe: No. Commercial name of Dyes & Chemicals Amount (g/l or %) Total amount Pretreatment: 1. Wetting Agent-Proder_SCPC/LD/NO-LF 0.5 4.48 kg 2. Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.1 896gm 3 Peroxide Stabilizer SR/Stabilizer A/Stopa-52 0.4 3.584kg 4 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 7.360 kg 5 Caustic soda 3.0 27.6 kg 6 H2O2 2.75 25.3 kg 7 Peroxide Killer Geizyme OEM/Cetatex PC 0.5 4.6 kg 8 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg Dye Bath Chemical: 9 Acetic Acid 0.2 2.1 kg 10 Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 2.1 kg 11 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 8.4 kg 12 Leveling Drimegen E2R/Secho IND/Jinleve 1.0 10.50 kg Dyeing 13 Rea yellow HW 0.01% 0.131 kg 14 Rea. Orange-MEZRL 0.07% 0.917 kg 15 Syno. Red-HF6BN 0.80% 10.48 kg 16 Salt 30 314.4 kg 17 Soda ash 8 83.84 kg After treatment: 18 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg 19 Soaping Asugal-ALBI 0.6 5.520 kg 20 Colour Softener Gensoft-100/150/ASUMIN B 0.7% 9.170 kg
  • 84. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 80 | P a g e Dyeing Flow Chart: Pretreatment: Fabric loading in the machine and magnet is attached to the fabric rope to ensure cutting of the fabric from the specific place. Filling the bath with the required water & run the fabric for 10 min Raise the temp. to 50° C @1.5° C/min and inject wetting agent, sequestering agent, H2O2 stabilizer & Anti creasing agent and run for 10 min at 500 C. Raise temp. to 60° C @1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of caustic for 10 min Raise temp. to 70° C @1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of H2O2 for 10 min. Raise temp. to 105° C @1.5° C/min and run the process for 40 min. Cooling the bath @1.5° C/min and drain at 80° C and then drain Fill the bath with hot water from reserve tank and wash at 95° C for 10 min. then drain the bath and normal wash. Apply peroxide killer and run at 70° C for 10 min then drain & wash the fabric. Acetic acid dosing and pH check (4.5-5) and run 10 min. Then inject enzyme at 55° C and run for 40 min Raise temp. to 80° C and run 10 min which is called enzyme hot Then drop the bath and wash for 2 times
  • 85. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 81 | P a g e Dyeing: After-treatment: Fill the bath and raise the temp. At 45° C apply acetic acid and check pH to 5 Inject Sequestering agent, Ant-creasing agent, Leveling agent run 10 min. ½ of total Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Rest ½ Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Dye linear dosing at 45° C for 40 min and after 20 min salt is sample checked. If salt sample is ok then soda progressive dosing for 50 min at 450 C. After 20 min soda sample is checked and color steam is given to 600 C Sample checked after 10, 30, 40 min & after 10 min B.D. sample is checked Then cooling the bath & rinse for 10 min & drain the bath Fill the bath and raise temp. to 45° C and dosing acetic acid. Run 10 min then drain. Unload the fabric from machine. Fill the bath and raise temperature to 40° C and dosing softener. Fabric is treated for 20 min & sample is checked. Fill the bath & apply soaping agent. Raise temp. to 95° C. Run 10 min and then drain
  • 86. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 82 | P a g e Figure 7. 7: Dyeing Curve After-treatment Wetting agent=0.5g/l Sequestering agent=o.1g/l H2O2 stabilizer=0.4g/l Ant creasing agent=0.8g/l L A=Caustic 3g/l B=H2O2 2.75g/l C=A.A. 1g/lx10’ D=Enzyme 0.3g/l E Acetic Acid 0.2g/l Sequestering agent 0.1g/l Ant-creasing agent 0.8g/l Leveling agent 1g/l F= Acetic acid 1g/l G=soaping agent0.6g/l H= softener 7% 1-8= sample taken for shade development wash Rinse 10’ 1050 Cx4 0’ B A C D E Dye s Soda ash Salt 40 50 60 110 70 80 90 100 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 Drain Enzymehot 10’ 10’ 40’ 20’ 50’ 20’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 F G H Drain DrainDrain Drain & Unload 7 8 Cooling Drain nL Fabric run 10’ Hot wash Time (min) Temperature(0 C) H2O2killer 0.5g/l Dyeing 30 G Pre-treatment
  • 87. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 83 | P a g e Shade development : Note:  When shade of one stage is ok then go for next stage (usually at 600 C).  But, when color is already close to target shade at 600 C after 10 min then, temp raise to 700 C and run for 10 min. Another shade will be checked after 10 min at 700 C and if shade is ok then bath drop.  When shade is light then color is added to the dye bath and run until required shade is obtained.  In above cases shade development swatch with time will be different.  Bath drop sample should be darker than the target shade & depending on the shade soaping decision will be taken. After 20’ of color dosing (Salt sample) After 10 min of soda dosing (color steam sample) 600a C x 10 min 600 C x 30 min Target Swatch 600 C x 40 min or BD sample After Acid After Soaping After Softener
  • 88. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 84 | P a g e 7.16. Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing: For Black color Fabric : 1x1 Rib Quantity : 1000 kg GSM : 180 M: L - 1:7 (During Pretreatment) 1.8 (During Dyeing) Color : 09A Black Water - 7000 lit (Pretreatment) 8000 lit (During Dyeing) Recipe: No. Commercial name of Dyes & Chemicals Amount (g/l or %) Total amount Pretreatment: 1. Jin Tex GD Conc. 1.0 7 kg 2. Jin Tex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 1.40 kg Bio-polish 3 Acetic Acid 1.0 7.0 kg 4 Techzyme-P-1600 0.7 % 7.0 kg Dye Bath Chemical: 5 Acetic Acid 0.2 2.1 kg 6 Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 2.1 kg 7 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 8.4 kg 8 Leveling Drimegen E2R/Secho IND/Jinleve 1.0 10.50 kg Dyeing 9 R. B. yellow HW 0.58% 5.8 kg 10 R.B. Red HW 1.04% 8 kg 11 Rea. Black B 10.7% 107 kg 12 Salt 80 640 kg 13 Soda ash 20 210 kg 14 Caustic 1 g/l 8 kg After treatment: 15 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg 16 Soaping Asugal-ALBI 0.6 4.20 kg 17 Colour Softener Gensoft-100/150/ASUMIN B 0.7% 7.0 kg
  • 89. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 85 | P a g e Dyeing Flow Chart: Pretreatment & Dyeing: Fabric loading in the machine and magnet is attached to the fabric rope to ensure cutting of the fabric from the specific place. Filling the bath with the required water & run the fabric for 10 min Inject Jin Tex GD &Jin Tex GS to the dye bath and raise the temp to 95° C and run for 30 min Cooling the machine & drain the bath Raise temp. to 60° C @1.5° C/min process & apply acetic acid & run 20 min Then drain the bath and check pH and set pH to 5 Apply dye bath enzyme at 40° C and raise temp. to 55° C and run 30 min. Cooling the bath & at 45° C & and inject Sequestering agent, Ant-creasing agent, Leveling agent run 10 min. Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Dye linear dosing at 45° C for 40 min and after 20 min salt is sample checked. If salt sample is ok then soda progressive dosing for 50 min at 45° C. After 20 min soda sample is checked and color steam is given to 60° C
  • 90. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 86 | P a g e After treatment: Fill the bath and raise temp. to 45° C and dosing acetic acid. Run 10 min then drain. Unload the fabric from machine. Fill the bath and raise temp. to 40° C and dosing softener. Fabric is treated for 20 min & sample is checked. Fill the bath & apply soaping agent. Raise temp. to 95° C. Run 10 min and then drain Sample checked after 10, 30, 40 min & after 10 min B.D. sample is checked Then cooling the bath & rinse for 10 min & drain the bath
  • 91. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 87 | P a g e Figure 7. 8: DyeingCurve For Black color Rinse 10’ 30 D Acetic Acid 0.2g/l Sequestering agent 0.1g/l Ant-creasing agent 0.8g/l Leveling agent 1g/l E= Acetic acid 1g/l F= soaping agent0.6g/l G= softener 7% 1-8= sample taken for shade development Jin Tex GD conc. 2g/l Jin Tex GS conc. 0.2 g/l A B=Acetic Acid 0.4g/l C=Texzyme-pl600 0.3g/l D 95° Cx30’ Cooling 55° Cx3 0’ Dyeing 40 50 60 110 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 Drai nA Fabric run 10’ AceticAcid1g/l 60° C  20min Drain C B Dyes Soda ash Salt 10’ 10’ 40’ 20’ 50’ 20’ 1 2 E G H Drain DrainDrain Drain & Unload 7 8 F G Time (min) Temperature(° C) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Pre-treatment
  • 92. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 88 | P a g e Shade development process: After 20’ of color dosing (Salt sample) After 10 min of soda dosing (color steam sample) 60 0 C x 10 min 60 0 C x 30 min 60 0 C x 40 min or BD sample After Acid After Soaping After Softener Target Swatch
  • 93. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 89 | P a g e 7.17.Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing: for Black color Fabric : 1x1 Rib Quantity : 1000 kg GSM : 180 M: L -1:7 (During Pretreatment) & 1.8 (During Dyeing) Color : 09A Black Water - 7000 lit (Pretreatment) 8000 lit (During Dyeing) Recipe: No. Commercial name of Dyes & Chemicals Amount (g/l or %) Tot al amount Pretreatment: 1. Wetting Agent-Proder_SCPC/LD/NO-LF 0.5 4.48 kg 2. Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.1 896gm 3 Peroxide Stabilizer SR/Stabilizer A/Stopa-52 0.4 3.584kg 4 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 7.360 kg 5 Caustic soda 3.0 27.6 kg 6 H2O2 2.75 25.3 kg 7 Peroxide Killer Geizyme OEM/Cetatex PC 0.5 4.6 kg 8 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg Dye Bath Chemical: 9 Acetic Acid 0.2 2.1 kg 10 Gintex ECO GS CONE (S.A) 0.2 2.1 kg 11 Anticrease-AULIT-PAC(8460) 0.8 8.4 kg 12 Leveling Drimegen E2R/Secho IND/Jinleve 1.0 10.50 kg Dyeing 13 R. Red RR 0.48% 6.288 kg 14 Rea. Turq Blue 1.80% + 18% 27.824 kg 15 Sola Blue Rspl 2.94%+ 10% 42.365 kg 16 Salt 80 840 kg 17 Soda 20 210 kg After treatment: 18 Acetic Acid 1.0 9.2 kg 19 Soaping Asugal-ALBI 0.6 5.520 kg 20 Colour Softener Gensoft-100/150/ASUMIN B 0.7% 9.170 kg
  • 94. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 90 | P a g e Dyeing Flow Chart: Pretreatment: Fabric loading in the machine and magnet is attached to the fabric rope to ensure cutting of the fabric from the specific place. Filling the bath with the required water & run the fabric for 10 min Raise the temp. to 50° C @ 1.5° C/min and inject wetting agent, sequestering agent, H2O2 stabilizer & Anti creasing agent and run for 10 min at 50° C. Raise temp. to 60° C @ 1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of caustic for 10 min Raise temp. to 70° C @ 1.5° C/min process and linear dosing of H2O2 for 10 min. Raise temp. to 105° C @ 1.5° C/min and run the process for 40 min. Cooling the bath @ 1.5° C/min and drain at 80° C and then drain Fill the bath with hot water from reserve tank and wash at 95° C for 10 min. then drain the bath and normal wash. Apply peroxide killer and run at 70° C for 10 min then drain & wash the fabric. Acetic acid dosing and pH check (4.5-5) and run 10 min. Then inject enzyme at 55° C and run for 40 min Raise temp. to 80° C and run 10 min which is called enzyme hot Then drop the bath and wash for 2 times
  • 95. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 91 | P a g e Dyeing: After treatment: Fill the bath & raise temp. to 45° C and dosing acetic acid. Run 10 min then drain. Unload the fabric from machine. Fill the bath and raise temp. to 40° C and dosing softener. Fabric is treated for 20 min & sample is checked. Fill the bath & apply soaping agent. Raise temp. to 95° C. Run 10 min and then drain Fill the bath and raise the temp. At 45° C apply acetic acid and check pH to 5 Inject Sequestering agent, Ant-creasing agent, Leveling agent run 10 min. Dye linear dosing at 45° C for 40 min and run 10 min. ½ Salt dosing at 45° C for 10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Remaining ½ Salt dosing at 45° C in10 min with linear dosing and run 10 min Raise temp. to 80° C and run 20 min for dye migration & then cooling to 60° C. Check sample & if ok then soda progressive dosing for 50 min at 45° C. After 20 min soda sample is checked and color steam is given to 60° C Sample checked after 10, 30, 40 min & after 10 min B.D. sample is checked Then cooling the bath & rinse for 10 min & drain the bath
  • 96. Dyeing Section Industrial Attachment 92 | P a g e Figure 7. 9: Dyenig Curve for Tequish color (Migration process) After-treatment Dyeing Rinse 10’ Soda ash Dye s Enzymehot 1050 Cx40’ L Fabric run 10’30 Temperature(0 C) Hot wash B A Wetting agent=0.5g/l Sequestering agent=o.1g/l H2O2 stabilizer=0.4g/l Ant creasing agent=0.8g/l L A=Caustic 3g/l B=H2O2 2.75g/l C=A.A. 1g/lx10’ D=Enzyme 0.3g/l E Acetic Acid 0.2g/l Sequestering agent 0.1g/l Ant-creasing agent 0.8g/l Leveling agent 1g/l F= Acetic acid 1g/l G=soaping agent0.6g/l H= softener 7% 1-8= sample taken for shade development Drain Wash 800 Cx20’ 40 50 60 110 70 80 90 100 G F H Drain & Unload 7 8 Drain DrainDrain C H2O2killer 0.5g/l Cooling Normal hot wash E 1 2 3 4 5 6 10’40’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ Salt 1/2 Salt 1/2D Time (min) 0 5 0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Migration Process
  • 97. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 93 | P a g e Shade development process: Note:  Shade check will be started after cooling from migration process at 600 C. Color is normally checked with the process.  Problems can occurred during migration process (uneven shade). At that time temp. is raised again then treat the fabric.  In above cases shade development swatch with time will be different.  Bath drop sample should be darker than the target shade & depending on the shade soaping decision will be taken. After migration process (Salt sample) After 10 min of soda dosing 60 0 C x 10 min 60 0 C x 30 min 60 0 C x 40 min or BD sample After Acid After Soaping After Softener Target Swatch
  • 98. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 94 | P a g e 7.18. Auxiliaries and its function Chemical name Function Anti creasing Agent Acts as lubricant and reduce friction between machine parts and fabric. Thus prevent crease mark formation in the fabric. Those are oil free substance. Sequestering Agent Used to remove hardness and metal ion present in dyeing liquor. Hardness of dyeing liquor can occurred due to hardness of fabric after pretreatment which is 35 ppm and also from salt which is 70 ppm Leveling Agent Leveling agent reduces the molecular size of the dye and it will slower the penetration of dye into the fabric. As a result, uniformly dyed fabric is obtained. Enzyme Enzyme is used they remove the protruding fibbers from fabric. They can act their function with the temp. of 550 C and with pH of 4.5-5. Wetting agent To reduce surface tension of water thus ensures easy penetrating of chemicals and dye to the fabric. Anti Foaming agent To eliminate foam during dyeing process. Foam arises from water circulation and material which quickly by, also from auxiliaries which can generate foam. H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide is used for bleaching of cotton fabric and to remove natural color. Peroxide Stabilizer Peroxide stabilizer is used for slowing down the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide because if decomposition of H2O2 is more than the production of HO2 - then it can lead to cellulose breakage. Peroxide Killer Used to remove peroxide remaining in the fabric. Otherwise the fabric will damaged due to presence of peroxide. Salt Salt acts as electrolyte and increase absorption of reactive dye into fibre. salt increase exhaustion of dyes.
  • 99. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 95 | P a g e Soda Ash Addition of soda ash causes dissociation of some hydroxyl group in the cellulose and cellulosate ion begins to react with dye. Acetic Acid Acetic acid is used to maintain pH of the dye bath in the acidic medium and also used for neutralization from basic medium to the neutral nedium. Softener The function of softener is to soft the hand feel of the fabric and increase the luster of the fabric. NaOH Caustic Soda is used for ensuring alkali media in the dye bath and also reduce the amount of soda that is used for dark shade. Soaping agent The function of soaping agent is to remove unfixed dyes present in the fabric. 7.19.Dyeing faults Causes and Remedies:  Uneven dyeing: Causes:  Uneven Pretreatment  Improper addition of color  Improper addition of chemical  Using dyes of high fixation properties  Less control of dyeing machine  Less circulation time Remedies:  By ensuring even pretreatment  By proper addition of color and chemicals  Correct circulation time  By controlling the dyeing machine properly
  • 100. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 96 | P a g e  Batch to batch Shade variation Causes:  Using improper dyes and chemicals  Incorrect pretreatment procedure  Batch to batch weight variation of fabric  Batch to batch chemicals and dyes variation (lot variation)  Improper dosing of dyes and chemicals Remedies:  By using standard dyes and chemicals  By correcting the pretreatment procedure  By maintaining batch to batch weight variation  By avoiding lot mixing of dyes and chemicals  By correcting the dosing time of dyes and chemicals  By following different dyeing parameter.  Dark colored spots: Causes:  Dyestuff precipitation during dyeing  Incompatibility of dyestuff used for producing combined shade  Too high dyestuff concentration in the dye bath  Precipitation of unabsorbed dyestuff during after treatment Remedies:  By ensuring proper dyeing condition  By selecting proper dyestuff  By checking the solubility limit of the dyestuff before dyeing  By ensuring proper after treatment  Patchy dyeing: Causes:  Due to hardness of water  Due to faulty color addition  Due to faulty injection of alkali  Due to improper salt addition  Due to improper PH of solution
  • 101. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 97 | P a g e Remedies:  By using proper sequestering agent  By correcting the color addition  By correcting the salt addition  By proper injection of alkali  By maintaining the PH level of the solution  Crease mark: Causes:  Poor opening of the fabric rope  Due to high speed of machine running  Unequal pump pressure and reel speed Remedies:  By maintaining proper pump pressure and reel speed.  By controlling the speed of the machine.  Correct opening of the fabric rope.  Roll to roll variation: Causes:  Poor migration property of dye.  Hardness of water.  Improper dyes solubility.  Faulty machine speed. Remedies:  Use standard dyes and chemicals  Proper machine speed.  Using soft waste.
  • 102. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 98 | P a g e 8 CHAPTER : FINISHING SECTION
  • 103. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 99 | P a g e 8.1.Finishing: Textile finishing is a term commonly applied to different process that the textile material under go after pretreatment, dyeing or printing for final embellishment to enhance there attractiveness and sale appeal as well as for comfort and usefulness. Objects of finishing: The aim of finishing is to render textile goods fit for their purpose or end use. Besides that, finishing can be done for achieving the following purposes- a) To improve fabric attractiveness. -By modification of fabric appearance (Calendaring, Optical brightening) -By altering fabric handle (Softening, Stiffening) -Control of fabric dimension (Sanforising, Compacting) b) To improve service ability. -Protection of fabric (Flame proofing, Water proofing) -Improved performance (Water repellency, Raising) -Easy care properties (Resin finish, Crease recovery) After dyeing, knit fabric is required to finish. During dyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer's requirement knit fabric are finished in Open form or tubular form. The tubular and open finishing sequences of N. A. Z. Bangladesh Ltd are given bellow: Types of finishing: 1) Chemical finishing: 2) Mechanical finishing: Finishing effects:  Easy - care  Crease recovery.  Dimensional stability.  Good abrasion resistance.  Improved tear strength.  Good sew ability
  • 104. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 100 | P a g e  Soft or stiff handle.  Shine or luster 8.2.Specification of Finishing Machines used in N.A.Z.: Table 8.1: List of machine in Finishing Section Tube Squizer Machine Name Tubular Squizer Manufacturer Bianco Country of origin Italy Capacity 8000 kg Maximum speed 80 m/min No of Chamber 03 No of Padder 3 pair Tube dryer Machine Name Tensionless dryer Manufacturer Lk & LH Co. Ltd Country of origin Taiwan Capacity 8000 kg No of Chamber 04 Tube Compector Machine Name Tube Compactor Manufacturer Ferraro Country of origin Italy Capacity 6000 kg No of padder 02 Maximum speed 42 m/min Maximum temperature 200 o C Maximum padder pressure 33 Highest overfeed 40 Highest dia 52”
  • 105. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 101 | P a g e Open Squizer Machine name Squizer Manufacturer Bianco Country of origin Italy Maximum speed 90 m/min Maximum dia 120” Stenter Machine Name Stenter Manufacturer Bruckner Maximum speed 50 m/min Maximum overfeed 60% No of chamber 6 Maximum temperature 250o C Open Compector Machine Name Compactor Manufacturer Ferraro Country of origin Italy Maximum speed 42 m/min Maximum overfeed 15% Ultrasoft Machine Name Ultrasoft Manufacturer Lafer Country of origin Italy Maximum speed 15 m/min
  • 106. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 102 | P a g e 8.3.Observation of Different Finishing M/C: 8.4. Tube Squeezer or De-Watering M/C After dyeing process from the dyeing machine then the fabrics arc ready for dc-watering. This is the process to remove the water from the fabric partially by squeezing. This is the main function of the squeezing machine. But here also control the some important factor of the fabric quality. Important parts • Twist detector • Expander • Padder The basic function of the squeezing m/c:  To remove the water from the fabric.  To control the width of the fabric.  To control the length of the fabric.  To control the spirality of the fabric.  To control the over feeding system.  To increase the softness of the fabric.  To remove the crease mark of the fabric. Table 8. 2: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Tube squeezer: Fabric path on m/c Function Turn Table Fabric trolley is placed on the turn table which can rotate in clockwise or anticlockwise direction. It is connected to the de-twister sensor via inverter. It will rotate to remove twist from the fabric. Fabric is feed to the machine from this trolley. J-Box Fabric is passed through J- box padder in which padder pressure can be maintained in the range of 1-5 bar. 20% water is extracted here. Fabric is then stored in flexible tray which can move up & down direction. When fabric load is high then the tray will automatically lowered & s. When fabric load is reduced the tray tops the feeding of the fabric. When fabric load is reduced will move upward & fabric feeding will be started again. De-Twister A sensor device is present here, which can detect twist in the fabric. If any twist goes through the de-twister, it will rotate in clockwise or anticlockwise direction
  • 107. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 103 | P a g e to remove twist and easy passage of fabric. Dia-extension r/r This is used to control the dia of tubular knit fabric. This devise holds the two sides of the fabric in tube form and two sensors are present here, which detect hole in the fabric. If any hole is appeared then the sensor will off the m/c Water Tray Fabric is washed with water to remove unfixed dyes and impurities. Fabric is ringed continuously during the passage and constant water level (80 Lt) is maintained here. Emersion r/r is used to immerse the fabric to the water tray. Air-pressure r/r Air is applied to make the fabric in balloon form. This will help to prevent crease mark formation due to padder pressure. Padder Fabric is squeeze here with the help of two large padderes to remove 60% water Pilling Tray After squeezing the fabric will be stored in pilling tray which relaxes the fabric. Sensor device is present which detect fabric load. When fabric load is high then fabric feeding will be reduced automatically. Chemical Tray Fabric is passed through the chemical tray which is connected to the chemical tank. Chemicals can be applied to the fabric by this tray. Immersion r/r is used to ensure maximum wet medium. Air-pressure r/r Air is applied to make the fabric in balloon form. This will help to prevent crease mark formation due to padder pressure. Padder Fabric is squeeze here with the help of two large padderes to remove excess chemical. Padder pressure can be maintained as required but will be less then back padder. Shaft Fabric dia extension is done with the help of shaft. Sensor is present here to detect hole. Fabric dia will be kept more than the required dia because fabric remain 40% wet after squeezing. Delivery zone Fabric is delivered via folder which moves like pendulum to fold the fabric.
  • 108. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 104 | P a g e Figure 8. 1: fabric passage on Tube squeezer m/c Table 8. 3: Dia extenion on tube squeezer m/c Fabric Dia extension (%) Single jersey 4-5 1x1 rib 10-12 Interlock 8-10 Fancy rib fabric 8 Mesh fabric 10-12 Fleece fabric 8-10
  • 109. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 105 | P a g e 8.5.Relax Dryer Dryer machine is used to dry the fabric with the help of the steam. Besides drying it controls the shrinkage and prepares the fabric for the next process Important Parts: o Conveyor net o Chamber o Burner o Exhaust air fan o Over feed roller o Filter net o Fan o Nozzle The basic function of the dryer: To dry the fabric. To control the over feed system (Shrinkage control) To control the GSM of the fabric. Controlling Points o Overfeed (%): It depends on fabric structure o Temperature: It depends on color. o Speed: It depends on fabric construction and color. For higher GSM lower the speed. Table 8. 4: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Relax Dryer: Fabric path in m/c Function Fabric Trolley Fabric trolley is placed in front of the m/c & fabric is passed over guide r/r. Those rollers maintain uniform tension of fabric & ensure uniform passage of fabric. Wheel Wheel is used to control tubular fabric dia. Fabric dia in this wheel will be more than the required finished dia. Over Feed r/r Over feed the fabric in the dryer. Net Fabric enters in the dryer in contact with net. There are 4 sets of net which extend throughout the dryer. Each net forms endless loop. Those nets provides 3 times more dwell time to the fabric. Net position is maintained with the help of sensor.
  • 110. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 106 | P a g e Heating Chamber Heating is done with super heated steam. Steam is entered to the heat exchanger through steam pipe. There are 4 heat exchangers through which heat is applied to the fabric. Blower Blowers are used to spread heat from heat exchanger through the whole dryer. There are 8 blowers which are run by individual motor. Out line Exhaust fan is used to remove exhausted air from the drying zone. Folder Folder delivers the fabric to the trolley. Fabric feeding to the folder is controlled by delivery r/r. 8.6.Tube Compactor Tube compactor is used to finish knit fabric in tube form; Important parts Overfeed roller Expander Blanket Steam sprayers Cylinder Teflon covers The basic functions of the Tube compactor machine • To control the GSM. (Increase & decrease). • To control the dia. • To control the shrinkage. (Increase & decrease).
  • 111. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 107 | P a g e Table 8. 5: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Tubular Compactor: Fabric path on m/c Function Trolley Fabric trolley is placed in front of the machine. From this trolley fabric is feed to the machine. Feeding zone Tube fabric is passed through the wheel to control fabric dia. Sensor is present here and if any hole is going to pass through this section, the m/c automatically stops. Steam Tray Steam tray is present after feeding zone. Steam is applied to soften the fabric. On the top of this zone exhaustion unit is present to remove extra steam. Fabric Spreading Zone The spreader spread the fabric and set the required width of the fabric. Magnet is used to hold the wheel which control fabric width. Sensor is also present here to ensure proper feeding and to detect hole. Steam Supply Zone Steam is applied to heat and wet the fabric for proper compacting action. Steam supporter is present here to support steaming action. Extra steam will out through steam out line. Compacting Zone The fabric is passed through compacting zone. Compacting action is done by the action of heated cylinder in the lower side and blanket in the upper side. The blanket is wrapped over the cylinder and proper compaction is done by the help of blanket. Sensor is present to fix the blanket. Fabric Delivery Zone Fabric folder delivers the fabric to the delivery tray. Here fabric supporter is present to press the fabric ply and when required amount of fabric is stored in the delivery tray, it will automatically pass folded fabric to delivery zone
  • 112. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 108 | P a g e Figure 8- 1: FERRARO Comptex R Tube Compactor (Fabric Passing Path) Controlling parameters of tubular Compactor: Speed = 0-40 Over feed = 0-30% Compaction = 0-33% Temp. = 80-1200 C Figure 8. 2: fabric passage diagram in tube compactor machine Note: Fabric dia extension, speed, compaction & overfeed will vary depending on the fabric type and finishing requirementsControlling Points 8.7.Slitting Machine or open squeezer: Manufacturer: Bianco Machine parts: Rotary blade: To cut the fabric through break wales line Ring: To help cutting Guide Roller: To guide the fabric to plaiting Plaiting: To plate the fabric Sensor: sense for cutting through break wales line
  • 113. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 109 | P a g e Fabric Passage: Figure 8. 3: Fabric passage in open squeezer m/c. Controlling parameters of open squeezer: 1. Speed : 0-100m/min 2. Padder pressure : 0-10 bar 3. Air Pressure : 1.5 bar Note: 1. In case of light color padder pressure should be low. Otherwise shade will be lighter. 2. If the padder is not clean, then line mark can appear in the fabric. 3. If low gsm S/J fabric is processing, then padder pressure and speed will be maximum. 4. If high gsm fabric is processing, then padder pressure and speed will be minimum. 5. Padder pressure and speed will vary according to the fabric type. 6. In case of Lycra single jersey fabric, speed & padder pressure will be minimum. Note: Fabric dia extension, speed, compaction & overfeed will vary depending on the fabric type and finishing requirements.
  • 114. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 110 | P a g e 8.8.Open Compactor The basic functions of the Open compactor machine is to compact the fabric in open form & • To control the GSM. (Increase & decrease). • To control the dia. • To control the shrinkage. (Increase & decrease). Important parts • Over-feed roller • Blanket • Steam sprayers • Cylinder • Tell on covers Figure 8. 4: Feraro open compactor Controlling parameters of tubular Compactor: Speed = 0-40 Over feed = 0-30% Compaction = 0-33% Temp. = 80-1200 C
  • 115. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 111 | P a g e Fabric passage in Open Compactor: Figure 8. 5: fabric passage on open compactor 8.9.Bruckner Stenter: Stenter machine in very important for finishing knit fabric in open form. It can be used for the following functions:  Apply chemical and softener  To dart set the T/C fabric  Drying of fabric  To control width  Curing of fabric  Apply pigment dyeing  To control GSM  To control shrinkage  To decrease spirality  To decrease bowing effect  Surface coating for teflon finish  Apply soil release chemical finish  Heat set for cotton/lycra fabric  Etc.
  • 116. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 112 | P a g e Figure 8. 6: Bruckner Stenter machine Table 8. 6: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of stenter machine: Fabric in different Parts of the m/c. Function Feeding through the tension r/r The fabric is fee through tension r/r and passes in between two centering device to straight the fabric. Here expender 2 rollers are present to ensure uniform feeding of the fabric. Fabric in padding zone If the fabric is treated by using 2 padders then, at first the fabric is immersed to the water tray by immersion r/r then squeezed by padder. Then the fabric is passed through chemical tray where softener is used. If one padder is used then, only chemical application is done by the padder. After chemical tray the fabric is squeezed to remove excess chemicals. Here padder pressure is less than the front padder pressure & will be 0-10bar Tension adjust r/r Here tension is adjusted by sensor. The tension r/r will move upward direction if fabric feeding is lowered due to any reson. Sensors Fabric course line is continuously monitor and result is shown on the screen. Number of total sensors is 8 and placed side by side through the width wise direction off the machine. With this result bowing and slanting of fabric is controlled. Control unit Here monitor is present which shows fabric position graph of the course line, speed, temperature in different zone, over feed for left & right feeding r/r. In this position bowing con be automatically controlled via control unit.
  • 117. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 113 | P a g e Mahalo r/r Mahalo rollers are used to control the bowing effect from fabric. This will maintain the fabric position and when sensor sense that bowing or slanting is appeared then this r/r will fix that. Number of total bowing r/r 2 and other 2 supporters are present. Overfeed r/r Over feed is given via this r/r. 0-60 % over feed can be given depending on the fabric type. Width adjusting device There are two plates at the two ends of the machine which remove curling of the fabric and also dust. If any hole is obtain then, sensor stops the m/c Wheel Attach the fabric to the pin of the chain. Brush There are 2 brushes which ensure the fabric is attached to the pin. Pin rail Pin rail is used to covey the fabric to the heating chamber. There are two chain rails, one in each side and forms endless loop throughout the machine from chain entry zone to heating chamber. Steam tray There is steam tray on the underside of feeding zone for steam application. Heating chamber Here heat is applied to the fabric in six heating chamber. Heating arrangement is done via thermo oil and there are 6 heating chambers. Blower is used to spread heated air throughout the chamber, one from upper side another from lower side of the fabric. There are 2 exhaust fans in each chamber to remove residual heated air. There is oil line inlet and outlet for continuous passing through heat exchanger to the oil boiler. Exhaust air line is present on the upper side of the heating chamber. Heat is increased after each chamber towards the end. Delivery Zone Fabric is delivered through some tension r/r and then passed via folder to the fabric trolley. Controlling parameters of Bruckner Stenter: Maximum capacity: 12 ton per day Maximum dia: 120 inch Gsm control 60%
  • 118. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 114 | P a g e Maximum dia control 5” Shade control: up to 95% Hydro Extractor: Fig: Hydro extractor Controlling Points a. Temperature- It depends on color construction and composition of the fabric. For S/J the temp is 150oC and 170oC for stripe fabrics. b. Over feed-Over feed increases the GSM of the fabric. c. Width setting-Higher width setting reduces the GSM d. Speed-It depends on construction and amount of moisture on the fabric.
  • 119. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 115 | P a g e 8.10. Ultra-soft m/c: Ultra soft machine is used to increase softness of fabric. This is a mechanical process of finishing. Table 8. 7: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Ultra soft m/c Fabric path on m/c Function Trolley Fabric trolley is placed in front of the machine. From this trolley fabric is feed to the machine. Feeding zone Tube fabric is passed through some tension r/r. those rollers ensures proper feeding of the fabric to the machine. Auto controller Here sensor is present to detect the sewing line in the fabric. When sewing line is appeared then the sensor will slower the drum speed of the machine. If this is not done there is possibility to open up the sewing. Because high tension is occurred during the passing of the fabric to the carbon brush or drum r/r thus drum speed is lowered. Expander r/r This is used to spread the fabric and to feed the fabric in the machine. Here 2 expender rollers are present. Carbon Roller unit Fabric is then passed over the carbon r/r where 6 carbon brushes are present. Those brushes along with the drum rotate in the opposite direction of the fabric. Fabric face side will be in contact with the carbon brush. On the top of this zone, blower is present to blow dust produced due to brushing of the fabric. Number of blower is 8 and blowing will vary depending on the fabric type. In the lower side, suction unit is present to suck the dust and conveyed to the outer duct. The whole unite is covered with glass cover to ensure dust free environment Bitter and brush r/r Fabric is then passed through the bitter and brush roller to remove dust residual to the fabric. Exhaust sensor is present here to exhaust dust from the fabric. Delivery unit Fabric is delivered to the trolley in folded form to the trolley. folding device is used to fold the fabric.
  • 120. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 116 | P a g e Controlling parameters: Fabric speed : 12-20m/min Carbon Brush speed : 8-40 m/min Dia reduction : 5-25% Fabric pressure : 30-40 kg Taker in tension : 18-25 Note: 1. If speed of carbon brush is high then softness will be high 2. Softening action is done on the face side of the fabric. 3. At least 5% gsm of the fabric will reduce after brushing. 4. Dust storage unit is present. 5. Dia of the fabric will reduce after brushing (ex-20%) and thus fabric must run to the stenter m/c after brushing. 8.11. Brushing machine By the brushing machine back side of the fleece fabric is brushed. Table 8.8: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Brushing m/c: Fabric path on m/c Function Trolley Fabric trolley is placed in front of the machine. From this trolley fabric is feed to the machine. Fabric is feed to the machine so that the back side of the fleece fabric should be in contact with the brushing unit. Feeding zone Tube fabric is passed through some tension r/r. those rollers ensures proper feeding of the fabric to the machine. There are some expender rollers in the machine which ensures proper feeding of the fabric to the m/c Fabric in Brushing action is done with the help of brushing roller which consists of
  • 121. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 117 | P a g e brushing unit 24 rollers with sharp pinned surface like carding r/r in carding m/c. 12 rollers are move along with the fabric which have rpm more than the fabric. Other 12 rollers are move in the opposite direction of the fabric. Combine action of all brushing r/r will brush the loops in fleece fabric. Blower and suction unit Blowing arrangement is present on the machine to remove dust produced during brushing. There is exhaust unit on the lower side of the brushing unit to exhaust dust. Guide r/r Fabric is conveyed to the front side of the machine with the help of some guide rollers. The fabric is delivered to the front side of the m/c Delivery unit Fabric is delivered to the trolley in folded form to the trolley. Folding device is used to fold the fabric. Sample: Fleece fabric before brush Fleece fabric after brush
  • 122. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 118 | P a g e Figure 8. 7: Brushing machne Note: 1. Brushing action is done on the back side of the fleece fabric 2. Fabric is run in m/c for 3-6 times until the target is achieved. 3. Gsm of the fabric will reduce. 4. This is a mechanical action and once produced cannot be changed.
  • 123. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 119 | P a g e 8.12. Fabric Inspection: The finished fabric may have different kinds of faults. This may occur during Knitting, dyeing or finishing. If the fabric delivered then the quality of the fabric may not be good and the buyer will reject the finished garments. For this reason careful inspection of this finished fabric is so important. In finished fabric the following faults are generally found: Faults Indicating syble Hole H Dye stain DS Oil stain OS Chemical stain CS Slubs S Lycra Out LO Fly Yarn FY Insect Spots IS Crease Mark CR Uneven shade US Needle Line NL Thick – Thin TT Bowing B Neps N In N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. 4 points system is used for calculating fabric acceptance:4- points system In four points system the points are defined on the basis of defect size as shown below: Size of the defect Penalty 7.5 cm or less 1 points Over 7.5 cm but less than 15 cm 2 points Over 15 cm but less than 22.5 cm 3 points Over 22.5 cm 4 points Any hole 4 points
  • 124. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 120 | P a g e Acceptance Calculation Roll length in meter = A Total points found = B Acceptance Value = B/A x 100 points per 100 meter Acceptance range Range Grade <40 points A 41 – 60 points B 61 – 80 points C Above 80 points Reject If the fabric is found within acceptance limit then it is delivered to Garments section. But if the fabric fault is so high that cross the acceptance limit then it is rejected. 8.13. Faults of fabrics in finishing section: Table 9- 1: Faults of fabrics at finishing section FABRIC FAULTS & Related Dept. IMAGE CAUSES REMIDIES Hole Dyeing Due to problematiic nozzle in dyeing m/c some holes may produce in fabric during dyeing. Nozzles must be cleaned time to time & maintanace should should be done properly.
  • 125. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 121 | P a g e Uneven shade dyenig fault Due to faulty dyeing Bleaching & Re-dyeing H2O2=3g/l NaOH=2g/l Detergent =0.5g/l S.A.=0.5g/l Softener stain Finishing Improper mixing of solution. Washing with: wetting agent & detergent: 0.5g/l Acid: 3g/l Temp. : 900 C Time: 10min Lycra burn Finishing + Dyeing Due to improper heat set. Heat set must be done carefully. Wrong Slitting Finishing Its causes due to operator carelessness.someti mes workers doesnt slit fabric through slitting mark. Operators have to slit fabric through slitting mark or fed fabric in slitting m/c in proper way so that m/c can slit fabric through slitting mark. Rub Mark Dyeing fault Due to carelessness of operator. Washing Soaping agent:0.5g/l Temperature:550 C Time: 15min
  • 126. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 122 | P a g e Missing yarn knitting fault Yarn breakage or carelessness 0f the operator. Automatic yarn stopper should be repaired. Operators must be carefull. Fly contaminati on knitting fault During knitting, if any dirt, dust, or any foreign particle passes into the yarn and the fabric is knitted with this dirt or fly yarn. Knitting machine should be clean. Pressed-off stich knitting fault Yarn breaks before the yarn feeder. Yarn package windi ngfaults, poor package build-up. Fibre fly block the yarn guids, feeders etc. Operator must be careful. Needle broken Knitting fault 1.Due to dirt deposuition in needle this problem occurred. 2.This problen also can occur due to yarn tension variation. 1.Yarn tension hav to minimize. 2.Needle must be cleaned before production of any new fabric.
  • 127. Finishing Section Industrial Attachment 123 | P a g e Thick & Thin Knitting fault Its causes due to yarn problem.if thick & thin places remain in yarn & fabric is knitted with that yarn,then,this problem found in fabric. Yarn should be carefully selected. Pin hole Knitting 1.Improper tension 2.Same drive for both knit & tuck stitch. 3.curved needle latch. 1.Different drive have to maintained. 2.Needle has to change. Waviness This sturcture consist of plain & lacost design where stitch length for tuck stitch is kept same as all knit loops.As a result waviness has produced in lacost part. Different SL for tuck stitch must be kept by adjusting VDQ pulley.
  • 128. Garments Section Industrial Attachment 124 | P a g e 9 CHAPTER: GARMENTS SECTION
  • 129. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 125 | P a g e 9.1.Organ gram of cutting department Manager, Cutting ▼ Cutting In-Charge ▼ Cutting Supervisor ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ Cutter man Scissor man Cutting helper Sticker man Bend- knife cutter Writer man
  • 130. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 126 | P a g e 9.2. Fabric spreading section: ◘ The fabric is spread face to back. ◘ The width of the fabric or lay is defined by the fabric diameter as developed by the knitting department in correspondence with some predetermined calculation by the Merchandising department, which is done with repeat to the order specifications as given by the buyer. ◘ Even the lay length is not fixed & it is done or calculated while laying the fabric by the trial and error method. 9.3. Marker Type: I. Non sectional marker is used irrespective of the order or the style. II. The marker length is not pre determined and a particular order style may have more one spreads, each with different marker lengths. III. Marker is drawn on the top layer of the fabric with contrasting chalks & sometimes even with pen. Therefore, if actually reduces the works of the cutting department. IV. Marker efficiency is not checked .Therefore; there is no control & effort to gain maximum marker efficiency. V. Since pattern parts are few and simple, we can certainly use sectional markers as even non-sectional markers do not have very high efficiency. VI. Workers should be aware of splicing right at the defect and not leave any allowance while cutting. 9.4. Bundling and Ticketing: It is always taken care that, there are 25-30 pieces in the bundle as per ISO: 9001 norms. A ticket is attached to each of the bundle, which has the following parameters: • Order Number: • Color: • Bundle no: • Cut no.
  • 131. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 127 | P a g e 9.5. Cutting equipments Fig.: process of sample cutting & other 9.6. Machine specification: SL no. M/C name Brand/Model Features Total m/c Qty 1 Fabric Inspection Made in USA with auto speed controller 1 Set 2 Cutting Machine Eastman Model No 629 11 Sets 3 Band Knife Eastman EC – 700 3 Sets 4 Dies Cutting M/C H Schwable Inc Made in USA 1 Sets 5 Dies Cutting M/C MF 25 Atom Italy 2 Sets 6 End Cutter Eastman Lay Cutting 10 Sets 7 Cutting Tables USA 60 X 6 2 Sets
  • 132. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 128 | P a g e 8 Cutting Tables Taiwan 52 X 6 4 Sets 9 Cutting Tables Taiwan 48 X 6 3 Sets 10 Laser Light Eastman 2 Sets 11 Cutting Gloves Eastman 17 Sets 12 Inter Lining Cutting Local 52” Width 1 Set Total 57 Sets 9.7.Sewing section Specification of machines in sewing section: S/L Type of Machine Brand No of m/c country of origin 1 Single Needle lock stitch JUKI 278 JAPAN 2 Single Needle lock stitch JUKI 160 JAPAN 3 Over lock 4 thread JUKI 225 JAPAN 4 Over lock 4 thread JUKI 10 JAPAN 5 Over lock 4 thread Top dowen JUKI 2 JAPAN 6 Over lock 4 thread Back latch JUKI 10 JAPAN 7 Over lock 4 thread Cylinder JUKI 5 JAPAN 8 Over lock 6 thread JUKI 5 JAPAN 9 Cylinder Bed Flat lock PEGASUS 47 JAPAN 10 Cylinder Bed Flat lock PEGASUS 25 JAPAN 11 Cylinder Bed Flat lock PEGASUS 6 JAPAN
  • 133. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 129 | P a g e 12 Cylinder Bed Flat lock PEGASUS 9 JAPAN 13 Flat Bed Flat lock PEGASUS 18 JAPAN 14 Flat Bed Flat lock PEGASUS 15 JAPAN 15 Flat Bed Flat lock PEGASUS 5 JAPAN 16 Feed of the Arm YAMATO 8 JAPAN 17 Button Hole JUKI 12 JAPAN 18 Button Stitch JUKI 12 JAPAN 19 Ber Tack JUKI 5 JAPAN 20 Picoating KANSAI 3 JAPAN 21 Needle Detector CINTEX 2 ENG:AND 22 Fusing Machine HASHIMA 2 JAPAN 23 Rib Cutter (3 way) CALIFORNIA 2 USA 24 Rib Cutter (Single) 2 TAIWAN 25 Band Knife EASTMAN 2 JAPAN 26 Cutting Machine KM 10 JAPAN 27 Vacuam Table NAOMOTO 50 JAPAN 28 Heater less Iron NAOMOTO 50 JAPAN 29 Label Cutter and Folder 1 TAIWAN 30 Snap Button Machine YKK 10 GERMANY 31 Thread Sucker NAOMOTO 2 THAILAND 32 3 Needle, 5 Thread Cylinder bed Interlock Machine with Fabric Trimmer PEGASUS 44 SINGAPORE
  • 134. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 130 | P a g e TOTAL= 1037 9.8.Other Sewing Equipments S/L M/C name Brand/Model Feature total m/c Qty 1 Fusing Machine Hashima 600B Made in Japan 1 set 2 Fusing Machine Kanegisser Made in Japan 2 sets 3 Automatic Shirt Placket Fusing Machine NS-8233Ngai Shing Auto Temp System 4 sets 4 Collar Turning and Blocking Machine NS-44 Ngai Shing Blocking Pneumatic 3 sets 5 Collar Point Trimming NS-75 Ngai Shing 3 sets 6 Collar Point Trimming & Turning NS-76 Ngai Shing 8 sets 7 Collar Turning & Blocking Machine NS-76 Ngai Shing Collar Edge Cutting with Adjustable Width 8 sets 8 Neck Press Machine NS-92 Ngai Shing NISSIN M/C with Double Head each 2 sets 9 Neck Press Machine NISSIN CPF-2 With Auto Head Controller 1 set 10 Collar Blocking M/C Forming NAGAI Sing NS- 8247 Auto Collar Blocking 8 sets 11 Cuff Press NS-82 Ngai Shing Auto Cuff Pressing 9 Sets
  • 135. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 131 | P a g e 12 Reconing Machine Ns-85 Ngai Shing 2 Cone Machine 2 Sets 13 Placket Cutting M/C Hashime-HW-40 With Auto Stracker & Adjust Table 2 Sets 14 Pocket Creasing Nagaishing Brand NS-94 With Steam and Header 9 Sets 15 Arm Hole Fusing M/C Nagaishing NS84 SD Made in USA 5 Sets 16 Collar Heat Notcher Vapor Press Co. 2 Sets 17 Arm Hole Press Ns-91 4 Sets 18 Side Seam Press NS-8235 1 Set 19 Collar Notcher NS-8232 4 Sets Total: 78 sets 9.9.Sewing sequence of t-shirt: Number matching front 2 back pant (back on pant on upper side) ▼ Solder stitching (By over lock m/c) ▼ Neck rib truck (By plain m/c) ▼ Neck rib sewing by plain m/c ▼ Neck rib joins with body pant ▼
  • 136. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 132 | P a g e Neck top sin ▼ Solder to solder back tip ▼ Size label sewing ▼ Solder to solder back top sin ▼ Sleeve marking ad number matching with body parts. ▼ Sleeve tuck with body part (Sleeve mark point & solder mark point) ▼ Sleeve joint with the body part ▼ Side sewing and care label joint ▼ Bottom hem tuck (at the end side) ▼ Bottom hem sewing ▼ Arm bottom hem joint ▼ Inspection.
  • 137. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 133 | P a g e 9.10.Sewing sequence of Polo shirt: Lining joint with collar part by heat pressing ▼ Collar marking for open stitch ▼ Collar inside open stitch ▼ Collar marking ▼ Collar ¼ top sin ▼ Collar cutting ▼ Band Rolling ▼ Band joint with Collar ▼ Band top sin 1/6 ▼ Placket lining ▼ Placket marking ▼ Placket Rolling ▼ Placket joint ▼
  • 138. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 134 | P a g e Placket top sin 1/6 ▼ Placket Pattern top sin ▼ Placket pattern top sin 1/6 ▼ Box Sewing ▼ Pocket Rolling ▼ Pocket iron ▼ Pocket marking ▼ Pocket joint with body ▼ Yoke joint with back part ▼ Yoke ¼ top sin ▼ Back & front part matching number ▼ Solder joint ▼ Solder top sin ▼ Collar marking ▼
  • 139. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 135 | P a g e Collar & body number matching ▼ Collar joint with body part ▼ Collar top sin in jointing point ▼ Sleeve marking ▼ Sleeve over locked ▼ Sleeve Rolling ▼ Sleeve pair matching ▼ Sleeve & body matching ▼ Sleeve body tuck ▼ Sleeve joint with body part ▼ Sleeve marking for batch ▼ Sleeve batch joint (left & right side) ▼ Body marking for batch ▼ Batch joint with body part ▼
  • 140. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 136 | P a g e Label make ▼ Label Iron ▼ Main label joint in back side ▼ Sleeve opening tuck ▼ Body hem sewing ▼ Care label sewing ▼ Side joint ▼ Band tuck ▼ Band tape joint ▼ Band top sin ▼ Sleeve chap tuck ▼ Inspection.
  • 141. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 137 | P a g e FIG: sewing and sample making
  • 142. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 138 | P a g e 10 CHAPTER :PRINTING SECTION
  • 143. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 139 | P a g e 10.1. Machineries in printing section: Semi automatic flat bed printing m/c: 03 pcs Dryer : 02 pcs No. of Flat bed Table : 05 pcs 10.2.Machine specification of printing section: SL no M/C name Brand Origin Capacity No of m/c 1 MHM Printing M/C Tesoma Australia 600 pcs/hrs 1 Set 2 Heat Press M/C Metalnox 2Set 3 Heat Press M/C Wagen Germany 1 Set 4 Label Washing M/C Shanghai China 1 Set 5 Flock M/C Germany 2 Set 6 Flock M/C Local 2 Set 7 Color Mixing H.S.Z Kiddzigrio Thailand 1 Set 8 Spray Gun M/C Germany 2 Set 9 Printing Table H.S.Z Kiddzigri Thailand 1000pcs/hrs 2 Set 10 Printing Table Local Bangladesh 1600pcs/hrs 4 Set
  • 144. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 140 | P a g e 10.3. Chemical used in Printing: Thickener (PG): It is a main compound for making a paste. Binder: Hold color on to the fabric surface. Fixer: Cross linking chemical (when drying at high temperature about 150 ºC) Printing section Pigment: It is a coloring substance 10.4. Different types of printing: 1. Pigment printing 2. Rubber printing 3. Crack printing 4. Discharge printing 5. Plastic sol/ High-density printing 6. Flocking printing 7. Foil printing 8. Glitter printing 9. Emboss / Pub printing 10.5. Printing Process Sequence Pigment printing Recipe: Thickener------2% Binder--------8% Fixer----------2% Water---------90% Sequence:
  • 145. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 141 | P a g e Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Pigment printing paste apply with the help of screen ▼ Curing at 160ºC (belt speed 6.50 m/min) ▼ Delivery 10.6. Rubber printing Recipe: Rubber----------------60% Clear------------------38% Fixer---------------------2% Sequence: Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Rubber printing paste apply with the help of screen ▼ Hanging the fabric for 30 min ▼
  • 146. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 142 | P a g e Curing at 150ºc (belt speed 5 m/min) ▼ Delivery. 10.7. Crack printing Recipe: Rubber-----------------98% Fixer-------------------2% Crack paste / clear Sequence: Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Crack paste/clear apply with the help of screen ▼ Dry in air temp or hand dryer m/c (slight) ▼ Printing paste apply with the help of screen ▼ Curing at 190ºc (belt speed 2 m/min) ▼ Deliver
  • 147. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 143 | P a g e 10.8. Flock printing Recipe: Flock paste------------------ 90% Fixer (Nylon) --------------- 10% Flock powder (Synthetic or cotton) Sequence: Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Apply flock paste with the help of screen ▼ Flock powder apply with the help of flock gun ▼ Manually dry by hanging for 30min ▼ Curing at 180ºc (belt speed 3 m/min) ▼ Brushing ▼ Delivery
  • 148. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 144 | P a g e 10.9. Foil printing Foil paper solid color which is made by buyer requirement. Recipe: Foil paste----------------90% Fixer---------------------10% Sequence: … Fabric preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Foil gun /Foil paste apply by screen ▼ Dry slightly in air temp / Hand dryer ▼ Apply foil paper on the fabric ▼ Heat apply by heat press m/c(150ºc for 5sec) ▼ Cooling for 4 sec ▼ Foil paper removed by hand ▼ Deliver
  • 149. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 145 | P a g e 10.10. Emboss / Pub printing Recipe: Rubber paste------------ 49% Pub / Emboss----------- 49% Fixer---------------------- 2% Sequence: Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Apply printing paste by screen (3times) ▼ Hanging for 15min ▼ Curing at 170ºc (belt speed 3m/min) ▼ Delivery
  • 150. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 146 | P a g e 10.11. Discharge printing Recipe: Discharge rubber paste------------ 90% Discharge/ RNS powder----------- 49% Sequence: Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Apply printing paste with the help of screen ▼ Curing at 190ºc (belt speed 3m/min) ▼ Delivery 10.12. Plastic sol/ High-density printing: Recipe: High-density paste------------ 100%
  • 151. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 147 | P a g e Sequence: Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ High-density paste apply by screen ▼ Curing at 160ºc (belt speed 3m/min) ▼ Delivery 10.13. Glitter printing: Recipe: Rubber paste------------ 70% Fixer---------------------- 2% Glitter---------------------- 28% Sequence: Table preparation ▼ Fabric plaited on the table ▼ Glitter paste apply by screen ▼ Hanging for 15min for dry ▼ Curing at 160º c (belt speed 3m/min) ▼ Delivery
  • 152. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 148 | P a g e 10.14.Faults in printing: Fatting: If the pigment printed fabric is fatted (on printed portion) after washing. Then this fabric is rejected. So it is major fault for printing. Cracking: If the rubber printed fabric is braking (on printing portion) after elastration. Fig: Printing Table Fig: Semi automatic flat screen printing m/c
  • 153. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 149 | P a g e 11CHAPTER :EMBROIEDERY SECTION
  • 154. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 150 | P a g e 11.1. Organ gram of Embroidery Section: Embroidery In-charge ▼ Embroidery Supervisor ▼ ▼ ▼ Embroidery Operator Embroidery Helper 11.2. Process sequence of embroidery: 1. At first designed the buyer design by CAD software 2. The design software install into the machine 3. The fabric clamped by the clamp board 4. Then run the machine until finished the design 5. Then the fabrics collect for delivery.
  • 155. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 151 | P a g e 11.3.Embroidery Faults: 1. Stitch gap 2. Bobbin out 3. Oil spot 4. Miss thread 5. Measurement up-down 6. Needle hole. Fig: Embroidery machine
  • 156. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 152 | P a g e 12 CHAPTER : QUALITY CONTROL
  • 157. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 153 | P a g e Quality Control: Quality control is concerned with the evaluation of test data and its application to control of the textile process, raw materials, intermediate products and final products. It is concerned not only with quality level and cost of maintaining this quality level but also concerned with the presentation of tangible values to measure quality and changes in quality. In order to control quality one must know about the consumers’ expectations. 12.1.List of Equipments: 1. Computer 2. Light box 3. Electric Heater 4. Sample Dyeing M/C 5. Electrical Balance 6. PH meter 7. G S M Cutter 8. Washing M/ C 9. Shrinkage & spirality measurement instrument 12.2.Objectives of quality Control:  Selection of raw materials  Specification test  Product testing.  To ensure the product desired quality.  To fulfill requirements for quality.  Process control and development  To control and different techniques will be required by different conditions.  Quality assurance and so on.  To evaluate accurately of the end product.  To research and development  Quality assurance and so on.
  • 158. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 154 | P a g e 12.3.Quality Management system: Quality assurance procedure may be provided by the following two major parts- Quality control On Line Test off Line Test Physical Tests Chemical Tests On Line Test - Fabric GSM control - Grey Fabric Inspection with 4 point system - Diameter and Width control - Shade Check; - Bias and Bowing; - Visual appearance (Enzyme performance); - Stripe. Off Line Test Off line quality are divided into two groups- Physical Tests and Chemical Tests.
  • 159. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 155 | P a g e Physical Tests  GSM of Fabric;  Rubbing Fastness or Crocking;  Pilling test;  Diameter and Width;  Tensile strength;  Tearing test;  Bursting test;  Light Fastness test;  Drape, Stiffness, and Handle;  Course per inch;  Wales per inch;  Picks per inch;  Ends per inch. Chemical Tests  Shrinkage and Spirality or Twisting;  Fastness to Washing;  Fastness to Perspiration;  Fastness to Chlorine;  PH test. 12.4.Quality assurance: Quality assurance is defined as all those possible planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence than a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing. 12.5.Quality assurance at different stage: Assures the quality of the products of dyeing section in the following three steps:  In laboratory  In dyeing section &  In finishing section
  • 160. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 156 | P a g e Procedures are described below: In laboratory  Swatch card from buyer according to their requirement  recipe prediction for sample dyeing  sample dyeing until matching with swatch card  Fastness & other tests of the fabric or yarn are done here. In dyeing section  According to the buyer’s sample, sample dyeing is done in sample dyeing machine in dyeing shed & again matched with the approved sample.  If result is OK, then bulk production.  During dyeing, samples are taken until accurate shade matching. The interval may be 30-40 minutes.  After dyeing sample is collected after softening matching is done.  Last of all, sample is collected after fixation & matched.  Then allowed the fabrics to be finished. In finishing section By using a series of finishing machines correct width, softness & appearance are maintained according to requirements. Then sampling is done for several times to test GSM, Shrinkage & fastness properties. Finally fabric is inspected & prepared for delivery. Fabric Inspection: The inspection of fabric is a procedure by which the defects of fabric are identified and fabric is classified according to degree or intensity of defects. The fabric inspection is done for both gray and finished fabric. Grey Fabric Inspection: Grey fabric inspection is performed according to 4-point system. Finished Fabric Inspection:
  • 161. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 157 | P a g e 4 point numbering system is followed for finished fabric inspection. Defects found in the final inspection:  Uneven shade  Oil spot  Neps  Crease mark  Machine Stoppage mark  Listing  Line mark  Pick missing  Double yarn  Dead cotton  Bowing  Fly yarn contamination 12.6.Test procedures for Quality Control 1. GSM Test GSM is the most important factor. There is a G S M Cutter. The Sample is cut then weighted in the electronic balance. The reading is then (in gm) from the balance, multiplied by 100, to get Value of G S M. 2. Finished Fabric dia In Knit, dyeing finishing, finished diameter is Very important factor. It should be kept as the buyer requirements. Simply a measuring tape measures it. Finished diameter is controlled at compacting m/c. 3. Rubbing test: 1. Purpose: The fastness test to rubbing is used on a fabrics to evaluate the transfer of surface dye from the test fabric when it is applied surface friction or rubbing against a rough surface.
  • 162. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 158 | P a g e 2. Apparatus: Crock-meter and grey scale 3. Method: ISO-105x12 4. Test specification: Sample fabric size : 250mm X 50mm Crocking Fabric size: 50mm X 50mm The crocking cloth against which then sample will be rubbed is a white, bleached, Un-dyed cotton fabric. Procedure: At first the sample is placed with template over the metallic mounting plate. Then the cracking cloth is set in the crocking pin (peg) with clip. Then the test specification is rubbed to & for (10s X 10 rubs, 1 rub/sec) by means of crock meters figure. Finally the crocking cloth is removed from the peg. In case of wet rubbing test, the crocking cloth is wetted at room temperature. Evaluation: Compare the contrast between untreated & treated white crocking cloth with the staining grey scale. Again, color contrasts of rubbed and un-rubbed by sample are compared with color changing grey scale. For both type of rubbing test, the fastness is rate from 1 to 5, where 1 means worst rubbing fastness & 5 means excellent rubbing fastness. Wash fastness: A. Purpose: The resistance of the color of any dyed/printed material to washing is known as wash fastness. B. Apparatus:  Wash fastness tester,  Grey scale,  Multi-fiber. C. Method: ISO-105-CO6 D. Test specimen: For Fabric: Fabric, size 10 cm X 4 cm. Multi-fiber fabric: Multi-fiber fabric size 10 cm X 4 cm. E. Reagent:  ECE determent 50gm  Na-perborate 10gm  Tade= 2gm  4BK= 2gm
  • 163. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 159 | P a g e  Water= 20lt  pH =10.5±1  Time = 30min  Temperature = 600 C  No. of still ball (on condition) =50 F. Procedure:  Weight of the specimen & volume of the wash liquor are calculated as require ISO-105-CO6 method.  Place of the specimen in the container with the wash liquor.  Run the machine & rise the Temp. at600 C and run for 30min.  m/c will automatically wash & rinse the fabric  Drying: Drying in a fully automatic dryer at temperature not more then 600 C then keep in relax for 1 hour. H. Assessment: color change: The original & tested dyed sample are placed by side, oriented in the same direction along with the color change grey scale and compare the contrast between the treated dyed sample and the same untreated sample with the appropriate
  • 164. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 160 | P a g e 13CHAPTER : COST ANALYSIS
  • 165. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 161 | P a g e 13.1.Introduction: Costing is a very important task for a factory which runs for business purposes.And it is also strictly followed in the N.A.Z.Bangladesh Ltd. Costing of the products considering the raw materials expenditure, salary and wages of officers and workers, distributions and advertisement expenses etc. all direct and indirect expenses is done in this factory. It is determined by a troop of accountants with advice and consultancy of executive director.Cost analysis is a crucial step for any business organization, specially if it is a manufacturing company. Here cost analysis is done in conventional method. Costing is a process by which the setting price of a product is calculated. 13.2.Price of the product Generally price of product is determined by the required profit adding to the total expenses. So, Price of products= (Direct cost + Indirect cost + Factory Overhead) + Required profit 13.3.Costing system Costing system mainly describes how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company/beneficial. According to buyer/customers requirement at first the fabric is collected from local and foreign suppliers. Then it id calculated how much dyestuff and chemical is required to the end of the processing of that specific fabric .After that, the final cost is fixed including some profit & manufacturing overhead.Then the unit price is offered to the buyer for approval. Costing of the prodsuct is done by the consideration of the following factors:  Direct materials.  Indirect materials.  Direct labours  Indirect labours  Manufacturing Overhead Floor rent. Machine drescription. Utility cost. Maintenance. Spare parts. Depriciations Office overhead.
  • 166. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 162 | P a g e Transportation. Refreshment. Miscellaneous. 13.4.Example of a costing Procedure: Cost Calculation: (in tk) Cost of total chemical: x Taka Factory overhead: y Taka All other cost: z Taka Profit: a Taka Total cost: (x+y+z) Total Price: (x+y+z+a) Taka Cost of Dyeing and Finishing (assuming) Table 10.1: Cost of Dyeing and Finishing of knit fabric Color Open Finishing with Enzyme & Silicon(Tk/kg) 100% cotton S/J Lycra S/J Light color 120 140 Medium color 135 160 Dark color 145 170 Off white 110 130 White 60 80 Royal Blue 160 170 Only wash 50 70 Only heat setting - 20 Sweding (Ultrasoft) 20 20 Brush 10 10 13.5.Costing of the product for finished fabric
  • 167. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 163 | P a g e Cost of Fabric per Kg = Yarn price +Knitting charge +process loss (4%) + Dyeing cost + process loss (5%) + packaging cost + 25% margin Profit Say, Yarn count= 30/s Yarn price= 5.60$ So, cost of raw material/kg = 5.60x70 Taka = 392 Taka Knitting charge (say s/j) = 8 Taka Process loss (4%) = 16 Taka So, price of grey knitted fabric =416 Taka Dyeing cost per kg =120 Taka Process loss (5%) =26.8 Taka So, Dyed fabric cost =562.8 Taka Packaging coast =3.50 Taka So, Total cost of dyed fabric =566.3 Taka Fabric price (with 25% margin profit) = 707.88 Taka/kg 13.6.Costing for garments Fabric consumption (for garments/dozen): Required fabric weight in Kg. = (Body length +sleeve length + sewing allowance) x ½ Chest x 2 x gsm x 12/1,00,00,000 +15% Say, Body length =78cm Sleeve length =32cm Chest length x (1/2) =62cm Sewing allowance =1cm
  • 168. Embroidery Section Industrial Attachment 164 | P a g e Gsm =210 Fabric consumption /dozen= (78+32+1) x 62 x 2 x 210 x12/1,00,00,000 + 15% =3.99kg/doz Body fabric cost/dozen = 707.88 x 3.99 = 2824.44 Taka Cost of collar & cuff/dozen = 220 Taka Cost of Trims/dozen =160 Taka Cost of Trims/ dozen (with 5% process loss) = 168 Taka Production cost of garments/dz = (Body fabric cost +cost of collar & cuff +cost of Trims) =2824.44+220+168 =3212.44 Taka Garments price/dozen (with 25% profit) = 4015.55 Taka =57.37$ 13.7.REMARKS Costing is as important as production for a productive factory. Without proper costing all production curriculums will go to in vain. Cause, a factory cannot reach to its goal without achieving good profit and good profit is not possible without skillful costing. Seeing the improvement of Epyllion Knitex Limited day by day, we can assume that it follows the right and proper way of costing with skillful technical persons.Price of the product and costing of the product of any Industry is a secret subject because it is related in the marketing strategy of the industry. I suggest my college not to include these topics in the curriculum of industrial attachment program.
  • 169. ETP Industrial Attachment 165 | P a g e 14CHAPTER : ETP
  • 170. ETP Industrial Attachment 166 | P a g e ETP ETP means effluent plant. It can be defined as a plant where the effluent is treated. Now a day ETP is mandatory for industries which produced huge amount of waste water (such as wet processing industries in Textiles).By basic studies on ETP, we learn how to control textile waste water pollution, how waste water is treated in order to save our environment. 14.1.Classification of ETP ETP can be classified as follows 1. Physicochemical 2. Biological – a) Conventional b) Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) 3. Physicochemical followed by biological (Bio-chemical) The ETP of N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd is used Physicochemical followed by biological (Bio- chemical). The ETP of N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd is described below: Capacity of ETP :120 M3 /hour Amount of using chemicals: 1) Polyelectrolyte :2kg/1000L 2) Lime : :(50-100) kg/1000L 3) FeSO4 :50 kg/1000L 4) DAP +Urea :(8+2) kg/1000L The above qualities are continuously achieved by the ETP plant.
  • 171. ETP Industrial Attachment 167 | P a g e
  • 172. ETP Industrial Attachment 168 | P a g e 14.2.Layout of ETP in N.A.Z Figure 11.1: Layout of ETP Lamella Clarifier (primary) Chemical Dosing Tank Raw effluent from Dyeing section Chemical Dosing Tank pH correction tank Sludge pit Aeration Tank Lamella Clarifier (secondary) Lamella Clarifier (primary) Flocculation tank Equalization Tank
  • 173. ETP Industrial Attachment 169 | P a g e Analysis of waste water should be done in each month and done under the supervision of Department of Environment. Such analysis sheet which is done on the date of 31-01-11 is given bellow: Table 11.1: Discharge quality of treated waste water in N.A.Z. Sample Location Date Lab code No. pH DO mg/l BOD mg/l COD MG/L TDS mg/l N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd (Inlet of ETP) 25-01- 2011 167 9.8 0.0 120 380 2320 N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd (Outlet of ETP) 25-01- 2011 198 7.4 4.7 48 160 2040 Bangladesh Standard for Waste Water from industrial units, discharge to inland water as per ECR 1997. 6-9 4.5-8 50 200 2100 14.3.Chemicals used for ETP and their functions: 1) H2SO4/HCl Function: Neutralize the waste water controlling the PH . It is auto dispensed in the neutralization tank. 2) Polyelectrolyte Function: Make chemical particles bigger in size 3) De-colorant Function: It is used for removing color of waste water. . 4) Sodium Hypochlorite Function: It is used to kill the harmful bacteria. It is used in the biological oxidation tank.
  • 174. ETP Industrial Attachment 170 | P a g e 5) FeSO4 Function: Used for coagulation and sludge separation from waste water. 7) Lime Function: To change the color of waste water. 8) Di-ammonium phosphate Function: Using food of bacteria. 9) Urea Function: Using food of bacteria. Product Quality Checked:  Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  Total suspended solids  Total dissolved solids  Color  pH, etc. Remarks: Waste water from processing industries e g. Dyeing , Printing , Finishing and washing causes great harmful effect on our environmental, As a result agricultural land loses its fertility, natural water becomes polluted aquatic life is destructive and crops are da
  • 175. Maintenance Section Industrial Attachment 171 | P a g e 15CHAPTER : MAINTENANCE SECTION
  • 176. Maintenance Section Industrial Attachment 172 | P a g e 15.1.Maintenance Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in such a way that trouble free. Service and increased machine life can be ensured and specific product quality required by the customers is sustained. On time maintenance increase m/c lifetime & ensures trouble free services. Maintenance of machineries is very important for any type of industries and it is must for a knit composite factory. All machines and machine parts of knitting, dyeing and garments are maintained with extreme care. Because production quality and quantity, both depends on the maintenance with regularity. 15.2.Objective of Maintenance  To keep the factory plants, equipments, machines. Tools in an optimum working condition.  To ensure specified accuracy to product & time schedule of delivery to customer.  To keep the machine down time to minimum thus to have control over the production pro- gram.  To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range.  To modify the machine settings to meet the need for the production. 15.3.Classification of Maintenance: Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Break Down Maintenance Mechanical Maintenanc e Electrical Maintenance Mechanical Maintenanc e Electrical Maintenanc e
  • 177. Maintenance Section Industrial Attachment 173 | P a g e Types of maintenance:  Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description.  Break down maintenance In this case, repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it can’t perform its normal functions.  Routine Maintenance Maintenance of different m/c’s are prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing m/c maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done. Total Manpower Total Manpower in Maintenance Department: 25 Table 12. 1: Maintenance Tools & Equipments Mechanical Electrical 1. Pliers 2. Inside Calipers 3. Outside Calipers 4. Digital Millimeter 5. Heating Shoulder 6. Hammer 7. Pliles 8. Gauge 9. Vernier Calipers 10. Lather M/C 11. Drill M/C 12. Welding M/C 13. Spanner Set 14. Alen Key Set 15. Steel Roll 16. Measuring Tape 17. Crew Driver 18. Cutting oil (WD-40) 1. Voltmeter 2. Ammeter 3. Contact Cleaner
  • 178. Maintenance Section Industrial Attachment 174 | P a g e Maintenance Procedure Normally preventive maintenance is done here. During maintenance procedure following points should be checked: 15.4.Checklist for Different Machine 15.5.Dyeing Machine Maintenance: Mechanical  Check the main pump oil level.  Check all bearings, seals, gaskets.  Check all mechanical seal flush pipes.  Discharge the water from air filter.  Check all m/c flange & platform bolts.  Grease RCR rotary joints every 2 weekly  Clean & check the control panel.  Check the adjustment of catch basket mechanism and plaiter system. 15.6.Squeezer Machine Maintenance: Mechanical  Grease squeezer bearings.  Grease all the bearings.  Check oil level of pneumatic oilers.  Check oil level of gearboxes.  Check magnetic spreader adjustment. 15.7.Machine: Compactor Maintenance: Mechanical Check, Grease if necessary  Nuts of width adjustment spindles for wear  Check all spindle bearings for free running  Free running of guide rollers, deflection rollers & contact rollers  Pressure springs of chain tensioner
  • 179. Maintenance Section Industrial Attachment 175 | P a g e Perform visual inspection: -  Gear box oil level  Belts, pulleys 15.8.Machine: Stenter Maintenance: Mechanical  Crease all bearing with stuburg NBU-12, energrease 1002  Complete cleaning of the machine  Check all belt and belt tension  Check all door sills  Check gear box of platting and its oil.  Check all pin bars & clean  Check chain and give oil if required .Clean exhaust blower & duct  All chamber blowers check and clean  Chamber nozzle cleaning  Check gas pressure, adjust if required 15.9.Machine: Boiler: Maintenance: Mechanical  Check and clean fluff & dart at all machine.  Feed pump servicing. Main boiler servicing.  Cheek all temperature & pressure gauge meter.  Cheek gas strainer.  Clean gauge glass & change if required.  Clean feed tank.  Clean fire tube.  Clean all safety valves.  Check all steam valves.  Check all gas regulators. Remarks Maintenance of m/c’s are very essential to prolong the m/c life and good maintenance is important consideration. In this industry maintenance program is done by expert maintenance team. So, very few times production is stopped due to m/c problem.
  • 180. Production Planning & Control Industrial Attachment 176 | P a g e 16CHAPTER : PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL
  • 181. Production Planning & Control Industrial Attachment 177 | P a g e 16.1. Basic Procedure of Production Planning & Control A planned work brings success. Without planning nothing is complete within the required time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. Planning gives a scheduled task and control completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. Its basic working procedure is as follows-  Taking order form marketing division ,  Analyzing the orders  Planning for knitting the fabric  Planning for dyeing the fabric  Planning for finishing the fabric  It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes the order is planned only for finishing the materials or only for dyeing the goods. Then some steps are minimizing for planning.  Taking order from the marketing division: N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. marketing division supplied fabric orders to the planning and control division by a specific format.  Analyzing the orders: After getting the fabric order, this section analyzes the orders according to buyers order quantity, type of orders (i.e. type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.) delivery date etc. This section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted, knitting balance, fabric to be dyed, dyeing balance RFD (ready for delivery), RFD balance, delivery fabric & delivery balance.  Planning for knitting: This section plans for knitting production. It selects m/c for knitting the fabric, no of m/c to be used, type of yarn used, from which source of yarn will be collected, required GSM, width etc. It also gives delivery date of knitted fabric.
  • 182. Production Planning & Control Industrial Attachment 178 | P a g e  Planning for dyeing of the fabric: Production planning for dyeing is called "Batch Plan". Batch plan is prepared according to m/c capacity, no. of nozzle batch no, fabric construction, color, width, GSM and priority of delivery etc. and written in a batch card.  Planning for finishing of the fabric: Finishing schedule is same as dyeing. After dyeing, materials go to the finishing section with the batch plan. The fabric can be finished in the open line finish or tube line finish. Finishing line will be selected according to the type of the fabric to be finished. Finishing data is written to the batch card and is informed to the planning section. However this section always forces to all the departments to finish all the work within the delivery time given by the buyers. Thus, it plays a very important role in the success of the company.
  • 183. Marketing Information Industrial Attachment 179 | P a g e 17CHAPTER : MARKETING INFORMATION
  • 184. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 180 | P a g e 17.1.Marketing Information N.A.Z Bangladesh Ltd. is a 100% export oriented ready-made garments manufacturer. So they sell their product to export market especially to Europe. They also take some initiative for market development through communicating with new buyer and taking part in different international garments fair. Product As it is an apparels manufacturing industry, its main products arc T-Shirts, polo Shirts, Tank Top, Sweat Shirts, Night Wears, Jogging Suits, Under Wears, Trousers etc. The factory ensures safe/metal free garments as per customer requirements, through practice of metal detection & needle/metal control procedures. 17.2.Major Buyers H&M SWEDEN ALDI GERMANY PUNTOROMA SPAIN TESCO U.K TEX-EBO GERMANY TEMA TURKEY SPRINGFIELD EUROPE UNIQLO GERMANY SILVER WEAR U.K
  • 185. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 181 | P a g e 18CHAPTER : UTILITY FACILITIES
  • 186. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 182 | P a g e 18.1.Available Utility Facilities N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd is a large project. So, it requires adequate utility services. In N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. the following utility services are available –  Electricity  Gas  Water  Compressed air  Steam Electricity It is impossible to continue the production without electricity. A frequent supply of electricity is very much essential to ensure smooth production. In N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. the whole demanded electricity is generated by Own Generator. Generator Specification Type : Gas generator No. of generator : 2 Manufacturer : DEUTZ Local Supplier : KALTIMEX ENERGY BANGLADESH LTD. Capacity : Electricity Consumption : Overall efficiency : 80% Stroke of engine : 4 Stroke Generator No Capacity Generator No-1 1010 KW Generator No-2 1344 KW Season Total Consumption/Day In Summer 1400 KW In Winter 1100 KW
  • 187. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 183 | P a g e Engine RPM : 1500 No of Cylinder : Cooling System : Open Cycle Ignition System : Auto Starting Procedure (Generator) Total power is then distributed as per requirements of different, section of N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. Gas The gas is supplied to Gas Generator, Boiler. The source of gas is TITAS GAS LTD. Generator No No of Cylinder Generator No-1: 12 Generator No-2: 16 Generator Room should be Clean Cooling Tower water reserve tank shold filled Oil Circulation pump run for 10 min Start the Engine 5 Min without any load Close the main circuit breaker and connect the load.
  • 188. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 184 | P a g e Water Continuous supply of water for N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd is ensured by Water pump. The deep well water is subjected to Water Treatment Plant (WTP) to make sure the water quality parameter suitable for Textile Wet Processing. 18.2.Water Treatment Plant (WTP) The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the concentration of such contaminants so the water becomes fit for its desired end- use. Some common contaminants in raw water (deep well water) are iron, Ca, Mg etc. The water treatment plant is a vital part of the dyeing section where the supply water of the dyeing floor is treated and cured for proper dyeing. The supply water contains various soluble effluents like dissolved solids, metal compounds and other impurities which can lead to any sort of fabric fault during dyeing the knitted fabrics Optimum Hardness for Dye house water is 1-3 ppm. In N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. , water treatment is done in three steps by three filter tanks. The circulations of water at different stages are controlled by different bulbs. Backwash bulbs are used when the tank needs washing, Drain bulbs helps to drain out the water and Supply bulbs are used to control the water supply among the filter tanks. Water Treatment Procedure  Multi Grade Filter: The multi grade filter is used for removing the residual iron contained in the treated water.  Activated Carbon Filter: The activated carbon filter is used for removing the remaining metals and other impurities by passing the water flow through rocks of different sizes arranged in different layers of the tank. At first there is a layer of small rocks and next is a layer of medium rocks and finally comes a layer of big rocks. The tank contains a carbon layer in middle.  Softener Tank: The heart of a water softener is a mineral tank. It's filled with small polystyrene beads, also known as resin or zeolite. The beads carry a negative charge. Calcium and magne- sium in water both carry positive charges. This means that these minerals will cling to the beads as the hard water passes through the mineral tank.
  • 189. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 185 | P a g e  Soft Water Reserve Tank: The processed soft water is reserved in the soft water reserve tank.  Brine Water Tank: The brine tank is just what its name suggests, a plastic tank that contains a brine, water saturated with salt. The brine solution is typically made with salt or sodium. The brine tank holds a salt solution that flushes the mineral tank, replacing calcium and magnesium ions with sodium. Calcium and magnesium in water both carry positive charges. This means that these minerals will cling to the beads as the hard water passes through the mineral tank. Sodium ions also have positive charges, albeit not as strong as the charge on the calcium and magnesium. When a very strong brine solution is flushed through a tank that has beads already saturated with calcium and magnesium, the sheer volume of the sodium ions is enough to drive the calcium and magnesium ions off the beads. Water softeners have a separate brine tank that uses common salt to create this brine solution. Regeneration In normal operation, hard water moves into the mineral tank and the calcium and magnesium ions move to the beads, replacing sodium ions. The sodium ions go into the water. Once the beads are saturated with calcium and magnesium, the unit enters a 3-phase regenerating cycle. First, the backwash phase reverses water flow to flush dirt out of the tank. In the recharge phase, the concentrated sodium-rich salt solution is carried from the brine tank through the mineral tank. The sodium collects on the beads, replacing the calcium and magnesium, which go down the drain. Once this phase is over, the mineral tank is flushed of excess brine and the brine tank is refilled. Test Performed to Ensure the Water Quality  Hardens Test  Iron Test  Silica Test  PH Test
  • 190. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 186 | P a g e 18.3.Standard Water Quality for Dye house 18.4.Compressed Air In N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. Compressed air is generated with air compressor. Machine Name :SWAN Air Compressor No. Of Compressor : 2 Manufacturer : Tong Chen Iron Works Co. Ltd. Model : SWP-415 Max. Working Presser : 9kg/cm2 Machine Name : Foam Liquid Storage Tank Manufacturer : Kashiwa Co Ltd. Origin : Japan Capacity : 3.7 M Parameter Permissible Concentrations Color Colorless Smell Odor less Water Hardness <5 ppm PH Value 7-8 Dissolved Solid <1 ppm Inorganic Salt <500 ppm Iron <0.1 ppm Manganese <0.01 ppm Copper < 0.005 ppm Nitrate <50 ppm Nitrite <5ppm
  • 191. Utility Facilities Industrial Attachment 187 | P a g e 18.5.Steam Pure steam with required temperature must be produced to meet the continuous demand of steam in different sections. In N. A. Z Bangladesh Ltd. Steam is generated using 2 fire tube boiler. Boiler No-01: Boiler No-2: Brand : Cochrn Boiler Manufacturer : Cochran Boiler Ltd. Origin : Scotland Capacity : 10 ton Brand : DMX1-900P Manufacturer : Dapang Industry Origin : Korea Capacity : 9 ton
  • 192. Conclusion Industrial Attachment 188 | P a g e 19CHAPTER : CONCLUSION
  • 193. Conclusion Industrial Attachment 189 | P a g e Conclusion I have completed my Industrial Training successfully by the grace of Allah. Industrial Attachment sends us to the expected destiny of practical life. N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd. is a well know factory in the Textile field of Bangladesh. The completion of the two months industrial attachment at this industry gave us the inspiration that factory is one of the appropriate destiny to implement the theoretical knowledge. From this industrial attachment we got the details idea about the factory environment , production process, total management, store & inventory process, maintenance, utility etc. N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd. Is well equipped and the working environment is excellent. The relation between top management to bottom level is so nice. I am very lucky to get opportunity having training in this mill. The factory runs by a number of efficient Textile Engineers, Skilled technical & non- technical person. All the Textile Engineers, technical & non-technical person are very sincere, co-operative and helpful. We wish good luck of them and also for this factory. 19.1.Findings  Wonderful understanding between the top level management and the other employees and operatops. Industrial training is an essential part for textile education because it minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. Undoubtedly, this industrial training taught us lot about textile technology, production processes, textile machineries, industrial management, and made us comfortable to industrial life. Besides it gave us the first oppor- tunity to work in industry.
  • 194. Conclusion Industrial Attachment 190 | P a g e 19.2.Limitations  Because of secrecy act, the data of costing and marketing activities have not been supplied.  We had a very limited time. In spite of willingness to study in more details it was not poss- ible to do so.  Some of the points in different chapters are not include as these were not available.  It is not possible to in compass the whole process in such a small frame as this report 19.3.Suggestions  Some automatic machines for dyeing lab, production and QC inspection should be there.  More lab facility should have in the lab including busting strength tester, automatic dye lab dispenser, rotary store etc.  Supervisor or floor in-charge did not properly follow the program. So sometimes operators deviate from the set procedure which may hamper the quality of the product.  During the transport of fabric and the loading of fabric in the machine, fabrics are soiled by the contact with floor. This makes the fabric dirty. It may require more scouring and bleaching agent or may create stain.
  • 195. List of Firures Industrial Attachment 191 | P a g e List of Figures: Figure 4.1: Latch Needle ......................................................................................... 20 Figure 5-1: Rope length (m) and fabric wt loading on m/c depending on the grams per running meter of fabric............................................................................................ 42 Figure 5-2: Rope length depending on winch speed .................................................... 42 Figure 7.1: Cellulose, the polymer of cotton .............................................................. 61 Figure 7.2: Bifunctional reactive dye (Remazol Black B, DyStar) ................................ 63 Figure 7. 3: Dilmenlar Winch Dyeing m/c ................................................................. 64 Figure 7. 4: Cross sectional view of Dilmenler Dyeing m/c ......................................... 69 Figure 7. 5: Different valves used in Dilmenler winch Dyeing m/c............................... 70 Figure 7.6: winch.................................................................................................... 71 Figure 7. 7: Dyeing Curve........................................................................................ 82 Figure 7. 8: DyeingCurve For Black color ................................................................. 87 Figure 7. 9: Dyenig Curve for Tequish color (Migration process)................................. 92 Figure 8. 1: fabric passage on Tube squeezer m/c ..................................................... 104 Figure 8. 2: fabric passage diagram in tube compactor machine ................................. 108 Figure 8. 3: Fabric passage in open squeezer m/c...................................................... 109 Figure 8. 4: Feraro open compactor......................................................................... 110 Figure 8. 5: fabric passage on open compactor ......................................................... 111 Figure 8. 6: Bruckner Stenter machine .................................................................... 112 Figure 8. 7: Brushing machne................................................................................. 118 Figure 11.1: Follow chart of ETP (Physicochemical)......... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 11.2: Layout of ETP............................................................................................... 168
  • 196. List of Firures Industrial Attachment 192 | P a g e List of Tables Table 3. 1: Source of yarn for knitting ................................................................................ 13 Table 3. 2: Types of yarns used in N.A.Z. Bangladesh Ltd ................................................ 14 Table 3.3: Cost oy yarn ....................................................................................................... 14 Table 3.4: Cost of knitting for different fabrices................................................................. 15 Table 4.1: Yarn Count in Direct system.............................................................................. 22 Table 4.2: Yarn Count in Indirect system ........................................................................... 23 Table 4.3: No. of yarn ply according to yarn count for collar & cuff ................................. 24 Table 4.4: Collar & Cuff measurements.............................................................................. 24 Table 4.5:Main Product - Fabrics :- .................................................................................... 26 Table 4.6: Analysis of structure, looping diagram, cam arrangement and needle arrangement of knit fabric ................................................................................................... 27 Table 6.1: Amount salt and soda used depending on the shade %...................................... 47 Table 7. 1Classes of dyes on the basis of suitability of dyeing different fibers:................. 61 Table 7. 2: Chemical composition of raw cotton: ............................................................... 62 Table 7. 3: Production Parameters :..................................................................................... 65 Table 7.4: Dyes, Chemicals & Cuxiliaries Use in N.A.Z:................................................... 76 Table 8.1: List of machine in Finishing Section........................................................ 100 Table 8. 2: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Tube squeezer: ........................ 102 Table 8. 3: Dia extenion on tube squeezer m/c ......................................................... 104 Table 8. 4: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Relax Dryer: ........................... 105 Table 8. 5: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Tubular Compactor: ............... 107 Table 8. 6: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of stenter machine: ...................... 112 Table 8. 7: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Ultra soft m/c .......................... 115
  • 197. List of Firures Industrial Attachment 193 | P a g e Table 8.8: Fabric passage & function of diff. parts of Brushing m/c: .......................... 116 Table 9- 1: Faults of fabrics at finishing section ............Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 10.1: Cost of Dyeing and Finishing of knit fabric ............................................ 162 Table 11.1: Discharge quality of treated waste water in N.A.Z................................... 169
  • 198. List of Tables Industrial Attachment I | P a g e