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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
Course Code: Tex -4036
INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT
M.M. Knitwear Ltd
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INDUSTRIAL ...
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TABLE OF CONTENT
SL NO. TOPICS PAGE NO.
1 Introduction 3-5
2 History of the Industry 6-14
3 Layout 15-26
4 K...
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Introduction:
Industrial attachment is the first step to professional life of student, especially of technic...
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Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous cotton production capacity, M.M. Knitwear Ltd has leveraged
Banglade...
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M.M. Knitwear Ltd has started manufacture and export of garments since 2001. The beginning M M
Knitwear Ltd ...
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 US Polo, Turkey.
 Sports World , UK
……….Etc.
GENEREL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FACTORY
COMPANY PROFILE
Name o...
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Vision & mission of the project:
The mission and vision of M.M. Knitwear Ltd. is to manufacture and deliver ...
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Location:
Dhaka
Chowrasta-
Gazipur Dhaka ---Tangail road
Ambagh
Bsic
M. M.
Knitwear
TusukaBody
Fashion
S
WE...
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M.M. Knitwear Ltd the Managing Director/ Chairman who controls the entire factory. And the others
respectiv...
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Knitting section:
Dyeing & Finishing Section:
AGM
PM
Store In charge Knitting Master Supervisor
Feeder man
...
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Section-wise manpower:
Management Medium:
 Intercom telephone
 Fax
 E-mail
 Written letters & Papers
 ...
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 Finally G.M. checks the result with dyeing master and decision is taken for delivery.
Duties & Responsibi...
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BASIC LAY-OUT OF THE FACTORY:
4
7 6
5
3
E
XI
T
E
N
T
R
Y
1
2
W
NS
E
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1 : Security office.
2 : Administration office
3 : Fabrics Store (Gd. Floor) + Knitting (2nd
Floor+3rd
floo...
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Lay-out Of Dyeing & Finishing Section:
ENT
1
7
3
4
6
5
5
9
8
8
18
10 10
2
2
11
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
1...
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1. Office of PM
2. Offline QC
3. Inspection table
4. Compactor
5. Tube-tex
6. Equalizer Dryer
7. Stentering...
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Knitting Section:
Old floor (2nd
floor)
3
2 11
1 4
4
5555
5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5
5
5
55
555
5
5 5
5
5
6
6
...
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Old floor (3rd
floor)
5
8 8 8
8 8 8
8
3 10 1 4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
...
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1) Production officer
2) AGM
3) Toilet
4) Fabric Inspection m/c
5) Circular knitting m/c
6) Auto Stripe kni...
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New floor
Knitting m/c:
Fabric store:
Yarn Store:
A.P. M:
Knitting master:
Tools table:
Exit:
Inspection m/...
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2nd
(new floor)
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3rd
(new floor)
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4th
(new floor)
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TABLE OF CONTENT
SL NO. TOPICS PAGE NO.
1 Machine Profile 29-49
2 Introduction 50-53
3 Terminology & Defini...
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Circular Knitting Machine
Old floor
Machine no: 02
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: ...
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Gauge 24
No. of needle 2544
Machine no: 05
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cyli...
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No. of needle 3168
Machine no: 09
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cylinder dia ...
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Machine no: 13
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cylinder dia 30”
Feeder no: 90
F...
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Machine no: 17
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cylinder dia 30”
Feeder no: 90
F...
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Gauge 24
No. of needle 2400
Machine no: 21
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLS
Cyli...
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Gauge 24
No. of needle 3000
Machine no: 25
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cyli...
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Gauge 24
No. of needle 2712
Machine no: 29
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cyli...
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Gauge 24
No. of needle 3000
Machine no: 33
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cyli...
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Gauge 24
No. of needle 3000
Machine no: 37
Brand name JIUNNLONG
Country of origin Taiwan
Model no: JLD
Cyli...
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Gauge 24
No. of needle 2880
New floor
M/c no: 01
 Brand name: Fukahama
 Country of origin: Taiwan
 Model...
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 Gauge: 24
 Fabric type: Single jersey
M/c no: 05
 Brand name: Fukahama
 Country of origin: Taiwan
 Mo...
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3rd
New floor
M/c no: 09
 Brand name: Fukahama
 Country of origin: Taiwan
 Model name: SH-JFA3
 Cylinde...
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M/c no: 13
 Brand name: Fukahama
 Country of origin: Taiwan
 Model name: SH-JFA3
 Cylinder diameter: 36...
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4th
New floor
M/c no: 17
 Brand name: Fukahama
 Country of origin: Taiwan
 Model name: SH-JFA3
 Cylinde...
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 Fabric type: Single jersey
M/c no: 21
 Brand name: Fukahama
 Country of origin: Taiwan
 Model name: SH...
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Flat bed /v-bed
Machine no: 01
Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd
Country of origin Taiwan
Mode...
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Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn
change
Machine no: 04
Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industri...
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Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change
Machine no: 09
Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industri...
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Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change
Machine no: 13
Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industri...
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What is kitting:
Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn...
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History of knitting:
Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles i...
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Knit stitch: The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The...
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Float Stitch: A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more float loops and knitted...
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Purl stitch: The opposite of the knit stitch; the back of a knit stitch is what a purl looks like. The fron...
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Yarn weight: Measure of how heavy or bulky a yarn is. There are rough classes of yarn weight based on
gauge...
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Picture - Course and wale of a weft knit fabric
Stitch density: Stitch density refers to the total number o...
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Circular knitting machine:
Classification of circular knitting machine:
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Different parts of the circular knitting m/c:
Frame
The circular knitting machine consists three major sect...
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mechanism .
Types of knitting needle
There are mainly three types of needle is used
1. Latch Needle
2. Comp...
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Fig. Latch Needle
Latch Needle Characteristics:
1. Most widely used in weft knitting.
2. More expensive nee...
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The knitting action of the latch needle
Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through th...
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Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle.
Compound Knitting Needle
The compound needle consist of two parts...
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Two types of compound needle have been employed in warp knitting machines:
1. The tubular pipe needle has i...
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Another feature of bearded needle knitting is that individual loop formation has to be achieved by a loop
f...
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Engineering Cam: It is a circular engineering cam. The drive is transmitted and adapted via can
followers, ...
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It may perform the following functions:-
1. Loop Formation
2. Holding Down
3. Knocking Over.
(It is always ...
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The sole function of' the sinker may be to act as a web holder or stitch comb as on the raschel warp
knitti...
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Cylinder:
Dial:
Creel:
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Feeders/ Stripers:
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Fig. 2.15
Fabric Spreader:
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TAKE DOWN AND WINDING MECHANISM
GSM pulley:
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Flat bed/ V-bed knitting machine
Main parts:
1. Yarn package
2. Front needle bed
3. Yarn guide
4. Needle sp...
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In the following figure shows a cross section of a simple hand powered and manipulated V-bed rib flat machi...
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Other m/c in the knitting section:
Fig: Twill Tape Fig: warping Fig: reconing
Fig: Fabric Inspection machin...
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Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in
co...
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Yarn Count:
According to the Textile Institute “Count is a number of indicating the mass per unit length or...
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Process flow of Knitting:
Take buyer order sheet
Analysis of order sheet
Analysis of compatibility of machi...
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Needle arrangement & cam setting for different types of fabric:
Single jersey:
Rib(1×1):
Rib(2×2):
D K
K
KK...
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Single La-cost:
K T K K K
k K K T K
Double La-cost:
K T T K K K
k K K K T T
Some points are needed to maint...
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Changing of GSM:
 Major control by QAP pulley.
 Minor control by stitch length adjustment.
 Altering the...
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 If the m/c gauge increase then fabric width decrease.
 If yarn count increase (course) then fabric width...
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End products of Circular Knitting Machine:
Single Jersey M/C:
a) S/J Plain
b) Single Lacoste
c) Double Laco...
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A sampling of weft knit fabrics
All weft knits fall into three basic categories: rib knits, which are a com...
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Jersey knit
Description: Also referred to as plain knit or single knit. Has distinct right
and wrong sides,...
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More knit samples
Silk jersey interlock knit Acetate slinky rib knit
Nylon/lycra metallic rib knit Rayon in...
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At first keep this in our heart
1 CM = 10 MM,
1 INCH = 2.54 CM
1 CM = 25.4 MM
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KNITTING CALCULATIONS
Knitted fabric is made with the help of yarn loops. Yarn of different counts is used...
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General practice of yarn count and machine gauge in industry:
Every firm is producing many types of fabric...
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GSM = (WPI*CPI*SL mm*0.9155) / count Ne
Calculation of WPI:
We calculate the number of Wales in 10 inch fa...
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How to Control GSM in a Single Jersey Knit Fabric
GSM can be controlled either by taking a coarse count of...
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1 cm = 26/30 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique
If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 190 ...
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Where:
1 cm = 17/18 Feeder
If we want to make RIB (1X1) finished fabric with 195 GSM to 225 GSM then we mu...
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Relation between yarn counts, GSM and stitch length gauge:
Single Jersey
Dia +
Gauge
F type S/L F/GSM Coun...
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30×24 S/J 2.86 150 28 s 32inch tube Grey
Melange
36×24 S/J 2.80 200 22 s card 72inch op Black
26×24 S/J 2....
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Melange
28×24 S/J stripe 2.68 170 30s Dy 28inch tube Avg
Single jersey Lycra :
Dia +
Gauge
F type S/L F/GS...
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30×24 S/J Slub 2.70 105 40s Slub 66inch op Andhra
grey
36×24 S/J Slub 2.70 170 28s Slub 66 op Grey black
3...
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36×18 1×1 Rib 2.60 220 26s card 37inch tube Avg
40×18 2×1 Rib 2.70 160 40s CD +
20D Lycra
50inch op Avg
32...
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L-1.55
30×20 Fleece k-41
T-40
L-14
240 k-34s cvc
T-30s cvc
L-30s cvc
66inch op Black
30×20 Fleece k-4.5
T-...
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= 40*840*3.5
Answer: =117600 Yards
Example: 03
Calculate weight of cotton yarn from the given data:
Length...
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Calculate denier of polyester filament from the given data:
Length in meters = 550,000
Weight = 4.5 kg (45...
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Stitch length 4 mm
Efficiency 85%
Solution:
Number of needles = machine diameter * gauge *  (3.14)
= 30* ...
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= 26* 28*3.14
=2286 (exact 2285.92 but needles are always in even number so we will take nearest
even figu...
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Solution:
Number of needles = machine diameter * gauge *  (3.14)
= 30* 18*3.14
=1696 (exact 1695 but need...
Industrial  attachment  of m. m. knitwear ltd
Industrial  attachment  of m. m. knitwear ltd
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Industrial attachment of m. m. knitwear ltd

  1. 1. Page 1 of 206 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT M.M. Knitwear Ltd Page 1 of 206 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT M.M. Knitwear Ltd Page 1 of 206 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT M.M. Knitwear Ltd
  2. 2. Page 2 of 206 TABLE OF CONTENT SL NO. TOPICS PAGE NO. 1 Introduction 3-5 2 History of the Industry 6-14 3 Layout 15-26 4 Knitting 27-137 5 Batching 140-142 6 Laboratory 143-148 7 Dyeing 149-155 8 Finishing 156-173 9 Printing 174-177 10 Garments 178-179 11 Quality control 180-186 12 Maintenance 187-193 13 Utilities 194-199 14 E T P 200-203 15 Conclusion 204-205 16 Reference 206
  3. 3. Page 3 of 206
  4. 4. Page 4 of 206
  5. 5. Page 5 of 206 Introduction: Industrial attachment is the first step to professional life of student, especially of technical Side. It’s an indispensable part of study a practically running processing technology of an industrial unit for a student .In our university , processing machines are not in continuous running condition, so it would only provide demonstration of mechanical features & processing technology of the material in accomplishment of the theory there of but not of the situational variables to achieve practical knowledge. So two months industrial attachment program in a dyeing mill was arranged for us. Textile education can’t be completed without industrial training. Because this industrial attachment program minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge and make me accustomed to industrial environment. I got an opportunity to complete two month long industrial training in M M Knitwear Ltd, which is a 100% export, oriented composite Knit Dyeing Industry. It has well planned & equipped fabric and Knit dyeing-finishing units in addition to facilitate Knitting and Knit wear manufacturing. The rational behind the existing structure and future expansion of M.M. Knitwear Ltd is to capture value-added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process.
  6. 6. Page 6 of 206 Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous cotton production capacity, M.M. Knitwear Ltd has leveraged Bangladesh’s labor cost advantage and export competitiveness to the Maximum.
  7. 7. Page 7 of 206 M.M. Knitwear Ltd has started manufacture and export of garments since 2001. The beginning M M Knitwear Ltd has a very good reputation as a financially sound and ethical business house. It has a long term association with selected factories, some of them are certified in terms of social and quality compliance by world’s highest rating bodies, and outstanding sourcing capabilities. Thus M.M. Knitwear Ltd has been able to prove itself to be a reliable supplier for knit item in any style and design Specializing in all kinds of knitted items. It is housed in its own building surrounding an area of 310,000 sq. ft. And 4,300 workers and stuff. The determination to achieve superior customer service and on time delivery has earned M. M. Knitwear Ltd recognition as an invaluable player and the desire to succeed in customer satisfaction with every order makes the M. M. Knitwear Ltd team even stronger it’s these fundamental that keep this unit in the game and wining every time. Present Buyer’s….  George, UK.  SAINSBURY, UK.  Spring World, UK.  Takko Holdings, Germany.  Spring Field, Spain.  Ulla Popken, Germany.  Dressman, France  Terranova, Italy.  Mister & Lady. Germany.  Matalon , UK.  Lidl , Germany.  LPP, Poland.  Piaza Italy, Italy.  Offtex, Switzerland.  Texiclothin , Australia.  BiminiBay , USA  Hema, Netherlands.  Sfera, Spain.F  Cia herring, Brazil.  Zolla, Russia  P&C, Germany.  Bealls outlet, USA  New Yorker, Germany  Pierre Cardin, UK.  Next, UK.  Pull and Bear , Spain  O’Stin , Russia.  Centex S.P.A., Italy.  Colin‘s, Turkey.  Seven Hill, Turkey.  Collezione, Turkey.
  8. 8. Page 8 of 206  US Polo, Turkey.  Sports World , UK ……….Etc. GENEREL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FACTORY COMPANY PROFILE Name of the project : M. M. knitwear LTD. Type of the project : 100% EXPORT ORIENTED KNITWEAR INDUSTRIES LTD Year of establishment : It was established in the July2001. Address : Factory, Ambagh road, Konabari, Nilnagar, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Head office : House #16, Road #10, Sector # 1, Uttara Model Town , Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh Investors : Md. Mofizul Islam, Managing Director Annual production Capacity : The annual production capacity in M.M. Knitwear Ltd are given below- Dyeing & Finishing Capacity : 7250 Tons. ( around ) Knitting Capacity :3250Tons. (around) Sewing :30000 pcs/day (average) Area : 310,000 sq. ft.
  9. 9. Page 9 of 206 Vision & mission of the project: The mission and vision of M.M. Knitwear Ltd. is to manufacture and deliver high quality readymade garments (RMG) to its customers. The core objective is to attain and enhance customer satisfaction by providing on time delivery of desired quality readymade garments and also to increase efficiency of workforce. To attain these objectives, the management of M. M. Knitwear Ltd. has decided to adopt the followings- 1. To increase awareness regarding customers requirements throughout the organization. 2. By providing training to develop efficiency of the employee. 3. To collect customer’s feedback regularly to know about their conception about their company and to take timely appropriate action. 4. To reduce the percentage of wastage / rejection minimum by 2% per annum’s implement and monitor ISO 9001:2000 quality management system within the organization. Main Production : Basic T-Shirt, Tank top, Long Sleeve- Shirt, Polo Shirt, Shorts, Ladies & Kids Knitwear & all kinds of knit garments & Knit fabrics. Fax Number : + 880 – 2 – 8922483 E–mail Address : info@mmknitwear.com URL : http://www.mmknitwearbd.com Certification & awards : ISO 9001:2000. Last year Export Turnover : 30.50 Million U.S Dollars Workers and Stuff : 7500 The annual Production capacity of M. M. knitwear Ltd is an approximate idea, it may vary.
  10. 10. Page 10 of 206 Location: Dhaka Chowrasta- Gazipur Dhaka ---Tangail road Ambagh Bsic M. M. Knitwear TusukaBody Fashion S WE N NTKC
  11. 11. Page 11 of 206 M.M. Knitwear Ltd the Managing Director/ Chairman who controls the entire factory. And the others respective department chief controls their department in this factory. In this below the organ grams of administration and the others department is showing: Director, H. R. Dept. Assistant General Manager (ADMIN) Deputy Chief Egg. Store Manager Manager Marketing Officer Security Officer Accounts Officer Assistant Accounts Officer Senior Clark Junior Clark Peon Electrical engg, Mechanical engg. Egg. Sub assistant Engg. Foreman Sub assistant Engg. Foreman Asstt. Chief store Manager Asstt.officer Store officer Foreman Assistant Security Officer Security Guard Deputy Account Officer Medical Officer Nurse Assistant Manager (ADMIN) Administration Officer Assistant Administration Officer Peon Administration Assistant Managing director Security Havilder
  12. 12. Page 12 of 206 Knitting section: Dyeing & Finishing Section: AGM PM Store In charge Knitting Master Supervisor Feeder man Operator Feeder man Operator GM PM APM SPO Batch Incharge Finishing Incharge Lab Incharge PO APO Supervisor Sr. Operator Operator Asstt. Operator Sewing man Turning m/c Operator Helper Sewing man Squeeze Operator Dryer Operator Compactor Operator Helper Lab Technician Q.C. Technician
  13. 13. Page 13 of 206 Section-wise manpower: Management Medium:  Intercom telephone  Fax  E-mail  Written letters & Papers  Oral Management System:  Buyer sample is send to G.M.  Matching is done by lab in charge.  Sample is prepared by dyeing master.  Sample is send to the buyer for approval.  Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. Sample for bulk production.  Asst. dyeing master gives responsibilities to production officer.  Then production officer, with the supervisors start bulk production.  On line and off line quality check is done by lab in charge and asst. dyeing master.  After dyeing finishing in charge controls the finishing process with the supervision of production officer.  After finishing, the material is checked by dyeing master. Department Manpower Knitting 460 Dyeing & Finishing, Lab & QC 720 ETPs 15 Garments 4590 Power, Boiler, Utility & Maintenance 70 Inventory 15 Administration 100 Security 65 Others 150 Total 6255 Helper
  14. 14. Page 14 of 206  Finally G.M. checks the result with dyeing master and decision is taken for delivery. Duties & Responsibilities of Production Officer:  To collect the necessary information and instruction from the previous shift for the smooth running of the section.  To make the junior officer understand how to operate the whole production process.  To match production sample with target shade.  To collect the production sample lot sample matching next production.  To observe dyed fabric during finishing running and also after finishing process.  To identify disputed fabrics and report to PM/GM for necessary action.  To discuss with PM about overall production if necessary.  To sign the store requisition and delivery chalan in the absence of PM  To execute the overall floor work.  To maintain loading/ unloading paper. Duties & Responsibilities of Senior Production Officer:  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Batch preparation and pH check.  Dyes and chemicals requisition issue and check.  Write loading / unloading time from machine.  Program making, sample checking, color measurement.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machine.  Any other work as and when required Duties & Responsibilities of GM (Production):  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for smooth dyeing.  Check the different log books and report to management.  Check the plan to control the best output.  To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve the quality production.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing m/c.  Maintenance the machinery and equipments.  Any other work as and when required
  15. 15. Page 15 of 206
  16. 16. Page 16 of 206 BASIC LAY-OUT OF THE FACTORY: 4 7 6 5 3 E XI T E N T R Y 1 2 W NS E
  17. 17. Page 17 of 206 1 : Security office. 2 : Administration office 3 : Fabrics Store (Gd. Floor) + Knitting (2nd Floor+3rd floor), . Human Resources Department (HRD) (4th Floor), Merchandising section (5th Floor), garments (6th Floor – 9th floor) 4 : Yarn store (Gr. Floor) + +Garment section(1st Floor – 7th floor) 5 : Fabric dyeing & finishing section. 6 : Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). 7 : Generator house, Water Treatment Plant (WPT), Maintenance building.
  18. 18. Page 18 of 206 Lay-out Of Dyeing & Finishing Section: ENT 1 7 3 4 6 5 5 9 8 8 18 10 10 2 2 11 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 17 17 17 16 16 17 1715 15 16 12 14
  19. 19. Page 19 of 206 1. Office of PM 2. Offline QC 3. Inspection table 4. Compactor 5. Tube-tex 6. Equalizer Dryer 7. Stentering m/c 8. Calender 9. Slitting m/c 10. Squeezer m/c 11. Office of GM 12. Chemical store 13. Dilmenler high pressure Dyeing m/c 14. Office & Online QC 15. Bangla dyeing m/c 16. Korean dyeing m/c 17. Sample dyeing m/c 18. Turning m/c
  20. 20. Page 20 of 206 Knitting Section: Old floor (2nd floor) 3 2 11 1 4 4 5555 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 55 555 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 9 9 8 8 8 88
  21. 21. Page 21 of 206 Old floor (3rd floor) 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 3 10 1 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
  22. 22. Page 22 of 206 1) Production officer 2) AGM 3) Toilet 4) Fabric Inspection m/c 5) Circular knitting m/c 6) Auto Stripe knitting m/c 7) Entry / Exit 8) Flat bed knitting m/c 9) Floor in charge 10) Knitting master 11) P. M
  23. 23. Page 23 of 206 New floor Knitting m/c: Fabric store: Yarn Store: A.P. M: Knitting master: Tools table: Exit: Inspection m/c: Reconing: Twill tape: V-bed: Carton store:
  24. 24. Page 24 of 206 2nd (new floor)
  25. 25. Page 25 of 206 3rd (new floor)
  26. 26. Page 26 of 206 4th (new floor)
  27. 27. Page 27 of 206
  28. 28. Page 28 of 206 TABLE OF CONTENT SL NO. TOPICS PAGE NO. 1 Machine Profile 29-49 2 Introduction 50-53 3 Terminology & Definition 54-60 4 Machine Description 61-79 5 Raw Material 80-82 6 How to Production 83-88 7 Fabric Specification 89-99 8 Knitting Calculation 100-129 9 Knitting fault 130-135
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  30. 30. Page 30 of 206 Circular Knitting Machine Old floor Machine no: 02 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 03 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 04 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 68 Fabric type Rib Machine no: 01 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 60 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256
  31. 31. Page 31 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 05 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 68 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 06 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 72 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 07 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 72 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 08 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 126 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24
  32. 32. Page 32 of 206 No. of needle 3168 Machine no: 09 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 28” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2112 Machine no: 10 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 28” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2112 Machine no: 11 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 29” Feeder no: 87 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2184 Machine no: 12 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 29” Feeder no: 87 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2184
  33. 33. Page 33 of 206 Machine no: 13 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 14 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 15 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 16 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 126 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 3168
  34. 34. Page 34 of 206 Machine no: 17 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 18 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 28” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2112 Machine no: 19 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 20 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Single jersey
  35. 35. Page 35 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 21 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 22 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 23 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 24 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 40” Feeder no: 120 Fabric type Single jersey
  36. 36. Page 36 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 3000 Machine no: 25 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 26 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 27 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 28 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey
  37. 37. Page 37 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 29 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 30 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 31 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 114 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 32 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 40” Feeder no: 120 Fabric type Single jersey
  38. 38. Page 38 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 3000 Machine no: 33 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 44” Feeder no: 88 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2484 Machine no: 34 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Rib Gauge 18 No. of needle 2376 Machine no: 35 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Rib Gauge 18 No. of needle 2376 Machine no: 36 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 40” Feeder no: 120 Fabric type Rib
  39. 39. Page 39 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 3000 Machine no: 37 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 76 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 38 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 76 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 39 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 114 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 40 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 114 Fabric type Single jersey
  40. 40. Page 40 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 New floor M/c no: 01  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 96  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 02  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 03  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 96  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 04  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 96  No. of needle:
  41. 41. Page 41 of 206  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 05  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 06  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 07  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 08  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  42. 42. Page 42 of 206 3rd New floor M/c no: 09  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 10  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 11  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 12  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 38”  No. of feeder: 114  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  43. 43. Page 43 of 206 M/c no: 13  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 14  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 15  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 16  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  44. 44. Page 44 of 206 4th New floor M/c no: 17  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 26”  No. of feeder: 78  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 18  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 28”  No. of feeder: 84  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 19  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 42”  No. of feeder: 126  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 20  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 40”  No. of feeder: 120  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24
  45. 45. Page 45 of 206  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 21  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 38”  No. of feeder: 114  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 22  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 23  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 29  No. of feeder: 87  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 24  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 27”  No. of feeder: 81  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  46. 46. Page 46 of 206 Flat bed /v-bed Machine no: 01 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 02 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 03 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c.
  47. 47. Page 47 of 206 Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 04 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: O5 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 08 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 07 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c.
  48. 48. Page 48 of 206 Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 09 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 10 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 11 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six colours yarn change Machine no: 12 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c.
  49. 49. Page 49 of 206 Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 13 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES SUMMARY: Total number of single jersey machine: 47 Total number of rib machine: 9 Total number of interlock machine: 8 Total Running machine: 63 FLAT BED KNITTING MACHINES SUMMARY: Total number of rib machine: 28 Total Running machine: 20
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  51. 51. Page 51 of 206
  52. 52. Page 52 of 206 What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction.
  53. 53. Page 53 of 206 History of knitting: Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old English cnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical background of knitting technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: Jedediah Strutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: Monsier Decroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie.
  54. 54. Page 54 of 206
  55. 55. Page 55 of 206
  56. 56. Page 56 of 206 Knit stitch: The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on.
  57. 57. Page 57 of 206 Float Stitch: A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. (This is the technical back of single-jersey structures but is the inside of rib and interlock structures.) The float extends from the base of one knitted or tucked loop to the next, and is notated either as an empty square or as a bypassed point. It is assumed that the held loop extends into the courses above until a knitted loop is indicated in that wale. Fig. B A single float stitch has the appearance of a U-shape on the reverse of the stitch. Structures incorporating float stitches tend to exhibit faint horizontal lines. Float stitch fabrics are narrower than equivalent all-knit fabrics because the Wales are drawn closer together by the floats, thus reducing width-wise elasticity and improving fabric stability. The Tuck Stitch: A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop, which becomes a tuck loop because it is not intermeshed through the old loop but is tucked in behind it on the reverse side of the stitch. Its side limbs are therefore not restricted at their feet by the head of an old loop, so they can open outwards towards the two adjoining needle loops formed in the same course. The tuck loop thus assumes an inverted V or U-shaped configuration. The yarn passes from the sinker loops to the head that is intermeshed with the new loop of a course above it, so that the head of the tuck is on the reverse of the stitch.
  58. 58. Page 58 of 206 Purl stitch: The opposite of the knit stitch; the back of a knit stitch is what a purl looks like. The front of a purl is a straight bar: “-” English knitting: This is knitting with the yarn supply held in the right hand. Also it called right- handed knitting or throwing. Continental knitting: This is style of knitting in which one holds the yarn in the left hand. Also it called European knitting, German knitting, or left-handed knitting. Pilling: Creation of little pills (the tiny fuzzy balls that dot fabrics that have been washed and dried many times) after wear and tear of a fabric. Some yarns are very sensitive to pilling through friction, even rubbing the yarn back and forth a few times. Luxury yarns require special care to avoid this. Generally the yarn that are the softer (e.g., brushed alpaca), the more likely to pill. To some degree pilling can be decreased by the use of a good sweater shaver, but with use, the fabric will always begin to show age. Knit even: To continue in the pattern stitch for the specified number of rows/rounds without increases or decreases; in other words, continue as is with no tricks until told otherwise. Gauge: The critical measure of how many stitches of the chosen yarn on the chosen needles equal a set measure (e.g., one inch, four inches). Each knitter must determine his or her own gauge, as some knitters routinely pull stitches tighter than others, and therefore will end up with more stitches per inch than another. Gauge can also vary substantially from the pattern if a substitute yarn is used with the recommended needle size instead of the yarn used in the pattern (which for me is most of the time). A common way to state gauge in the US is how many stitches per 4 inches: e.g., 12 stitches per 4 inches, or 3 stitches per inch. The gauge (as determined by the yarn manufacturer) will appear on the yarn label (like “12 st”), along with the size needle with which this gauge was achieved (e.g., US 11). Usually there is a number of rows specified as well, e.g., 15 rows (per 4 inches). This doesn’t mean that every knitter will achieve this exact gauge on the specified needle, nor does it mean that the yarn should only be knit on the size needle listed. There’s no right or wrong (within reason) in how tightly or loosely you stitch compared to others - gauge is about checking stitch size relative to needle size, as knit with your own two hands. When a pattern tells you to “establish gauge”, it’s warning you that you’d best check your tension before starting (thus the designer absolves herself from any responsibility for final dimensions being off). A crucial but sometimes overlooked step - one I’ve been guilty of omitting, with frustrating consequences - prior to beginning a project is to establish gauge with a swatch..
  59. 59. Page 59 of 206 Yarn weight: Measure of how heavy or bulky a yarn is. There are rough classes of yarn weight based on gauge, although these classes have some overlap and are open to interpretation. From lightest-weight to bulkiest: fingering weight (or sock weight, lace weight), sport weight (or baby weight), DK (double knitted), worsted, bulky (or chunky), super bulky. Dropping a stitch: Inadvertently skipping or dropping a stitch, either because a stitch slipped off during the feverishly fast pace of knitting or purling or through incomplete execution of a stitch. Ply: One strand of fiber; some yarns are created by twisting multiple plies together, while some are single-ply. In addition to creating varying nuances in the way a fabric yielded from a particular yarn will look, multiple plies can create a fabric (especially in the case of wool fiber) that is more resistant to pilling. Density: A measure of mass per unit of volume. In the carpet world: the weight of pile yarn in a unit volume of carpet. A course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A course length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unrove from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding- off. A pattern row: A pattern row is a horizontal row of needle loops produced by adjacent needles in one needle bed. In plain weft knitted fabric this is identical to a course but in more complex fabrics a pattern row may be composed of two or more course lengths. In warp knitting, every loop in a course is usually composed of a separate yarn. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles.A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit. • When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. • In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles. • Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting). • Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric.
  60. 60. Page 60 of 206 Picture - Course and wale of a weft knit fabric Stitch density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimetres).The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimetres) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimetres), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimetres rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses .
  61. 61. Page 61 of 206
  62. 62. Page 62 of 206 Circular knitting machine: Classification of circular knitting machine:
  63. 63. Page 63 of 206 Different parts of the circular knitting m/c: Frame The circular knitting machine consists three major sections viz., yarn supply, knitting elements and fabric take-down. The Fig. 2.3 shows the machine frame, indicating its various parts. The knitting elements such as needles, sinkers, cylinder, cams and feeders are supported at the centre called as knitting zone. Yarn packages are mounted at the overhead creels and yarns are fed to knitting zone through yarn guides, stop motions and feeders. The knitted fabric goes down inside the cylinder towards the centre of the machine, drawn into the take down device and finally collected on a roll winding mechanism. A fabric spreader gradually converts the tubular fabric into a double layer folded fabric by preventing the formation of pleats or creases. At the knitting zone, single knit plain machines are fitted with a cylinder and sinker ring, whereas the double knit machines have cylinder and dial Drive The drive to the knitting machine is simple and direct. The motor imparts rotary motion to the rotating needle beds, such as cylinder and dial and also to the take-down and cloth winding
  64. 64. Page 64 of 206 mechanism . Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines.
  65. 65. Page 65 of 206 Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine, 2. Flat Bar Machine, 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine, 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick.
  66. 66. Page 66 of 206 The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1 The rest position. The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2 Latch opening. As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3 Clearing height. When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4 Yarn feeding and latch closing. The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook. 5 Knocking-over and loop length formation. As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted.
  67. 67. Page 67 of 206 Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle. Compound Knitting Needle The compound needle consist of two parts, needle body and slider. These two parts are moved independently. Compound Needle is used on most complex knitting: Compound Needle consists of two separately controlled parts; these are- the open hook and the sliding closing element (tongue, latch, piston, and plunger). The two parts rise and fall as a single unit but at the top of the rise, the hook moves faster to open the hooks and at the start of the fall the hook descends faster to close the hook. It is easier to drive the hooks and tongues collectively form two separate bars as in warp knitting; than to move each hook and tongue individually as in weft knitting. Compound needles were used on tricot machines. Fig. Knitting action of Compound needle.
  68. 68. Page 68 of 206 Two types of compound needle have been employed in warp knitting machines: 1. The tubular pipe needle has its tongue sliding inside the tube of the open hook. 2. The open stem “Pusher type” or slide needle has a closing wire or tongue that slides externally along a groove on the edge of the flat hook member. Bearded needle A fine steel needle for machine knitting that has a butt at one end and a long, flexible hook at the other that curves back to the shank of the needle. Also known as spring needle. Bearded needles were used on tricot machines A bearded needle shown with the beard in the open and closed positions. The needle consists of five main parts Fig. Bearded Needle The main parts of the bearded needle 1. Stem: The stem of bearded needle around which the needle loop is formed. 2. The Head: In the head section of bearded needle, the stem is turned into a hook to draw the new loop through the old loop. 3. The Beard: The beard is the curved downwards continuation of the hook that s used to separate the trapped new loop inside from the old loop. 4. The Eye or Groove: The eye of groove cut in the stem to receive the pointed tip of the beard when it is pressed. 5. The shank: The shank of bearded needle may be bent for the individual location in the machine or cast with others in a metal lead. The knitting action of the bearded needle The knitting action of the bearded needle has been illustrated in Fig. Depending upon the machine, the needles are set vertically or horizontally. The needle has the disadvantage of requiring a pressing edge to close the bearded hook and enclose the new loop. The presser may be in the form of a bar, blade, verge or wheel, with either the presser or the needle remaining stationary whilst the other element moves towards it.
  69. 69. Page 69 of 206 Another feature of bearded needle knitting is that individual loop formation has to be achieved by a loop forming element. This leads to a more complicated knitting action but also provides for a more gentle and careful loop formation. Fig. Knitting action of the bearded needle CAMS The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams Textile Cams: Cams are the device which converts the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action for the needles and other elements. Cams are of two types:- a) Engineering Cam. b) Knitting Cam.
  70. 70. Page 70 of 206 Engineering Cam: It is a circular engineering cam. The drive is transmitted and adapted via can followers, levers, pivots and rocker shaft. One complete 360˚ revolution of the drive shaft is equivalent to one knitting cycle. In warp knitting, four types of cam drive have been employed:- 1. Single acting cams 2. Cam and counter cams 3. Box/ Enclosed cams 4. Counter cams. Knitting Cam: The angular knitting cam acts directly onto the butts of needles or other elements to produce individual or serial movement in the tricks of latch needle of weft knitting m/c. Two arrangements are exist there: 1. Revolving Cylinder M/cs: The needle butt pass through the stationary cam system and the fabric hanging from the needles revolves with them. 2. Reciprocating Cam carriage flat M/cs: The cams with the yarn feed pass across stationary needle beds. Sinker:The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action.
  71. 71. Page 71 of 206 It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. (It is always advisable to use one or more of the above terms as adjectives when referring to a sinker, in order to avoid confusion.) On bearded needle weft knitting machines of the straight bar frame and sinker-wheel type (as on Lee's hand frame), the main purpose of a sinker is to sink or kink the newly laid yarn into a loop (Fig. 4.1) as its forward edge or catch (C) advances between the two adjacent needles. On the bearded needle loop wheel frame, the blades of burr wheels perform this function, whereas on latch needle weft knitting machines (Fig. 4.2) and warp knitting machines (Fig. 4.3), loop formation is not a function of the sinkers. (NB: On the European mainland, particularly in Germany, the term couliering is used to describe the presentation of a yarn, the kinking of it into a needle loop and the knock-over of the old loop. Also the term 'sinker' often refers confusingly to a jack or other element (that can be sunk into a trick so that its butt is no longer in action.) The second and more common function of sinkers on modern machines is to hold down the old loops at a lower level on the needle stems than the new loops that are being formed, and to prevent the old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear them from their hooks. Fig. 4.1 Action of the loop-forming sinker. In Fig. 4.1, the protruding nib or nose of' sinker (N) is positioned over the sinker loop of the old loop (O), preventing it from rising with the needle. On tricot Knitting Machines Knitting Guide" href="/guide- 3/classification-of-knitting-machines.html" >warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting machines, a slot or throat (T in Fig. 4.2) is cut to hold and control the old loop. Page 71 of 206 It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. (It is always advisable to use one or more of the above terms as adjectives when referring to a sinker, in order to avoid confusion.) On bearded needle weft knitting machines of the straight bar frame and sinker-wheel type (as on Lee's hand frame), the main purpose of a sinker is to sink or kink the newly laid yarn into a loop (Fig. 4.1) as its forward edge or catch (C) advances between the two adjacent needles. On the bearded needle loop wheel frame, the blades of burr wheels perform this function, whereas on latch needle weft knitting machines (Fig. 4.2) and warp knitting machines (Fig. 4.3), loop formation is not a function of the sinkers. (NB: On the European mainland, particularly in Germany, the term couliering is used to describe the presentation of a yarn, the kinking of it into a needle loop and the knock-over of the old loop. Also the term 'sinker' often refers confusingly to a jack or other element (that can be sunk into a trick so that its butt is no longer in action.) The second and more common function of sinkers on modern machines is to hold down the old loops at a lower level on the needle stems than the new loops that are being formed, and to prevent the old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear them from their hooks. Fig. 4.1 Action of the loop-forming sinker. In Fig. 4.1, the protruding nib or nose of' sinker (N) is positioned over the sinker loop of the old loop (O), preventing it from rising with the needle. On tricot Knitting Machines Knitting Guide" href="/guide- 3/classification-of-knitting-machines.html" >warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting machines, a slot or throat (T in Fig. 4.2) is cut to hold and control the old loop. Page 71 of 206 It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. (It is always advisable to use one or more of the above terms as adjectives when referring to a sinker, in order to avoid confusion.) On bearded needle weft knitting machines of the straight bar frame and sinker-wheel type (as on Lee's hand frame), the main purpose of a sinker is to sink or kink the newly laid yarn into a loop (Fig. 4.1) as its forward edge or catch (C) advances between the two adjacent needles. On the bearded needle loop wheel frame, the blades of burr wheels perform this function, whereas on latch needle weft knitting machines (Fig. 4.2) and warp knitting machines (Fig. 4.3), loop formation is not a function of the sinkers. (NB: On the European mainland, particularly in Germany, the term couliering is used to describe the presentation of a yarn, the kinking of it into a needle loop and the knock-over of the old loop. Also the term 'sinker' often refers confusingly to a jack or other element (that can be sunk into a trick so that its butt is no longer in action.) The second and more common function of sinkers on modern machines is to hold down the old loops at a lower level on the needle stems than the new loops that are being formed, and to prevent the old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear them from their hooks. Fig. 4.1 Action of the loop-forming sinker. In Fig. 4.1, the protruding nib or nose of' sinker (N) is positioned over the sinker loop of the old loop (O), preventing it from rising with the needle. On tricot Knitting Machines Knitting Guide" href="/guide- 3/classification-of-knitting-machines.html" >warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting machines, a slot or throat (T in Fig. 4.2) is cut to hold and control the old loop.
  72. 72. Page 72 of 206 The sole function of' the sinker may be to act as a web holder or stitch comb as on the raschel warp knitting machine, in which case only the underside of the nose performs this function. On single cylinder latch needle weft knitting machines the holding-down sinkers have a rectangular gap cut into their upper surface, remote from the nose, into which the sinker cam race fits, to positively control the sinker's movement. Holding-down sinkers enable tighter structures with improved appearance to be obtained, the minimum draw-off tension is reduced and higher knitting speeds are possible and knitting can be commenced on empty needles. Holding-down sinkers are often unnecessary when knitting with two needle bed machines as the second bed restrains the fabric loops whilst the other set of needles moves. However, if single bed knitting or held loop structure is knitted, a form of holding- down element may still be required (as is the case with some V-bed flat knitting machines). The third function of the sinker - as a knock-over surface - is illustrated in Fig. 4.2 where its upper surface or belly (B) supports the old loop (O) as the new loop (NL) is drawn through it. On tricot warp knitting machines the sinker belly is specially shaped to assist with landing as well as knock-over. On raschel warp knitting machines, many V-bed flats, and cylinder and dial circular machines, the verge or upper surface of the trick-plate (V in Fig. 3.4) serves as the knock-over surface. On some machines, the knock-over surface moves in opposition to the descent of the needle (see Relanit, Chapter 13; and Shima contra sinkers, Sinker Tuck Page 72 of 206 The sole function of' the sinker may be to act as a web holder or stitch comb as on the raschel warp knitting machine, in which case only the underside of the nose performs this function. On single cylinder latch needle weft knitting machines the holding-down sinkers have a rectangular gap cut into their upper surface, remote from the nose, into which the sinker cam race fits, to positively control the sinker's movement. Holding-down sinkers enable tighter structures with improved appearance to be obtained, the minimum draw-off tension is reduced and higher knitting speeds are possible and knitting can be commenced on empty needles. Holding-down sinkers are often unnecessary when knitting with two needle bed machines as the second bed restrains the fabric loops whilst the other set of needles moves. However, if single bed knitting or held loop structure is knitted, a form of holding- down element may still be required (as is the case with some V-bed flat knitting machines). The third function of the sinker - as a knock-over surface - is illustrated in Fig. 4.2 where its upper surface or belly (B) supports the old loop (O) as the new loop (NL) is drawn through it. On tricot warp knitting machines the sinker belly is specially shaped to assist with landing as well as knock-over. On raschel warp knitting machines, many V-bed flats, and cylinder and dial circular machines, the verge or upper surface of the trick-plate (V in Fig. 3.4) serves as the knock-over surface. On some machines, the knock-over surface moves in opposition to the descent of the needle (see Relanit, Chapter 13; and Shima contra sinkers, Sinker Tuck Page 72 of 206 The sole function of' the sinker may be to act as a web holder or stitch comb as on the raschel warp knitting machine, in which case only the underside of the nose performs this function. On single cylinder latch needle weft knitting machines the holding-down sinkers have a rectangular gap cut into their upper surface, remote from the nose, into which the sinker cam race fits, to positively control the sinker's movement. Holding-down sinkers enable tighter structures with improved appearance to be obtained, the minimum draw-off tension is reduced and higher knitting speeds are possible and knitting can be commenced on empty needles. Holding-down sinkers are often unnecessary when knitting with two needle bed machines as the second bed restrains the fabric loops whilst the other set of needles moves. However, if single bed knitting or held loop structure is knitted, a form of holding- down element may still be required (as is the case with some V-bed flat knitting machines). The third function of the sinker - as a knock-over surface - is illustrated in Fig. 4.2 where its upper surface or belly (B) supports the old loop (O) as the new loop (NL) is drawn through it. On tricot warp knitting machines the sinker belly is specially shaped to assist with landing as well as knock-over. On raschel warp knitting machines, many V-bed flats, and cylinder and dial circular machines, the verge or upper surface of the trick-plate (V in Fig. 3.4) serves as the knock-over surface. On some machines, the knock-over surface moves in opposition to the descent of the needle (see Relanit, Chapter 13; and Shima contra sinkers, Sinker Tuck
  73. 73. Page 73 of 206 Cylinder: Dial: Creel:
  74. 74. Page 74 of 206 Feeders/ Stripers:
  75. 75. Page 75 of 206 Fig. 2.15 Fabric Spreader:
  76. 76. Page 76 of 206 TAKE DOWN AND WINDING MECHANISM GSM pulley:
  77. 77. Page 77 of 206 Flat bed/ V-bed knitting machine Main parts: 1. Yarn package 2. Front needle bed 3. Yarn guide 4. Needle spring 5. Tension spring 6. Fabric 7. Cymbal tension 8. Dead weightening system 9. Yarn take-up 10. Latch needle 11. Fabric comb 12. Yarn carrier 13. Back needle bed M/c description:
  78. 78. Page 78 of 206 In the following figure shows a cross section of a simple hand powered and manipulated V-bed rib flat machine. The trick walls are replaced at the needle bed verges by fixed, thinner, polished and specially shaped knock-over bit edges. In rib gating, a knock-over bit in one bed will be aligned opposite to a needle trick in the other bed. During knitting, the edges of the knock-over bits restrain the sinker loops as they pass between the needles and thus assist in the knocking over of the old loops and in the formation of the new loops. The cover plate is a thin metal blade, located in a slot across the top of the needle bed tricks. It prevents the stems of the needles from pivoting upwards out of the tricks as a result of the fabric take down tension drawing the needle hooks downwards whilst allowing the needles to slide freely in their tricks. Latch opening brushes are attached to the cam plates of both needle beds to ensure that the needle latches are fully opened. The supports of the brushes are adjustable to ensure precise setting of the bristles relative to the needles. The cam-carriage either slides or runs on ball bearings or wheels, along guide rails, one of which is fixed over the lower end of each needle bed. It is propelled either by hand or from a motor driven continuous roller chain or rubber belt. Each yarn carrier is attached to a block which slides along a bar, which, like the carriage guide rails, passes across the full width of the machine. Two levers are usually provided, one at each end of the needle bed. One is for racking the back needle bed, to change the gating of the needle beds for changes of rib set out or rib loop transfer. Cam system of the V-bed hand flat machine: The following figure illustrates the knitting action of a V-bed hand flat machine and the another figure shows the underside of the cam carriage and the cams forming the tracks that guide the needle butts through the knitting system. The needle butts will enter the traversing cam system from the right during a left to right carriage traverse and from the left during a right to left traverse. For each needle bed there are two raising cams (R), two cardigan cams (C) and two stitch cams (S). The arrangement as shown in the following figure is referred to as a knitting system. A single system machine will knit one course of rib in one traverse whereas a double system machine will knit two courses of rib per traverse. Sometimes a set of cams in one bed is referred to as a lock. A (L) – Raising cam (left) B (R) – Raising cam (right) C – Tuck cam (left & right) D (L) – stitch cam (left) D (R) – stitch cam (right) E – Guard cam The knitting action of the V-bed machine: Position 1: The rest position. The tops of the heads of the needles are level with the edge of the knock- over bits. Position 2: Clearing. The needle butts are lifted until the latches clear the old loops Position 3: Yarn Feeding. Yarn is fed to the needles as they begin to descend Position 4: Knocking –over. The new loops are drawn through the old loops, thus completing the cycle.
  79. 79. Page 79 of 206 Other m/c in the knitting section: Fig: Twill Tape Fig: warping Fig: reconing Fig: Fabric Inspection machine Fig: Fabric balance
  80. 80. Page 80 of 206
  81. 81. Page 81 of 206 Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric. Yarn: The raw material for knitting is the yarn. Different types of yarn of wide range of different count are used. The sources of yarn are also found. Both carded and combed yarn is used for knitting. Cotton polyester Raw materials for knitting: Type of yarn Count Cotton 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 40S Polyester 75D, 72D,100D Spandex yarn 20D,40D, 70D Grey Mélange (C-90% V-10%) 24S , 26S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S The required yarns are supplied from: Sources: Yarn type Sources cotton Paradise spinning mill, Delta spinning mill, Jamuna group Polyester Yarn India Lycra Singapore, Indonesia, Korea, Japan
  82. 82. Page 82 of 206 Yarn Count: According to the Textile Institute “Count is a number of indicating the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of yarn”. Generally Yarn Count is the weight per unit length of the yarn of the length of per unit length. There are several count system of yarn. These count systems have been divided in two ways. One is Direct System where length is fixed and another is Indirect system where weight is fixed. 1. Direct System (Length Fixed): A). Tex: Weight of yarn in gm present in 1000 meter length. It is a universal system of counting the yarn. B). Denier: Weight of yarn in gm present in 9000 meter length. It is basically used for manmade fiber. C) Pounds Per Spindle: Weight of yarn in lbs present in 1440 yards length. 1. Indirect System ( Weight Fixed): A). English Cotton Count: No. of hanks of 840 yds present in 1 lb of yarn. B) Metric Count: No. of hanks of 1000 meters present in 1 kg of yarn. C) Worsted count: No. of hanks of 560 yds present in 1 lb of Yarn. It is basically used for Wool
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  84. 84. Page 84 of 206 Process flow of Knitting: Take buyer order sheet Analysis of order sheet Analysis of compatibility of machine Analysis of amount of raw material Collect raw material Distribute raw material to specific machine Make batch card according to the buyer requirement Adjust machine pulley according to the F.GSM Run machine Inspect the fabric time to time Finding out the fabric faults and take remedies Cutting the fabric and batching Inspection Weighting Sending to store Transport to buyer
  85. 85. Page 85 of 206 Needle arrangement & cam setting for different types of fabric: Single jersey: Rib(1×1): Rib(2×2): D K K KK KK KK C KK KK KK KK Interlock: Dial Cylinder M K K M k K k K D K K K K C K K K K M K K M
  86. 86. Page 86 of 206 Single La-cost: K T K K K k K K T K Double La-cost: K T T K K K k K K K T T Some points are needed to maintain for high quality fabric: a) Brought good quality yarn. b) Machines are oiled and greased accordingly. c) G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately. d) Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month. e) Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system
  87. 87. Page 87 of 206 Changing of GSM:  Major control by QAP pulley.  Minor control by stitch length adjustment.  Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive direction then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Production Parameter: 1. Machine Diameter; 2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute); 3. No. of feeds or feeders in use; 4. Machine Gauge; 5. Count of yarn; 6. Required time (M/C running time); 7. Machine running efficiency. Considerable points to produce knitted fabrics: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-  Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.  Finished G.S.M.  Yarn count  Types of yarn (combed or carded)  Diameter of the fabric.  Stitch length  Color depth. Knitting parameter for production:  Stitch length  GSM  Fabric width  M/C gauge  Yarn count Relationship between knitting parameter:  Stitch length increase with decrease of GSM.  If stitch length increases then the fabric width increase & Wales per inch decrease.
  88. 88. Page 88 of 206  If the m/c gauge increase then fabric width decrease.  If yarn count increase (course) then fabric width increase.  If shrinkage increases then fabric width decrease but GSM & Wales per inch increase.  For finer gauge finer count yarn should use. Effect of stitch length on color depth: If the depth of color of the fabric is high loop length should be higher because in case of fabric with higher loop length is less compact. In dark shade dye take up% is high so GSM is adjusted then. Similarly in case of light shade loop length should be relatively smaller Factors that should be change in case of fabric design on quality change: a) Cam setting b) Set of needle c) Size of loop shape
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  90. 90. Page 90 of 206 End products of Circular Knitting Machine: Single Jersey M/C: a) S/J Plain b) Single Lacoste c) Double Lacoste d) Single pique e) Double pique f) Terry Interlock M/C: a) Interlock pique b) Eyelet fabric c) Mash fabric d) Honeycomb fabric e) Face/Back rib Rib M/C: a) 1*1 Rib fabric b) 2*2 Rib fabric c) Separation fabric d) Honeycomb End products of Flat Bed Knitting Machine: a) Tripping collar b) Plain collar/ cuff c) Emboss collar/ cuff
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  97. 97. Page 97 of 206 A sampling of weft knit fabrics All weft knits fall into three basic categories: rib knits, which are a combination of knit and purl stitches; purl knits, which are made with purl stitches alone, and jersey knits, which are made with knits stitches on the front and purl stitches on the reverse. Double knit Description: Made with two sets of yarns, this double-constructed fabric has fine ribs running lengthwise on both sides. Usually looks same on fabric’s face and reverse, making it reversible. Fancy double knits may have novelty stitch on fabric’s face and fine ribs on reverse. Properties: Heavy, firm; usually has almost no stretch in either direction. Good shape retention; cut edges don’t curl. Best use: Tailored garments, like jackets, suits, or sheath dresses. If particular double knit has some crosswise stretch, adjusting pattern (by cutting it slightly smaller in body girth) may be necessary. Interlock Description: Compound fabric made by “inter-knitting,” or interlocking, two simple ribbed fabrics, each made with single yarn. Has fine ribs running lengthwise. Fabric’s face and reverse look same, making it reversible. Properties: Almost no lengthwise stretch; more crosswise stretch than double knits or jerseys; fairly good shape retention. Raw or cut edges don’t curl; unravels only from end last knitted. Best use: Wonderful for T-shirts, turtlenecks, casual skirts and dresses, and children’s wear. Because of its crosswise stretch, use pattern designed for interlock knits, or be prepared to adjust pattern.
  98. 98. Page 98 of 206 Jersey knit Description: Also referred to as plain knit or single knit. Has distinct right and wrong sides, with fine ribs running lengthwise on fabric’s face, and semicircular loops running across reverse. Many variations of stitches and fibers create wide variety of single knits, ranging from delicate openwork to heavy, thick piled fabric. Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch, varying amounts of crosswise stretch. Curls to fabric’s right side; cut edges unravel only from end knitted last. Best use: Jersey with little or no crosswise or lengthwise stretch (like most wool jerseys) can be used for skirts, blouses, and dresses without pattern adjustments. Jersey with crosswise stretch requires pattern adjustments or pattern designed for crosswise stretch. Purl knit Description: Double-faced, reversible fabric produced by intermeshed rows of knit and purl stitches, which appear as loops in crosswise direction. Sometimes called “Links-Links,” from the German word links (“left”), since knitting machine’s mechanism always moves to left. Properties: Usually heavy and bulky; stretches in both directions. Cut edges do not curl. Best use: Sweater-type garments, outerwear. Rib knit Description: Double-faced, reversible fabric with distinct vertical ribs on both sides, produced by alternating knit and purl stitches. Ribs can be small (1x1, that is, one knit stitch followed by one purl stitch), thick, (2x2 or 3x3), or uneven (1x3, for example). Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch, but lots of crosswise stretch and good, natural recovery. Cut edges do not curl. Best use: Because of its elasticity, ideal for trimming other knits (and wovens). Garments made from ribknits are usually close-fitting and therefore use a pattern designed for knit
  99. 99. Page 99 of 206 More knit samples Silk jersey interlock knit Acetate slinky rib knit Nylon/lycra metallic rib knit Rayon interlock Linen/viscose single knit jersey Nylon raschel
  100. 100. Page 100 of 206 At first keep this in our heart 1 CM = 10 MM, 1 INCH = 2.54 CM 1 CM = 25.4 MM
  101. 101. Page 101 of 206 KNITTING CALCULATIONS Knitted fabric is made with the help of yarn loops. Yarn of different counts is used to produce fabric of different grammage. There is also a need to calculate optimum production of knitting machines. It is the job of knitting manager to do certain calculation for proper use of machines and production of fabric according to the demands of the customer. Most suitable count for knitting machines: Needle hook has to take yarn to convert it into a loop and finally latch has to close the needle hook so that loop is properly held by the needle hook and ultimately this helps in passing new loop through the previously held loop. It is clear from this explanation that there should be a proper balance between needle hook size and the thickness of the yarn or filament. If the yarn is thicker than needle hook then there will a chance that needle hook will not able to hold this loop and consequently there will be a small hole in the fabric. If the situation is reverse, means yarn is thinner than the size of the needle hook then the fabric produced will look like a net. Both situations are not wanted. This situation demands a balance between needle hook size and count of yarn. It is worth to note that needle hook size depends upon the machine gauge. Furthermore for different garments, fabric of different grammage is required. Every time knitter has to decide about the yarn count. There are many ways for the selection of proper count. In the following lines we will discuss most common methods to select count for different machines of different gauge. It is also important to note that selection of yarn counts also depends upon the machine manufactures and type of machines, like, single and double knit machine. However a general guideline will be given hereunder. As a thumb rule knitting experts prefer to use such knitting machine whose gauges is near to count of yarn (English count) i.e. for 20-gauge machines most suitable yarn count is 20s. This rule is has certain limitations, like, for 28-gauge yarn of 26s to 30s is most suitable. But for very fine counts this rule is not applicable and also machines have maximum gauge 32. Normally fine counts are not used as such rather they are make double, like count 60s double, which means that net count is near to 30s. And this 60 double count is suitable for 30-gauge machine. To solve this problem some authors have suggested following formulas. For single Knitting Machine Suitable count = G*G/18 For Double knitting machine Suitable count= G*G/8.4 (Where G is gauge of knitting machine) Some knitting machine manufacturers suggest a range of yarn count for their machine. There is another way to solve this problem and that is to take help from old record.
  102. 102. Page 102 of 206 General practice of yarn count and machine gauge in industry: Every firm is producing many types of fabrics and on the basis of experience they develop a database for ready reference. In the following line we give a table for guidance (table is under construction). One can get a ready reference from the table to produce fabric of certain grammage. We are also giving expected width of fabric after wet processing. This table can provide just a reference. Knitters have to decide by themselves after doing a trial production, since there are many more factors, which can affect yarn and gauge selection process. Machine Parameters: Every knitting machine is made to fulfill certain demands of the customer. There are number of characteristics of machine which are intimated by the machine manufacturers while delivering the machine to customers/users. It is helpful for the user to be well aware about these parameters. Furthermore machine specifications are given in different unit. We will explain these parameters and will also give the conversion factors to convert parameters from one system to other. Machine Gauge It is used to measure level of anything or for an instrument to measure width, length or height of anything. In knitting it is used to express the number of needle in a unit length of the needle bed. This needle bed may flat or circular. In double knit circular machine it is used for cylinder and as well as dial. Generally gauge is defined as number of needles per inch. “G” is used to denote knitting machine gauge. G = Number of needles 1 inch (25.4 mm) GSM The GSM of fabric is one kind of specification of fabric which is very important for a textile engineer for understanding and production of fabric. ‘GSM’ means ‘Gram per square meter’ that is the weight of fabric in gram per one square meter. By this we can compare the fabrics in unit area which is heavier and which is lighter. For measuring GSM, a GSM cutter is used to cut the fabric and weight is taken in balance. Formula: There are two calculating the GSM of a knitted fabric i.e. First formula is GSM = (CPI * stitch length * 39.37 * 39.37 * Tex) / (1000*1000)
  103. 103. Page 103 of 206 GSM = (WPI*CPI*SL mm*0.9155) / count Ne Calculation of WPI: We calculate the number of Wales in 10 inch fabric unraveling the yarn. Then we divide the no of total Wales by 10 inch to getting the WPI. Or, Calculate the CPI: We calculate the number of course in five inch with the help of counting glass & needle. Then we divide the no of total course by 5 inch to getting the CPI. Or, CPI = stitch density/WPI Stitch density Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters).The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of Wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of Wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. Stitch density = WPI * CPI
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  112. 112. Page 112 of 206 How to Control GSM in a Single Jersey Knit Fabric GSM can be controlled either by taking a coarse count of yarn or for the same count of yarn increasing the stitches per inch. Stitch per inches can be increased by either resorting to a higher gauge machine or by decreasing the loop length. In modern weft knitting machine there is a positive feeder called IRO which regulates the speed of the fed yarn. If the speed of IRO increases, the quantity of yarn passing in the m/c increases, so the loop size increases and hence the GSM decreases. If the speed decreases the reverse happens and the GSM increases. The loop size can also be decreased by adjusting the distance between the cylinder and the dial needles: If the distance is more the loop size increases and hence the GSM decreases. Relation between Yarn count, Knitting, Dyeing & GSM If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 130 GSM to 150 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be: 30/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 26.5 - 29.0 Grey GSM should be: 110 - 120 GSM Where: 1 cm = 18/20 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 28/32 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique 1 cm = 30/34 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 160 GSM to 170 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be: 26/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 27.0 - 29.0 Grey GSM should be: 125 - 135 GSM Where: 1 cm = 16/18 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 26/30 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique 1 cm = 28/32 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 175 GSM to 190 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 24/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 27.5 - 29.5 Grey Gsm should be : 135 - 145 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 16/18 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 24/28 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique
  113. 113. Page 113 of 206 1 cm = 26/30 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 190 GSM to 210 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 20/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 29.0 - 32.0 Grey Gsm should be : 150 - 165 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 4/18 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 22/26 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique 1 cm = 24/28 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make P/interlock finished fabric with 180 GSM to 210 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 40/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 1.55 - 1.75 Grey Gsm should be : 135 - 150 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 32/36 Feeder If we want to make P/interlock finished fabric with 210 GSM to 230 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 34/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 1.65 - 1.85 Grey Gsm should be : 150 - 170 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 30/34 Feeder If we want to make P/interlock finished fabric with 230 GSM to 250 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 30/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 1.65 - 1.85 Grey Gsm should be : 170 - 190 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 28/32 Feeder If we want to make RIB (1X1) finished fabric with 170 GSM to 190 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 30/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 2.65 - 2.85 Grey Gsm should be : 125 - 130 Gsm
  114. 114. Page 114 of 206 Where: 1 cm = 17/18 Feeder If we want to make RIB (1X1) finished fabric with 195 GSM to 225 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 26/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 2.70 - 2.95 Grey Gsm should be: 140 - 155 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 16/17 Feeder If we want to make RIB (1X1) finished fabric with 230 GSM to 250 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be: 24/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 2.70 - 2.95 Grey Gsm should be: 160 - 175 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 16/17 Feeder We can also calculate the Grey fabric GSM from a finished fabric GSM, It will be as like below: In single jersey fabric : If the yarn count is 30/s then the grey gsm will be 80% to 85% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 26/s then the grey gsm will be 78% to 80% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 24/s then the grey gsm will be 76% to 77% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 20/s then the grey gsm will be 76% to 79% less from the finished Gsm In P/int fabric: If the yarn count is 40/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 34/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 30/s then the grey gsm will be 74% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 26/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished GSM If the yarn count is 24/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished Gsm
  115. 115. Page 115 of 206 Relation between yarn counts, GSM and stitch length gauge: Single Jersey Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×28 S/J 2.35 105 50 com 140cm op Avg 30×28 S/J 2.40 105 50 com 140cm op Avg 32×24 S/J 2.65 160 28 card 67inchop Avg 26×24 S/J 2.65 160 28 card 54inchop Avg 30×24 S/J 2.92 140 30 cvc 60%+40% 62inchop Charcoal + Dk red 34×24 S/J 2.78 140 30 card 68inchop Navy 26×24 S/J 2.80 160 26 card 27inch tube Avg 36×24 S/J 2.56 150 34 pc 65%+35% 75inch op Avg 28×24 S/J 2.85 220 20 card 60 op White 36×24 S/J 2.70 160 28 card 188 cm op Lime pinch 28×24 S/J 2.70 200 24 G Mélange 28inch tube wash 30×24 S/J 2.80 140 30 s 62inch op Avg Single Jersey Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×24 S/J 3.00 220 20 cvc 66inch op Andhra grey 30×28 S/J 2.70 130 34 viscose D.y+ 34 slub D.y 66 op Grey black 34×24 S/J 2.92 280 22 card 68inchop Avg 30×24 S/J 2.80 70-80 60 com 60inchop Avg 30×24 S/J 2.85 140 30c vc D.y 60inchop Avg 36×24 S/J 2.80 160 24s com 190 cm op Avg
  116. 116. Page 116 of 206 30×24 S/J 2.86 150 28 s 32inch tube Grey Melange 36×24 S/J 2.80 200 22 s card 72inch op Black 26×24 S/J 2.60 160 34s 27inch Avg 30×24 S/J 2.85 150 30s 62inch op Avg 36×24 S/J 2.55 140 34s com 168inch op Avg 36×24 S/J 2.82 140 36 s cvc D.y 72inch op Andhra sky blue 36×24 S/J 2.70 140 36 s com 168cm op Avg Single Jersey Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 26×24 S/J 2.90 160 26s 27inch tube Avg 30×28 S/J 2.50 150 34s PC 65%+35% 32inch tube Light 30×28 S/J 2.56 160 30s 32inch tube Avg 30×28 S/J 2.35 70 60 Modal 32inch tube Alpe 34×24 S/J 2.80 160 26c vc 70inch op White 28×24 S/J 2.55 145 32s com 178cm op White 34×24 S/J 2.65 155 32s com 168 cm op black 34×24 S/J 2.56 160 30 s card 173cm op yellow 34×24 S/J stripe 2.85 120 34s card 72inch op N-74,W-11 34×24 S/J 2.80 140 30s slub Dy 72inch op Barry mark 34×24 S/J 2.60 120 40s card 64inch op D/C 34×24 S/J 2.60 120 40s card 64inch op M/C 26×24 S/J G. 2.68 155 28 s 27inch tube G. Melange
  117. 117. Page 117 of 206 Melange 28×24 S/J stripe 2.68 170 30s Dy 28inch tube Avg Single jersey Lycra : Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 36×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 160 32s + 20D card 72inch op Black 28×24 S/J Lycra 3.20 160 32s + 20D card 29inch tube White+ black 30×24 S/J Lycra 2.85 180 36s com + 20D 62inch op Avg 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.84 190 34s + 20D 69inch op Avg 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.84 190 34s + 20D 69inch op G. Mell 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.90 180 32s + 20D 68inch op Avg 34×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 160 32s + 20D CD 64.5inch op Avg 32×24 S/J Lycra 3.20 160 32s + 20D CD 72inch op Avg 34×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 170 30s + 20D 62inch op Avg 30×24 S/J Lycra 2.90 180 34s + 20D 68inch op Gris chain China 34×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 180 34s + 20D 60inch op Black 36×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 180 30s + 20D 66inch op White 30×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 200 30s Com + 20D 74inch op White 30×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 170 30s CD+ 20D 64inch op Avg 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.90 180 34s CD+ 20D 74inch op Avg 32×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 140 34s CD+ 20D 64inch op Avg 30×24 S/J Lycra 2.65 135 32s Com+ 20D 145 cm op Orange Single Jersey Slub Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color
  118. 118. Page 118 of 206 30×24 S/J Slub 2.70 105 40s Slub 66inch op Andhra grey 36×24 S/J Slub 2.70 170 28s Slub 66 op Grey black 36×24 S/J Slub 2.65 140 34s Slub 68inchop Avg 34×24 S/J Slub 2.90 160 26s Slub 60inchop Avg 30×24 S/J Slub 2.85 150 30s com Slub 60inchop Avg 30×24 S/J Slub 2.84 120 34s Slub 190 cm op Avg 34×24 S/J Slub 2.60 150 34s PC Slub 32inch tube Grey Melange 30×24 S/J Slub 2.60 135 34s Slub 72inch op Black Interlock Fabrics Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×24 Plain Interlock 14.4 190 40s CD 58inch op Avg 38×24 Plain Interlock 15.5 210 36s com 75inch op Avg Rib Fabrics Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 32×28 1×1 Rib 2.85 180 30s card 64inch op Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 2.68 200 30s CVC 72inch op Avg 40×18 1×1 Rib 3.00 250 20s card 42inch tube Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 3.00 240 22s card 41inch tube Avg 32×18 1×1 Rib 2.65 180 32s card 60inch op Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 3.00 250 22s CD+ 40D Lycra 38inch tube Black Iris 32×18 1×1 Rib 2.60 180 32s PC 60inch op White 40×18 2×2 Rib 18.0 220 36s com+ 20D Lycra 32inch tube Blue
  119. 119. Page 119 of 206 36×18 1×1 Rib 2.60 220 26s card 37inch tube Avg 40×18 2×1 Rib 2.70 160 40s CD + 20D Lycra 50inch op Avg 32×18 1×1 Rib 3.10 250 22s com+ 40D Lycra 33inchtube Avg 34×18 1×1 Rib 2.70 180 40s com + 40D Lycra 90cm op Avg 32×18 1×1 Rib 2.68 160 34s CD 30inch tube Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 2.68 150 40s CD 36inch tube black 32×18 1×1 Rib stipe 2.55 145 28s Dy 64inch op white 40×18 2×2 Rib 18 190 40s CD+ 20D LYcra 52inch op G. melange 38×18 1×1 Rib 2.70 200 40s CD+ 20D Dy 76inch op Avg Single/ Double La_cost Fabrics: Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 26×24 D/La-cost 2.45 180 32s CD 36inchtube Avg 28×24 S/ La-cost 2.55 220 30s CD 41inch tube Avg 28×24 S/ La-cost 2.55 220 26s CD 41inch tube Avg 36×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.75 240 20s CD 66inchop Lt green 30×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.97 240 20s CD 80inchop Red 28×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.97 240 20s CD 74inch op Navy 30×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.60 220 22s CD 192cmop Avg Fleece Fabrics Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×20 Fleece k-4.3 T-3.7 240 30s+20s CVC 70inch op Avg
  120. 120. Page 120 of 206 L-1.55 30×20 Fleece k-41 T-40 L-14 240 k-34s cvc T-30s cvc L-30s cvc 66inch op Black 30×20 Fleece k-4.5 T-2.9 L-1.53 260 k-30s g.mell T-75/30s PC L-20s cvc 66inch op G. melange Knitting Machine Production calculation Before explaining the method to calculate the nominal production capacity of the knitting machine it is imperative to be well aware of count and denier system and one should also be familiar with the conversion factors. Yarn is sold and purchased in the form of cones and bags. Cones and bags have certain weights. Still in the international market yarn is sold in pounds not in kilograms. Bags are of 100 pounds, which is equal to 45.3697 kg. Previously there were 40 cones in a bag but now there are bags available of 25 cones. In other words cones are of 2.5 pounds and four pounds. Big size cones are most suitable for knitting. Relationship between count, length and weight of yarn Length (in yards) = Count *840 *weight of yarn in pound Count = Length / weight of yarn in pounds*840 Weight of yarn = length/count *840 (Note: as per definition count is a relationship between length and weight of yarn. English count is defined as number of hanks in one pound. Hank means a certain length. It is different for different fibers. For details see tables given in the end of book. For explanation purpose we will use English count of cotton. For cotton length of hank is 840 yards. For other fibers use relevant length of hank) Example: 01 Calculate count of cotton yarn from the given data: Weight of yarn = 2.68 pounds Length of yarn = 33600 yard Formula: Count = Length / weight of yarn in pounds*840 = 33600/2.68*840 Answer: =14.93s Example: 02 Calculate length of cotton yarn from the given data: Weight of yarn = 3.5 pounds Count = 40s Formula: Length (in yards) = Count *840 *weight of yarn in pound
  121. 121. Page 121 of 206 = 40*840*3.5 Answer: =117600 Yards Example: 03 Calculate weight of cotton yarn from the given data: Length of yarn = 40600 yards Count = 30s Formula: Weight in pounds = Length of yarn in yards/ Count *840 = 40600/30*840 Answer: = 1.61 pounds Next examples are related to filament. (Note that for filament we use direct system. In which most popular is denier. There are other units too. For detail consult the tables at the end of the book. Denier is number of grams per 9000 meters of filament.) For calculation related to denier we use following equations: Length of filament in meters = Weight of filament in grams* 9000/Denier Weight of filament in grams = Length in meters * denier /9000 Denier = 9000* Weight of filament in grams/Length of filament in meters Example: 04 Calculate length of polyester filament from the given data: Weight 690 grams Denier 75 Equation: Length of filament in meters = Weight of filament in grams* 9000/Denier = 690 * 9000/75 Answer =82800 meters Example: 05 Calculate weigh of polyester filament from the given data: Length in meters = 50900 Denier = 50 Equation: Weight of filament in grams = Length in meters * denier /9000 = 50900*50/9000 Answer: =282.8 grams Example 6
  122. 122. Page 122 of 206 Calculate denier of polyester filament from the given data: Length in meters = 550,000 Weight = 4.5 kg (4500 grams) Equation: Denier = 9000* Weight of filament in grams/Length of filament in meters = 9000*4500/550,000 Answer: = 73.66 Denier (Note: this calculation is up to two digits. For more accurate answers use calculation up to 9 digits) Nominal Production of knitting machines: One very simple way to calculate knitting machine production by weighing the total production of one hour or one shift or one day. This will be most realistic production value but we cannot get knitting machine capacity in this way. There is a scientific way to calculate optimum production figure of any machine. In this method following information for production calculation are required:  Machine gauge and Diameter  RPM Knitting Machine  Yarn Count  Stitch Length From these figures we can calculate the length of yarn being used by the machine in one hour and then by converting this length into weight with the help of count given we can calculate the quantity of yarn being consumed by machine in one hour. This would be the optimum production of the machine. This optimum production can be converted into nominal production by multiplying it with efficiency. (We will explain the method to calculate nominal production capacity of knitting machine. It is commonly believed that we can run knitting machine up to 85% efficiency. However, by creating most suitable environment one can increase machine efficiency) For this we need following figures:  Machine speed RPM  Machine gauge  Machine Diameter  Count/ denier of yarn being used  Stitch length Example 07 Calculate nominal production of a single jersey-knitting machine per hour from the data given: Machine Gauge 24 Machine Diameter 30 inches Number of Feeders 90 Machine RPM 26 Yarn Count 24
  123. 123. Page 123 of 206 Stitch length 4 mm Efficiency 85% Solution: Number of needles = machine diameter * gauge *  (3.14) = 30* 24*3.14 =2260 (exact 2260.8 but needles are always in even number so we will take nearest even figure) Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 2260*90 = 203400 Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =203400 * 4 * 26 * 60/1000 = 1269216 meters or = 1388015 yards Weight of cotton yarn = length of yarn/(Count * 840) = 1388015/(840 * 24) = 68.85 pounds or = 31.23 Kilo grams = 26.55 Kilo grams (Efficiency 85%) Answer: this machine can produce 26.55 Kg fabric in one hour at 85 % efficiency Example: 08 (For Filament yarn) Calculate nominal production of a single jersey-knitting machine per hour from the data given: Machine Gauge 28 Machine Dia 26 inches Number of Feeders 120 Machine RPM 30 Yarn Denier 75 Stitch length 4.5 mm Efficiency 85% Solution: Number of needles = machine dia * gauge *  (3.14)
  124. 124. Page 124 of 206 = 26* 28*3.14 =2286 (exact 2285.92 but needles are always in even number so we will take nearest even figure) Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 2286*120 = 274320 Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =274320 * 4.5 * 30 * 60/1000 = 2221992 meters Weight of filament in grams = Length in meters * denier /9000 = 2221992*75/9000 Answer =18516 grams or = 18.516 Kg = 18.516*85% (Efficiency 85%) =15.74 Kg Answer: this machine can produce 15.74 Kg fabric in one hour at 85 % efficiency (Note: if we are producing any textured fabric, like fleece, then we use two different yarns at different feeders and ultimately stitch length is also different. In such case we should calculate separately consumption of different yarn at different feeders. Following example will help in calculating production in case of use of more than one kind yarn.) Example 9 (fleece-knitting) Calculate nominal production of a fleece-knitting machine per hour from the data given: Machine Gauge 18 Machine Diameter 30 inches Number of Feeders for 60 Front yarn Number of feeders 30 For loop yarn Machine RPM 28 Yarn Count 26s for front Yarn count for loop 16s Stitch length of 4.5 mm front yarn Stitch length of 2.5 mm Loop yarn Efficiency 85%
  125. 125. Page 125 of 206 Solution: Number of needles = machine diameter * gauge *  (3.14) = 30* 18*3.14 =1696 (exact 1695 but needles are always in even number so we will take nearest even figure) Consumption of yarn for front knitting Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 1696*60 = 101760 Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =101760 * 4.5 * 28 * 60/1000 = 769305 meters or = 841312 yards Weight of cotton yarn = length of yarn/(Count * 840) = 841312/840 * 30 = 38.52 pounds or = 17.43 Kilo grams = 14.85 Kilo grams (Efficiency 85%) Answer: this machine will consume 14.85 Kg of yarn to knit front of the fleece fabric in one hour at 85 % efficiency Yarn consumed for loop knitting (back of the fabric) Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 1696*30 = 50880 (Note: that we have put 30 cones of course count for loops after every two feeders.) Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =50880 * 2.5 * 28 * 60/1000 = 213696 meters or = 233696 yards Weight of cotton yarn = length of yarn/(Count * 840) = 233696/(840 * 16) = 17.39 pounds or = 7.89 Kilo grams = 6.70 Kilo grams(Efficiency 85%) Yarn for front 14.85 Yarn for back 6.70 Total 21.55 This machine can produce 21.55 Kgs fabric in one hour at 85% efficiency

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