Industrial  attachment  of m. m. knitwear ltd
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  • 1. Page 1 of 206 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT M.M. Knitwear Ltd Page 1 of 206 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT M.M. Knitwear Ltd Page 1 of 206 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT M.M. Knitwear Ltd
  • 2. Page 2 of 206 TABLE OF CONTENT SL NO. TOPICS PAGE NO. 1 Introduction 3-5 2 History of the Industry 6-14 3 Layout 15-26 4 Knitting 27-137 5 Batching 140-142 6 Laboratory 143-148 7 Dyeing 149-155 8 Finishing 156-173 9 Printing 174-177 10 Garments 178-179 11 Quality control 180-186 12 Maintenance 187-193 13 Utilities 194-199 14 E T P 200-203 15 Conclusion 204-205 16 Reference 206
  • 3. Page 3 of 206
  • 4. Page 4 of 206
  • 5. Page 5 of 206 Introduction: Industrial attachment is the first step to professional life of student, especially of technical Side. It’s an indispensable part of study a practically running processing technology of an industrial unit for a student .In our university , processing machines are not in continuous running condition, so it would only provide demonstration of mechanical features & processing technology of the material in accomplishment of the theory there of but not of the situational variables to achieve practical knowledge. So two months industrial attachment program in a dyeing mill was arranged for us. Textile education can’t be completed without industrial training. Because this industrial attachment program minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge and make me accustomed to industrial environment. I got an opportunity to complete two month long industrial training in M M Knitwear Ltd, which is a 100% export, oriented composite Knit Dyeing Industry. It has well planned & equipped fabric and Knit dyeing-finishing units in addition to facilitate Knitting and Knit wear manufacturing. The rational behind the existing structure and future expansion of M.M. Knitwear Ltd is to capture value-added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process.
  • 6. Page 6 of 206 Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous cotton production capacity, M.M. Knitwear Ltd has leveraged Bangladesh’s labor cost advantage and export competitiveness to the Maximum.
  • 7. Page 7 of 206 M.M. Knitwear Ltd has started manufacture and export of garments since 2001. The beginning M M Knitwear Ltd has a very good reputation as a financially sound and ethical business house. It has a long term association with selected factories, some of them are certified in terms of social and quality compliance by world’s highest rating bodies, and outstanding sourcing capabilities. Thus M.M. Knitwear Ltd has been able to prove itself to be a reliable supplier for knit item in any style and design Specializing in all kinds of knitted items. It is housed in its own building surrounding an area of 310,000 sq. ft. And 4,300 workers and stuff. The determination to achieve superior customer service and on time delivery has earned M. M. Knitwear Ltd recognition as an invaluable player and the desire to succeed in customer satisfaction with every order makes the M. M. Knitwear Ltd team even stronger it’s these fundamental that keep this unit in the game and wining every time. Present Buyer’s….  George, UK.  SAINSBURY, UK.  Spring World, UK.  Takko Holdings, Germany.  Spring Field, Spain.  Ulla Popken, Germany.  Dressman, France  Terranova, Italy.  Mister & Lady. Germany.  Matalon , UK.  Lidl , Germany.  LPP, Poland.  Piaza Italy, Italy.  Offtex, Switzerland.  Texiclothin , Australia.  BiminiBay , USA  Hema, Netherlands.  Sfera, Spain.F  Cia herring, Brazil.  Zolla, Russia  P&C, Germany.  Bealls outlet, USA  New Yorker, Germany  Pierre Cardin, UK.  Next, UK.  Pull and Bear , Spain  O’Stin , Russia.  Centex S.P.A., Italy.  Colin‘s, Turkey.  Seven Hill, Turkey.  Collezione, Turkey.
  • 8. Page 8 of 206  US Polo, Turkey.  Sports World , UK ……….Etc. GENEREL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FACTORY COMPANY PROFILE Name of the project : M. M. knitwear LTD. Type of the project : 100% EXPORT ORIENTED KNITWEAR INDUSTRIES LTD Year of establishment : It was established in the July2001. Address : Factory, Ambagh road, Konabari, Nilnagar, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Head office : House #16, Road #10, Sector # 1, Uttara Model Town , Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh Investors : Md. Mofizul Islam, Managing Director Annual production Capacity : The annual production capacity in M.M. Knitwear Ltd are given below- Dyeing & Finishing Capacity : 7250 Tons. ( around ) Knitting Capacity :3250Tons. (around) Sewing :30000 pcs/day (average) Area : 310,000 sq. ft.
  • 9. Page 9 of 206 Vision & mission of the project: The mission and vision of M.M. Knitwear Ltd. is to manufacture and deliver high quality readymade garments (RMG) to its customers. The core objective is to attain and enhance customer satisfaction by providing on time delivery of desired quality readymade garments and also to increase efficiency of workforce. To attain these objectives, the management of M. M. Knitwear Ltd. has decided to adopt the followings- 1. To increase awareness regarding customers requirements throughout the organization. 2. By providing training to develop efficiency of the employee. 3. To collect customer’s feedback regularly to know about their conception about their company and to take timely appropriate action. 4. To reduce the percentage of wastage / rejection minimum by 2% per annum’s implement and monitor ISO 9001:2000 quality management system within the organization. Main Production : Basic T-Shirt, Tank top, Long Sleeve- Shirt, Polo Shirt, Shorts, Ladies & Kids Knitwear & all kinds of knit garments & Knit fabrics. Fax Number : + 880 – 2 – 8922483 E–mail Address : info@mmknitwear.com URL : http://www.mmknitwearbd.com Certification & awards : ISO 9001:2000. Last year Export Turnover : 30.50 Million U.S Dollars Workers and Stuff : 7500 The annual Production capacity of M. M. knitwear Ltd is an approximate idea, it may vary.
  • 10. Page 10 of 206 Location: Dhaka Chowrasta- Gazipur Dhaka ---Tangail road Ambagh Bsic M. M. Knitwear TusukaBody Fashion S WE N NTKC
  • 11. Page 11 of 206 M.M. Knitwear Ltd the Managing Director/ Chairman who controls the entire factory. And the others respective department chief controls their department in this factory. In this below the organ grams of administration and the others department is showing: Director, H. R. Dept. Assistant General Manager (ADMIN) Deputy Chief Egg. Store Manager Manager Marketing Officer Security Officer Accounts Officer Assistant Accounts Officer Senior Clark Junior Clark Peon Electrical engg, Mechanical engg. Egg. Sub assistant Engg. Foreman Sub assistant Engg. Foreman Asstt. Chief store Manager Asstt.officer Store officer Foreman Assistant Security Officer Security Guard Deputy Account Officer Medical Officer Nurse Assistant Manager (ADMIN) Administration Officer Assistant Administration Officer Peon Administration Assistant Managing director Security Havilder
  • 12. Page 12 of 206 Knitting section: Dyeing & Finishing Section: AGM PM Store In charge Knitting Master Supervisor Feeder man Operator Feeder man Operator GM PM APM SPO Batch Incharge Finishing Incharge Lab Incharge PO APO Supervisor Sr. Operator Operator Asstt. Operator Sewing man Turning m/c Operator Helper Sewing man Squeeze Operator Dryer Operator Compactor Operator Helper Lab Technician Q.C. Technician
  • 13. Page 13 of 206 Section-wise manpower: Management Medium:  Intercom telephone  Fax  E-mail  Written letters & Papers  Oral Management System:  Buyer sample is send to G.M.  Matching is done by lab in charge.  Sample is prepared by dyeing master.  Sample is send to the buyer for approval.  Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. Sample for bulk production.  Asst. dyeing master gives responsibilities to production officer.  Then production officer, with the supervisors start bulk production.  On line and off line quality check is done by lab in charge and asst. dyeing master.  After dyeing finishing in charge controls the finishing process with the supervision of production officer.  After finishing, the material is checked by dyeing master. Department Manpower Knitting 460 Dyeing & Finishing, Lab & QC 720 ETPs 15 Garments 4590 Power, Boiler, Utility & Maintenance 70 Inventory 15 Administration 100 Security 65 Others 150 Total 6255 Helper
  • 14. Page 14 of 206  Finally G.M. checks the result with dyeing master and decision is taken for delivery. Duties & Responsibilities of Production Officer:  To collect the necessary information and instruction from the previous shift for the smooth running of the section.  To make the junior officer understand how to operate the whole production process.  To match production sample with target shade.  To collect the production sample lot sample matching next production.  To observe dyed fabric during finishing running and also after finishing process.  To identify disputed fabrics and report to PM/GM for necessary action.  To discuss with PM about overall production if necessary.  To sign the store requisition and delivery chalan in the absence of PM  To execute the overall floor work.  To maintain loading/ unloading paper. Duties & Responsibilities of Senior Production Officer:  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Batch preparation and pH check.  Dyes and chemicals requisition issue and check.  Write loading / unloading time from machine.  Program making, sample checking, color measurement.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machine.  Any other work as and when required Duties & Responsibilities of GM (Production):  Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.  Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for smooth dyeing.  Check the different log books and report to management.  Check the plan to control the best output.  To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve the quality production.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing m/c.  Maintenance the machinery and equipments.  Any other work as and when required
  • 15. Page 15 of 206
  • 16. Page 16 of 206 BASIC LAY-OUT OF THE FACTORY: 4 7 6 5 3 E XI T E N T R Y 1 2 W NS E
  • 17. Page 17 of 206 1 : Security office. 2 : Administration office 3 : Fabrics Store (Gd. Floor) + Knitting (2nd Floor+3rd floor), . Human Resources Department (HRD) (4th Floor), Merchandising section (5th Floor), garments (6th Floor – 9th floor) 4 : Yarn store (Gr. Floor) + +Garment section(1st Floor – 7th floor) 5 : Fabric dyeing & finishing section. 6 : Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). 7 : Generator house, Water Treatment Plant (WPT), Maintenance building.
  • 18. Page 18 of 206 Lay-out Of Dyeing & Finishing Section: ENT 1 7 3 4 6 5 5 9 8 8 18 10 10 2 2 11 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 17 17 17 16 16 17 1715 15 16 12 14
  • 19. Page 19 of 206 1. Office of PM 2. Offline QC 3. Inspection table 4. Compactor 5. Tube-tex 6. Equalizer Dryer 7. Stentering m/c 8. Calender 9. Slitting m/c 10. Squeezer m/c 11. Office of GM 12. Chemical store 13. Dilmenler high pressure Dyeing m/c 14. Office & Online QC 15. Bangla dyeing m/c 16. Korean dyeing m/c 17. Sample dyeing m/c 18. Turning m/c
  • 20. Page 20 of 206 Knitting Section: Old floor (2nd floor) 3 2 11 1 4 4 5555 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 55 555 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 9 9 8 8 8 88
  • 21. Page 21 of 206 Old floor (3rd floor) 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 3 10 1 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
  • 22. Page 22 of 206 1) Production officer 2) AGM 3) Toilet 4) Fabric Inspection m/c 5) Circular knitting m/c 6) Auto Stripe knitting m/c 7) Entry / Exit 8) Flat bed knitting m/c 9) Floor in charge 10) Knitting master 11) P. M
  • 23. Page 23 of 206 New floor Knitting m/c: Fabric store: Yarn Store: A.P. M: Knitting master: Tools table: Exit: Inspection m/c: Reconing: Twill tape: V-bed: Carton store:
  • 24. Page 24 of 206 2nd (new floor)
  • 25. Page 25 of 206 3rd (new floor)
  • 26. Page 26 of 206 4th (new floor)
  • 27. Page 27 of 206
  • 28. Page 28 of 206 TABLE OF CONTENT SL NO. TOPICS PAGE NO. 1 Machine Profile 29-49 2 Introduction 50-53 3 Terminology & Definition 54-60 4 Machine Description 61-79 5 Raw Material 80-82 6 How to Production 83-88 7 Fabric Specification 89-99 8 Knitting Calculation 100-129 9 Knitting fault 130-135
  • 29. Page 29 of 206
  • 30. Page 30 of 206 Circular Knitting Machine Old floor Machine no: 02 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 03 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 04 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 68 Fabric type Rib Machine no: 01 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 60 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256
  • 31. Page 31 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 05 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 68 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 06 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 72 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 07 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 72 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 08 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 126 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24
  • 32. Page 32 of 206 No. of needle 3168 Machine no: 09 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 28” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2112 Machine no: 10 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 28” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2112 Machine no: 11 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 29” Feeder no: 87 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2184 Machine no: 12 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 29” Feeder no: 87 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2184
  • 33. Page 33 of 206 Machine no: 13 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 14 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 15 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 16 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 126 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 3168
  • 34. Page 34 of 206 Machine no: 17 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 30” Feeder no: 90 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2256 Machine no: 18 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 28” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2112 Machine no: 19 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 20 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Single jersey
  • 35. Page 35 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 21 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 32” Feeder no: 64 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2400 Machine no: 22 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 23 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 24 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLS Cylinder dia 40” Feeder no: 120 Fabric type Single jersey
  • 36. Page 36 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 3000 Machine no: 25 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 26 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 34” Feeder no: 102 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2544 Machine no: 27 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 28 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey
  • 37. Page 37 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 29 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 30 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 36” Feeder no: 108 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2712 Machine no: 31 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 114 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 32 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 40” Feeder no: 120 Fabric type Single jersey
  • 38. Page 38 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 3000 Machine no: 33 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 44” Feeder no: 88 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2484 Machine no: 34 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Rib Gauge 18 No. of needle 2376 Machine no: 35 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 42” Feeder no: 84 Fabric type Rib Gauge 18 No. of needle 2376 Machine no: 36 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 40” Feeder no: 120 Fabric type Rib
  • 39. Page 39 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 3000 Machine no: 37 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 76 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 38 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 76 Fabric type Rib Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 39 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 114 Fabric type Single jersey Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 Machine no: 40 Brand name JIUNNLONG Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JLD Cylinder dia 38” Feeder no: 114 Fabric type Single jersey
  • 40. Page 40 of 206 Gauge 24 No. of needle 2880 New floor M/c no: 01  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 96  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 02  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 03  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 96  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 04  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 32”  No. of feeder: 96  No. of needle:
  • 41. Page 41 of 206  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 05  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 06  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 07  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 08  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 34”  No. of feeder: 102  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  • 42. Page 42 of 206 3rd New floor M/c no: 09  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 10  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 11  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 12  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 38”  No. of feeder: 114  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  • 43. Page 43 of 206 M/c no: 13  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 14  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 15  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 16  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 36”  No. of feeder: 108  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  • 44. Page 44 of 206 4th New floor M/c no: 17  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 26”  No. of feeder: 78  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 18  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 28”  No. of feeder: 84  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 19  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 42”  No. of feeder: 126  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 20  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 40”  No. of feeder: 120  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24
  • 45. Page 45 of 206  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 21  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 38”  No. of feeder: 114  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 22  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 30”  No. of feeder: 90  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 23  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 29  No. of feeder: 87  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey M/c no: 24  Brand name: Fukahama  Country of origin: Taiwan  Model name: SH-JFA3  Cylinder diameter: 27”  No. of feeder: 81  No. of needle:  Gauge: 24  Fabric type: Single jersey
  • 46. Page 46 of 206 Flat bed /v-bed Machine no: 01 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 02 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 03 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c.
  • 47. Page 47 of 206 Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 04 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: O5 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 08 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 07 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c.
  • 48. Page 48 of 206 Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 09 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 10 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 11 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six colours yarn change Machine no: 12 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c.
  • 49. Page 49 of 206 Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change Machine no: 13 Manufacturing company JY-LEH Industrial co.ltd Country of origin Taiwan Model no: JL-303 Product Computerized flat knitting m/c. Specification Single carriage six coloures yarn change CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES SUMMARY: Total number of single jersey machine: 47 Total number of rib machine: 9 Total number of interlock machine: 8 Total Running machine: 63 FLAT BED KNITTING MACHINES SUMMARY: Total number of rib machine: 28 Total Running machine: 20
  • 50. Page 50 of 206
  • 51. Page 51 of 206
  • 52. Page 52 of 206 What is kitting: Knitting is the process of manufacturing fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops, each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately preceding it. The basic element of knit fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loop adjacent to it on both sides and above and below it. Knitted fabric defers vastly from woven fabrics. Woven fabric is formed substantially by interlacing of a seem of length wise and cross wise threads. Knitting in its simplest form Consist in forming loops though those previously formed. Classification of Knitting: a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. a) Warp Knitting: In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads are used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the no of loops in a horizontal row b) Weft Knitting: In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row f loop can be made using one thread and the threads run in the horizontal direction.
  • 53. Page 53 of 206 History of knitting: Knitting, as defined by Wiktionary, is "Combining a piece of thread with two needles into a piece of fabric." The word is derived from knot, thought to originate from the Dutch verb knutten, which is similar to the Old English cnyttan, to knot. Its origins lie in the basic human need for clothing for protection against the elements. More recently, knitting has become less a necessary skill and more a hobby. Historical background of knitting technology: 1589: Willian Lee, Inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools. 1758: Jedediah Strutt, Double knit technique Derby rib machine. 1798: Monsier Decroix, The circular knitting frame is made. 1805: Joseph Macquard, Jacquard design invent. 1847: Mathew Townend, Latch needle invent. 1850: Circular knitting machine. 1852: Theodor Groz, Steal needle. 1878: Plain & Rib bed fabric. 1910: Double face Interlock fabric. 1918: Double cylinder m/c &double headed latch needle. 1920: Colored patterned fabric (jacquard mechanism applied) 1935: Mayer and Cie.
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  • 56. Page 56 of 206 Knit stitch: The basic stitch that forms the “v”-looking stitches that comprise fabrics called “knits”. The knit stitch is just pulling a loop of yarn through an existing loop on the needle. Pulling it through with the yarn in the back creates the knit stitch. Pulling it through with the yarn in front creates the purl stitch. These are the foundation stitches of knitting. To begin your knitting, start with a cast-on.
  • 57. Page 57 of 206 Float Stitch: A float stitch or welt stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more float loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes, as a float loop, to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch, joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. In Fig. B, the float stitch shows the missed yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop. (This is the technical back of single-jersey structures but is the inside of rib and interlock structures.) The float extends from the base of one knitted or tucked loop to the next, and is notated either as an empty square or as a bypassed point. It is assumed that the held loop extends into the courses above until a knitted loop is indicated in that wale. Fig. B A single float stitch has the appearance of a U-shape on the reverse of the stitch. Structures incorporating float stitches tend to exhibit faint horizontal lines. Float stitch fabrics are narrower than equivalent all-knit fabrics because the Wales are drawn closer together by the floats, thus reducing width-wise elasticity and improving fabric stability. The Tuck Stitch: A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop, which becomes a tuck loop because it is not intermeshed through the old loop but is tucked in behind it on the reverse side of the stitch. Its side limbs are therefore not restricted at their feet by the head of an old loop, so they can open outwards towards the two adjoining needle loops formed in the same course. The tuck loop thus assumes an inverted V or U-shaped configuration. The yarn passes from the sinker loops to the head that is intermeshed with the new loop of a course above it, so that the head of the tuck is on the reverse of the stitch.
  • 58. Page 58 of 206 Purl stitch: The opposite of the knit stitch; the back of a knit stitch is what a purl looks like. The front of a purl is a straight bar: “-” English knitting: This is knitting with the yarn supply held in the right hand. Also it called right- handed knitting or throwing. Continental knitting: This is style of knitting in which one holds the yarn in the left hand. Also it called European knitting, German knitting, or left-handed knitting. Pilling: Creation of little pills (the tiny fuzzy balls that dot fabrics that have been washed and dried many times) after wear and tear of a fabric. Some yarns are very sensitive to pilling through friction, even rubbing the yarn back and forth a few times. Luxury yarns require special care to avoid this. Generally the yarn that are the softer (e.g., brushed alpaca), the more likely to pill. To some degree pilling can be decreased by the use of a good sweater shaver, but with use, the fabric will always begin to show age. Knit even: To continue in the pattern stitch for the specified number of rows/rounds without increases or decreases; in other words, continue as is with no tricks until told otherwise. Gauge: The critical measure of how many stitches of the chosen yarn on the chosen needles equal a set measure (e.g., one inch, four inches). Each knitter must determine his or her own gauge, as some knitters routinely pull stitches tighter than others, and therefore will end up with more stitches per inch than another. Gauge can also vary substantially from the pattern if a substitute yarn is used with the recommended needle size instead of the yarn used in the pattern (which for me is most of the time). A common way to state gauge in the US is how many stitches per 4 inches: e.g., 12 stitches per 4 inches, or 3 stitches per inch. The gauge (as determined by the yarn manufacturer) will appear on the yarn label (like “12 st”), along with the size needle with which this gauge was achieved (e.g., US 11). Usually there is a number of rows specified as well, e.g., 15 rows (per 4 inches). This doesn’t mean that every knitter will achieve this exact gauge on the specified needle, nor does it mean that the yarn should only be knit on the size needle listed. There’s no right or wrong (within reason) in how tightly or loosely you stitch compared to others - gauge is about checking stitch size relative to needle size, as knit with your own two hands. When a pattern tells you to “establish gauge”, it’s warning you that you’d best check your tension before starting (thus the designer absolves herself from any responsibility for final dimensions being off). A crucial but sometimes overlooked step - one I’ve been guilty of omitting, with frustrating consequences - prior to beginning a project is to establish gauge with a swatch..
  • 59. Page 59 of 206 Yarn weight: Measure of how heavy or bulky a yarn is. There are rough classes of yarn weight based on gauge, although these classes have some overlap and are open to interpretation. From lightest-weight to bulkiest: fingering weight (or sock weight, lace weight), sport weight (or baby weight), DK (double knitted), worsted, bulky (or chunky), super bulky. Dropping a stitch: Inadvertently skipping or dropping a stitch, either because a stitch slipped off during the feverishly fast pace of knitting or purling or through incomplete execution of a stitch. Ply: One strand of fiber; some yarns are created by twisting multiple plies together, while some are single-ply. In addition to creating varying nuances in the way a fabric yielded from a particular yarn will look, multiple plies can create a fabric (especially in the case of wool fiber) that is more resistant to pilling. Density: A measure of mass per unit of volume. In the carpet world: the weight of pile yarn in a unit volume of carpet. A course: A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. (The last five words help to prevent confusion when describing complex weft knitted fabrics). A course length: In weft knitted fabrics (with the exception of structures such as jacquard, intarsia and warp insertion), a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed a course length. Weft knitted structures will unrove from the course knitted last unless it is secured, for example, by binding- off. A pattern row: A pattern row is a horizontal row of needle loops produced by adjacent needles in one needle bed. In plain weft knitted fabric this is identical to a course but in more complex fabrics a pattern row may be composed of two or more course lengths. In warp knitting, every loop in a course is usually composed of a separate yarn. A wale: A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles.A wale commences as soon as an empty needle starts to knit. • When loop transfer occurs it is possible to transfer a wale of loops from one needle A to another B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, in which case more than one needle will have produced intermeshed loops in the same wale. • In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles. • Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops (weft knitting) or under laps (warp knitting). • Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back of single needle bed fabric.
  • 60. Page 60 of 206 Picture - Course and wale of a weft knit fabric Stitch density: Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimetres).The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimetres) and the number of wales in one inch (or three centimetres), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. (Using a measurement of three centimetres rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses .
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  • 62. Page 62 of 206 Circular knitting machine: Classification of circular knitting machine:
  • 63. Page 63 of 206 Different parts of the circular knitting m/c: Frame The circular knitting machine consists three major sections viz., yarn supply, knitting elements and fabric take-down. The Fig. 2.3 shows the machine frame, indicating its various parts. The knitting elements such as needles, sinkers, cylinder, cams and feeders are supported at the centre called as knitting zone. Yarn packages are mounted at the overhead creels and yarns are fed to knitting zone through yarn guides, stop motions and feeders. The knitted fabric goes down inside the cylinder towards the centre of the machine, drawn into the take down device and finally collected on a roll winding mechanism. A fabric spreader gradually converts the tubular fabric into a double layer folded fabric by preventing the formation of pleats or creases. At the knitting zone, single knit plain machines are fitted with a cylinder and sinker ring, whereas the double knit machines have cylinder and dial Drive The drive to the knitting machine is simple and direct. The motor imparts rotary motion to the rotating needle beds, such as cylinder and dial and also to the take-down and cloth winding
  • 64. Page 64 of 206 mechanism . Types of knitting needle There are mainly three types of needle is used 1. Latch Needle 2. Compound Needle 3. Bearded Needle Latch Needle Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses. A double-headed latch needle was developed as a result of the research to allow the alternation to be achieved on one bed of needles. A single-headed latch needle was also developed to provide an alternative to the bearded needle. The latch needle knitting cycle starts with the old loop trapped inside a closed latch. The needle is pushed up and the old loop slides down the stem, opening the latch in the process. A thread is then laid in front of the stem between the rivet and the hook. As the needle is pulled down the hook catches the thread and forms a new loop. The old loop now slides back up the stem, closes the latch and falls off the end of the needle. The cycle is then repeated. Latch Needle is mostly used needle in the knitting industry today: Latch needle were used on raschel and crochet machines.
  • 65. Page 65 of 206 Fig. Latch Needle Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – 1. Double Cylinder Machine, 2. Flat Bar Machine, 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine, 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine. Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showed below: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional supp9ort to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick.
  • 66. Page 66 of 206 The knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1 The rest position. The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2 Latch opening. As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3 Clearing height. When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4 Yarn feeding and latch closing. The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook. 5 Knocking-over and loop length formation. As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted.
  • 67. Page 67 of 206 Fig. Knitting action of the latch needle. Compound Knitting Needle The compound needle consist of two parts, needle body and slider. These two parts are moved independently. Compound Needle is used on most complex knitting: Compound Needle consists of two separately controlled parts; these are- the open hook and the sliding closing element (tongue, latch, piston, and plunger). The two parts rise and fall as a single unit but at the top of the rise, the hook moves faster to open the hooks and at the start of the fall the hook descends faster to close the hook. It is easier to drive the hooks and tongues collectively form two separate bars as in warp knitting; than to move each hook and tongue individually as in weft knitting. Compound needles were used on tricot machines. Fig. Knitting action of Compound needle.
  • 68. Page 68 of 206 Two types of compound needle have been employed in warp knitting machines: 1. The tubular pipe needle has its tongue sliding inside the tube of the open hook. 2. The open stem “Pusher type” or slide needle has a closing wire or tongue that slides externally along a groove on the edge of the flat hook member. Bearded needle A fine steel needle for machine knitting that has a butt at one end and a long, flexible hook at the other that curves back to the shank of the needle. Also known as spring needle. Bearded needles were used on tricot machines A bearded needle shown with the beard in the open and closed positions. The needle consists of five main parts Fig. Bearded Needle The main parts of the bearded needle 1. Stem: The stem of bearded needle around which the needle loop is formed. 2. The Head: In the head section of bearded needle, the stem is turned into a hook to draw the new loop through the old loop. 3. The Beard: The beard is the curved downwards continuation of the hook that s used to separate the trapped new loop inside from the old loop. 4. The Eye or Groove: The eye of groove cut in the stem to receive the pointed tip of the beard when it is pressed. 5. The shank: The shank of bearded needle may be bent for the individual location in the machine or cast with others in a metal lead. The knitting action of the bearded needle The knitting action of the bearded needle has been illustrated in Fig. Depending upon the machine, the needles are set vertically or horizontally. The needle has the disadvantage of requiring a pressing edge to close the bearded hook and enclose the new loop. The presser may be in the form of a bar, blade, verge or wheel, with either the presser or the needle remaining stationary whilst the other element moves towards it.
  • 69. Page 69 of 206 Another feature of bearded needle knitting is that individual loop formation has to be achieved by a loop forming element. This leads to a more complicated knitting action but also provides for a more gentle and careful loop formation. Fig. Knitting action of the bearded needle CAMS The knitting cams are hardened steels and they are the assembly of different cam plates so that a track for butt can be arranged. Each needle movement is obtained by means of cams acting on the needle butts. The upward movement of the needle is obtained by the rising cams or clearing cams. The rising cam places the needle at a certain level as it approaches the yarn area. Cams controlling the downward movement of the needles are called stitch cams. Fig: Cams Textile Cams: Cams are the device which converts the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action for the needles and other elements. Cams are of two types:- a) Engineering Cam. b) Knitting Cam.
  • 70. Page 70 of 206 Engineering Cam: It is a circular engineering cam. The drive is transmitted and adapted via can followers, levers, pivots and rocker shaft. One complete 360˚ revolution of the drive shaft is equivalent to one knitting cycle. In warp knitting, four types of cam drive have been employed:- 1. Single acting cams 2. Cam and counter cams 3. Box/ Enclosed cams 4. Counter cams. Knitting Cam: The angular knitting cam acts directly onto the butts of needles or other elements to produce individual or serial movement in the tricks of latch needle of weft knitting m/c. Two arrangements are exist there: 1. Revolving Cylinder M/cs: The needle butt pass through the stationary cam system and the fabric hanging from the needles revolves with them. 2. Reciprocating Cam carriage flat M/cs: The cams with the yarn feed pass across stationary needle beds. Sinker:The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. It may perform one or more of the following functions, dependent upon the machine's knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement: It is a thin metal plated with an individual or collective action.
  • 71. Page 71 of 206 It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. (It is always advisable to use one or more of the above terms as adjectives when referring to a sinker, in order to avoid confusion.) On bearded needle weft knitting machines of the straight bar frame and sinker-wheel type (as on Lee's hand frame), the main purpose of a sinker is to sink or kink the newly laid yarn into a loop (Fig. 4.1) as its forward edge or catch (C) advances between the two adjacent needles. On the bearded needle loop wheel frame, the blades of burr wheels perform this function, whereas on latch needle weft knitting machines (Fig. 4.2) and warp knitting machines (Fig. 4.3), loop formation is not a function of the sinkers. (NB: On the European mainland, particularly in Germany, the term couliering is used to describe the presentation of a yarn, the kinking of it into a needle loop and the knock-over of the old loop. Also the term 'sinker' often refers confusingly to a jack or other element (that can be sunk into a trick so that its butt is no longer in action.) The second and more common function of sinkers on modern machines is to hold down the old loops at a lower level on the needle stems than the new loops that are being formed, and to prevent the old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear them from their hooks. Fig. 4.1 Action of the loop-forming sinker. In Fig. 4.1, the protruding nib or nose of' sinker (N) is positioned over the sinker loop of the old loop (O), preventing it from rising with the needle. On tricot Knitting Machines Knitting Guide" href="/guide- 3/classification-of-knitting-machines.html" >warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting machines, a slot or throat (T in Fig. 4.2) is cut to hold and control the old loop. Page 71 of 206 It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. (It is always advisable to use one or more of the above terms as adjectives when referring to a sinker, in order to avoid confusion.) On bearded needle weft knitting machines of the straight bar frame and sinker-wheel type (as on Lee's hand frame), the main purpose of a sinker is to sink or kink the newly laid yarn into a loop (Fig. 4.1) as its forward edge or catch (C) advances between the two adjacent needles. On the bearded needle loop wheel frame, the blades of burr wheels perform this function, whereas on latch needle weft knitting machines (Fig. 4.2) and warp knitting machines (Fig. 4.3), loop formation is not a function of the sinkers. (NB: On the European mainland, particularly in Germany, the term couliering is used to describe the presentation of a yarn, the kinking of it into a needle loop and the knock-over of the old loop. Also the term 'sinker' often refers confusingly to a jack or other element (that can be sunk into a trick so that its butt is no longer in action.) The second and more common function of sinkers on modern machines is to hold down the old loops at a lower level on the needle stems than the new loops that are being formed, and to prevent the old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear them from their hooks. Fig. 4.1 Action of the loop-forming sinker. In Fig. 4.1, the protruding nib or nose of' sinker (N) is positioned over the sinker loop of the old loop (O), preventing it from rising with the needle. On tricot Knitting Machines Knitting Guide" href="/guide- 3/classification-of-knitting-machines.html" >warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting machines, a slot or throat (T in Fig. 4.2) is cut to hold and control the old loop. Page 71 of 206 It may perform the following functions:- 1. Loop Formation 2. Holding Down 3. Knocking Over. (It is always advisable to use one or more of the above terms as adjectives when referring to a sinker, in order to avoid confusion.) On bearded needle weft knitting machines of the straight bar frame and sinker-wheel type (as on Lee's hand frame), the main purpose of a sinker is to sink or kink the newly laid yarn into a loop (Fig. 4.1) as its forward edge or catch (C) advances between the two adjacent needles. On the bearded needle loop wheel frame, the blades of burr wheels perform this function, whereas on latch needle weft knitting machines (Fig. 4.2) and warp knitting machines (Fig. 4.3), loop formation is not a function of the sinkers. (NB: On the European mainland, particularly in Germany, the term couliering is used to describe the presentation of a yarn, the kinking of it into a needle loop and the knock-over of the old loop. Also the term 'sinker' often refers confusingly to a jack or other element (that can be sunk into a trick so that its butt is no longer in action.) The second and more common function of sinkers on modern machines is to hold down the old loops at a lower level on the needle stems than the new loops that are being formed, and to prevent the old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear them from their hooks. Fig. 4.1 Action of the loop-forming sinker. In Fig. 4.1, the protruding nib or nose of' sinker (N) is positioned over the sinker loop of the old loop (O), preventing it from rising with the needle. On tricot Knitting Machines Knitting Guide" href="/guide- 3/classification-of-knitting-machines.html" >warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting machines, a slot or throat (T in Fig. 4.2) is cut to hold and control the old loop.
  • 72. Page 72 of 206 The sole function of' the sinker may be to act as a web holder or stitch comb as on the raschel warp knitting machine, in which case only the underside of the nose performs this function. On single cylinder latch needle weft knitting machines the holding-down sinkers have a rectangular gap cut into their upper surface, remote from the nose, into which the sinker cam race fits, to positively control the sinker's movement. Holding-down sinkers enable tighter structures with improved appearance to be obtained, the minimum draw-off tension is reduced and higher knitting speeds are possible and knitting can be commenced on empty needles. Holding-down sinkers are often unnecessary when knitting with two needle bed machines as the second bed restrains the fabric loops whilst the other set of needles moves. However, if single bed knitting or held loop structure is knitted, a form of holding- down element may still be required (as is the case with some V-bed flat knitting machines). The third function of the sinker - as a knock-over surface - is illustrated in Fig. 4.2 where its upper surface or belly (B) supports the old loop (O) as the new loop (NL) is drawn through it. On tricot warp knitting machines the sinker belly is specially shaped to assist with landing as well as knock-over. On raschel warp knitting machines, many V-bed flats, and cylinder and dial circular machines, the verge or upper surface of the trick-plate (V in Fig. 3.4) serves as the knock-over surface. On some machines, the knock-over surface moves in opposition to the descent of the needle (see Relanit, Chapter 13; and Shima contra sinkers, Sinker Tuck Page 72 of 206 The sole function of' the sinker may be to act as a web holder or stitch comb as on the raschel warp knitting machine, in which case only the underside of the nose performs this function. On single cylinder latch needle weft knitting machines the holding-down sinkers have a rectangular gap cut into their upper surface, remote from the nose, into which the sinker cam race fits, to positively control the sinker's movement. Holding-down sinkers enable tighter structures with improved appearance to be obtained, the minimum draw-off tension is reduced and higher knitting speeds are possible and knitting can be commenced on empty needles. Holding-down sinkers are often unnecessary when knitting with two needle bed machines as the second bed restrains the fabric loops whilst the other set of needles moves. However, if single bed knitting or held loop structure is knitted, a form of holding- down element may still be required (as is the case with some V-bed flat knitting machines). The third function of the sinker - as a knock-over surface - is illustrated in Fig. 4.2 where its upper surface or belly (B) supports the old loop (O) as the new loop (NL) is drawn through it. On tricot warp knitting machines the sinker belly is specially shaped to assist with landing as well as knock-over. On raschel warp knitting machines, many V-bed flats, and cylinder and dial circular machines, the verge or upper surface of the trick-plate (V in Fig. 3.4) serves as the knock-over surface. On some machines, the knock-over surface moves in opposition to the descent of the needle (see Relanit, Chapter 13; and Shima contra sinkers, Sinker Tuck Page 72 of 206 The sole function of' the sinker may be to act as a web holder or stitch comb as on the raschel warp knitting machine, in which case only the underside of the nose performs this function. On single cylinder latch needle weft knitting machines the holding-down sinkers have a rectangular gap cut into their upper surface, remote from the nose, into which the sinker cam race fits, to positively control the sinker's movement. Holding-down sinkers enable tighter structures with improved appearance to be obtained, the minimum draw-off tension is reduced and higher knitting speeds are possible and knitting can be commenced on empty needles. Holding-down sinkers are often unnecessary when knitting with two needle bed machines as the second bed restrains the fabric loops whilst the other set of needles moves. However, if single bed knitting or held loop structure is knitted, a form of holding- down element may still be required (as is the case with some V-bed flat knitting machines). The third function of the sinker - as a knock-over surface - is illustrated in Fig. 4.2 where its upper surface or belly (B) supports the old loop (O) as the new loop (NL) is drawn through it. On tricot warp knitting machines the sinker belly is specially shaped to assist with landing as well as knock-over. On raschel warp knitting machines, many V-bed flats, and cylinder and dial circular machines, the verge or upper surface of the trick-plate (V in Fig. 3.4) serves as the knock-over surface. On some machines, the knock-over surface moves in opposition to the descent of the needle (see Relanit, Chapter 13; and Shima contra sinkers, Sinker Tuck
  • 73. Page 73 of 206 Cylinder: Dial: Creel:
  • 74. Page 74 of 206 Feeders/ Stripers:
  • 75. Page 75 of 206 Fig. 2.15 Fabric Spreader:
  • 76. Page 76 of 206 TAKE DOWN AND WINDING MECHANISM GSM pulley:
  • 77. Page 77 of 206 Flat bed/ V-bed knitting machine Main parts: 1. Yarn package 2. Front needle bed 3. Yarn guide 4. Needle spring 5. Tension spring 6. Fabric 7. Cymbal tension 8. Dead weightening system 9. Yarn take-up 10. Latch needle 11. Fabric comb 12. Yarn carrier 13. Back needle bed M/c description:
  • 78. Page 78 of 206 In the following figure shows a cross section of a simple hand powered and manipulated V-bed rib flat machine. The trick walls are replaced at the needle bed verges by fixed, thinner, polished and specially shaped knock-over bit edges. In rib gating, a knock-over bit in one bed will be aligned opposite to a needle trick in the other bed. During knitting, the edges of the knock-over bits restrain the sinker loops as they pass between the needles and thus assist in the knocking over of the old loops and in the formation of the new loops. The cover plate is a thin metal blade, located in a slot across the top of the needle bed tricks. It prevents the stems of the needles from pivoting upwards out of the tricks as a result of the fabric take down tension drawing the needle hooks downwards whilst allowing the needles to slide freely in their tricks. Latch opening brushes are attached to the cam plates of both needle beds to ensure that the needle latches are fully opened. The supports of the brushes are adjustable to ensure precise setting of the bristles relative to the needles. The cam-carriage either slides or runs on ball bearings or wheels, along guide rails, one of which is fixed over the lower end of each needle bed. It is propelled either by hand or from a motor driven continuous roller chain or rubber belt. Each yarn carrier is attached to a block which slides along a bar, which, like the carriage guide rails, passes across the full width of the machine. Two levers are usually provided, one at each end of the needle bed. One is for racking the back needle bed, to change the gating of the needle beds for changes of rib set out or rib loop transfer. Cam system of the V-bed hand flat machine: The following figure illustrates the knitting action of a V-bed hand flat machine and the another figure shows the underside of the cam carriage and the cams forming the tracks that guide the needle butts through the knitting system. The needle butts will enter the traversing cam system from the right during a left to right carriage traverse and from the left during a right to left traverse. For each needle bed there are two raising cams (R), two cardigan cams (C) and two stitch cams (S). The arrangement as shown in the following figure is referred to as a knitting system. A single system machine will knit one course of rib in one traverse whereas a double system machine will knit two courses of rib per traverse. Sometimes a set of cams in one bed is referred to as a lock. A (L) – Raising cam (left) B (R) – Raising cam (right) C – Tuck cam (left & right) D (L) – stitch cam (left) D (R) – stitch cam (right) E – Guard cam The knitting action of the V-bed machine: Position 1: The rest position. The tops of the heads of the needles are level with the edge of the knock- over bits. Position 2: Clearing. The needle butts are lifted until the latches clear the old loops Position 3: Yarn Feeding. Yarn is fed to the needles as they begin to descend Position 4: Knocking –over. The new loops are drawn through the old loops, thus completing the cycle.
  • 79. Page 79 of 206 Other m/c in the knitting section: Fig: Twill Tape Fig: warping Fig: reconing Fig: Fabric Inspection machine Fig: Fabric balance
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  • 81. Page 81 of 206 Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric. Yarn: The raw material for knitting is the yarn. Different types of yarn of wide range of different count are used. The sources of yarn are also found. Both carded and combed yarn is used for knitting. Cotton polyester Raw materials for knitting: Type of yarn Count Cotton 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 40S Polyester 75D, 72D,100D Spandex yarn 20D,40D, 70D Grey Mélange (C-90% V-10%) 24S , 26S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S The required yarns are supplied from: Sources: Yarn type Sources cotton Paradise spinning mill, Delta spinning mill, Jamuna group Polyester Yarn India Lycra Singapore, Indonesia, Korea, Japan
  • 82. Page 82 of 206 Yarn Count: According to the Textile Institute “Count is a number of indicating the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of yarn”. Generally Yarn Count is the weight per unit length of the yarn of the length of per unit length. There are several count system of yarn. These count systems have been divided in two ways. One is Direct System where length is fixed and another is Indirect system where weight is fixed. 1. Direct System (Length Fixed): A). Tex: Weight of yarn in gm present in 1000 meter length. It is a universal system of counting the yarn. B). Denier: Weight of yarn in gm present in 9000 meter length. It is basically used for manmade fiber. C) Pounds Per Spindle: Weight of yarn in lbs present in 1440 yards length. 1. Indirect System ( Weight Fixed): A). English Cotton Count: No. of hanks of 840 yds present in 1 lb of yarn. B) Metric Count: No. of hanks of 1000 meters present in 1 kg of yarn. C) Worsted count: No. of hanks of 560 yds present in 1 lb of Yarn. It is basically used for Wool
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  • 84. Page 84 of 206 Process flow of Knitting: Take buyer order sheet Analysis of order sheet Analysis of compatibility of machine Analysis of amount of raw material Collect raw material Distribute raw material to specific machine Make batch card according to the buyer requirement Adjust machine pulley according to the F.GSM Run machine Inspect the fabric time to time Finding out the fabric faults and take remedies Cutting the fabric and batching Inspection Weighting Sending to store Transport to buyer
  • 85. Page 85 of 206 Needle arrangement & cam setting for different types of fabric: Single jersey: Rib(1×1): Rib(2×2): D K K KK KK KK C KK KK KK KK Interlock: Dial Cylinder M K K M k K k K D K K K K C K K K K M K K M
  • 86. Page 86 of 206 Single La-cost: K T K K K k K K T K Double La-cost: K T T K K K k K K K T T Some points are needed to maintain for high quality fabric: a) Brought good quality yarn. b) Machines are oiled and greased accordingly. c) G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately. d) Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month. e) Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system
  • 87. Page 87 of 206 Changing of GSM:  Major control by QAP pulley.  Minor control by stitch length adjustment.  Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive direction then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. Production Parameter: 1. Machine Diameter; 2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute); 3. No. of feeds or feeders in use; 4. Machine Gauge; 5. Count of yarn; 6. Required time (M/C running time); 7. Machine running efficiency. Considerable points to produce knitted fabrics: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-  Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.  Finished G.S.M.  Yarn count  Types of yarn (combed or carded)  Diameter of the fabric.  Stitch length  Color depth. Knitting parameter for production:  Stitch length  GSM  Fabric width  M/C gauge  Yarn count Relationship between knitting parameter:  Stitch length increase with decrease of GSM.  If stitch length increases then the fabric width increase & Wales per inch decrease.
  • 88. Page 88 of 206  If the m/c gauge increase then fabric width decrease.  If yarn count increase (course) then fabric width increase.  If shrinkage increases then fabric width decrease but GSM & Wales per inch increase.  For finer gauge finer count yarn should use. Effect of stitch length on color depth: If the depth of color of the fabric is high loop length should be higher because in case of fabric with higher loop length is less compact. In dark shade dye take up% is high so GSM is adjusted then. Similarly in case of light shade loop length should be relatively smaller Factors that should be change in case of fabric design on quality change: a) Cam setting b) Set of needle c) Size of loop shape
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  • 90. Page 90 of 206 End products of Circular Knitting Machine: Single Jersey M/C: a) S/J Plain b) Single Lacoste c) Double Lacoste d) Single pique e) Double pique f) Terry Interlock M/C: a) Interlock pique b) Eyelet fabric c) Mash fabric d) Honeycomb fabric e) Face/Back rib Rib M/C: a) 1*1 Rib fabric b) 2*2 Rib fabric c) Separation fabric d) Honeycomb End products of Flat Bed Knitting Machine: a) Tripping collar b) Plain collar/ cuff c) Emboss collar/ cuff
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  • 97. Page 97 of 206 A sampling of weft knit fabrics All weft knits fall into three basic categories: rib knits, which are a combination of knit and purl stitches; purl knits, which are made with purl stitches alone, and jersey knits, which are made with knits stitches on the front and purl stitches on the reverse. Double knit Description: Made with two sets of yarns, this double-constructed fabric has fine ribs running lengthwise on both sides. Usually looks same on fabric’s face and reverse, making it reversible. Fancy double knits may have novelty stitch on fabric’s face and fine ribs on reverse. Properties: Heavy, firm; usually has almost no stretch in either direction. Good shape retention; cut edges don’t curl. Best use: Tailored garments, like jackets, suits, or sheath dresses. If particular double knit has some crosswise stretch, adjusting pattern (by cutting it slightly smaller in body girth) may be necessary. Interlock Description: Compound fabric made by “inter-knitting,” or interlocking, two simple ribbed fabrics, each made with single yarn. Has fine ribs running lengthwise. Fabric’s face and reverse look same, making it reversible. Properties: Almost no lengthwise stretch; more crosswise stretch than double knits or jerseys; fairly good shape retention. Raw or cut edges don’t curl; unravels only from end last knitted. Best use: Wonderful for T-shirts, turtlenecks, casual skirts and dresses, and children’s wear. Because of its crosswise stretch, use pattern designed for interlock knits, or be prepared to adjust pattern.
  • 98. Page 98 of 206 Jersey knit Description: Also referred to as plain knit or single knit. Has distinct right and wrong sides, with fine ribs running lengthwise on fabric’s face, and semicircular loops running across reverse. Many variations of stitches and fibers create wide variety of single knits, ranging from delicate openwork to heavy, thick piled fabric. Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch, varying amounts of crosswise stretch. Curls to fabric’s right side; cut edges unravel only from end knitted last. Best use: Jersey with little or no crosswise or lengthwise stretch (like most wool jerseys) can be used for skirts, blouses, and dresses without pattern adjustments. Jersey with crosswise stretch requires pattern adjustments or pattern designed for crosswise stretch. Purl knit Description: Double-faced, reversible fabric produced by intermeshed rows of knit and purl stitches, which appear as loops in crosswise direction. Sometimes called “Links-Links,” from the German word links (“left”), since knitting machine’s mechanism always moves to left. Properties: Usually heavy and bulky; stretches in both directions. Cut edges do not curl. Best use: Sweater-type garments, outerwear. Rib knit Description: Double-faced, reversible fabric with distinct vertical ribs on both sides, produced by alternating knit and purl stitches. Ribs can be small (1x1, that is, one knit stitch followed by one purl stitch), thick, (2x2 or 3x3), or uneven (1x3, for example). Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch, but lots of crosswise stretch and good, natural recovery. Cut edges do not curl. Best use: Because of its elasticity, ideal for trimming other knits (and wovens). Garments made from ribknits are usually close-fitting and therefore use a pattern designed for knit
  • 99. Page 99 of 206 More knit samples Silk jersey interlock knit Acetate slinky rib knit Nylon/lycra metallic rib knit Rayon interlock Linen/viscose single knit jersey Nylon raschel
  • 100. Page 100 of 206 At first keep this in our heart 1 CM = 10 MM, 1 INCH = 2.54 CM 1 CM = 25.4 MM
  • 101. Page 101 of 206 KNITTING CALCULATIONS Knitted fabric is made with the help of yarn loops. Yarn of different counts is used to produce fabric of different grammage. There is also a need to calculate optimum production of knitting machines. It is the job of knitting manager to do certain calculation for proper use of machines and production of fabric according to the demands of the customer. Most suitable count for knitting machines: Needle hook has to take yarn to convert it into a loop and finally latch has to close the needle hook so that loop is properly held by the needle hook and ultimately this helps in passing new loop through the previously held loop. It is clear from this explanation that there should be a proper balance between needle hook size and the thickness of the yarn or filament. If the yarn is thicker than needle hook then there will a chance that needle hook will not able to hold this loop and consequently there will be a small hole in the fabric. If the situation is reverse, means yarn is thinner than the size of the needle hook then the fabric produced will look like a net. Both situations are not wanted. This situation demands a balance between needle hook size and count of yarn. It is worth to note that needle hook size depends upon the machine gauge. Furthermore for different garments, fabric of different grammage is required. Every time knitter has to decide about the yarn count. There are many ways for the selection of proper count. In the following lines we will discuss most common methods to select count for different machines of different gauge. It is also important to note that selection of yarn counts also depends upon the machine manufactures and type of machines, like, single and double knit machine. However a general guideline will be given hereunder. As a thumb rule knitting experts prefer to use such knitting machine whose gauges is near to count of yarn (English count) i.e. for 20-gauge machines most suitable yarn count is 20s. This rule is has certain limitations, like, for 28-gauge yarn of 26s to 30s is most suitable. But for very fine counts this rule is not applicable and also machines have maximum gauge 32. Normally fine counts are not used as such rather they are make double, like count 60s double, which means that net count is near to 30s. And this 60 double count is suitable for 30-gauge machine. To solve this problem some authors have suggested following formulas. For single Knitting Machine Suitable count = G*G/18 For Double knitting machine Suitable count= G*G/8.4 (Where G is gauge of knitting machine) Some knitting machine manufacturers suggest a range of yarn count for their machine. There is another way to solve this problem and that is to take help from old record.
  • 102. Page 102 of 206 General practice of yarn count and machine gauge in industry: Every firm is producing many types of fabrics and on the basis of experience they develop a database for ready reference. In the following line we give a table for guidance (table is under construction). One can get a ready reference from the table to produce fabric of certain grammage. We are also giving expected width of fabric after wet processing. This table can provide just a reference. Knitters have to decide by themselves after doing a trial production, since there are many more factors, which can affect yarn and gauge selection process. Machine Parameters: Every knitting machine is made to fulfill certain demands of the customer. There are number of characteristics of machine which are intimated by the machine manufacturers while delivering the machine to customers/users. It is helpful for the user to be well aware about these parameters. Furthermore machine specifications are given in different unit. We will explain these parameters and will also give the conversion factors to convert parameters from one system to other. Machine Gauge It is used to measure level of anything or for an instrument to measure width, length or height of anything. In knitting it is used to express the number of needle in a unit length of the needle bed. This needle bed may flat or circular. In double knit circular machine it is used for cylinder and as well as dial. Generally gauge is defined as number of needles per inch. “G” is used to denote knitting machine gauge. G = Number of needles 1 inch (25.4 mm) GSM The GSM of fabric is one kind of specification of fabric which is very important for a textile engineer for understanding and production of fabric. ‘GSM’ means ‘Gram per square meter’ that is the weight of fabric in gram per one square meter. By this we can compare the fabrics in unit area which is heavier and which is lighter. For measuring GSM, a GSM cutter is used to cut the fabric and weight is taken in balance. Formula: There are two calculating the GSM of a knitted fabric i.e. First formula is GSM = (CPI * stitch length * 39.37 * 39.37 * Tex) / (1000*1000)
  • 103. Page 103 of 206 GSM = (WPI*CPI*SL mm*0.9155) / count Ne Calculation of WPI: We calculate the number of Wales in 10 inch fabric unraveling the yarn. Then we divide the no of total Wales by 10 inch to getting the WPI. Or, Calculate the CPI: We calculate the number of course in five inch with the help of counting glass & needle. Then we divide the no of total course by 5 inch to getting the CPI. Or, CPI = stitch density/WPI Stitch density Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch, or three square centimeters).The figure is obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch (or three centimeters) and the number of Wales in one inch (or three centimeters), then multiplying the number of courses by the number of Wales. (Using a measurement of three centimeters rather than one, is preferable for accuracy in counting). Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales. Tension acting in one direction might produce a low reading for the courses and a high reading for the wales; when they are multiplied together this effect is cancelled out. Pattern rows rather than courses may be counted when they are composed of a constant number of courses. Stitch density = WPI * CPI
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  • 112. Page 112 of 206 How to Control GSM in a Single Jersey Knit Fabric GSM can be controlled either by taking a coarse count of yarn or for the same count of yarn increasing the stitches per inch. Stitch per inches can be increased by either resorting to a higher gauge machine or by decreasing the loop length. In modern weft knitting machine there is a positive feeder called IRO which regulates the speed of the fed yarn. If the speed of IRO increases, the quantity of yarn passing in the m/c increases, so the loop size increases and hence the GSM decreases. If the speed decreases the reverse happens and the GSM increases. The loop size can also be decreased by adjusting the distance between the cylinder and the dial needles: If the distance is more the loop size increases and hence the GSM decreases. Relation between Yarn count, Knitting, Dyeing & GSM If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 130 GSM to 150 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be: 30/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 26.5 - 29.0 Grey GSM should be: 110 - 120 GSM Where: 1 cm = 18/20 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 28/32 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique 1 cm = 30/34 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 160 GSM to 170 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be: 26/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 27.0 - 29.0 Grey GSM should be: 125 - 135 GSM Where: 1 cm = 16/18 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 26/30 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique 1 cm = 28/32 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 175 GSM to 190 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 24/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 27.5 - 29.5 Grey Gsm should be : 135 - 145 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 16/18 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 24/28 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique
  • 113. Page 113 of 206 1 cm = 26/30 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make Single jersey finished fabric with 190 GSM to 210 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 20/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 29.0 - 32.0 Grey Gsm should be : 150 - 165 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 4/18 Feeder for Single Jersey 1 cm = 22/26 Feeder for Single Lacoste, S/Pique 1 cm = 24/28 Feeder for Double Lacoste, D/pique If we want to make P/interlock finished fabric with 180 GSM to 210 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 40/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 1.55 - 1.75 Grey Gsm should be : 135 - 150 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 32/36 Feeder If we want to make P/interlock finished fabric with 210 GSM to 230 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 34/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 1.65 - 1.85 Grey Gsm should be : 150 - 170 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 30/34 Feeder If we want to make P/interlock finished fabric with 230 GSM to 250 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 30/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 1.65 - 1.85 Grey Gsm should be : 170 - 190 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 28/32 Feeder If we want to make RIB (1X1) finished fabric with 170 GSM to 190 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 30/s comb or card Stitch line will be : 2.65 - 2.85 Grey Gsm should be : 125 - 130 Gsm
  • 114. Page 114 of 206 Where: 1 cm = 17/18 Feeder If we want to make RIB (1X1) finished fabric with 195 GSM to 225 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be : 26/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 2.70 - 2.95 Grey Gsm should be: 140 - 155 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 16/17 Feeder If we want to make RIB (1X1) finished fabric with 230 GSM to 250 GSM then we must follow the below rules: Yarn count will be: 24/s comb or card Stitch line will be: 2.70 - 2.95 Grey Gsm should be: 160 - 175 Gsm Where: 1 cm = 16/17 Feeder We can also calculate the Grey fabric GSM from a finished fabric GSM, It will be as like below: In single jersey fabric : If the yarn count is 30/s then the grey gsm will be 80% to 85% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 26/s then the grey gsm will be 78% to 80% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 24/s then the grey gsm will be 76% to 77% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 20/s then the grey gsm will be 76% to 79% less from the finished Gsm In P/int fabric: If the yarn count is 40/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 34/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 30/s then the grey gsm will be 74% less from the finished Gsm If the yarn count is 26/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished GSM If the yarn count is 24/s then the grey gsm will be 72% less from the finished Gsm
  • 115. Page 115 of 206 Relation between yarn counts, GSM and stitch length gauge: Single Jersey Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×28 S/J 2.35 105 50 com 140cm op Avg 30×28 S/J 2.40 105 50 com 140cm op Avg 32×24 S/J 2.65 160 28 card 67inchop Avg 26×24 S/J 2.65 160 28 card 54inchop Avg 30×24 S/J 2.92 140 30 cvc 60%+40% 62inchop Charcoal + Dk red 34×24 S/J 2.78 140 30 card 68inchop Navy 26×24 S/J 2.80 160 26 card 27inch tube Avg 36×24 S/J 2.56 150 34 pc 65%+35% 75inch op Avg 28×24 S/J 2.85 220 20 card 60 op White 36×24 S/J 2.70 160 28 card 188 cm op Lime pinch 28×24 S/J 2.70 200 24 G Mélange 28inch tube wash 30×24 S/J 2.80 140 30 s 62inch op Avg Single Jersey Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×24 S/J 3.00 220 20 cvc 66inch op Andhra grey 30×28 S/J 2.70 130 34 viscose D.y+ 34 slub D.y 66 op Grey black 34×24 S/J 2.92 280 22 card 68inchop Avg 30×24 S/J 2.80 70-80 60 com 60inchop Avg 30×24 S/J 2.85 140 30c vc D.y 60inchop Avg 36×24 S/J 2.80 160 24s com 190 cm op Avg
  • 116. Page 116 of 206 30×24 S/J 2.86 150 28 s 32inch tube Grey Melange 36×24 S/J 2.80 200 22 s card 72inch op Black 26×24 S/J 2.60 160 34s 27inch Avg 30×24 S/J 2.85 150 30s 62inch op Avg 36×24 S/J 2.55 140 34s com 168inch op Avg 36×24 S/J 2.82 140 36 s cvc D.y 72inch op Andhra sky blue 36×24 S/J 2.70 140 36 s com 168cm op Avg Single Jersey Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 26×24 S/J 2.90 160 26s 27inch tube Avg 30×28 S/J 2.50 150 34s PC 65%+35% 32inch tube Light 30×28 S/J 2.56 160 30s 32inch tube Avg 30×28 S/J 2.35 70 60 Modal 32inch tube Alpe 34×24 S/J 2.80 160 26c vc 70inch op White 28×24 S/J 2.55 145 32s com 178cm op White 34×24 S/J 2.65 155 32s com 168 cm op black 34×24 S/J 2.56 160 30 s card 173cm op yellow 34×24 S/J stripe 2.85 120 34s card 72inch op N-74,W-11 34×24 S/J 2.80 140 30s slub Dy 72inch op Barry mark 34×24 S/J 2.60 120 40s card 64inch op D/C 34×24 S/J 2.60 120 40s card 64inch op M/C 26×24 S/J G. 2.68 155 28 s 27inch tube G. Melange
  • 117. Page 117 of 206 Melange 28×24 S/J stripe 2.68 170 30s Dy 28inch tube Avg Single jersey Lycra : Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 36×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 160 32s + 20D card 72inch op Black 28×24 S/J Lycra 3.20 160 32s + 20D card 29inch tube White+ black 30×24 S/J Lycra 2.85 180 36s com + 20D 62inch op Avg 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.84 190 34s + 20D 69inch op Avg 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.84 190 34s + 20D 69inch op G. Mell 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.90 180 32s + 20D 68inch op Avg 34×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 160 32s + 20D CD 64.5inch op Avg 32×24 S/J Lycra 3.20 160 32s + 20D CD 72inch op Avg 34×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 170 30s + 20D 62inch op Avg 30×24 S/J Lycra 2.90 180 34s + 20D 68inch op Gris chain China 34×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 180 34s + 20D 60inch op Black 36×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 180 30s + 20D 66inch op White 30×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 200 30s Com + 20D 74inch op White 30×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 170 30s CD+ 20D 64inch op Avg 36×24 S/J Lycra 2.90 180 34s CD+ 20D 74inch op Avg 32×24 S/J Lycra 3.00 140 34s CD+ 20D 64inch op Avg 30×24 S/J Lycra 2.65 135 32s Com+ 20D 145 cm op Orange Single Jersey Slub Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color
  • 118. Page 118 of 206 30×24 S/J Slub 2.70 105 40s Slub 66inch op Andhra grey 36×24 S/J Slub 2.70 170 28s Slub 66 op Grey black 36×24 S/J Slub 2.65 140 34s Slub 68inchop Avg 34×24 S/J Slub 2.90 160 26s Slub 60inchop Avg 30×24 S/J Slub 2.85 150 30s com Slub 60inchop Avg 30×24 S/J Slub 2.84 120 34s Slub 190 cm op Avg 34×24 S/J Slub 2.60 150 34s PC Slub 32inch tube Grey Melange 30×24 S/J Slub 2.60 135 34s Slub 72inch op Black Interlock Fabrics Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×24 Plain Interlock 14.4 190 40s CD 58inch op Avg 38×24 Plain Interlock 15.5 210 36s com 75inch op Avg Rib Fabrics Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 32×28 1×1 Rib 2.85 180 30s card 64inch op Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 2.68 200 30s CVC 72inch op Avg 40×18 1×1 Rib 3.00 250 20s card 42inch tube Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 3.00 240 22s card 41inch tube Avg 32×18 1×1 Rib 2.65 180 32s card 60inch op Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 3.00 250 22s CD+ 40D Lycra 38inch tube Black Iris 32×18 1×1 Rib 2.60 180 32s PC 60inch op White 40×18 2×2 Rib 18.0 220 36s com+ 20D Lycra 32inch tube Blue
  • 119. Page 119 of 206 36×18 1×1 Rib 2.60 220 26s card 37inch tube Avg 40×18 2×1 Rib 2.70 160 40s CD + 20D Lycra 50inch op Avg 32×18 1×1 Rib 3.10 250 22s com+ 40D Lycra 33inchtube Avg 34×18 1×1 Rib 2.70 180 40s com + 40D Lycra 90cm op Avg 32×18 1×1 Rib 2.68 160 34s CD 30inch tube Avg 38×18 1×1 Rib 2.68 150 40s CD 36inch tube black 32×18 1×1 Rib stipe 2.55 145 28s Dy 64inch op white 40×18 2×2 Rib 18 190 40s CD+ 20D LYcra 52inch op G. melange 38×18 1×1 Rib 2.70 200 40s CD+ 20D Dy 76inch op Avg Single/ Double La_cost Fabrics: Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 26×24 D/La-cost 2.45 180 32s CD 36inchtube Avg 28×24 S/ La-cost 2.55 220 30s CD 41inch tube Avg 28×24 S/ La-cost 2.55 220 26s CD 41inch tube Avg 36×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.75 240 20s CD 66inchop Lt green 30×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.97 240 20s CD 80inchop Red 28×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.97 240 20s CD 74inch op Navy 30×24 S/ La-cost D K 2.60 220 22s CD 192cmop Avg Fleece Fabrics Dia + Gauge F type S/L F/GSM Count Finish dia Color 30×20 Fleece k-4.3 T-3.7 240 30s+20s CVC 70inch op Avg
  • 120. Page 120 of 206 L-1.55 30×20 Fleece k-41 T-40 L-14 240 k-34s cvc T-30s cvc L-30s cvc 66inch op Black 30×20 Fleece k-4.5 T-2.9 L-1.53 260 k-30s g.mell T-75/30s PC L-20s cvc 66inch op G. melange Knitting Machine Production calculation Before explaining the method to calculate the nominal production capacity of the knitting machine it is imperative to be well aware of count and denier system and one should also be familiar with the conversion factors. Yarn is sold and purchased in the form of cones and bags. Cones and bags have certain weights. Still in the international market yarn is sold in pounds not in kilograms. Bags are of 100 pounds, which is equal to 45.3697 kg. Previously there were 40 cones in a bag but now there are bags available of 25 cones. In other words cones are of 2.5 pounds and four pounds. Big size cones are most suitable for knitting. Relationship between count, length and weight of yarn Length (in yards) = Count *840 *weight of yarn in pound Count = Length / weight of yarn in pounds*840 Weight of yarn = length/count *840 (Note: as per definition count is a relationship between length and weight of yarn. English count is defined as number of hanks in one pound. Hank means a certain length. It is different for different fibers. For details see tables given in the end of book. For explanation purpose we will use English count of cotton. For cotton length of hank is 840 yards. For other fibers use relevant length of hank) Example: 01 Calculate count of cotton yarn from the given data: Weight of yarn = 2.68 pounds Length of yarn = 33600 yard Formula: Count = Length / weight of yarn in pounds*840 = 33600/2.68*840 Answer: =14.93s Example: 02 Calculate length of cotton yarn from the given data: Weight of yarn = 3.5 pounds Count = 40s Formula: Length (in yards) = Count *840 *weight of yarn in pound
  • 121. Page 121 of 206 = 40*840*3.5 Answer: =117600 Yards Example: 03 Calculate weight of cotton yarn from the given data: Length of yarn = 40600 yards Count = 30s Formula: Weight in pounds = Length of yarn in yards/ Count *840 = 40600/30*840 Answer: = 1.61 pounds Next examples are related to filament. (Note that for filament we use direct system. In which most popular is denier. There are other units too. For detail consult the tables at the end of the book. Denier is number of grams per 9000 meters of filament.) For calculation related to denier we use following equations: Length of filament in meters = Weight of filament in grams* 9000/Denier Weight of filament in grams = Length in meters * denier /9000 Denier = 9000* Weight of filament in grams/Length of filament in meters Example: 04 Calculate length of polyester filament from the given data: Weight 690 grams Denier 75 Equation: Length of filament in meters = Weight of filament in grams* 9000/Denier = 690 * 9000/75 Answer =82800 meters Example: 05 Calculate weigh of polyester filament from the given data: Length in meters = 50900 Denier = 50 Equation: Weight of filament in grams = Length in meters * denier /9000 = 50900*50/9000 Answer: =282.8 grams Example 6
  • 122. Page 122 of 206 Calculate denier of polyester filament from the given data: Length in meters = 550,000 Weight = 4.5 kg (4500 grams) Equation: Denier = 9000* Weight of filament in grams/Length of filament in meters = 9000*4500/550,000 Answer: = 73.66 Denier (Note: this calculation is up to two digits. For more accurate answers use calculation up to 9 digits) Nominal Production of knitting machines: One very simple way to calculate knitting machine production by weighing the total production of one hour or one shift or one day. This will be most realistic production value but we cannot get knitting machine capacity in this way. There is a scientific way to calculate optimum production figure of any machine. In this method following information for production calculation are required:  Machine gauge and Diameter  RPM Knitting Machine  Yarn Count  Stitch Length From these figures we can calculate the length of yarn being used by the machine in one hour and then by converting this length into weight with the help of count given we can calculate the quantity of yarn being consumed by machine in one hour. This would be the optimum production of the machine. This optimum production can be converted into nominal production by multiplying it with efficiency. (We will explain the method to calculate nominal production capacity of knitting machine. It is commonly believed that we can run knitting machine up to 85% efficiency. However, by creating most suitable environment one can increase machine efficiency) For this we need following figures:  Machine speed RPM  Machine gauge  Machine Diameter  Count/ denier of yarn being used  Stitch length Example 07 Calculate nominal production of a single jersey-knitting machine per hour from the data given: Machine Gauge 24 Machine Diameter 30 inches Number of Feeders 90 Machine RPM 26 Yarn Count 24
  • 123. Page 123 of 206 Stitch length 4 mm Efficiency 85% Solution: Number of needles = machine diameter * gauge *  (3.14) = 30* 24*3.14 =2260 (exact 2260.8 but needles are always in even number so we will take nearest even figure) Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 2260*90 = 203400 Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =203400 * 4 * 26 * 60/1000 = 1269216 meters or = 1388015 yards Weight of cotton yarn = length of yarn/(Count * 840) = 1388015/(840 * 24) = 68.85 pounds or = 31.23 Kilo grams = 26.55 Kilo grams (Efficiency 85%) Answer: this machine can produce 26.55 Kg fabric in one hour at 85 % efficiency Example: 08 (For Filament yarn) Calculate nominal production of a single jersey-knitting machine per hour from the data given: Machine Gauge 28 Machine Dia 26 inches Number of Feeders 120 Machine RPM 30 Yarn Denier 75 Stitch length 4.5 mm Efficiency 85% Solution: Number of needles = machine dia * gauge *  (3.14)
  • 124. Page 124 of 206 = 26* 28*3.14 =2286 (exact 2285.92 but needles are always in even number so we will take nearest even figure) Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 2286*120 = 274320 Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =274320 * 4.5 * 30 * 60/1000 = 2221992 meters Weight of filament in grams = Length in meters * denier /9000 = 2221992*75/9000 Answer =18516 grams or = 18.516 Kg = 18.516*85% (Efficiency 85%) =15.74 Kg Answer: this machine can produce 15.74 Kg fabric in one hour at 85 % efficiency (Note: if we are producing any textured fabric, like fleece, then we use two different yarns at different feeders and ultimately stitch length is also different. In such case we should calculate separately consumption of different yarn at different feeders. Following example will help in calculating production in case of use of more than one kind yarn.) Example 9 (fleece-knitting) Calculate nominal production of a fleece-knitting machine per hour from the data given: Machine Gauge 18 Machine Diameter 30 inches Number of Feeders for 60 Front yarn Number of feeders 30 For loop yarn Machine RPM 28 Yarn Count 26s for front Yarn count for loop 16s Stitch length of 4.5 mm front yarn Stitch length of 2.5 mm Loop yarn Efficiency 85%
  • 125. Page 125 of 206 Solution: Number of needles = machine diameter * gauge *  (3.14) = 30* 18*3.14 =1696 (exact 1695 but needles are always in even number so we will take nearest even figure) Consumption of yarn for front knitting Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 1696*60 = 101760 Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =101760 * 4.5 * 28 * 60/1000 = 769305 meters or = 841312 yards Weight of cotton yarn = length of yarn/(Count * 840) = 841312/840 * 30 = 38.52 pounds or = 17.43 Kilo grams = 14.85 Kilo grams (Efficiency 85%) Answer: this machine will consume 14.85 Kg of yarn to knit front of the fleece fabric in one hour at 85 % efficiency Yarn consumed for loop knitting (back of the fabric) Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders = 1696*30 = 50880 (Note: that we have put 30 cones of course count for loops after every two feeders.) Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour = number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/1000(to convert mm into meters) =50880 * 2.5 * 28 * 60/1000 = 213696 meters or = 233696 yards Weight of cotton yarn = length of yarn/(Count * 840) = 233696/(840 * 16) = 17.39 pounds or = 7.89 Kilo grams = 6.70 Kilo grams(Efficiency 85%) Yarn for front 14.85 Yarn for back 6.70 Total 21.55 This machine can produce 21.55 Kgs fabric in one hour at 85% efficiency
  • 126. Page 126 of 206 Shortly: Stitch length= 1100/gsm/count+ 21-25% ( rib& d/j) Stitch length= 9800/gsm/count+ 21-25%(s/j, s. lacoste) Production calculation: A. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency: countYarn mmSLNeedleofNoFeederofNoRPM    80.3527 )(.. B. Production/shift in meter: 100/ 1260. / .min/     cmCourse EfficiencyFeederofNoRPM cmCourse Course C. Fabric width in meter: 100/ . 100/ .     cmWales knittinginusedNeedlesofnoTotal cmWales walesofnoTotal For cotton count Production in one hour = Gauge * Dia * 3.14 * RPM *60 * Stitch length (mm) *1.0936 * 1 * 85 1000 *840 * yarn count * 100 Conversion of GSM (grams per square meter) into OSY (ounces per square yard) (250 GSM means that weight of one meter square fabric is 250 grams and 10 OSY means weight on one yard squares is 10 ounces.)
  • 127. Page 127 of 206 Example 10 Convert 10 OSY (ounces per square yard) into GSM (grams per square meter). It means weight of one yard square is 10 ounces or Weight of one square yard is 280 grams (one ounce is equal to 28 grams) or Weight of one 0.836 meter square (one yard square is 0.836 meter square) is 280 grams or Weight of one meter square = 280* 1/0.836 Answer = 344.9 grams per meter square Example 11 Convert 250 GSM (grams per square meter) into OSY (ounces per square yard) It means weight of one meter square is 250grams or Weight of one square meter is 8.93 ounces (28 grams are equal to one ounce) or Weight of 1.196 yard square (one meter square is equal to 1.196 yard square) is 8.93 or Weight of one yard square = 8.93* 1/1.196 Answer = 7.47 ounces per yard square Example 10 Calculate weight of fabric from the given data. Grammage 300 GSM Width of fabric 35 inches (in tubular form) Length of fabric 20 meters Solution Area of fabric = Fabric length * fabric width = 20 * 35*2 (since fabric is in tubular)/39.37 (one meter = 39.37 inches) = 35.6 meter square Weight of one meter square is = 300 (GSM) And weight of 35.6 meter square = 300*35.6 = 10680 grams or 10.680 Kgs Example 13 Calculate GSM from the data given Total Weight of fabric = 15.5 Kgs Length of fabric = 35 meters
  • 128. Page 128 of 206 Width of fabric in open form = 65 inches Solution: Fabric length = 35 meters Fabric width = 65 inches or 1.65 meters Fabric area = Length * width =35 * 1.65 =57.75 meters square Weight of 57.75 Meter square is 15.5 kg or 15500 grams So weight of one square meter = 15500/57075 = 268.39 grams per meter square of GSM of the fabric Calculation of different fiber percentage in knitted fabric Normally fabrics are knitted with one kind of yarn but in some cases more than one type of yarn of different counts and combination (mixing of two different fibres) are used. One very common example is knitting of fleece fabric, which is knitted by using fine and course yarns, and one yarn is made of polyester and cotton. Another example is knitting of fabric by using spandex filament and cotton or pure polyester. In such condition there is a requirement to mention exact percentage of different fibers in the fabric. Supplier has to mention this ratio on label. Example Find exact composition of different fibers in fleece fabric from the following data: Yarn count front 30s 100 cotton Yarn count for loop 20s 50:50 P/C Consumption ratio Front: loop 2:1 (by weight) Suppose for front we need 2Kg yarn and for loop we will be requiring 1 Kg yarn Front yarn 2 Kg 100 % cotton Cotton 2000 grams Loop yarn 1 Kg 50:50 P/C Cotton 500 grams and Polyester 500 grams Exact Ratio Cotton total 2.5 Kg Polyester 0.5 Kg Ratio:
  • 129. Page 129 of 206 Cotton: 83.33% Polyester : 16.66 Flat bed: Relation for Collar/cuff with count, collar type, no. of needle & CPI Where, M/c gauge : 14 Collar type Count Collar size (cm) No. of needle CPI 40*8 51 27 41*8 52 “ 42*8 53 ‘’ Solid 40/1 card 43*8 54 “ 44*8 56 “ 31*3 42 “ 34*3 26 “ 29*8 37.5 30 30*8 38.5 “ Solid 28/1 card 31.5*8 40.5 “ 32.5*8 41.5 “ 31*3.5 42 28 35*3.5 46 “ 39*3.5 51 “ Tipping 24/1 card 43*3.5 55 “ Mellow green 44*3.5 56.5 “ 48*3.5 61 “ 51*3.5 65 “ 53*3.5 67 “ 40.5*8.5 51.25 29 41.5*8.5 52.5 “ Fun say polo 20/1 dye 43*8.5 54.5 “ Solid 3 ply navy 44*8.5 55.5 “ navy 45.5*8.5 58.5 “ 36*3.5 48 “ 40*3.5 53 “ solid 24/1 CVC 43*9 32 27 Note: Needle no. calculative 5.5/cm but practical 6/cm. And 12 yarn pass in 1 cm for 26 count.
  • 130. Page 130 of 206 Knitted Fabric Faults Reasons of fabric faults:  Yarn manufacturing faults  Fabric manufacturing faults  Fabric processing fault- dyeing, printing or finishing faults Sources of fabric faults:  Faults in yarn & the yarn Packages.  Yarn feeding & yarn feed regulator.  Machine setting & pattern defects.  Machine maintenance.  Climatic condition in the knitting plant.  Proper setting of the fall of cloth Fabric faults: Knitted fabric faults are very different in nature and appearance and are often superimposed. The most common faults are  Hole or crack, broken ends  Drop stitch or loop  Pin hole  Belt free  Wheel free  Oil mark  Shet up  Starting mark  Double stitch  Needle mark  Sinker mark  Fabric patta  Crease mark  Fly & motors  Star mark  Lycra dropping  Bunching up or thick and thin place  Bangga
  • 131. Page 131 of 206 Hole: Holes are the result of cracks or yarn breakage. During loop formation the yarn had already broken in the region of the needle hook. Depending on the knitted structure, yarn count machine gauge & coarse density the holes have different sizes. Possible causes: a) Yarn parameters.  High yarn irregularity  Incorrect yarn input tension setting  Yarn running-in tension is to high  Poorly lubricate yarns  Weak places in yarn which break during stitch formation  Knots, slab  Yarn too dry b) If the yarn is trapped between the cheek taper & the closing latch.  Yarn damage c) To small stitches d) Relation between cylinder &dial loop not correct. e) Yarn feeder badly set. f) Defective knitting element. Drop stitch: These are the result of a defective needle. They also occur when yarn is not properly fed during stitch formation, i.e. not properly laid-in the needle hooks. These are the unlinked knitted loops. Possible cause: a) Inaccurate insertion of the yarn into the needle hook;  Close latch- a wale of dropped stitches will be produced until the latch is opened either by the operator or due to machine vibration. b) Broken needle hook c) Due to high yarn twist and low fabric take-down-tension the knitted loop could fall out of the hook; d) Improper setting of the yarn feed angle i.e. badly set yarn feeder  The yarn is not caught by the needle hook, Example – low yarn tension and high yarn vibration. e) Yarn feeder wrongly threaded-in; f) Dial loop length not properly related to cylinder loop ; the loop jumps out of the needle hook; g) Bad take up h) Very dry material. i) Insufficient yarn tension. Needle Mark
  • 132. Page 132 of 206 Causes:  When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes along the fabrics.  If a needle or needle hook is slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics. Remedies:  Needle should be straight as well as from broken latch. Sinker Mark Causes: When sinker corrode due to abrasion then sometimes cannot hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes. If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes. Remedies: Sinker should be changed. Star Mark  Causes:  Yarn tension variation during production.  Buckling of the needle latch.  Low G.S.M fabric production. Remedies:  Maintain same Yarn tension during production.  Use good conditioned needles. Drop Stitches Causes:  Defective needle.  If yarn is not properly fed during loop formation i.e. not properly laid on to the needle hook.
  • 133. Page 133 of 206  Take-down mechanism too loose.  Insufficient yarn tension.  Badly set yarn feeder. Remedies:  Needle should be straight & well.  Proper feeding of yarn during loop formation.  Correct take up of the fabric & correct fabric tension.  Yarn tension should be properly. Oil stain Causes:  When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line. Remedies:  Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics.  Well maintenance as well as proper oiling. Rust stain Causes:  If any rust on the machine parts. Remedies:  If any rust on the machine parts then clean it.  Proper maintenance as well as proper oiling. Pin hole Causes:  Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric. Remedies:  Change the needle.
  • 134. Page 134 of 206 Grease stain Causes:  Improper greasing  Excess greasing Remedies:  Proper greasing as well as proper maintenance Cloth fall- out Causes:  Cloth fall- out can occur after a drop stitch especially when an empty needle with an empty needle with closed latch runs into the yarn feeder and remove the yarn out of the hook of the following needles. Remedies:  Make sure all the latches of needle are closed with feeding yarn after a drop stitch. Barre: A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise (width wise) stripe(s). Causes:  This fault comes from yarn fault.  If different micro near value of fiber content in yarn.  Different lusture, dye affinity of fiber content in yarn Remedies:  We can use this fabric in white color. Fly: Causes:
  • 135. Page 135 of 206  In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that are created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction. This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production. Remedies:  Blowing air for cleaning and different parts after a certain period of time.  By cleaning the floor continuously.  By using ducting system for cleaning too much lint in the floor. Yarn contamination Causes: If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing, If lot, count mixing occurs. Remedies:  By avoiding lot, count mixing.  Fault less spinning. Yarn Faults:  Neps.  Slubs.  Yarn count.  Thick/Thin place in yarn.  Hairiness. Recent development of knitting machine: Weft knitting is gradually becoming more-n-more popular because of low cost of production, excellent output turnover and different varieties.Weft knitting and warp knitting are two ways of forming a knitted fabric. The following points will be highlighting the developments in particularly weft knitting sector. Creel Unit In creel section there are procedures like package mounting, feeding of the yarn etc, but the major part is affected by fly removal system. The fly removal system is mounted at one end of the creel, which takes care of the fly which affects the quality of the finished product. Lot of them will also affect production thereby jamming the entire running. To prevent this, a tube is provided which is stretched from the start of the yarn mounting place up to the
  • 136. Page 136 of 206 wheel that feeds the threads in the formation of the cloth. This way the production quality does not deteriorate. The air is compressed for threading, and the material is bit polished, which offers very less friction that maintains thread quality. Packages are to be changed often for patterns, but this may interfere with the enclosure and the process becomes cumbersome. Of course, if changed at a ceasing frequency, then it can be a little easy. In that case, the heavy package would serve the process. Presently the weight of the package is around 2 Kilos. Yarn Feeder The yarn feeder pulls out the yarn from the package and adjusts it, so that the needles are placed with uniform tension for knitting. This is the only job the yarn feeder does. Yet, this is where the onus of the product quality lies. It is very essential that the tension is maintained uniformly, as the length of yarn per stitch has to be unique for the whole length of the cloth. Machine quality is also responsible for the uniform pulling of the yarn length. There has been a lot of improvement done with the yarn feeders, but the basic concept has been sustained. The machine has attained super efficiency with its improved feed wheel and the tensioner. The present day's super-positive feedwheel with yarn tensioner, with a motion stopper, along with multiple looping has increased efficiency. Less or nil amount of slippage helps the cloth quality to upgrade. Latest positive feeders for circular knitting are easy to navigate, needs less maintenance and are quite durable. The whole unit is housed with a plastic cover, and is very light in weight, results in less vibration and elimination of static charge. Some of the machines have electronic controls with enhance yarn feed process. Materials used in the spooler are always being researched so that filamentation is less in amount. The coating is hard to resist corrosion and wearing off. A clutch is provided with open-design, which is helpful while cleaning. The ceramic yarn guide prevents short circuiting of the vibration tensioner that contains magnetic rings. All these mechanism is to ensure perfect tension. For irregular or intermittent feed the yarn feeders have to stop periodically in between the weave as in case of the jacquard machine. All these specifications have been achieved in the storage yarn feed, developed by IRO. Cam and needle The most important part in the knitting machine is the cam unit. The machine efficiency looks after design and the quality of fabrication. The cam and the needle which have been arranged as the cylinder and the dial move in unison to move the needle which makes them involved with the knitting process in more direct manner. The back up system ensures that there are almost double knitting arrangements. It makes knitting a no trouble operation. Cam boxes that have been manufactured by Amtek, using high strength perunal alloy, are good conductors of heat which implies that heat is removed promptly from the system.
  • 137. Page 137 of 206 Needles The needles that weave smooth patterns are very delicate in nature that can withstand certain amount of tension but not much. Designing is very important part, so that the needles work for longer. Various parameters for the making of needles to resist different fabrics are: modern improved surface quality, head geometry, heat treatment and shape of the shank. With circular stitching styles, the bending of the needles is the main problem. The needle hooks are made circular for this kind of stitching. To increase efficiency of the needle without compromising the space for the yarn, designers have devised the cone-shaped needle hooks. The shank design holding three needles have been improved geometrically to take care of the machine vibration. A needle with special latch and extra sawslot for smooth operation with rest surface at the back of the latch was designed by Groz Beckert who has been manufacturing needles for years. At the end of the latch there is a spring that helps regulating the tension. Sinkers The sliding movement provided by the sinker supports the loop. Sliding may cause friction. This is where the concept of improving the surface quality has come into play. The curves have been properly designed and there is surface finish. The yarn tension is reduced with this design. Terrot has developed a sinker that has double edge, each of which is controlled by separate mechanisms. The parts are; a knock-over sinker for loop doubling over, and an insertion pusher plugging over the yarn space. The plush sinker is there for the adjustment of knitting needles and the production of pattern plush fabric, which has been another designer forte of Terrot. Take-down For uniformity stitching operation and the fabric provision and the acceptance of the machine to pool it for the weave should be matching for the quality finish. The tension has to be almost one everywhere throughout the circumference of the unit. Uniform tension however is attained with difficulty because the fabric comes in a circular pattern to be placed as double layered straight fabric bed on the take- down roller. There is an open-width fabric cutter and take-up with black-and-white Lycra wheels appearing gray as long as the fabric is running and clear black and white when the yarn breaks. This helps in enhancing fabric take-down performance. The centre puncturing of the roll is ceased, and the calculation is done with EPA for even take down and rolling of yarn for without a crunch for the entire width of the fabric. Stop and start in batches The knotted fabric is rolled so that it can easily transport for further procedures. For machine efficiency, however, there is less number of rolls so the roll size is high (there is a restriction on the dimension size of a yarn) or the various rolls are many, which come into play one length after the other which improves efficiency of the machine. This is clearly a batch of arrangement for the feeders. The Synchronised Take-down Plaiting Device (TOP) with speed adjusting VDQ pulleys designed by the Shelton, smothers the conic fabric carefully into a box. The box is transported to the Shelton
  • 138. Page 138 of 206 Verifab SR where the box slits, opens, inspects and the fabric is re-rolled into the machine where the Verifab SR machine removes the curl with its three de-curling stations before the re-rolling. Most circular knitting machines have easily fitted TOP. Plaiting function of the machine also allows larger batch sizes. Drive The latest machines uses frequency controlled asynchronous motor with digital control system for smooth inching, breaking and speed with stoppage at times. Control systems The common features are . Modern consoles as display panels . Digital control systems . Centralized lubrication systems . Stop the motion when the thread is broken This way the computer is brought into the picture for efficiency and improvement in quality. In case of pattern design: Pattern selection and striping are also available now-a-days. Microprocessors have been used with Germany-based Mayer & Cie offers Pattern Information Center (PIC) 4, which includes features such as: . More desktop icons for other functions. . Direct screen access to the color palette. . Permutations of patterning for transfer knits. . A pattern editor combines and edits a pattern using 16 colors. . A repeat editor does four different patterns to be put as templates for simultaneous knitting. . An optional striping editor includes other patterns in addition to the established four colors. The system is available in English, German, Protugese, Chinese, French, Turkish and Spanish. The required operating system is Windows, 8 MB RAM and a Pentium processor. Development news Following are few more development news, apart from the above. Mayor and Cie introduced Relanit 4.0, featuring has four feeders per inch to give a speed factor (rotational speed x Diameter) of SF 1500. They have also raised fabric rolling up to 1200 diameter. Breaks are introduced at every yard breaks. A precision controlled break avoids vibration. For faster change in fine gauge machines, open width take down with quality has been developed by Terrot. Four track feeders for every cam box instead of the three track feeders have been introduced by Santoni, which helps in easy cam replacement.
  • 139. Page 139 of 206 How to Increase Production in Knitting Floor Knit fabrics are produced from circular knitting machine or flat bed knitting machine. Circular knitting machines are two types, they are single jersey or double jersey knitting machine. This two type’s machine has different cam arrangement settings, which is responsible for design production. Anyhow, production of knit fabrics depends on various factors. By developing the following factors we can increase the production of knit fabrics.  Machine Speed: Production per hour depends on the speed of the machine. Higher the machine rpm, faster the movement of needle which increase the production. But we should make sure that, this higher speed will not impose excess tension on yarn. Excess tension on yarn can increase the breakage of yarn which is not desired.  Number of Feeder: If the number of feeder increases in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time. Which is responsible for increasing the production.  Machine Gauge: Machine gauge also effect the production of knit fabric. Machine gauge vary depending on the type of machine and Manufacturers Company. Higher gauge machine gives higher production.  Automation System: By imposing automation in the machine, production can be increased. Following automation can be added for higher production. 1. Quick starting and stopping for effective driving system. 2. Automatic machine lubrication system for smooth operation. 3. Photo electric fabric fault detector.  By imposing other developments: Following development can increase the production. 1. Creel feeding system can increase the production. 2. Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. 3. By using yarn feed control device. In modern time different advanced facilities added to the machine features, which will facilities the more production.
  • 140. Page 140 of 206
  • 141. Page 141 of 206 Batching: Batching is the process to get ready the fabrics that should be dyed and processed for a Particular lot of a Particular order. Batch Management: Primarily Batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing Manager. Some time Planning is adjusted according to m/c condition. Sequence of Operation: Grey fabric inspection Batching Fabric Turning Storing for dyeing Purpose of Batch Section:  To receive the grey fabrics roll from knitting section or other source.  To turn out the tubular fabric in its grey stage and to safe the face side of the fabric from any type of friction during the time of dyeing.  To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria- ● Order sheet (Receive from buyer) ● Dyeing shade (Color or white, light or Dark) ● M/c available ● Type of fabrics (100% cotton, PC, CVC) ● Emergency  To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card.  To Keep records for every previous dyeing. Calculation: B=A/C*D Where, A = stored fabric of different dia
  • 142. Page 142 of 206 B = calculated fabric weight of different dia which should be put on the m/c for batching C = total stored fabric of different dia D = m/c capacity Fig: turning m/c Fig: sewing m/c
  • 143. Page 143 of 206
  • 144. Page 144 of 206 Lab dip: Lab dip is a process by which buyers supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without help of “DATA COLOR” Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & and detaching the characteristics of the dyes and chemicals are to be used in the large scale of production so this is an important task before bulk production. Lab Dip Procedure: Lab dip receive Input id number entry By reffference ← Recipe making→ from data color Recipe calculation Pipeting Fabric weighting & fabric input Fabric input into dye bath for dyeing Unloading Cold wash Hot wash→ with chemical Hot wash→ normal water Acid wash→ normal water Dryer Ironing Shade matching Shade ok Lab dip cutting Submit to buyer Buyer approval OK Not OK Sand to floor
  • 145. Page 145 of 206 Available Stock Solutions:  Red – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common)  Yellow – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common)  Blue - 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common). Preparation:  To prepare 0.1% Stock solution, it is necessary to mix 0.1 g dye and 100 cc water.  To prepare 0.5% Stock solution, 0.5 g dye stuff is mixed with 100 cc water.  To prepare 1.0% & 2.0% Stock solution similar procedure is followed.  To prepare 10% Stock solution of Soda ash, 10 g Soda is mixed with 100 cc water. Depth of shade: M M Knitwear Ltd. produces 0.5% to 5% shade for the goods. Calculation: Usually following calculations are followed - Recipe % * Sample Weight ** Dye Solution = (cc). Stock solution % Recipe % * Liquor) ** Salt = (gram per liter, gpl). 1000 Recipe % * 100 * Liquor) ** Soda Solution = (cc). (1000 * Stock solution %) SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR 0.5% SHAD  Sample wt. = 5 mg  Material liquor ratio = 1: 10
  • 146. Page 146 of 206  Total liquor (5  10) = 50 cc 5  0.5%  Dye solution required = ------------------- = 2.5 cc 1 % 50  25  Salt solution required = ------------------- = 6.25 cc 20  10 50  10  Soda ash solution required = ------------------- = 2.5 cc 20  10  Water required {50 - (2.5 + 6.25 + 2.5)} = 38.75 cc Working Procedure All ingredients had been taken according to the recipe into the pot of sample dyeing machine. At a room temp the material had run then after 10 minutes started to rise the temperature at 1°C/ min. to get 60°C temperature. For performing the required dyeing temperature it took 30 minutes. The material had dyed at 60°C for 45 minutes. Then the temperature was reduced at room temperature within in 10 minutes. The fabric washed in cold water & then the material was washed in 1 gm/l soap solution (liquor ratio 1:20) at 90°C temperature for 15 minutes. Then after rapidly cold washing the material was dried & preserved. And then check the shade match with the required sample by the lighting box. List of Machine in Lab section: Machine Type Quantity Lab Machine 1 pc. Lab Machine 1 pc. Spectra Photo meter 1 pc. Washing Machine 2 pc Drake Color 1 pc. Dyer Machine 1 pc
  • 147. Page 147 of 206 Weight Balance Mc 1 pc Lab Dyeing Machine 1 pc Specification of the lab m/c: 1. Machine Type: Lab Machine Brand: Dilmiler 2. Machine Type: Lab Machine Brand: Pyretic-2000 Manufacturer: U. K 3. Machine Type: Spectra Photo meter Brand: Data Color Manufacturer: U. S. A Light Source: ● D- 65(Artificial day light) ●UV- Ultra- violet ●TL- 83 TL- 84 ●F- Florescent 4. Machine Type: Washing Machine Manufacturer: U S A 5. Machine Type: Drake Color Brand: Vrivide Manufacturer: England 6. Machine Type: Weight Balance Mc Brand: Adventurer Manufacturer: U. S. A 7. Machine Type: Lab Dyeing Machine Brand: Ahiba Manufacturer: U. S. A
  • 148. Page 148 of 206 Instrumental Color matching Process: Spectrophotometer flow Chart: Functions of spectrophotometer:  Color difference  Metamerism  Pass/fail operation  Fastness rating  Shade library  Cost comparison  Color match production  Reflectance curve. Triangle shade Initial recipe Laboratory dyeing Use L*, a*, b* to match OK Production dyeing Use L*, a*, b* to match Recipe correction Not matched Production correction Not matched Input database History of the lab Recipe Prediction calculated by CCM Or calculated by smart shade library Finished OK
  • 149. Page 149 of 206
  • 150. Page 150 of 206 List of machinery in Dyeing section: 1. M/C Name: Delmenlar high pressure Manufacturer: Turkey Production Capacity: 1200kgs (1 pcs) Temperature: 135ºc 2. M/C Name: Delmenlar high pressure Manufacturer: Turkey Production Capacity: 800kgs Temperature:135ºc 3. M/C Name: Delmenlar high pressure Manufacturer: Turkey Production Capacity: 500kgs(2pcs) Temperature:135ºc 4. M/C Name: Delmenlar high pressure Manufacturer: Turkey Production Capacity: 300kgs(2pcs) Temperature:135ºc
  • 151. Page 151 of 206 6. M/C Name: Delmenlar high pressure Manufacturer: Turkey Production Capacity: 150kgs 7. M/C Name: Dilmenlar sample high pressure Manufacturer: Turkey Production Capacity: 10kgs (5pcs) Temperature:135ºc 8. M/C Name: Korean Dyeing Machine Manufacturer: Korea Production Capacity: 500kgs(3pcs) 9. M/C Name: Bangla dyeing Machine Production Capacity: 800kgs (2pcs) Process Flow Chart of SCOURING/ BLEACHING: Machine filling with water Chemical Dozing at 50 0 C Run time 10 min. H2O2 Dozing Heating at 60 0 C NaOH dozing Heating at 110 0 C Run time 20 min. Cooling at 95 0 C Rinse at 80 0 C H2O2 - Killer Dozing Run time 10 min Run time 10min. Cooling for 55 0 C Acid wash 3 min Drain Sample Check Check H2O2
  • 152. Page 152 of 206 Process Flow Chart of ENZYME: Machine filling with water Run for 4 min. at 48 0 C Heating at 55 0 C Dozing enzyme Run time 45 min. Drain Process Flow Chart of WHITE DYEING: Machine filling with water Heating at 55 0 C Chemicals dozing Run time 6 min. Dyes dozing Heating at 80 0 C Run time 15 min. Cooling at 55 0 C Rinse for 5 min. Drain Process Flow Chart of TUQUISE METHOD (Color Dyeing): Machine filling with water Heating at 60 0 C Chemical dozing Run time 3 min. Dyes dozing Run time 10 min. Salt dozing PH Check PH Check S.G.(Specific Gravity) Check PH Check
  • 153. Page 153 of 206 Run time 20 min Soda dozing Run time 3 min. Heating at 80 0 C Run time 40 min. Cooling at 60 0 C Rinse Drain Flow Chart of (BIO-SCOURING DYEING): Machine fill with water Heating at 50 0 C Run time 5 min Chemical dozing at 50 0 C Heating at 60 0 C Run time 5 min Dyes dozing at 60 0 C Run time 15 min Salt dozing at 60 0 C Run time 10 min Soda dozing at 60 0 C Run time 3 min Chemical dozing at 60 0 C Run time 3 min Chemical dozing at 60 0 C PH Check Check PH (6.5) Check SG (as required) Check PH (6.5) Check PH (10.8)
  • 154. Page 154 of 206 Run time 3 min Run time 55 min Rinse for 5 min Drain out Process Flow Chart of ISO-THERMAL METHOD (Color Dyeing) Machine filling with water Heating at 60 0 C Chemical dozing Run time 5 min. Dyes dozing Run time 1 min. Salt dozing Run time 20 min. Soda dozing Run time 4 min. Rinse Drain Process Flow Chart of SOAPING: Machine filling with water Heating at 60 0 C Acetic acid dosing Run time 6 min. Heating at 95 0 C Chemicals dozing Run time 12 min. Cooling at 70 0 C PH Check PH Check S.G. Check PH Check Sample Check Sample Check
  • 155. Page 155 of 206 Rinse Drain Process Flow Chart of SOFTENING: Machine filling with water Heating at 50 0 C Chemicals dozing Run time 30 min. Drai Some m/c: PH Check
  • 156. Page 156 of 206
  • 157. Page 157 of 206 Machine Description for Finishing Section: Finishing section is consisting of two lines. They are – A. Tube line B. Open line A. The machine that are used for open line are given bellow – - Slitting and Dewatering machine - Stenter machine - B. The machines that are used for tube line are given bellow –. - Dewatering machine - Dryer - Compactor machine Process flow Chart for Finishing Section: Finishing Open Finish Tube Finish Slitting and Dewatering Dewatering Stentering Drying Inspection Compacting Delivery Inspection Delivery (N.B: There are some Open Compactor machines; But GKL has no Open Compactor Machine.) Description of The Machine for Tube Finish: A.DEWATERING MACHINE: (M/C Specification) Brand Name: Santex ag Year of Manufacture: 1998 Company: Santex ag Type: Santastretch Plus-140 Origin : Switzerland Max Working Speed: 80 m/min Model: CH-9555,Tobel Normal working Speed : 40~ 60 m/min Overfeed Range : -5% to +10%
  • 158. Page 158 of 206 PASSAGE DIAGRAM OF SANTEX-AG DEWATERING M/C: Fig: Passage Diagram of The fabric in Dewatering Machine Working principle: After completing the dyeing process from the dyeing m/c then the fabrics are ready for de-watering. In de-watering m/c tubular fabrics are mainly processed. There is a magnetic sensor which scene the twist of the fabric and its direction and turn the fabric in opposite direction to remove twist automatically. Here dewatering is performed De-watering is the process to remove the water from the fabric completely by squeezing and it is done by the padder. A suitable expander is used before the fabric is passed through the nip of the padders, which expands the fabric flat wise and adjust the width. The expander width is adjusted as S/J- 20%, PK-25%, Int.-35%, Lacoste-40% wider than the required width. There is a pair of rubber coated padder, where water is removed from fabric when passed through the nip of it. Normally squeezer contain single or double padders where,  One for removing water and  Other for applying finishing chemicals such as softener. But this finishing is done only for the tubular fabric. Open widths knitted fabrics are applied finishing treatment later in stenter. Here present the compressor which given compress air to form ballooning before passing through the padder. This balloon remove crease mark but not form the maximum balloon otherwise shrinkage increase.
  • 159. Page 159 of 206 In feed & Out feed traverses which present in albatros control the following functions by over feeding system.  To control the width (dia) of the fabric.  To control the spirality of the fabric.  To control the crease mark of the fabric.  To control the length of the fabric. Operational parameter: Speed: As much as possible (40-60 m/min). Higher the GSM lower the speed. Over feed: As required. Higher the GSM higher the over feed. Padder pressure: 3-7 bar as required. Higher the GSM lower the padder pressure. Width: Fabric width is adjusted as per required width. Different parts of Dewatering m/c : Fig: Santex Dewatering Machine. Special features of Santex-ag m/c :  Single squeeze roller and single padder present.  One for squeezing and other for applying softener finished.  Above 80% water can be removed  Maximum 60 inch diameter can be extended.  Softener tank present. Maintenance during operation :  Proper balloon form by compressor air otherwise crease mark appears.  Padder contract point adjust perfectly according to the fabric construction otherwise accurate water will not removed  Albatross must be clean every one or two hours later.
  • 160. Page 160 of 206 Parameters Used For Different Constructed Fabric: For COTTON Fabric: Fabric Type Overfeed % Stretch % Folder Tension Machine Speed(m/min) Single Jersey +8% to +10% 2”-3” -14% to -15% 60 -65 Single Lacoste +4% to +5% 2”-4” -17% to -18% 60 -65 Polo Pique +3% to +4% 3”-4” -17% to -18% 60 -65 Interlock -1.5% to +2.5% 8”-10” -18% to -20% 55 -60 Rib +4.5% to +5% -- -14% to -15.5% 60 -65 For POLYESTER Fabric: Fabric Type Overfeed % Stretch % Folder Tension Machine Speed(m/min) Single Jersey +3% to +4% 2”-3” -16% to -18% 55 -60 Single Lacoste +4% to +5% 3”-4” -18% to -20% 55 -60 Polo Pique +1% to +2% 3”-4” -17% to -18% 55 -60 Interloc -3% to -4.5% 5”-6” -18% to -20% 55 -60 Rib +3% to +4% -- -14% to -16% 60 -65 (N.B : This Data’s are varied depending upon the Gray G.S.M and Finished G.S.M and also on the dia of the fabric. All this parameters are suitable for G.G.S.M range 140~160 to get Fin.G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric. All This data`s are practiced in mills which may varied factory to factory.) B. DRYER MACHINE: (M/C Specification) PASSAGE DIAGRAM OF SANTEX-AG STEAM DRYER - Brand Name: Santex ag Year of Manufacture: 1998 Company: Santex ag Type: Santastretch 2K/240,GM,IR,GFI Origin : Switzerland Max. Working Speed: 30 m/min Model: CH-9555,Tobel Min. working Speed : 5~15 m/min Overfeed Range : 0% to -25% Max. Temperature : 1850 C No of Chamber: Two No of Burner : 2
  • 161. Page 161 of 206 PASSAGE DIAGRAM OF SANTEX-AG STEAM DRYER - Fig: Passage Diagram of The fabric in Dryer Machine. Working principle of dryer : After de-watering then the fabric through the dryer. The main function of the dryer is given below, - To dry the fabric. - To control the overfeed system. - To control the vibration which increase the G.S.M. This machine contains two chambers. Two mesh endless conveyors are placed lengthwise to the chamber named conveyor net and filter net, each chamber contain a burner, which supply hot air .This hot air is guided through the ducting line by suction fan .There are nozzles placed in between filter net and conveyor net. When the fabric pass on the conveyor net, hot air is supplied to the wet fabric to dry it. There are exhaust fan which such the wet air and deliver to the atmosphere through the ducting line. The speed of the dryer depends on the temperature of the m/c & the G.S.M of the fabric . If the m/c temp. is high then m/c speed also high and the m/c temp. is low then m/c speed also low . The vibration speed of the m/c for heavy fabric is 730 m/min and normal fabric is 480 m/min. The temp. of different chambers according to the shade of the fabric – Shade Chamber-1 Chamber-2 Light 1200 c 1300 c Medium 1350 c 1400 c Deep 1500 c 1700 c Operating parameters:  Temperature:-Set the temperature between 1200 c -1300 c for white and 1500 c -1700 c for color fabric. GSM temperature Or, moisture content temperature
  • 162. Page 162 of 206  Set the over feed up to 10~20% or as required to get finish G.S.M.  Set the speed as much as possible (6~20m/min). GSM speed Special feature of Santex-ag steam dryer : - Steam dryer ( two chambers ) . - Vibration occur in heating zone . - Process air pressure switch present . - Maximum temp. increase up to 1700 c . - Steam control switch present . - Two burners present . - Two conveyor belt is present . Different Sections Of Dryer Machine: Fig: Feed Zone of Dryer Fig: Delivery Zone of Dryer Fig: Santex-ag Dryer Machine. Parameters Used For Different Constructed Fabric : For COTTON Fabric: Fabric Type Overfeed % Temperature0 C Speed (m/min) Folder Speed (m/min) Light Color Deep Color High G.S.M Low G.S.M Single Jersey -15 % to-20% 1450 C 1650 C 6.5~7 8~9 2~3 Single Lacoste -20 % to-25% 1450 C 1650 C 6.0~7 8~9 2~3 Polo Pique -20 % to-25% 1450 C 1650 C 6.0~7 8~9 2~3 Interlock -20 % to-25% 1550 C 1700 C 5~6.5 7~8 2~3 Rib -5% 1450 C 1650 C 4~4.5 5~5.5 3~4 Grey Mélange -20 % 1500 C 1650 C 4~4.5 5~5.5 3~4
  • 163. Page 163 of 206 For POLYESTER Fabric: Fabric Type Overfeed % Temperature0 C Speed (m/min) Folder Speed (m/min) Light Color Deep Color High G.S.M Low G.S.M Single Jersey -5% 1350 C 1150 C 10~12 8~10 4~6 Single Lacoste -5% 1350 C 1150 C 10~12 8~10 5~6 Polo Pique -5% 1400 C 1150 C 10~12 8~10 5~6 Interlock -5% 1350 C 1100 C 6~8 8~9 4~5 Rib -5% 1450 C 1150 C 4~4.5 4.5~6.0 5~6 Grey Mélange -5% 1300 C 1150 C 6~8 5~5.5 5~6 (N.B: For Polyamide: Temp range is 1100 C~ 1150 C.Speed range16~18;Overfeed range- 5%. This Data’s are varied depending upon the Gray G.S.M and Finished G.S.M and also on the dia of the fabric. All this parameters are suitable for G.G.S.M range 140~160 to get Fin.G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric.) Following tings are also considered incase of Dryer machine:  If fabric is more Redder than the standard one, then reduce the temperature.  If fabric is more Yellower than the standard one, then increase the temperature.  If fabric is more Bluer than the standard one, then increase the temperature. All This data’s are practiced in mills which may varied factory to factory. C. COMPACTOR MACHINE: (M/C Specification) Brand Name: Santex ag Year of Manufacture: 1998 Company: Santex ag Type: Santaspread 140,Without winde Origin : Switzerland Max. Working Speed:50 m/min Model: CH-9555,Tobel Min. working Speed : 5 m/min Overfeed Range : -5% to +50% Working Speed : 15~25 m/min Max. Temperature : 1000 C~1390 C
  • 164. Page 164 of 206 DIAGRAM OF SANTEX-AG COMPACTOR MACHINE: . Fig :Fabric passage diagram through Santex-ag Compactor machine Working principle:- The main object of compactor is to make the fabric surface smooth, to control the residual shrinkage, G.S.M and if required fabric width also. To control the residual shrinkage the fabric is previously shrinkage artificially by gathering of loops of knitted fabric and it is set by heat and pressure. In tube compactor, the dried tubular knitted fabric is face to steam when it passed through the teflon coated conveyor belt. When a cotton fabric absorbs water, it swells and shrinks (particularly in length direction) because the absorbed water allows the cellulose chains to move relative stain free position. Then the fabric is passed through the expander. This m/c contain two compaction unit to compact both side of the tubular fabric. Each unit contains a hot rotating cylinder, blanket which rotate in contact with the cylinder and Teflon cover .while passing the expander roller, the fabric is over feeded . The fabric is compacted with the pressure of blanket and Teflon cover while passing through the hot cylinder .Due to compaction stitch length is reduced. Then the fabric is passed through the counting device .Before packing, the fabric is inspected carefully. Important parts:- -Over feed roller. - Steam sprayers. -Expander. - cylinder (2) -Blanket (2) - Teflon covers. Drayed Fabric Feed Roller Feeder Shaper Steam Roller / 1st Roller Heating 1 st Denser Roller 2 nd Roller Heating 2 nd Denser Roller Folding Rollers Compacted Fabric
  • 165. Page 165 of 206 Operational parameter:- - Set the temperature at 110-1390 C (as required) - Set the speed as much as possible (15-25m/min). GSM m/c speed - Set the overfeed % as required, to increase GSM, overfeed need to increase to a certain limit. Function: - Shrinkage control - GSM control - Width control Special feature of Santex –ag Compactor : - Operating system is computerized. - Steam bar present which soften the fabric for compacting. - In compacting zone, edge & retard roller, compacting shoe and steel plates are present. - A pair of pulley present for fabric dia control. - Fabric G.S.M, shrinkage and dia control. Different parts of compacting m/c : Fig: Feed zone of Compactor Fig: Delivery zone of Compactor Control board ( computerized ) Takeout roller Conveyor bel Fig: Santex-ag Compactor Machine
  • 166. Page 166 of 206 Parameters Used For Different Constructed Fabric : For COTTON Fabric: (Only cotton Fabric is Processed) Fabric Type Overfeed % Temperature0 C Speed (m/min) Stretch (%) Inch Compaction (%) Light Color Deep Color Single Jersey 20 % to 22% 1300 C 1100 C 20~25 0.75 8%~9% Single Lacoste 28 % to 30% 1300 C 1100 C 20~25 0.7~1 5%~6% Polo Pique 28 % to 32% 1350 C 1150 C 15~20 1.5~2 6%~7.5% Interlock 25 % to 30% 1350 C 1150 C 20~22 1.5~2 6%~7% Rib 10 % to 15% 1350 C 1150 C 20~22 2 4%~5% Grey Mélange 15% to 20% 1350 C 1150 C 20~25 2 6%~7% (N.B: All this data’s are suitable for this machine only. All this parameters are suitable for. Grey G.S.M range 140~160 to get Finished G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric) Following things are also considered incase of compacting machine:  If fabric is less Reddish than the standard one, then increase the temperature, reduce steam.  If fabric is less Yellowish than the standard one, then increase the temperature, without steam.  If fabric is less Blueish than the standard one, then reduce the temperature, increase steam. N.B: Overfeed Steam G.S.M Overfeed Steam Stretch G.S.M Teflon speed (+) – More compaction Teflon speed (-) – Less compaction, G.S.M because overfeed is less. N.B:  To remove twisting the tube fabric may be heat set before compacting.  For Viscose with Lycra more overfeed required. All This data`s are practiced in mills which may varied factory to factory.
  • 167. Page 167 of 206 Description of The Machine for Open Finish: D. SLITTING AND DE-WATER MACHINE: (M/C Specification) PASSAGE DIAGRAM OF CORINO SLITTING MACHINE: Fig: Fabric passage through the slitting machine Working principle:- The slitting m/c has 4 units - initial squeezer, de-twisting, slitter and padder. After dyeing completed and falling of water from fabric the fabric is fed in slitting m/c. So it is necessary to remove some water initially for the case of further processing in this m/c. The initial squeezer does this work. The de-twisting unit removes twists that may present in tubular rope form fabric. This unit has 3 de-twisting rollers, one rotation drum and 2 feeler rollers with sensors. By these rollers it detects twist in fabric and removes by rotating rope fabric in opposite direction. Before slitting there is a blower which blows air to open the Dyed fabric Knife for open The fabric Open Fabric Tubular Fabric Detwister Sens -or Delivered Fabric PadderCigger r Brand Name: Corino Year of Manufacture: 2006 Company: Corino Type: Santastretch Plus-140 Origin : Italy Max capacity: 8 ton Normal Working capacity: 6 ~7 ton Max Speed: 80 m/min
  • 168. Page 168 of 206 tubular fabric & makes it easy to pass over cigger. The cigger can be extended in circumference and opens the tubular fabric in full circumference. Slitting is done by using open mark detecting golden eye by around knife. Then the fabric passes through the padder where washing or chemical treatment is done. Squeezer is used to remove 60-70% of water. After removing water width is controlled by stretcher and fabric is delivered by folding device. Operational parameter:-  Set the padder pressure as required (3-7bar)  Set the speed as much as possible (30-80m/min). Function of the Machine:  Used to remove excess water after pretreatment and dyeing  To slit the tube fabric by the knife for opening of the fabric and ready for stentering  Delivered fabric in crease free state  Before squeezing balloon is formed with the help of compressed air passing by a nozzle or air sprayer  It can control the diameter of fabric and GSM and shrinkage by over feeding mechanism Different parts of Slitting m/c : Fig : Feed zone of Slitting M/C Fig: Fabric Pass through Detwister Fig: Fabric Pass through Knife Fig: Delivery zone of Slitting M/C Fig: Process of slitting m/c D. STENTER MACHINE: (M/C Specification) Brand Name: Alkan Year of Manufacture: 2006 Company: Alkan Makina Max capacity: 8 ton/day Origin : Turkey Normal Working capacity: 6 ~7 ton /Day No of Chamber: 6 No of Burner: 6X2=12 Max Speed: 40 m/min Min Speed: 10 m/min Max Temp: 200 0 C Min Temp: 110 0 C
  • 169. Page 169 of 206 PASSAGE DIAGRAM OF STENTER MACHINE: Working Principle: Stenter Machine is generally used to finish the open fabric. This stenter machine consists of six chambers; each contains two burners, two blowers, two ducting line, nozzles and suction fan attach with the suction line. The burner produces hot flue gases which guided though the ducting line by the help of blower. There are nozzles placed above and bellow the rail. When the fabric passed through the rail, then hot air is sprayed to the above and bellows the fabric with the help of nozzle. The hot air is circulating in the chamber and the moisture in the fabric is evaporated, which leave the chamber with the help of suction fan through the ducting line. Temperature of each chamber can control automatically by controlling the intensity of burner. Generally lower temperature is maintained the first and last chamber then other chambers. The speed of the fabric is maintained according to the moisture content of the fabric. After passing the fabrics to all the chambers, the fabric is collected for compaction. The performance of the stentering range depends on proper introduction of the cloth into the machine. The finer the fabric is being processed, the greater the significance of the correct, crease free and fault free fabric introduction. In stenter m/c the fabric first passed through different rollers including weft straightening device, uncurling device for proper feeding of the fabric into the machine. Then it passed through the selvedge detector which detect the selvedge and adjust the rail for proper gripping the fabric in the pin arrangement. This stenter m/c consists Weft Straighter Walkway Feed Roller Delivery Roller Feed Fabric Chemical Tank Softener Tank 1 2 3 4 5 6 Six Chambers Cooling Chamber Dele- vered fabric Padding Rollers Padding Rollers
  • 170. Page 170 of 206 of both pin and clip arrangement. The fabric first grip by pin and gust before entering the chamber, pin are locked by clip arrangement. To maintain proper dimension of the fabric, length wise overfeed and width wise tension is given to the fabric. Important parts: - Burner (12) - Suction Fan (12) - Exhaust air fan (6) - Nozzle - Over feed roller. - Chain arrangement Function: - Drying - Shrinkage control - Heat setting - Width control - Finishing chemical application. - Loop control - Moisture control, etc. Different parts of Stenter m/c : Fig: Feed zone Fig: Delivery Zone Fig: Weft Straightner Fig: Softener Application tank Fig: ALKAN Stenter Machine Different sections of Stenter Machine:
  • 171. Page 171 of 206 A. Padder Section: In the padder section the fabric is treated with chemicals specially with softener and acid in two tanks. Each chemical tanks contains- FOR POLYESTER: Arristan PSR (Softener)- 10kg + Acetic Acid (acid) – 200gm 100 liter water Or, Aqua IC (Softener) – 10 kg + Acetic Acid (acid) – 200gm 100 liter water FOR COTTON: (COLOR):- Gemsol ASEM 20P - 10 kg Reaknitt –FF - 7 kg 100 liter water MgCl2 - 3 kg Acetic Acid - 200gm FOR COTTON: (WHITE):- Tubengal SMF - 10 kg Arristan 64 - 3 kg MgCl2 - 3 kg 100 liter water Acetic Acid - 200gB. Weft Straightner: The main function of Weft Straightner is to control the bowing & Skewnesss of the fabric. C. Width Setting Chamber: This Chamber control the width of the fabric by clip of 10 pin. D. Heatting Chamber: This chamber controls the shrinkage and the G.S.M of fabric. Temperature Range:  Cotton-- 1500 C~1700 C  Polyester-- 1650 C~1850 C.  With Lycra -- 1750 C~1900 C.
  • 172. Page 172 of 206 E. Cooling Chamber: This chamber cooled the hot fabric before reach to delivery zone. F. Exhaust Motor: This specific part used to exit the steam produced in the chambers and also exit the extra temperature from the machine. G. Delivery Zone: This zone delivered the fabric in a folded form. In this zone the fabric has to Pass through several rollers in order to prevent the formation of crease mark in the finished fabric. Parameters Used For Different Constructed Fabric : For POLYESTER Fabric: Fabric Type Overfeed % Temperature0 C Speed (m/min) Stretch (%) Inch Light Color Deep Color Single Jersey 5 % to 10% 1750 C 1550 C 14~15 Depend on fabric G.S.M Single Lacoste 45 % to 50% 1750 C 1600 C 14~15 Depend on fabric G.S.M Polo Pique 45 % to 50% 1700 C 1600 C 18~20 Depend on fabric G.S.M Interlock 0 % to 15% 1800 C 1650 C 16~18 Depend on fabric G.S.M For COTTON Fabric: Fabric Type Overfeed % Temperature0 C Speed (m/min) Stretch (%) Inch Light Color Deep Color Single Jersey 60 % to 75% 1650 C 1600 C 15~17 3~4
  • 173. Page 173 of 206 Single Lacoste 60 % to 70% 1650 C 1600 C 14~15 2.5~3.5 Polo Pique 60% to 65% 1650 C 1600 C 14~15 2~3 Interlock 60 % to 70% 1700 C 1550 C 12~14 2 Rib 60 % to 70% 1650 C 1500 C 12~14 2 N.B: All this data’s are suitable for this machine only. All this parameters are suitable for. Grey G.S.M range 140~160 to get Finished G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric N.B: If fabric is less Redder than the standard one, then increase the temperature, reduce steam.  If fabric is less Yellower than the standard one, then increase the temperature, without steam.  If fabric is less Bluer than the standard one, then reduce the temperature, increase steam. N.B: Polyester rib fabric is finished in tube form. All this data’s are practiced in mills which may vary with the change of fabric type. The quality assurance department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material; in process and various stages of its manufacturing.
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  • 175. Page 175 of 206 What is Textile Printing: The textile printing is described as localized dyeing that is dyes or pigments are applied locally or discontinuously to produce the various designs. The main objective in textile printing is the production of attractive designs with well defined boundaries made by the artistic arrangement of a motif or motifs in one or more colors. Printed fabrics: Steps in Textile Printing: Textile printing is carried out in various steps, such as:  Preparation of the fabric to be printed  Preparation of print paste (s)  Printing (as per style and method)  Drying of the printed fabric  Steaming / Curing of the printed fabric  After-treatments (Washing, Neutralization, soaping, drying, etc) Styles in Textile Printing: There are three different styles of textile printing. These are:  Direct style of printing  Discharge style of printing (a) White discharge (b) Color discharge  Resist style of printing (a) White resist (b) Color resist
  • 176. Page 176 of 206 Methods of Textile Printing: The following methods can be applied for textile printing:  Block printing  Engraved Roller printing  Screen Printing (Flat Screen)  Rotary Screen Printing  Transfer printing  Flock printing  Burn-out printing  Ink-jet printing  Special printing methods (Tie-dyeing & Batik printing) …………………….Etc Print Paste Ingredients: The essential ingredients of printing paste are selected from the following:  Dyes / Pigments  Wetting agents  Solvents / Solution aids / Dispersing agents  Thickeners  De-foaming agents  Oxidizing and reducing agents  Catalysts and oxygen carriers  Acids and alkalis  Carriers and swelling agents  Miscellaneous agents. Examples of Print Pastes: Printing with Reactive dyes: Recipe:  Reactive dye 10g  Thickener (Sodium alginate) 500g (6% Paste)  Urea 200g  Sodium bi-carbonate 20g  Sodium m-nitrobenzene sulphonate 10g  Water 260g ……………………………………………………………………… Total 1000g / 1 kg
  • 177. Page 177 of 206 Printing with Disperse dyes: Recipe:  Disperse dye 10g  Thickener (Starch) 800g (10% Paste)  Acetic Acid 10g  Sodium chlorite 10g  Water 170g …………………………………………………………… Total 1000g / 1 kg Thickener: Thickeners are adhesive materials used in making viscous print pastes in water. Function: Thickener is used to impart stickiness and plasticity to the print paste so that it can be applied on the fabric surface without spreading and bleeding, and be capable of maintaining the design outlines under high pressure. Types of Thickener: • Natural Thickeners (Starch, Gum tragacanth, Guar Gum, Locust bean Gum, Plant exudates, Sodium alginate, etc) • Modified Natural Thickeners (British Gum, CMC, CMS, etc) • Synthetic Thickeners • Emulsion Thickeners
  • 178. Page 178 of 206
  • 179. Page 179 of 206 GARMENTS SECTION:  Garments section is the last section of textile  About 80% of foreign currency comes from this section  Many people specially women in our country employed in this section Garments section complete main four section:  Marker making  Cutting  Sewing  Finishing Marker making:In this factory marker is produced by manually and auto CAD system. In garments section efficiency is depend on marker making. If marker is produced perfectly then production cost will lower Cutting: At fist fabric is spread manually/ automatically or spreading table. Then fabric is cut by straight knife cutting m/c. According to marker which is place on fabric. sewing: Then cutted part is numbered by ticket number. Then operator sewing it according buyer’s demand. Sewing m/c used in this factory: Name of the Machine Nos Origin 1. Single needle Plain Machine 436 nos. Japan 2. 2-needle, 5-thread over lock 080 nos. Japan 3. 2-needle, 4-thread, over lock 318 nos. Japan 4. 2-needle, 4-thread, lap seam stitching 110 nos. Japan 5. 3-needle, 5-thread, chain stitch 060 nos. Japan 6. 1-needle Button Hole 190 nos. Japan 7. 1-needle Button stitches 190 nos. Japan 8. Snap button machine 040 nos. Japan 9. Flat Lock Flat bed 780 nos. Japan 10. Flat Lock Cylinder bed 162 nos. Japan 11. Kansai Special(PMD) 020 nos. Japan 12. Bar tack Machine 020 nos. Japan 13. 3 Thread over lock 100 nos. Japan 14. Rib cutting machine 140 nos. Taiwan 15. Cutting machine 160 nos. Japan 16. Thread winder (Re-conning) 060 nos. Japan 17. Heater less steam iron 900 nos. Japan 18. Vacuum Table 900 nos. Indonesia 19. Strapping Machine, TOYO 040 nos. Japan 20. Thread Sucking Machine 050 nos. BD. 21. Metal Detector (SainTex ) 010 nos. Japan 22. Cutting Layer 010 nos. Thailand 23. Thread recoating 040 nos. Japan ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Total : 1306 nos. Finishing:After sewing fabric is come in finishing section. Produced fabric is finished by steam ironing, then folding &packing according to buyer’s demand.
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  • 181. Page 181 of 206 Quality Control: Mainly this factory follows ISO Standard. But testing Standard depends on buyer requirements. List of Equipments:  Computer  Light box  Electric Heater  Sample Dyeing M/C  Electrical Balance  pH meter  G S M Cutter  Washing M/ C  Shrinkage & spirality measurement instrument Quality Assurance Procedure: Quality assurance Procedure may be divided two major Parts: 1. Online quality Control 2. Offline System Control Objectives of Control:  Research  Selection of Raw material  Process Control  Process development  Products List Scope of Quality Control, Quality Assurance and Testing:  Testing Lab  Machine-Auditing System  A good Training System  Technical Expertise On Line test:  G S M of the fabric  Exact Diameter and Width  Grey Fabric Inspection  Shade Check
  • 182. Page 182 of 206  Bias and Bowing  Visual Appearance (Enzyme Performance) Off Line Test: All The OFF Line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows – 1. Physical Test and 2. Chemical Test Physical Test:  Finished Fabric Dia  G S M of Fabric  Rubbing Fastness  Pilling Test  Diameter and Width  Light Fastness test  Course Per inch  Wales per inch Finished Fabric dia: In Knit, dyeing finishing, finished diameter is Very important factor. It should be kept as the buyer requirements. Simply a measuring tape measures it. Finished diameter is controlled at compacting m/c. G S M Test: G S M is the most important factor. There is a G S M Cutter. The Sample cut by this weighted in the electronic balance. The reading (in gm) from the balance multiplied by 100 to get Value of G S M. Rubbing Fastness test: Purpose: The fastness test to rubbing is used on a Variety of fabrics to evaluate the transfer of surface from the test fabric when it applied surface friction or rubbed against a rough surface. Rubbing fastness test is determined by Crock meter. The test fabric is clamped in the plate of the crock meter. A standard fabric is used for rubbing the test sample. `0 cycles are given manually by a handle. Then the standard fabric is assessed with the help of the grey scale. The scale is graded from 1 to 5, being the Poorest and 5 being and 5 being the best. Pilling Test: Generally, pilling test is applicable for fabric with synthetic fabric. This test is carried out in pilling box. A Sample of 10 cm x 10 cm is sewn round a rubber tube. Then the tube in the Pilling box and the door of it is closed. Then the meter is set for 10600 cycles. After the cycle is completed, the fabric is assessed by a special grey scale. The grey scale is provided Pilling box.
  • 183. Page 183 of 206 Light fastness test: Purpose: Light fastness is the test design to evaluate the laundering fastness test of dyeing, Pigment which re to be made in comparison of result obtained on many test pieces treated under light. Method: ISO Apparatus: 1. Light fastness tester & blue scale 2. scale 3. scissor 4. hard paper 5. 11cm X 4.5 cm Procedure: At first, we took the blue woolen cloth & test sample. The blue woolen clothes were dyed with acid blue, 104,109 etc. Then we cut the woolen cloth & sample according to template. The blue woolen cloth is cut to make standard & sample is cut to test light fastness. Then we put the holder of woolen cloth and sample in the set of machine and set the time, whish was 24 hrs.After completing the process we get the slandered test result. Then we compared with the standard rating. Standard Rating 8 Fast 7 Fast 6 Average 5 Average 4 Average 3 Average 2 Not fast 1 Not fast
  • 184. Page 184 of 206 Result: The test result of light fastness test is equivalent to the class of standard 6.So we can say that the color fastness of dyed fabric is average. Chemical Test:  Shrinkage and Spirality or Twisting  Fastness to wash  Fastness to Perspiration  PH test Wash fastness Test: Purpose: The resistant of color of my dyed or printed material to washing is known as Wash fastness. The test fabric is sewn with multifibre such that two multifibre strip remain at the both side of the test fabric. Then they are washed with the following recipe: Liquor Ratio: 1:20 5 gm fabric + 100 cc water + 0.5% detergent + 0.10 % sodium perborate + 25 Steel balls. Washes with: 60º c x 30 min Then the multifibre is detached from the test fabric. It is dried and wash fastness is assessed by grey scale. Color Fastness to Perspiration: Purpose: To asses the degree of change of shade or cross staining due to Perspiration. Method: ISO Reagent: Alkaline Solution:  L Histadine monohydrochloride monohydrate 0.5 g/l  NaCl  Di – Sodium Orthophosphate dehydrate 0.5 g/l  ( Dilute the Solutions in one liter distill water)  pH 8 ± 0.05 with 0.1 mol/ltr. (0/1N) NaOH. Test Specimen: Fabric (4x 10) cm Procedure: (Alkaline Perspiration)  Keep the specimen in contact with S.D.C multifibre stripe of (4x10) cm  Liquor Ratio of 50: 1  Allow the Specimen to soak for 30 min  Place the specimen glass slide and lightly scrap of with a glass rod.
  • 185. Page 185 of 206  Place the specimen indicator for hrs at 37º C. Then remove from incubator open out keep sometime in open air.  Repeat the same process with another specimen using the acid solution. Assessment: Assess the change in color of each specimen and the staining of the multifibre strip using the grey scale. Report: Record the change in color of each specimen and & the staining of the individual components of the multifibre adjacent fabric separately for both the acid alkaline test. PH Check: Purpose: To fulfill the buyer requirements to keep the pH of the fabric as Per standard. Method: ISO Procedure:  Take 3 Pieces of 2 gm sample  Take 100ml of distilled water (pH – 5.5 to 7.5) in three Conical Flack.  Shake them for 1 hrs in normal temperature.  Finally measures the pH by average them. Standard pH range for colored fabric 6 to 8 Standard pH range for colored fabric 5 to 8 Shrinkage and Spirality Test: Shrinkage and Spirality both are very important for control the quality of fabric. Buyer considers + 5% allowance for both Shrinkage and spirality.The scale is 50 cm long. The supplied the instrument use for this Purposes are washing m/c, measurement tape, scissors etc. The measurement Calculation of shrinkage and Spirality test are given below: Before wash after wash Shrinkage % = x 100 Body Width
  • 186. Page 186 of 206 Left twisting Right twisting Spirality % = x 100 Body Length (F) Body Length (B) Quality Control: Mainly this factory follows ISO Standard. But testing Standard depends on buyer requirements. Remarks: Quality Control is the most important department in every Textile industry. It is strongly recommended that the Quality should be maintained as exactly the buyer’s requirements.
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  • 188. Page 188 of 206 Maintenance: The act which is done to Keep the factory plan equipments machine tools etc. in an optimum working condition, minimize the break down of m/c's to improve Productivity of existing m/c tools and avoid sinking of additional capacity and to Prolong the useful life of the factory plant & machinery is called Maintenance. Objectives of Maintenance:  To Keep the factory Plants, equipments, Machine tools in an optimum working condition.  To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer.  To keep the downtime of Machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production Program.  To Keep the Production cycle within the stipulated range. Types of Machinery: Preventive Maintenance: In M. M. Knitwear ltd the Preventive Maintenance is a predetermined routine activity to ensure on tome inspection or checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to Production break downs or harmful depreciation. Preventive Maintenance Break down Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Maintenance
  • 189. Page 189 of 206 Break down Maintenance: In this case, repairs made after the equipment is out of order and it can not perform its normal functions. In M. M. Knitwear dyeing Industries Ltd. follow the above two types Maintenance. Maintenance of all Machines in Routine Basis per Week: Day Name of Machinery Time will be given Saturday Dyeing M/C ( Dilmenler ) 7 am to 10 am Sunday Others Dyeing m/c 9 am to 11 am Monday Squeezer M/c ,Dryer M/C 8 am to 11 am Tuesday Lab Dyeing Machinery & Turning M/C 10 am to 12 am Wednesday Bangla Dyeing M/C 9 am to 11 am Thursday Compactor & Heat setting M/C 8 am to 10am Friday Utility Lines, Sub-station Compressor, Air Cooler, Pump House, Trolleys. 7 am to 10 am Manpower set up for Maintenance: For electrical Maintenance: Per shift:  B Sc. Engineer – 1  Diploma Engineer – 1  Senior Technician – 2  Junior Technician – 4 For mechanical Maintenance: Per Shift:  B Sc. Engineering – 2  Diploma Engineering – 3  Senior Technician – 1  Junior Technician – 4
  • 190. Page 190 of 206 Maintenance Tools & Equipments and their functions: 1. Combination tools (Spanner) Function: Tightening & Loosening of Nuts & bolts 2. Socket Ratchet set Function: Tightening of Nuts & bolts 3. Slide Range Function: Tightening & Loosening of Nuts & bolts 4. Pliers Function: Tightening & Loosening of Nuts & bolts 5. Pipe threat Cutting Tools Function: To Cut the threat in Pipe. 6. Bearing Puller Function: To assist the Opening of bearing from shaft. 7. Pipe Range Function: Tightening & Loosening of Pipe Joint 8. Pipe Cutting Tools Function: For Pipe Cutting. 9. Hole Punch Function: Punching the hole. 10. Divider Function: For circle marking on metal & wood 11. Easy Opener Function: To open the broken head bolt 12. Heavy Scissor Function: Cutting of gasket & steel sheet. 13. Oil Can
  • 191. Page 191 of 206 Function: Oiling of moving Parts. 14. Drill M/C and Drill bit. Function: For Drilling. 15. Grease Gum. Function: For greasing of moving Parts of M/C. 16. Girding M/C Function: For grinding & Cutting of mild steel. 17. Welding M/C Function: For welding & Cutting. 18. File Function: For Smoothing the Surface. 19. Hammer Function: For Scaling & right angling. 20. Hacksaw blade. Function: For metal Cutting. 21. Handsaw (wood) Function: For wood Cutting. 22. Grinding Stone. Function: For smooth finishin 23. Grinding Paste Function: For easy Cutting of metal Maintenance Procedure: Normally Preventive Maintenance is done here. During Maintenance Procedure following Point should be checked: ♦Maintenance: Mechanical ♦Machine: Dyeing M/C
  • 192. Page 192 of 206 Serial Item need to be checked & Serviced 1 Creasing the winch bearing 2 Complete cleaning of Machine 3 Cleaning of drain Valves, replace scales if required 4 Check air supply filters, regulators and auto drain seals 5 Clean filters element and blow out 6 Greasing of unloading roller bearings 7 Checking of oil level and bolts of unloading roller gearbox 8 Checking of unloading roller coupling and packing 9 Checking and cleaning of main vessel level indicator 10 Check the oil level of Pump bearing and refill if required 11 Check the function of heat and cool modulating valves 12 Check all belts and belt tension ♦Maintenance: Electrical ♦Machine : Dyeing Serial Item needed to be checked and serviced 1 Check & Clean fluff and dirt at all motor fan covers 2 Check all motors 3 Check Main Panels boards 4 Check Panels Cooling fan & clean it filter 5 Check all circuit breaker , magnetic contractors and relays 6 Check Main Pump inverter and its Cooling fan 7 Check Current setting of all circuit breaker & motor over Loads
  • 193. Page 193 of 206 8 Visual Checking of all Power & Control & Cables 9 Check all Pressure switches 10 Check Calibration of Main vessel 11 Check DC drive of kneel motors 12 Check Calibration of all additional tank 13 Check all Pneumatic solenoids 14 Check Calibration of Heating / Cooling 15 Check setting & operation of lid safety switches 16 Check all emergency switches 16 Check all indicating Lamps 17 Check all On / Off switches 18 Check all Signal isolators 19 Check Key Pad & display of Controller 20 Check Proximity Switches Remarks: When I was trainee of M M Knitwear Ltd. then I saw that the Maintenance staffs and overhead of Maintenance department were skilled enough and Efficient.
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  • 195. Page 195 of 206 Utility Facilities Available: 1. Electricity 2. Gas 3. Water 4. Compressed air 5. Steam etc. Government Supply (PDB) Electricity or Power Factory's Own Generator  Air Compressor  Natural Gas  Steam Supply  Water Source of Utility: The main Utility, which is used by M.M. Knitwear Ltd., is Natural gas. From Natural gas generator produce electricity. From natural gas and electricity in associate with mechanical and electrical apparatus, M.M. Knitwear Ltd Produce other Utilities like water, steam, Compressed air etc. Capacity and Other Technical Details: Power (Electricity): Generator house is the main Power Producing Plant of M M Knitwear Ltd. there are two Generators in Generators house. Specifications of two Generators are given below: Generator : 01 Type : Gas Generator Brand Name : CAT BANGLA Origin : U S A Model No : G- 3014 Rated Power : 900KVA Maximum Current : 840 KV Frequency : 50 Hz Engine R P M : 1500 Voltage : 400 Power factor : 0.8
  • 196. Page 196 of 206 Water Temp. : 94º C Mobil Pressure : 58 P S I Gas Pressure : 10 P S I Generator : 02 Type : Diesel Generator Brand Name : Perkins Origin : India Model No : 350 – E Rated Power : 900 KV Maximum Current : 860 KV Frequency : 50 Hz Engine R P M : 1500 Volt : 400 Power factor : 0.8 Generator Boiler Boiler: Steam generator or boiler is usually a closed vessel made of steel. There is Two boiler in M. M. Knitwear. Function: Boiler function is to the heat produced by the combustion of fuel (Gas) to water and ultimately to generator steam. The steam produced may be supplied in wet processing department for – ►Heating cylinder dryer ►Steaming during dyeing
  • 197. Page 197 of 206 Objects: For supplying steam. Types of steam: 1. Wet steam 2. Dry saturated steam, and 3. Superheated steam. In Divine Knit dyeing Ltd. wet steam is used for the relevant processes. Boiler Specification: Brand Name : Cochern Origin : Scotland Type : Fire tube boiler Capacity : 6 ton per hour Pressure : 5 bar Temperature : 180º C Fuel : Natural Gas Year of Manufacturer: 1997 Water supply for the boiler: Water required for steam production is supplied by deep tube well. Pretreatment of the boiler water: Boiler feed water needs special standard. Any deviation from the required standard may result in scale formation, which eventually reduces the efficiency of the boiler. This ultimately affects the cost of steam generation and makes the production cost high. To maintain the required standard of the water, there should be some means to pretreat that the boiler feed water. To protect scale formation of boiler, NELCO is used as chemical in water feed tank. 200 gm NELCO is injected per 12 hrs. In M M Knitwear Ltd. there are water softeners that act before the water enters the boiler. Manufacture of the softener: The manufacturer of the softener is cleaver brocks, U S A. No of the Softener: There are two water softener to pretreated the boiler feed water Softener Specification:
  • 198. Page 198 of 206 Brand Name: Cleaver brooks Model No: ACC- SMR – 150 – 1- 1/2T Serial No: CH – 0000 236 Capacity: 1500000000GRS / TANK Unit NO: HS 008892 Pipe Size: 1.5 inch Salt Capacity brine marker: 576 Ibs Compressed Air: The compressed air is supplied from air condition from air compressor. There are two air compressors in M. M. Knitwear Ltd. Compressor No: 01 Brand Name: Atlas Copco Origin: Belgium Model No: GA 34 FF Serial No: TT 254070 Maximum working pressure: 10 bar Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar Free air delivery: 54 liter / second Normal shaft power: 34 Kw Rotational Shaft speed: 3000 r pm Gross weight: 480 kg
  • 199. Page 199 of 206 Year of Construction: 2000 Compressor No: 02 Brand Name: BOGO Origin: Japan Model No: S361694 Serial No: 546206 Maximum working pressure: 10 bar Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar Year of Construction: 2001 Volt: 400 Frequency: 50 Hz Cost of different Utilities: Electricity Cost: Gas generator = 2.70 TK/KW- HR Diesel generator = 6.50 TK/ KW-HR Gas Cost: 4.94 TK/m3 for boiler 3.66 TK/m3 for generator 4.6 TK/m3 for domestic Purpose Steam Cost: 4.20 TK/ m3 Kg fabric Remarks: For smooth running of factory main utilities like gas, electricity or steam is very essential. Sometimes gas pressure is low than required pressure. When the gas pressure is low, then diesel generators run. Government should have to ensure proper gas supply for Industry.
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  • 201. Page 201 of 206 Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP): The effluent generated from different sections of a textile industry must be treated before they are discharged to the environment. Various chemicals and physical means are introduced for this purpose. Capacity: 80m3 / hr Cost : Tk. 2.5 / m3 Process Flow chart of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant: Fabric Dyeing Homogenizing Tank Distribution Tank Sedimentation Tank Sludge Return Tank Sludge Thickener Filter Press Pumping and Screening Antifoaming Dosing Biological Oxidation Tank Acid Dosing Decolourent Dosing Dry Sludge Dispose to Land Filling Polyelectrolyte Dosing
  • 202. Page 202 of 206 Function of different Unit of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant (E T P): Screening unit: It works like a filter. By filtering waste water, it removes threads, pieces of fabrics, small metal pieces etc. In this unit a rotating brush is used for clean the pores if screen. The brush rotates periodically. Storage and Homogenization tank: Different waste water from varies process is stored and makes a homogeneous mixture by mixing different concentration of waste water. Neutralization tank: Neutralization of waste water is performed by dosing 98% H2SO4 as required to control the PH Of waste water PH range 6.5 to 7.5. Distribution tank: It distributes the water to the biological oxidation tank. Continuous aeration is supplied here. Antifoam is dosed here to control the foaming in the oxidation tank. Biological oxidation tank: It is the heat of E T P. The entire harmful chemicals are damaged here by breaking their bonds. This is done by bacteria. To ensure the proper function work and growth of bacteria, few conditions must be maintained. Temperature : 35º to 37º C PH (Maximum) : 6.5 Dissolved oxygen: 4 PPM Sedimentation Tank / Biological feeding tank: Treated water is overflowed here from oxidation tank. Decolourent is used here to destroy the color of waste water. Settling tank/ Sedimentation Basin: A tank or basin in which waste water is held for a period of time, during which the heavier solids settle to the bottom and the lighter material will floats to the water surface. In this tank sludge is immersed and the harmless water is discharge to ponds, Land, river etc. Sludge Thickener: Sludge taken here from clarifier. Polyelectrolyte is dosed coagulate the sludge. After one hour of Polyelectrolyte dosing aeration is stopped and fresh water discharge to drain when sludge is taken. The thickened sludge is transferred to the sludge thickener bed. Sludge Thickener bed: Here sludge is dried which is used as good fertilizer as well as fuel of brick field. Sludge is dried under the sunlight. Required Chemical of Biological E T P: H2SO4: Function: Neutralize the waste water controlling the PH. It is auto dispensed in the neutralization tank. Polyelectrolyte: Function: Used for sedimentation / sludge coagulation and also killing bacteria. Antifoaming Agent: Function: Used for reduction / controlling foam. It is used auto / manually in the distribution tank.
  • 203. Page 203 of 206 De-colorent: Function: Used for removing color. It is used auto / manually in the sedimentation feeding tank. Sodium Hypochlorite: Function: It is used to kill the harmful bacteria. It is used in the biological oxidation tank. Product Quality Checked: o Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) o Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) o Total suspended solids o Total dissolved solids o DO o Color o pH etc. Remarks: Waste water from processing industries e g. Dyeing , Printing , Finishing and washing causes great harmful effect on our environmental, As a result agricultural land loses its fertility, natural water becomes polluted aquatic life is destructive and crops are damages. So, it is important to control ETP plan.
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  • 205. Page 205 of 206 There is large difference between the theoretical knowledge and practical experiences. This is truer in case of the study of Textile Technology. Industrial attachment or, Industrial training is an essential part for textile education because it minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. This Industrial training increase our thought a lot about textile technology. It also helps us to know a lot about industrial production process, machineries, and industrial management and made us suitable for industrial life. Besides it gives us the first opportunity to work in industry. So we can say industrial attachment prepare us for the expected destiny of practical life. I have completed my industrial attachment from M M Knitwear Limited. During my two-month long industrial training at M M Knitwear Limited. I got the impression that this factory is one of the modern export oriented composite knit garments industry of our country. This factory does not compromise in case of quality. So, they have established on-line and off-line quality control of each product. Besides, they also use the good quality yarn, dyes and chemicals in their production process. Due to this, it has earned a “very good reputation” in foreign market for its quality product over many other export oriented textile mills. It has very well educated and technically experienced manpower to get rid of any defect in production process. It has also a good organizational hierarchy. There are some suggestions from us within our limited knowledge SOME SUGGESTIONS:  Knitting production needs to increase as well as technical persons need to be employed there.  More skilled labor should be used in a project and the overall efficiency will increase.  Dyeing floor should keep always neat and clean. It kept wet after unloading the fabric from the dyeing machine specially, for Athena. Water must be swept time to time.  During the transport of the fabric and during the loading of the m/c, fabrics get soiled due to their drawing over the floor. This makes the fabric/part of the fabric dirty. It may require more scouring/bleaching agent or may create stain.  Due to the pressure of higher production some times machine operators do not maintain accurate time according to the actual process so that less quality product is produced and may reject. So our suggestion is to increase machine and reduce the pressure on the operator.  Should increase understanding between the top level personal and floor level personal.  Finishing section need to be enlarged well as more technical persons need to be employed there.  The m/c stoppage time should be analyzed and minimized. The maintenance should be carried out when the m/c is out of action (Wherever possible) and routine maintenance should be carried out regularly.  In knitting and finishing section every workers should use mask to make protect them from fly. Otherwise the exhaust air system should be more effective.  Workers are not interested to wear their gown & hand gloves.  In the Laboratory there is no technical person, a textile engineer may be employed here.  There is shortage of proper light in the dyeing and finishing floor, specially, when smoke is produced from dryer and stenter. Proper lighting should be provided in the floor.  In Laboratory, only one sample dyeing machine is used. The rest two are out of order. So, if this activate one is in problem then the lab dip process may be hampered. So, another lab dip dyeing machine may be purchase to reduce the load of current one.  The spectrophotometer is virus affected. This must be quarantine immediately.  The person at the top level of a department must take good care of the trainees & he should provide all kinds of support to them. Limitations of the report:  Because of secrecy act, the data on costing and marketing activities have not been supplied.  We had a very limited time. In spite of our willing to study more it was not possible to do so  Some points in different chapters are not included as these were not available.  It is not possible to hold the whole thing of a textile industry in such a small frame as this report. So, try our hard to summarize all the information that we are provided.
  • 206. Page 206 of 206 Reference: Knitting Technology by Ajgaonkar . Knitting Technology by David J. Spencer . Knitting fundamentals by Anbumani . Practical data from M.M. Knitwear . www.projectwork.com www.weikipedia.com www.linkin.com