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Industrial  attachment  of  fakir knitwears ltd
 

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    Industrial  attachment  of  fakir knitwears ltd Industrial attachment of fakir knitwears ltd Document Transcript

    • INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD
    • Acknowledgement At first I would like to thank almighty Allah for giving me the opportunity to complete my internship. I have taken an opportunity to express my deepest since of gratitude and sincere thanks to my reverend teacher Prof. Syed FakhrulHasan,Chairman, Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka.I also thank toA.N. M. Ahmad Ullah , Co-ordinator, Departmentof Textile Engineering, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka,for giving me the chance internship in Fakir Knitwears Ltd. It is an auspicious for me a student of Department of Textile Engineering. One of the prestigious academic center of the Southeast University to express my deep feeling of gratitude to the department and especially to my supervisor S.M.MasumAlam, Department of Textile Engineering. Special thanks to go Mr.FakirAkhteruzzaman, Managing Director of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. For kind help extend to me. I also thank to Mr.FakirMashriquzzaman, Director of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. I also thank to Mr.SyedImtiajRajib of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. I would like to thank Mr.S.M.Md. Fakhruzzaman,GM (Dyeing) of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. I would like to thank Mr.Sultan Mahmud Hosseinee,GM (HR & Compliance) of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. 1 would like to thank Mr. MdMojiburRahman, GM(Production) of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. I would like to thank Mr. Md. Kashem Ali Khan, Manager (IE & Planning) of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. for his valuable direction and special attention. I would like to thank Mr. Md. Toriqul Islam, Manager (Dyeing) of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. I also thank to Mr. Mohammad Din Islam, Asst. Manager (IE & Planning) of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. for his real advice. I am also grateful to Mr. Abul Basher Muhammad Suhas, Management Trainee & Mr. Md. TanvirHossainMazumdar ,PO (Knitting) of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. for giving me their proper guideline and continuous support. I want to offer my deepest thanks and complements to my parents and brother for their unselfish and stimulating influence in my any education life. Finally my cordial gratitude to almighty Allah to successfully completed my industrial attachment. May-2012 SAIDUL ISLAM
    • FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD Introduction Industrial attachment is an essential part of 4 years B. Sc in Textile Engineering course of Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka. As a Textile graduate should have an experience in the study of Wet Processing Technology, machineries products and over all situation of the Factory before work in the industries. I have the opportunity to perform the industrial attachment on Fakir Knitwears Ltd. Fakir Knitwears Ltd, is a renowned and modern technology integrated industry. Fakir KnitwearsLtd, started in the year 1988 in knit garment exporter, Fakir Knitwears Ltd. Crossed over a long way and found us as one of the best knitwear manufacturer-exporter of Bangladesh. Fakir Knitwears Ltd. certified with OKEO-TEX, ISO 9001-2000 &SRM and also getting by WRAP and ISO-14001 Fakir Knitwears Ltd. strive to provide the best quality garment to the buyers. Factory provided advanced technology in all aspects of operation to attain excellence concerning quality, dependability and commitment for apparel industry and society. Product quality is ensured with the practice of advanced technology and our inclination toward meeting with the buyer's satisfaction with competitive price.
    • Fig: Location map of the FKL
    • Chapter One: Project Description COMPANY PROFILE Factory :FakirKnitwears Ltd. Factory & Head Office :Kyempur, Fatullah, Narayangonj-1400 Phone:88-02-7641379-80 7643242,7643271 Fax:88-02-7634611 Commercial Office :89 Lucky chamber,1st Floor,Motijheel Dhaka-1000,Bangladesh. Managing Director :Fakir Akhtaruzzaman (C.I.P) Year of Establishment :1988 Area of Premises :550000 sqft Number of Employee :8500 Yearly turnover :$120 million Production Capacity : Knitting- 40 tons/day Dyeing-42 tons/day Dyeing Finishing-42tons/day Garments-200000 pcs/day Garments Washing-20000pcs/day Printing-100000 pcs/day Embroidery-200 Head
    • Contact(Marketing) : 1)F.A.Zaman(neaz),(Director) Email: neaz@fakirgroup.com 2)Mr.MahmudulHasan, DGM (Merchandising & Marketing) Email: hasan@fakirgroup.com 3)Mr.BiswajitSaha,AGM (Merchandising & marketing) Email: biswajit@fakirgroup.com Bank:1) National Bank of Pakistan 2)One Bank Limited 3)Datch Bangla Bank Limited Buyers : H & M TEMA PRIMARK PEACOCKS PENNYES BERSHKA ZERA
    • Type of Factory& Concern Department The factory is a Knit composite industry. The factory has the following departments- Knitting: o Knitting o Inspection o Quality control Dyeing: o Batch section o Dye house o Dyeing laboratory o Quality control o Finishing Garments: o Merchandising o Sample o Cutting Section o Sewing Section o Finishing Section Maintenance: o Electrical o Mechanical Administration Security Marketing Production Planning & Control Human Resource & Development Remarks The factory has outstanding quality of producing and exporting goods. The infrastructure is the fabric is well enough to be a very good composite factory in Bangladesh. The information’s are given according to source of Management department.
    • Organogram
    • Chapter Two: Management System FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD
    • Managing Director • Reporting to Chairperson • Responsible to board of director/s • Having total charge of the operation • Directly responsible to overlook marketing department and fulfill marketing requirements • Monitor factory operation and make sure orders are delivered on time, with customer's required quality at a minimum cost • Take the total charge of all human resource activities and make sure FKL. To have professional and cheerful work force Director • Reporting to Managing Director • Direct co-ordination with Production Manager / Sample Room In-Charge / Quality Manager / Lab In-Charge. • Product analyzing and providing technical guidance for optimum benefit of the company. • Monitor productivity and take necessary actions and give advises. • Take charge of all pre production activities. • Take charge of all new developments. • Identify tanning needs. • Maintain safety system and procedures. • Introduce cost effective management methods.
    • General Manager (Operation) • Report directly to Managing Director & Director. • Take total charge of the factory activities. • Take charge of administration / fund management / cost control/ purchasing / production planning / store and stock control / delivery schedules and compliance. • Directly control all the system maintenance and upgrading. • Take responsibility of all information flow to / from head office with the help of coordinator • Take charge of all recruitments and terminations with the guidance of Director. General Manager (Production) • Report directly to Managing Director. • Negociate with the Merchandising DGM • Co-ordinate with the Merchandising department about costing & Consumption. • Directly Report to the Director about the Garments Unit. • Over all monitoring the productivity and take necessary actions. • Responsible to Production Manager. Merchandising (DGM) • Report directly to Managing Director. • Co-ordinate with Marketing officer, Director Operations and Sample Room In- Charge. • Upgrade Managing Director on the progress. Follow-up on new order confirmations and transfer information to subordinates • Make contribution to production planning and make sure that the production plan is up to date. • Monitoring maintained and processed order information, which transferred between head office and the factory • Execute raw materials bookings and follow-ups.
    • • Follow up and get it done samples from sample room with the help of the coordinator. • Understand the general / technical problems in the factory, customer requirements and get buyer's approvals where ever possible. Finance and Accounts (DGM) • Directly report to the Director. • Close co-ordination with Managing Director. • Responsible for execution funds and maintain relevant documentation. • Maintain salary sheets and follow up cash requirements and organize funds for company needs. • Handle all kind of banking affairs. • Produce Management reports with regards to company finance General Manager (Purchase & Inventory) • Report directly to Managing Director. • Co-ordinate with Merchandising Manager. • Responsible for business development / develop new supplier sources and cost control. • Frequent market research and up date management and related departments on the current trends in the market. • Generate innovation to the organization. • Follow up current customers and ongoing orders. • Co-operate with customers and make their requirements understand to the subordinates and related departments. • Understand the general / technical problems in the factory; convince customers and get customers approvals where ever is possible on company interest. • Find business for surplus goods. • Prepare and maintain management reports.
    • General Manager (HR & Compliance) • Directly reporting to Director. • Co-ordinate with the entire departmental in charges and all the workers in the factory • Responsible to monitor, o Factory timing o Discipline and cleanliness o Attendance, leave and holydays o Security and maintenance of the factory o Transportation and its maintenance o Wagers, over time pay, allowances and other payments. o Do necessary formalities during new recruitment or terminations. Manager (IE & Planning) • Directly reporting to the Director. • Directly reporting to the MD Sir about the over all situation of the factory • Sample break down and SMV establish. • Discussion with GM (Production) about lost time and bottle neck. • Co-ordination with HR department about the workers recruitment. Senior Merchandiser • Report directly to Manager Merchandising. • Maintain and process information received from buyers and buying offices and process and transfers them between head office and factory. • Follow up on new order confirmations and book raw materials accordingly. • Help to up date the production plan. Production Manager • Directly reporting to General Manager. • Responsible to GM, Operations. • Co-ordinate with Quality Manager, Cutting manager, Finishing & Store
    • Inventory Manager • Directly reporting to General Manager. • Responsible to Merchandising Manager. • Co-ordinate with production Co-coordinator. • Responsible to follow up production planning and all the raw material requirements. • Maintain inventory / storing system / documentation and provide information to prepare statistics • Stock controlling and keep management inform as and when required. Quality Control In-charge • Reporting to Quality Manager • Responsible to Director Operations • Co-ordinate with production, knitting, linking, trimming, mending and finishing In-Charges and Supervisors • Responsible to follow up instructions given by Quality Manager and Director Operations. • Monitor the work done by Quality Checkers. • Make sure the quality is maintained at buyer's required standard and maintained company quality system. • Maintain relevant paper work. Human Resources &Welfare Officer • Reporting to General Manager • Co-ordinate with all department heads in the organization. • Responsible to monitor training, cleanliness, health and safety, meals, picnics, welfare fund and all other welfare affairs
    • Compliance Officer • Reporting to HR & Welfare Officer • Responsible to General Manager • Co-ordinate with all department heads in the organization. • Responsible to monitor system management, health & safety and all other compliance affairs. HROfficer • Directly reporting to Administration Manager • Responsible to General Manager • Co-ordinate with the entire department in charges and all the workers in the factory. • Responsible to monitor, o Factory timing. o Discipline and cleanliness. o Attendance, leave and holydays. o Security and maintenance of the factory. o Transportation and its maintenance. o Wagers, over time pay, allowances and other payments. o Do necessary formalities during new recruitment or terminations. Accounts Executive • Reporting to Finance & Accounts Manager. • Responsible to maintain all the books and paperwork with regards to company accounts. • Prepare and maintain salary sheets. • Follow up day-to-day cash requirement and handled funds. • Prepare management reports.
    • Security In-charge • Reporting to Dept. General Manager • Responsible to monitor all the activities of security officers, conduct security activities and make sure the total premises are completely safe and secured. • Should conduct regular security inspections in the premises both day and night • Maintain records of all incomings and out going goods, personal and vehicles. • Provide training to security staff. Security Guard • Reporting to Security In-charge. • Responsible to Security Manager. • Conduct security activities and make sure the total premise is completely safe and secured. • Should be conduct regular security inspections in both day and night. • Maintain all security records. Time Keeper • Reporting to Administration Manager • Responsible to maintain the time record of all the employees. • Maintain timecard in order. Sewing Supervisor • Directly reporting to Finishing In-Charge. • Responsible to Assistant Production Manager. • Co-ordinate with finishing Supervisor. • Responsible for all labeling. • Monitoring work of all the workers. • Maintain needle policy and safety.
    • Sewing Operators • Reporting to Sewing Supervisor. • Responsible to Finishing In-Charge. • Duties to do sewing with optimum quality. • Maintain cleanliness and safety. Ironing Supervisor • Directly reporting to Finishing In-Charge • Responsible to Assistant Production Manager • Co-ordinate with Washing In-Charge • Responsible for all finishing activities • Motivate subordinates. Iron man • Reporting to Ironing Supervisor • Responsible to Finishing In-charge • Duties to do ironing with optimum quality. • Maintain cleanliness and safety. Packing Supervisor • Reporting to Finishing In-Charge • Responsible for Assistant Production Manager • Co-ordinate with Ironing Supervisor and Sewing Supervisor. • Responsible for best quality goods. • Monitoring work of all the workers. • Motivate subordinates.
    • Chapter Three: Machineries Garments Machineries SI no. Name of the m/c No of m/c Brand /Origin 01 Straight Knife m/c 30 Mack- Japan 02 Band Knife m/c 02 OSHMAKK, Taiwan 03 Lay spreading m/c 04 Eastman 04 Sample print heating m/c 02 Speed cutter, Japan 05 Single Needle Lock Stitch 591 Brother , Japan 06 Over lock m/c 512 Pegasus, Japan 07 Flat Lock m/c 156 Pegasus, Japan 08 Feed of the arm 02 Japan 09 Snp button m/c 16 Prime 10 Button hole m/c 20 Brother, Japan 11 Button attaching m/c 17 Brother, Japan 12 Back tape m/c 22 Pegasus, Japan 13 One stop Zik m/c 22 Brother, Japan 14 Thread sucking m/c 20 OSHIMA 15 Thread Re-Con m/c 08 OSHIMA 16 Spot Removing m/c 16 OSHIMA 17 Metal Detector 07 Hasima 18 Iron Vacuum table 150 Hasima 19 Bar take M/c 32 Brother, Japan 20 Rib Cutter 30 OSHMAKK, Taiwan
    • 21 Cylinder bed m/c 177 Brother, Japan 22 Lock stitch two needle 05 Brother, Japan 23 Iron m/c 150 OSHIMA 24 Hand tag m/c 60 Japan 25 Hand dry m/c 120 Brother, Japan
    • Knitting Machineries Machine Type: Single Jersey SL MC NO. DIA-GG-F BRAND TYPE 1 A-1 36"24-108 Jiunn Long Open Width 2 A-2 36"24-108 Jiunn Long Open Width 3 A-3 36"24-108 Masa Open Width 4 A-4 36"24-108 Masa Open Width 5 A-5 36"24-108 Masa Open Width 6 A-6 40"24-120 Masa Open Width 7 A-7 40"24-120 Jiunn Long Open Width 8 A-8 40"24-120 Jiunn Long Open Width 9 A-9 40"24-120 Jiunn Long Open Width 10 A-10 42"24-126 Jiunn Long Open Width 11 A-11 42"24-126 Jiunn Long Open Width 12 A-1 2 42"24-126 Masa Open Width Machine Type:Single Jersey 1 B-1 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Open Width 2 B-2 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Open Width 3 B-3 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Open Width 4 B-4 34"24-102 Masa Open Width 5 B-5 34"24-102 Masa Open Width 6 B-6 34"24-102 Masa Open Width 7 B-7 38"24-114 Jiunn Long Open Width 8 B-8 38"24-114 Jiunn Long Open Width 9 B-9 38"24-114 Masa Open Width 10 B-10 38"24-114 Masa Open Width 11 B-11 38"24-114 Masa Open Width
    • 12 B-1 2 44"24-132 Masa Open Width
    • Machine Type: Single Jersey SL MC NO. DIA-GG-F BRAND TYPE 1 D-1 26"24-104 King Knit Tube 2 D-2 26"24-104 Quan Tex Tube 3 D-3 26"24-78 Masa Tube 4 D-4 28"24-84 Masa Tube 5 D-5 28"24-84 Masa Tube 6 D-6 28"24-112 Jiunn Long Tube 7 D-7 30'24-72 Santec Tube 8 D-8 30"24-90 Masa Tube 9 D-9 30"20-90 Masa Tube 10 D-10 30"24-90 Masa Tube 11 D-11 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Tube 12 D-1 2 32"24-102 Jiunn Long Tube Machine Type: Single Jersey 1 E-1 21"24-84 Quan Tex Tube 2 E-2 22"24-88 Quan Tex Tube 3 E-3 22"24-66 Masa Tube 4 E-4 22"24-66 Masa Tube 5 E-5 23"24-69 Masa Tube 6 E-6 23"24-69 Masa Tube 7 E-7 23"24-92 Quan Tex Tube 8 E-8 24"24-72 Masa Tube 9 E-9 24"24-96 Quan Tex Tube 10 E-10 24"24-96 Quan Tex Tube 11 E-11 25"24-100 Quan Tex Tube 12 E-12 25"24-100 Quan Tex Tube
    • FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD Machine Type: Single Jersey 1 C-1 32"24-96 Jiunn Long Open Width 2 C-2 32"24-96 Jiunn Long Open Width 3 C-3 32"24-96 Masa Open Width 4 C-4 32"24-96 Masa Open Width 5 C-5 36"24-108 Masa Tube 6 C-6 36"24-108 Quan Tex Tube 7 C-7 36-24-72 Jiunn Long Jaquard 8 C-8 38"24-114 Jiunn Long Tube 9 C-9 38"24-114 Masa Tube 10 C-10 40"24-120 Masa Tube 11 C-11 40-24-120 Masa Tube 12 C-1 2 42"24-126 Masa Tube Machine Type: Rib & Inter Lock (Double Jersey) 1 G-1 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Tube 2 G-2 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Tube 3 G-3 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Tube 4 G-4 36"24-108 Jiunn Long Tube 5 G-5 36"24-108 Jiunn Long Tube 6 G-6 36"24-108 Jiunn Long Tube 7 G-7 38"24/22/18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 8 G-8 38"24-114 Jiunn Long Tube 9 G-9 38"24-114 Jiunn Long Tube 10 G-10 40"24-120 Jiunn Long Tube 11 G-11 40"24-120 Jiunn Long Tube 12 G-12 40"24/22/18-84 Jiunn Long Tube
    • Machine Type: Rib Jersey (Double Jersey) 1 F-1 20"24-80 Jiunn Long Tube 2 F-2 30"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 3 F-3 30"18-54 Terrot Tube 4 F-4 32"18-66 Masa Tube 5 F-5 32"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 6 F-6 32" 18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 7 F-7 34"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 8 F-8 34"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 9 F-9 36"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube ~10 F-10 36"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 11 F-11 38"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 12 F-1 2 40"18-84 Jiunn Long Tube Machine Type: Rib & Inter Lock & S/J 1 H-1 42"24-252 Masa Tube 2 H-2 36"20/18-84 Jiunn Long Tube 3 H-3 38"16-72 Jiunn Long Tube 4 H-4 34"18-72 Jiunn Long Tube 5 H-5 36"18/16-72 Jiunn Long Tube 6 H-6 36"22-72 Jiunn Long Tube 7 H-7 34"22-72 Jiunn Long Tube 8 H-8 34"24-102 Jiunn Long Tube 9 H-9 32"24-96 Jiunn Long Tube 10 H-10 36"16-66 Jiunn Long Tube 11 H-11 38"24-48 Fukuhara Tube 12 H-12 38"24-48 Fukuhara Tube 13 H-1 3 33-18/24-48 Fukuhara Tube
    • FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD Machine Type: Single Jersey (Relaknit:4.0/3.2ll) 1 R-1 38"24-123 Mayer &Cie Tube 2 R-2 38"24-123 Mayer &Cie Tube 3 R-3 34"24-108 Mayer &Cie Tube 4 R-4 34"24-135 Mayer &Cie Tube 5 R-5 34"24-135 Mayer &Cie Tube € R-6 36"24-144 Mayer &Cie Tube 7 R-7 36"24-144 Mayer &Cie Tube 8 R-8 36"24-116 Mayer &Cie Tube Machine Type: Plain S/J & Fleece 1 P-1 30"24-60 Sanda Tube 2 P-2 30"24-60 Sanda Tube 3 P-3 30"24-60 Sanda Tube 4 P-4 30"24-60 Sanda Tube 5 P-5 30"24-60 Sanda Tube Total = 102 PCS
    • Laboratory Machineries SI no. Name of the m/c No of m/c Origin Brand 01 Spectro Photo Meter 01 U.S.A Gretag M/C 02 Lab Dyeing M/C 01 Taiwan Irdyer Rapid 03 Lab Dyeing M/C 01 Hong Kong Tung Shing 04 Gray Scale 01 Japan Shinko 05 Light Box 01 England Verivide 06 Washing Machine 06 Sweden TMS-900 07 Tumbling Machine 01 Sweden TK-111S 08 Rubbing Machine 02 U.S.A 09 Auto dispensing Machine 01 Italy Lawer Dyeing Machineries (Sample) SI no. Name of the m/c No of m/c No of Nozzle Origin Brand Capacity 01 Sample Machine 04 01 Taiwan Fong's 40kg 02 Sample Machine 04 01 Taiwan Fong's 40kg 03 Sample Machine 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 160kg 04 Sample Machine 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 120kg 05 Sample Machine 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 120kg 06 Sample Machine 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 25kg 07 Sample Machine 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 30kg 08 Sample Machine 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 30kg
    • FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD Dyeing Machineries (Bulk Production) SI no. Name of the m/c No of m/c No of Nozz le Origin Brand Capacity 01 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 02 Taiwan Fong's 400kg 02 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 03 Taiwan Fong's 600kg 03 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 04 Taiwan Fong's 800kg 04 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 04 Taiwan Fong's 800kg 05 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 06 Taiwan Fong's 1200kg 06 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 06 Taiwan Fong's 1200kg 07 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 200kg 08 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 200kg 09 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 06 Taiwan Fong's 1500kg 10 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 05 Taiwan Fong's 1000kg 11 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 05 Taiwan Fong's 1000kg 12 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 04 Taiwan Fong's 800kg 13 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 04 Taiwan Fong's 500kg 14 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 02 Taiwan Fong's 500kg 15 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 02 Taiwan Fong's 500kg 16 Low Temperature & Atmosphere 01 02 Taiwan Fong's 500kg 17 High Temperature & Pressure 01 02 Taiwan Fong's 400kg 18 High Temperature & Pressure 01 05 Taiwan Fong's 1500kg 19 High Temperature & Pressure 01 01 Taiwan Fong's 500kg 20 High Temperature & Pressure 01 03 Taiwan Fong's 1500kg
    • 21 High Temperature & Pressure 01 03 Taiwan Fong's 1500kg 22 High Temperature & Pressure 01 03 Taiwan Fong's 1500kg 23 High Temperature & Pressure 01 3 Greece Sclavos 750kg 24 High Temperature & Pressure 02 4 Greece Sclavos 1000kg 25 High Temperature & Pressure 02 6 Greece Sclavos 1500kg Dyeing Finishing Machineries SI no. Name of the m/c No of m/c Brand Origin 01 Stenter 03 Bruckner Germany 02 Stenter 01 ACC Turkey 03 Stenter 01 Chengfu Taiwan 04 Open Compactor 03 Lafer Italy 05 Open Compactor 01 Ferraro Italy 06 Slating 02 Bianco Italy 07 Slating 02 EL Italy 08 Bag Sewing 03 MTG Italy 09 Singing 01 Osthoff Germany 10 Sueded M/C 01 Lafu (Has) Turkey 11 Combing 01 I kuang Taiwan 12 Shewing 01 I kuang Taiwan 13 Squeezer 02 AB Calator Sweden 14 Squeezer 01 AKAB Sweden 15 Squeezer 01 Kromson Turkey 16 Tube Compactor 01 Fab-Con U.S.A 17 Tube Compactor 01 Specttorimar Italy 18 Calender 01 Ferraro Italy 19 Dryer 01 AMS Turkey
    • 20 Dryer 01 Obermaier France 21 Tube Compactor 01 Lafer (Has) Turkey 22 Dryer 01 Dilmiler Turkey Boiler Machineries SI no. Model No of m/c Origin Brand 01 DDHI 5.0-10 02 Germany Omnica 02 UL-S-1000 02 Germany Loos Manpower FAKIR KNITWEARS LTD Total Manpower and Section Wise Manpower: Administration Department: SL.No Designation No of Manpower 01 General Manager (Operation) 01 02 General Manager (Admin, RH & Com) 01 03 Admin Officer 01 04 IT Manager 01 05 IT Officer 04 06 Welfare Officer 02 07 Software Engineer 02 08 Doctor 01
    • 09 Nurse 01 10 Day Care Governess 02 11 Time Keeper 02 12 Painter 02 13 Peon 13 14 Cleaning Supervisor 08 15 Cleaner & Sweeper 240 16 Cook 07 17 Medical Assistant 02 Total = 310 Accounts Department SL.No Designation No of Manpower 01 Deputy General Manager 01 02 Sr. Accounts Officer (Tax) 01 03 Accounts Officer 09 04 Cash Officer 02 05 Asst. Manager 02 06 Junior Officer 02 Total = 17 IE & Planning Department SL.NO Designation No of Manpower 01 Manager 01 02 Asst. Manager 01 03 IE Officer 20 04 Work study officer 20 Total = 42
    • Merchandising Department SL.NO Designation No of Manpower 01 Deputy General Manager 01 02 Asst. General Manager 01 03 Manager 03 04 Sr. Merchandising 01 05 Merchandising 12 06 Asst. Merchandising 06 07 Trainee Merchandising 02 Total=1 26 Maintenance Department SL.No Designation No of Manpower 01 Deputy General Manager 01 02 Mechanical In-Charge 01 03 Mechanic 08 04 Electrician 03 05 Mechanics Helper 11 Total = 24 Sample Department SL.NO Designation No of Manpower 01 Manager 01 02 Pattern Master 04 03 Sample Cutter 08 04 Sample Man 06
    • 05 CAD Manager 01 06 CAD Designer 09 07 Q.C (Sewing) 06 08 Operator (Sewing) 27 Total = 61 Security Department SL.No Designation No of Manpower 01 Deputy General Manager 01 02 Manager 01 03 Security Officer 02 04 Security Supervisor 04 05 Fire Man 08 06 Security Guard 87 07 Driver 20 Total = 123 Inventory Department SL.NO Designation No of Manpower 01 General Manager 01 02 Asst. Store Manager 03 03 Inventory Officer 02 04 Asst. Inventory Officer 05 05 Sr. Store Keeper 05 06 Store Officer 11 07 Store Keeper 21 08 Store Assistant 19 09 Tally Man Incharge 01 10 Tally Man 14
    • Total = 82 Cutting Department SL.No Designation No of Manpower 01 Cutting Manager 01 02 Cutting In-charge 09 03 Cutting Supervisor 10 04 Cutting Man 65 05 Sticker Man 11 06 Cutting Inspection 96 07 Marker Man 10 08 Lay Man 230 09 Loader 51 Total = 483 Production Department SL.NO Designation No of Manpower 01 General Manager 01 02 Production Manager 05 03 Floor In-charge 15 04 Production Co-ordinator 02 05 Supervisor 48 06 Input Man 15 07 Operator 1056 08 Helper 864
    • 09 Count Man 48 10 Quality Control Man 336 Total = 2390 Printing Department SL.No Designation No of Manpower 01 Printing Manager 01 02 In-charge 02 03 Color Muster 01 04 Invigilator 08 05 Supervisor 04 06 QC 21 07 Check Man 73 08 Printer 74 09 Bundle Count Man 24 10 Cleaner 22 11 Helper 428 12 Expose Man 2 13 Loader 11 Total = 671 Quality Department SL.NO Designation No of Manpower 01 Deputy Manager 01 02 Manager 01 03 Asst. manager 01 04 In-charge 04 05 Quality Controller 26
    • 06 Check Supervisor 39 Total = 72 Finishing Department SL.No Designation No of Manpower 01 Finishing Manager 01 02 Finishing In-charge 06 03 Finishing Supervisor 34 04 Iron Man 150 05 Folding man 120 06 Poly man 110 07 Packer man 40 08 Helper 60 Total = 527
    • Chapter Four: Raw Materials Yarn The raw material for knitting is the yarn. Different types of yarn of wide range of different count areused. Both carded and combed yarn is used for knitting. Generally used yarn and their count: Yarn Type Count Cotton 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 40S Polyester 75D, 100D Spandex yarn 20D,40D, 70D Grey Mélange 24S , 26S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S Fabric: Fakir Knitwears Ltd.is a knit composite textile industry. In the industry fabric is used as raw material in dyeing- Grey Fabrics: Following types of gray fabrics are dyed:  Single jersey  Single jersey with lycra  Polo pique  Single lacoste
    •  Fleece  Interlock  Interlock with lycra  Rib  Rib with lycra  1Χ1 rib  2Χ2 rib  6X2 rib  Sugar rib  Regular drop needle  Irregular drop needle  Different types of collar & cuff Chemicals: List of Chemicals used in Cotton Club (BD) Ltd. is as follows- Basic Chemicals: 1. Acetic Acid 2. Hydrochloric Acid 3. Sulphuric Acid 4. Caustic soda 5. Formic acid 6. Bleaching powder Detergent & Scouring agent: 1. SUNMORL CK-2 2. AssistB26f/SL2F(CK) Levelling Agent 1. Neocrystal-200BF 2. LevagalDLP Sequestering Agent 1. Neocristal 150 2. Neocristal-DMBF 3. NOBLEACH N(Multi-function)
    • Salt 1. Glauber Salt 2. Common Salt Whitening Agent 1. Syno White BYB 2. Syno White 4BK Softener 1. Sapamine FPG 2. Aleamine-CWS 3. Necipole PR 99 4. Gramazin-E2R Fixing Agent 1. NeofixRP70 2. Neofix-R-250 3. Albafix ECO Reducing Agent 1. Hydrose 2. Caustic 3. Visco Color 4. ViscoBleah Bleaching Agent 1. (50%)H2O2 Enzyme 1. Retrocell PLX 2. BIO-C35 Stabilizer 1. Nobleach N(Multi-function) 2. Neorate PH 55 NF 3. Neorate PH 150 Anticreasing Agent 1. Texport GL 500 2. Texport D-600 3. AC-200
    • PH Controller 1. Acetic Acid 2. Formic Acid 3. Soda Ash 4. Caustic 5. Invatex AC Per-oxide Killer 1.Croaks NF Antifoaming agent 1. Albatex FFC Dyes Fakir Knitwars ltd uses the following dyes- 1.Sumifix 2.Boductive 3.Ciba 4.Livafix 5.Terafix Remarks As quality is the prime concern of the factory, qualitative raw materials are always bought by the management of the factory. Besides, there is enough space to keep those raw materials in the factory.
    • Chapter Five: Knitting section Process Flow chart of Knitting: Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and Tension device. Knitting Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting Inspection Numbering Parts of knitting Machines: Creel: Creel is used to place the cone of yarn. Feeder: Feeder is used to feed the yarn to make a fabric. Tensioning device: Tensioning device is used to give proper tension to the yarn. VDQ pulley: VDQ pulley is used to control the GSM by controlling the stitch length. Guide: Guide is used to guide the yarn. Sensor: Sensor is used to seen & the machine stops when any problem occurs. Spreader: Spreader is used to spread the knitted fabric before take up roller. Take up roller: Take up roller is used to take up the fabric Fixation feeder: These types of feeder are used in Electrical Auto Striper Knitting Machine to feed the yarn at specific finger.
    • Rethom: These devise are used in Electrical Auto Striper Knitting machine Design Development by using CAM: The type of fabric to produce depends on the setting of the Cam of Knitting machine. The different types of fabric can be produced by only changing the cam setting. The cam settings to produce different fabric are given below: Single jersey: Only knit cams are used to produce single jersey fabric. So the setting would be- K K K K K K K K K Inter lock: Inter lock fabric is produced by using knit and miss cam. So the setting would be- K M K M K M Lacost: Lacost uses knit and tuck cam like- K K T K K T K K K T French terry: The cam setting is as follows- K M K M K M K T K M K T K M K T K M
    • Considered pointof Knitting: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-  Finished G.S.M.  Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.  Yarn count  Types of yarn (combed or carded)  Diameter of the fabric.  Stitch length  Color depth. End products of circular knitting machine: Single Jersey M/C: a) S/J Plain b) Single lacoste c) Double lacoste d) Single pique e) Double pique f) Terry Rib M/C: a) 1*1 Rib fabric b) 2*2 Rib fabric c) Honeycomb End product of Flat bed knitting machine: a) Collar b) Cuff
    • Production Calculation: A. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency countYarn mmSLNeedleofNoFeederofNoRPM    80.3527 )(.. B. Production/shift in meter 100/ 1260. / .min/     cmCourse EfficiencyFeederofNoRPM cmCourse Course C. Fabric width in meter: 100/ . 100/ .     cmWales knittinginusedNeedlesofnoTotal cmWales walesofnoTotal D. Needle calculation For Circular knitting machine: Diameter of the Machine X Gauge of the Machine X 3.14 For example: Diameter of the machine is 18” and Gauge of the machine is 24. Then the number of Needles on the machine would be- 18 X 24 X 3.14 = 1356 For Flat Bed knitting machine: Length of the Machine needle bed X Gauge of the Machine For example: Length of the machine needle bed is 56” and Gauge of the machine is 14. Then the number of Needles on the machine would be- 56 X 14 = 1568
    • Faults of Knitting: 1. Hole Mark Causes:  Holes are the results of yarn breakage or yarn cracks.  During loop formation the yarn breaks in the rejoin of the needle hook.  If the yarn count is not correct on regarding structure, gauge, course and density.  Badly knot or splicing.  Yarn feeder badly set. Remedies:  Yarn strength must be sufficient to withstand the stretch as well as uniform.  Use proper count of yarn.  Correctly set of yarn feeder.  Knot should be given properly. 2. Needle Mark Causes:  When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes along the fabrics.  If a needle or needle hook is slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics. Remedies:  Needle should be straight as well as from broken latch. 3. Sinker Mark Causes:  When sinker corrode due to abrasion then some times can not hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes.  If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes. Remedies:  Sinker should be changed.
    • 4. Star Causes:  Yarn tension variation during production.  Buckling of the needle latch.  Low G.S.M fabric production. Remedies:  Maintain same Yarn tension during production.  Use good conditioned needles. 5. Drop Stitches Causes:  Defective needle.  If yarn is not properly fed during loop formation i.e. not properly laid on to the needle hook.  Take-down mechanism too loose.  Insufficient yarn tension.  Badly set yarn feeder. Remedies:  Needle should be straight & well.  Proper feeding of yarn during loop formation.  Correct take up of the fabric & correct fabric tension.  Yarn tension should be properly. 6. Oil stain Causes:  When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line. Remedies:  Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics.  Well maintenance as well as proper oiling. 7. Rust stain Causes:  If any rust on the machine parts. Remedies:
    •  If any rust on the machine parts then clean it.  Proper maintenance as well as proper oiling. 8. Pin hole Causes:  Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric. Remedies:  Change the needle 9. Grease stain Causes:  Improper greasing  Excess greasing Remedies:  Proper greasing as well as proper maintenance 10. Cloth fall- out Causes:  Cloth fall- out can occur after a drop stitch especially when an empty needle with an empty needle with closed latch runs into the yarn feeder and remove the yarn out of the hook of the following needles. Remedies:  Make sure all the latches of needle are closed with feeding yarn after a drop stitch. 11. Barre: A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise (width wise) Stripe. Causes:  This fault comes from yarn fault.  If different micro near value of fiber content in yarn.  Different lusture, dye affinity of fiber content in yarn.  During spinning different similar classes of fiber is mixed specially in carded yarn & these fibers have similar characteristics.
    •  In draw fame different similar classes sliver is mixed and make one sliver. Remedies:  We can use this fabric in white color. 12. Fly dust: Causes:  In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that are created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction. This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production. Remedies:  Blowing air for cleaning and different parts after a certain period of time.  By cleaning the floor continuously.  By using ducting system for cleaning too much lint in the floor.  Over all ensure that lint does not attach to the fabric. 13. Yarn contamination Causes:  If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing,  If lot, count mixing occurs. Remedies:  By avoiding lot, count mixing.  Fault less spinning. 13. Yarn Faults:  Neps.  Slubs.  Yarn count variations.  Thick/Thin place in yarn.  Hairiness
    • Flat Knitting Machines Fault: 1. Holes: Causes:  Needle Break,  High Tension on Tensioner,  Excess cotton with yarn on needle. 2. Missing Needle: Causes:  Faulty Needle,  Faulty Cam setting. 3. Oil mark: Causes:  Improper Oiling on Machine.  Inexperienced Operator 4. Loop Miss: Causes:  Tension on take up roller,  Needle miss.
    • Chapter Six: Batching section Batch process flow chart : Flow process chart of Batching Section of Fakir KnitwearsLtd. Fabric Received ↓ Inspection ↓ Fabric Divided according to Diameter ↓ Supervisor batches the fabric according to quantity by Calculation ↓ Sent for Dyeing Grey fabric inspection The batch section of the Fakir KnitwearsLtd. inspects the following parameters of the received fabric-  Knitting Hole  Oil Spot  Tara  Shade UP  Star Mark  Patta  Lack out Batch Calculation: = Batch Quantity (M/C Quantity) / Total Quantity X Diameter quantity Equation for Rope Length =Diameter Quantity (Weight of Fabric in a roll) X 39.37 X1000 / Finished GSM / Finished open Diameter
    • Batch management: Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager. Some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency. Machines in batch section : No of Machine : 06 Machine Name : Air Turning Machine Origin : KOREA Remarks: The batch section of the factory is well equipped but it lacks in a quality controller. Chapter Seven: Lab section Lab dip: Lab dip is a process by which buyers supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without help of “DATA COLOR” Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & and detaching the characteristics of the dyes and chemicals are to be used in the large scale of production so this is an important task before bulk production.
    • Objective of Lab dip The main objectives in lab are as follows:  To calculate the recipe for sample dyeing.  To compare dyed sample with swatch by light Box or spectroflash.  To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.  Finally approved lab dip (Grade: ABC) The responsibilities of the laboratory are:  Sample preparation according to buyer requirement  Different properties test (Wash fastness, Color fastness, rubbing fastness, Perspiration Test, Pilling Test etc.)  Strength test of Dyestuff  Chlorine test, Peroxide test  Product Development etc.
    • Laboratory work sequence : Sample received (Fabrics) ↓ Check & note the Lot no, Style no, Item no& Collar ↓ Sample Preparation ↓ Run the test ↓ Physical test Wet lab Color Fastness to wash Pilling Color Fastness to washing Crocking Evaluate the sample Pre-production Sample Final sample Report Making Test Test Prepared the report prepared the report Pass Fail Deliver Refinish Pass Fail Pass Fail Need to test again Refinish
    • Lab Dyeing process follow up : The laboratory dyeing process of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. is as follow: Sample Received ↓ Standard is checked with the Reference from the inventory ↓ If matched then sample prepared from that recipe ↓ If not matched than the color percentage is calculated by using Data Color ↓ Recipe Prepared ↓ Sample prepared according to recipe ↓ Standard (From Buyer) and Sample prepared is Compared ↓ If Okay then the sample is sent to Buyer ↓ Buyer approves the sample and order for the bulk production. Sample Received: Buyer sends a sample which is considered as standard in whole process. Buyer also gives some requirements about the properties of the standard fabric. For example, Buyer wants good wash fastness, light fastness, rubbing fastness, pilling formation etc. The lab receives this standard to make this fabric according to buyer requirements. Standard is checked with the Reference from the inventory: The factory dyed a lot of fabric in its running years. It also stores a lot of sample in its inventory. The standard is first checked with the samples kept in the inventory. If matched then sample prepared from that recipe: If the standard is matched with the sample of inventory then the next process becomes easier. Because after matching the sample with standard previously maintained recipe is followed. If the sample does not match with the standard then the process goes to data color.
    • If not matched than the color percentage is calculated by using Data Color: If the standard does not match with the samples of inventory, then the standard percentage of color is found out from the data color machine. Recipe Prepared: According to the results of data color machine the recipe is prepared to get the desired sample of that standard. Sample prepared according to recipe: Following the procedure the sample is prepared. Standard (From Buyer) and Sample prepared is Compared: After getting the sample is compared with the standard. And several tests are done to meet the buyer requirement. If Okay then the sample is sent to Buyer: Sample is then sent to the buyer for the final approval. Buyer approves the sample and order for the bulk production: When buyer gives the final approval the fabric is sent to production floor for the bulk production.
    • Properties test Color fastness to rubbing (wet & dry): Procedure: Firstly a sample of size (14 × 5) cm is taken at Wales & Course wise. The crocking cloth is put on to the finger &is staged by finger clip & run 10 times in 10 seconds manually & assesses the crocking cloth with gray scale. The crocking cloth is placed on the water, it will suck some water and crocking cloth is then squeezed. Then place the wet rubbing cloth on to the finger and stag with finger clip and run 10 times in 10 seconds manually. The crocking is then assessed cloth by gray scale for wet rubbing. Wet and dry rubbing are checked according to buyer’s requirement. Color fastness to washing. (ISO/05-CO6): Procedure: 1. Size of specimen: Sample &multifibre at (10 × 2) cm then stitch. 2. Detergent: 4g/l ECE detergent (WOB) + 1g/l sodium per borate put in distilled water & cooled at 20°C & measured PH (where necessary). 3. the program is run in the following way: - Test no. Temp°C Liq.volume ml Time min. Steel balls Adjust pH C2S 60°C 50 30 25 10.5±1 4. The sample is rinsed twice with cold water. 5. At 60°C by hanging or by flat iron pressing the dried but temperature should not less more than 150°C. 6.
    • Pilling test: Procedure: The fabric 12.5 x 12.5cm is cut & balanced mark should be 10cm by using template. Then the fabric is sewn so that it can be firmly fit in the tube a moulded polyurethane tubes.Then four tubes are placed in a box & started 60±2 rev/min for 5 hrs or according to buyer requirement. Then the fabric is assessed by putting tested specimen on the cabinet & compared with standard photographs. Shrinkage &Spirality test: Buyer’s requirements: Template size: 50cm & 35cm, 25.5cm &18cm (use after quick wash). Shrinkage: length wise--- 5% Width wise----5% Spirality: Left -------- 5% Right -------- 5% Procedure: Firstly two ply of fabric is taken & put the template (50cm) on to the fabric. The template has 8 holes. Both length & width wise the template holes can measure 35cm at 3 places. Then 8 holes are marked by permanent marker & also at the edges of the template. The fabric is sewn & it is given to the washing m/c for run at 60°C for 60minutes with water. After that the sample is dried & then fabric is measured. Calculation:  Shrinkage Test: Lengthwise:After wash – Before wash = ----------------------------------×100 Before wash
    • Width wise: After wash – Before wash = ----------------------------------×100 Before wash  Spirality test: = M)&HforthLength(wid 2 sideRightsideLeft  × 100 % Dyestuff Strength test: Dyestuff strength test is very important for any textile dyeing industry. A dye comes to industry then a sample fabric is dyed first to make it a reference. When that dye is used and finished from inventory, new dye is ordered. But it is not sure the dye that reached newly, will make a fabric as much dyed as before. That is why after arriving of dye to the factory it is used to make a sample. Then this newly made sample is checked in respect of previously dyed sample. If the two samples match with each other, it is resulted that the strength is okay. But if not match then the amount to be given (less or more) is determined. Thus the strength of dyestuff is measured in this way. Remarks: The laboratory of the factory is well enough to make quality products. But more attention to laboratory is required to make it more efficient. The information’s that lacks about laboratory in this report is just the result of the unavailability of time of the depart
    • Chapter Eight: Dyeing section Cellulose: When all impurities have been removed from the natural cotton fiber, cellulose remains. Cellulose has an empirical formula of (C6H10O5) n. pure cellulose is a white substance with a specific gravity of 1.5. It burns freely in air with a luminous smokeless flame. Cellulose is insoluble in water and alkalis but dissolves in cold concentrated sulfuric acid. Like other carbohydrates, when heated with concentrated sulfuric acid it swells up, forming a mass of carbon. It is also attack by hydrochloric acid nitric acids. When hydrolyzed with dilute acids an almost theoretical yield of glucose is obtained. This indicates that cellulose is a long-chain polymer produced by linking together a large number of glucose units. Starch and glycogen are also polymers of glucose but they have no fiber forming attributes. From the foregoing it will be apparent that cellulose is a polymer of glucose, and it must contain a large number of – CH2OH and CHOH groups. The repeating unit in the cotton polymer is cellobiose, which consists of two glucose units. Cellobiose is hydrolyzed by the enzyme emulsion, which it is known, will only break down links between beta glucose molecules. cellobiose consists of two beta glucose molecules linked together at the 1:4 carbon atoms. The most important chemical grouping on the cotton polymer is the hydroxyl groups or -OH groups. These are also present as methylol groups or – CH2OH. Their polarity gives rise to hydrogen bonds between the – OH groups of adjacent cotton polymers. Van der Waal’s forces also occur but compared with the hydrogen bonds, the Vander Waal’s forces are of little significance.
    • Chemical composition of raw cotton: Component Main location Relative amount Cellulose Secondary wall 86.8 % Oil and Wax Cuticle 0.70 % Pectins Primary cell wall 1.0 % Carbohydrates Primary cell wall 0.50 % Protein Lumen 1.2 % Salts Lumen 1.0 % Water Whole 6.8 % Others 2.0 % Classes of dyes on the basis of suitability of dyeing different fibers: Sl. no Name of dyes Suitable for Fibers 01 Acid dyes Wool, silk and Nylon 02 Basic dyes Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon, Silk, Wool and Jute 03 Direct dyes Cotton, Viscose Rayon, Linen, Nylon, Wool and Silk 04 Azoic dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 05 Vat dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 06 Sulpher dyers Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 07 Reactive dyes Cotton, Viscose, Linen, Wool, Silk and Nylon. 08 Disperse dyes Polyester, Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon and Triacetate Rayon. Theory of Reactive Dyeing: Reactive dyes are colored compounds and the only class of dyes that form covalent bonds between the dye molecules and the fibers. The dye contain reactive group which react with the fiber and make covalent bond with the fibers in the alkaline condition and act as an integral part of the fiber is called reactive dye. Reactive dyes may be used for coloration of
    • cellulose and protein fibers and this is the most important class of dyes for dyeing and printing of cellulosic fiber. Structural characteristics of Reactive Dye: Characteristics structural features of reactive dyes are as follows --- D –B – R - X Where, D = Dye part B = Bridging group R = Reactive group bearing part X = Reactive group. Dyeing mechanism is completed by three stages-  Exhaustion of dye in the presence of electrolyte  Fixation of dye under alkaline condition  Wash of the unfixed dye from material surface Exhaustion:when the fabric is immersed in the dye liquor an electrolyte is added to assist the exhaustion of dye. Here NaCl is used to neutralize the negative charge formed on fabric surface & puts extra energy to penetrate dye molecules. Fixation: fixation of dye means the reaction of reactive group of dye with the terminal -OH group of fiber& thus forming strong covalent bond with fiber. Controlled by maintaining ph by adding alkali properly. Wash off:as the dyeing is completed a good wash must be applied to remove extra or unfixed dye from surface of fabric & for level dyeing it is important. Reaction with Cellulose Fiber Reactive dyes formed covalent bond with cellulosic fiber by Nuclueophilic substitution and addition reaction. The reactions are as follows ---- Substitution reaction: D – R – Cl + HO - Cell  D – R – O – Cell + HCl Addition reaction: D – F – CH2 = CH2 + HO – Cell  D – F – CH2 – CH2 – O – Cell
    • Reaction with water: The cold brand reactive dyes are highly reactive in nature. They react also with water and get hydrolyzed. The reaction is as follows ---- D – R – Cl + HOH  D – R – OH + HCl The hydrolyzed dye is also colored substances and has very low substantivity for the cellulosic fiber. So they are attached with fiber surface after dyeing. If they do not washed away from the fiber surface the fastness property of the fiber must be very low. Dyes: The molecules of the organic compounds called dyes are responsible for the color of dyed and printed lest tile fabric materials. Dye molecules are colored became they are selectively able to absorbed and reflect incident light. Dyes molecules contain at least one of each of the radicals called chromophores and auxochromes. Pretreatment: Pretreatment is the preparation period of fabric fro dyeing. For getting proper fastness of fabric and proper dyeing pretreatment is a mandatory process. Demineralization: It is a process of removing mineral materials from the water. It is done in water treatment plant. Water from natural sources contains many mineral materials which may hamper the dyeing process. If the mineral materials are present in water then it may lead to uneven shade in dyeing. Besides it may also damage the fabric and the machine. Scorning:The process to remove fats, oil, waxy substances and added the impurities by certain percentage of alkali treatment and which increase the absorbing power of the textile units, is called scouring. Bleaching:The process by which the natural color of a fiber can be removed and make the textile this pure white and bright is called Bleaching. Wetting agent:The chemical which is used for quickly moisten or watering the textile units is called wetting agent.
    • Detergent:Detergent are nothing but a chemical which is used for clearing the textile units or to remove fats, oil and wash. It is know as surface active agent. Labeling agent:The chemical which are used for dyeing just to give level shade or even dyeing is called leveling agent. Enzyme: It is one kind of biocatalyst. It is based on problem. It is soluble in water but insoluble in acid and alkali. Salt:Act ad erectility, helps to exhaust dye molecules to the fiber. Exhaust:The absorption of dye moleules from the dye liquor by the fibers being dyed. Electrolyte:A compound which is aqueous solution or in the mother state, inducts an electric current and is simultaneously decomposed by it into inns compounds which dissociate into inns and /or radicals in aqueous solution. Hydrolysis:The chemical decomposition of a substance by the action of water, the water itself being also decomposed. Acids and alkalis often catalyses hydrolysis. The destructive effect of hydrolysis upon fiber polymers will then also result in the rupture of inter- polymer forces of attraction. Hydrophilic:Having a strong affinity for water, or moisture absorbent Hydrophobic:Having an aversion to water, non-absorbent or water repellent. Components:Upon which dyeing Process Depends: (1) Sulostrate (2) PH (3) Dyeing Assistant (4) Temperature
    • Dyeing AssistanceThese are added in dyeing bath for which dyeing affinity is increased is called dyeing asst. (1) Electrolyte (2) Leveling agent (3) Carriers (4) Solvents Factors to be considered for dye & dyeing process selection: (1) Hue (2) Shade (3) Brightness (4) Cost Topping:The application of further colorant not necessarily of the same hue/class to a dyed substance in order to adjust the lather to the denied final color is called topping. Dyeing Process: Process flow chart for 100% Cotton (White Color): Fabric loading  Demineralization (Wetting /Detergent +Antricreasing+Deminaralizing agent) [Dosing time  5min temp 400 C ]  Temp raised at 550 C 20 min  Draining (10-min)  Deteront /wetting agent +Andricreasing agent + Caustic [Dosing time  20 min temp-500 Cmin (Run time]  Temp raised 700 C
    • H2O2(50%) added [700 Cmin]  Temp raised at 980 C60 min  M/C Cooled (temp drop 800 C  Brightening agent added [Dosing time  30 min 800 C min]  Temp raised 980 C  Sample check  Drain wash  normal hot wash  PH control at 4.5 (acetic acid leveling agent)  enzyme wash (550 C60 min)  Temp raised 800 10 min [enzyme killing]  after treatment with acid, leveling agent and softener  unload Note: (1) Enzyme wash happened after brightener for minimizing time. (2) The required temp for enzyme wash in 550 - 600 C. At high temp (800 -820 C) the enzyme destroyed or can ................ during the enzyme wash PH must be 4.5 cause in alkaline condition enzyme wash can not get well. (3) At high temperature caustic must be not use, otherwise create hates on fabric surface. (4) Demineralization have done for remove water hardness and also remove grey fabric hardness. (5) Draining have not done directly at 800 C to protect crease mark.
    • Process flow chart for100% Cotton (Black Color): Fabric loading  Demineralization (600 C10) (cracking agent +Diminaralizing agent)  Temp raised 980 C 20min M/C cooled at 800 C  Drain wash/ Rising 5min  Added acetic acid for PH control at 4.5  Enzyme wash EnzymeDosing time 10 min temp550 C  Run( 10 min)  PH Ckeck (6.9-7) Leveling with No bleach N (Dosing  600 C  10 min)  Salt dosing (dosing time 30 min 600 C  5 min  color dosing (with no. bleach N) , Dosing time 30 min 600 C 10 min  Caustic added (PH= 10.5) (Dosing time -30 min 600 C 10 min )  Color steam (600 C60 min)  Sample check  Drain wash, 60 min  Acetic acid, PH -4.5 300 C 20 min  Normal wash  Ultram 350 (900 C20 min) (Unfixed dye remove)  Disusing 20 min  Softener (Dosing time= 10 min 400 C 20 min)  Unload the fabric
    • Note:- (1) This dyeing process for any deep color such as Navy, Red etc. (2) Black or any deep color dyeing there is no need scouring & bleaching. (3) No bleach N or leveling agent mixed with dyes for better dye figure or get best solution of dye figure and happened dye mixing tem not in dye bath. (4) It the caustic is not use in this process them the common salt and soda ratio will be 80/20 where 20 means amount of soda. Process flow chart S/J Lycra (Cotton 65%+Polyester 35%) For Blue Color: Fabric load  Demineralization (Liqonr1:8{500 C1D}  Caustic {Dosing time = 1D min} 500C 10 min  Temp raised 700 C  H2O2 (500 %) added {d,T= 1D min 700 C 10 min  Temp raised 980 C10min  Dye bath cool, 800 C  Sample check  Drain wash  Hot rinsing
    •  Acid, added, PH- 4.5  Enzyme wash  {dosing 550 ×10min}  Temp raised 800 C10 min ,ThenDraining  Butter solution added {600 C10 min} (PH Check at 4.5)  Dispersing /leveling agent with sequestering. (600 C10 min)  Temp raised 800 Cmin  20 grace (20 c/ min) temp raised at 1300 C 40 min  20 grade temp drop at 800 C check  Drainin, 30 min  Normal wash with only water (800 C 10 min)Added acetic acid 1%  Cotton dyeing(Previous Dyeing Process)  Unload Note:- (1) Polyester fiber or fabric can be dyeing with disperse dye and applied at hight temperature is, 1300 -1400 C. (2) Disperse dyes have as conic groups and are insoluble in water. (3) With the help of a dispersing agent dyes can be dispersed in the dye bath. (4) Reduction clearing is done in case of medium and deep shade only to improve the wash fastness. (5) This high temperature process in non loxic and hygienic process.
    • (6) At high temp like 1300 C acid getting weaker so for getting PH 4.5 Butter solution is used in polyester dyeing process and it is strong acidic along with dispersing agent. Some special note:- (1) Polyester is a man made, synthetic polyester, polyester filament or staple fiber . The most common polyester apparel filament or fiber is usually composed of polyester lerephthalate polyester. Process Flow chart for Torques combination (100% Cotton): Fabric loading  Demineralization {Dosing time= 15 min 400 C5min}  Temp raised at 500 C 20 then Draining  Detergent {Dosing time= 5 min 500 C5} +multifunction agent (Nobleach N) SDT=5 500 C5  Caustic { Dosing time= 15min 500 C5 min  Temp raised at 700 C  Added H2O2 (50%) { Dosing time= 10 min 700 C5}  Temp raised at 980 Cmin  Sample check
    •  Draining & wash (cold wash)  cat (800 C 20 min) (H2O2 Killer) Draining wash  Acetic acid {Dosing time 400 C 5 min}  enzyme wash {550C 60min}  Run 600 ×20min  after PH Check added leveling agent (anticilConz +Sarabid MIP) {Dosing time=10} 600 C10}  Color dosing {Dosing time = 30min 600 C10 min  Temp raised at 750 C 20 grade  Salt added {Dosing time 20 min 750 C10 min}  Temp dropped at 600 C  Sample check  Soda ash added {Dosing time= 30 min 600 C10  Color steam {600 C40min} (Shade check)  Temp raised at 800 C 20 min  Drain wash  Hot wash (Ultraw 350/RBR)  Unload fabric
    • Process flow chart for R(SPL) 100% Cotton :- Fabric load  Wetting agent multi function agent (500C 15)  Caustic +H2O2{D.T= 10 500C} (bleaching) (Sousing)  Tem raised 980C60  Drain wash  normal hot 90C 20  Naturalization  Acetic acid (90C 20)  Drain wash  Check PH- 6.8  Leveling with (Dosing time=- 10 330C10  Enzyme dosing (330C10)  Salt added {D,T =30 (330C10) }  Dyes dosing {D,T =30 (330C10) }  Soda added {1st step 20% 2nd step 80% }(D,T=10 min) (R.J =5 min)  Temp raised 550C5  color steam 550C30 min  Drain Wash  Soaping 1%  (800C20medium shade 90020dark shade steam 10  Neutralization for 20 min with acetic acid
    •  Drain wahs  0.5% Ck for Hot wash (600C 20 Medium shade 80010 dark shade) steam 10  Drain wash  Check PH, 5.2  Softening with CWS {D,T =10 400C 20}  Unload Dyeing faults Causes and Remedies: Uneven dyeing: Causes:  Uneven Pretreatment  Improper addition of color  Improper addition of chemical  Using dyes of high fixation properties  Less control of dyeing machine  Less circulation time Remedies:  By ensuring even pretreatment  By proper addition of color and chemicals  Correct circulation time  By controlling the dyeing machine properly
    • Batch to batch Shade variation Causes:  Using improper dyes and chemicals  Incorrect pretreatment procedure  Batch to batch weight variation of fabric  Batch to batch chemicals and dyes variation (lot variation)  Improper dosing of dyes and chemicals Remedies:  By using standard dyes and chemicals  By correcting the pretreatment procedure  By maintaining batch to batch weight variation  By avoiding lot mixing of dyes and chemicals  By correcting the dosing time of dyes and chemicals  By following different dyeing parameter. Dark colored spots: Causes:  Dyestuff precipitation during dyeing  Incompatibility of dyestuff used for producing combined shade  Too high dyestuff concentration in the dye bath  Precipitation of unabsorbed dyestuff during after treatment Remedies:  By ensuring proper dyeing condition  By selecting proper dyestuff  By checking the solubility limit of the dyestuff before dyeing  By ensuring proper after treatment
    • Patchy dyeing: Causes:  Due to hardness of water  Due to faulty color addition  Due to faulty injection of alkali  Due to improper salt addition  Due to improper PH of solution Remedies:  By using proper sequestering agent  By correcting the color addition  By correcting the salt addition  By proper injection of alkali  By maintaining the PH level of the solution Crease mark: Causes:  Poor opening of the fabric rope  Due to high speed of machine running  Unequal pump pressure and reel speed Remedies:  By maintaining proper pump pressure and reel speed.  By controlling the speed of the machine.  Correct opening of the fabric rope. Roll to roll variation: Causes:  Poor migration property of dye.  Hardness of water.  Improper dyes solubility.  Faulty machine speed. Remedies:
    •  Use standard dyes and chemicals  Proper machine speed.  Using soft waste. Remarks The dyeing process of Cotton Club (BD) ltd. is very much satisfactory. Cotton Club only cares for quality. It is heard from the management of the company, after establishing the factory till now, a single order is not cancelled. That’s why it is sure that the company is well enough to produce quality fabric. Chapter Nine: Finishing section Introduction of Finishing: Textile finishing involves treating a textile material in such a way that the product has the desired properties required for its intended useand therefore has great market value. The desired properties may include the fabric dimensions and their stability, its weight, drape, appearance, softness and handle, as well as any required functional properties such as
    • resistance to creasing, flame, water, oil, dirt or bacteria. Textile finishing is therefore an extremely diverse field involving an extensive range of chemicals. The degree of permanency of a particular finish for a fabric depends on its intended use. The chemicals used may weigh the fabric to make it easy to slide and handle, or allow smooth penetration of a sewing needle to minimize needle breakage. Anyone involved in textile coloration must be aware of the influence of preparation process on the dyeing behavior of the fabrics as well as the finishing chemicals on the final color of the goods and on their color fastness properties. Without this knowledge, nobody can ensure the ultimate color and its fastness properties .The techniques of finishing depend on the following:  Nature of the fabric,  i.e. chemical composition, state, weave etc. this determines the appearance,  i.e. transparency, luster, fullness, weight, whiteness etc. After dyeing, knit fabric is required to finish. During dyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer's requirement knit fabric are finished in Open form or tubular form. The tubular and open finishing sequences of Fakir KnitwearsLTD .Bangladesh Ltd are given bellow
    • Flow Chart of finishing for tube fabric: Dyed Fabric Hydro extractor Tube Squeezer Tube Compactor Final Inspection Delivery to Garments Tube Dryer
    • Flow Chart of finishing for Open Width fabric: Dyed Fabric Open Squeezer Stenter Tumble dryer Ultra-soft Compactor Final Inspection Delivery to Garments Objective of finishing:  Improving the appearance — Luster, whiteness, etc  Improving the feel,this depends on the handle of the material and its softness, suppleness, fullness, etc.  Wearing qualities, none — soiling, anticrease, antishrink, comfort, etc.  Special properties required for particular uses — water — proofing,flame proofing, etc.  Covering of the faults in the original cloth.  Increasing the weight of the cloth.
    • Types of finishing: 1) Chemical finishing: 2) Mechanical finishing: Finishing effects:  Easy - care  Crease recovery.  Dimensional stability.  Good abrasion resistance.  Improved tear strength.  Good sew ability  Soft or stiff handle.  Shine or luster Observation of Different Finishing M/C: Squeezer or De-Watering M/C After dyeing process from the dyeing machine then the fabrics arc ready for dc-watering. This is the process to remove the water from the fabric partially by squeezing. This is the main function of the squeezing machine. But here also control the some important factor of the fabric quality.
    • Squeezer:- Turntable (Basket)  Detwister  Ring Guide Speeder  Feed R/R  Dancing R/r  Water Pander  Ballon former  Extracting Squeezer  Dancin roller  Softener padder  Ballon Former  Padding squeezer  Main squeezer  Conveyors Blanket  Paliter  Delivery basket Important parts • Twist detector • Expander • Padder
    • The basic function of the squeezing m/c:  To remove the water from the fabric.  To control the width of the fabric.  To control the length of the fabric.  To control the spirality of the fabric.  To control the over feeding system.  To increase the softness of the fabric.  To remove the crease mark of the fabric. Controlling points: • Diameter setting must be accurate. • Excess padder pressure may cause fabric damage. Padder pressure depends on fabric construction. • Speed must be optimum. • Higher the fabric speed leads less removal of water. • Overfeed. Dryer Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion is evaporated from the fabric. Important Parts: o Conveyor net o Chamber o Burner o Exhaust air fan o Over feed roller o Filter net o Fan o Nozzle The basic function of the dryer: To dry the fabric.
    • To control the over feed system (Shrinkage control) To control the GSM of the fabric. Controlling Points o Overfeed (%): It depends on fabric structure o Temperature: It depends on color. o Speed: It depends on fabric construction and color. For higher GSM lower the speed. Compactor:- Basket  Spindle R/r  Centering R/r  Under feed R/r  Over feed R/r  Tension control R/r  Bowing Control R/r  Brush R/r  Endless Clip /Pin  Steam box  Heated Conveyor Blanket  Coaling Fan  Take-Up-r/r  Plaiter
    •  Delivering Basket TUBE COMPACTOR Important parts  Overfeed roller  Expander  Blanket  Steam sprayers  Cylinder  Teflon covers The basic functions of the Tube compactor machine • To control the GSM. (Increase&decrease). • To control the dia. • To control the shrinkage. (Increase&decrease). Controlling Points a. Temperature : It depends on construction and composition &color of the fabric. b. Speed : It depends on temperature and fabric construction. c. Blanket Pressure: Fabric smoothness depends on blanket pressure. d. Over feed : Over feed should be optimum. It increases GSM but higher over feed leads to the formation of crease mark.
    • Observation of tube compacter setting for different fabric Fabric parameter Single jersey 1 x 1 Rib Collar, Cuff Compector 30 30 N/A Overfeed 5 12 N/A Padder pressure 30 bar 30 bar 18 bar Speed 18 m/min 18 m/ min 15 m/min Temperature 100o C 100o C 100o C OPEN COMPACTOR Important parts • Over-feed roller • Blanket • Steam sprayers • Cylinder • Tell on covers
    • The basic functions of the Open compactor machine • To control the GSM. (Increase& decrease). • To control the dia. • To control the shrinkage. (Increase& decrease). Controlling Points a.Temperature :It depends on construction and composition & color of the fabric. b. Speed : It depends on temperature and fabric construction. c. Blanket Pressure : Fabric smoothness depends on blanket pressure. d. Over feed :Over feed should be optimum. It increases GSM but higher over feed leads to the formation of crease mark. Observation ofopen compactor setting for different fabric : Fabric parameter Single jersey CVC S/J L – Rib P.K. F/T Required Dia 88’’ 92” 80” 104” 80” Actual Dia 90” 94” 84” 108” 84” Finished Dia 89” 93” 82” 106” 82” Required GSM 160 180 240 200 240 Actual GSM 150 170 210 190 230 Finished GSM 155 175 220 200 240
    • Overfeed 12 12 10 12 10 Temperature 80o C 80o C 80o C 80o C 80o C Slitting Machine Slitter: Basket (M/C)  J. Box (Padder)  Retested  SlitteringRevice (Shape &Knife)  Spindle R/r  Cantering R/r  Spindle R/r  Squeezer  Take-up-roller  Pleiter 
    • Delivery Basket Important parts • Twist detector • Cutting knife/device • Padder Main Function of Slitting m/c  To open the tube forms of fabric  To squeeze the fabric and remove the extra water in the fabric. Controlling Points • Pressure: The padder pressure should be according to requirement. • Speed-The speed should be optimum (30-80 m/min)
    • Stenter Machine Stenter:- Basket  Spindle R/r  Centering R/r  Spindle R/r  Water Padder  Squeezer (1) (4 PS1)  Dancing R/r  Spindle R/r SofternerPadder  Squeezer-2 (3PSI)  Dancing R/r  Bowing control R/r  Under feed R/r  Over feed R/r  Brush wheel  Endless Pin Chain  Steam BOx  Burner Chemicals  Cooling Fan 
    • Take-up R/r  Planter  Delivering Basket  () Heat flow of Burner Gas fire  Blower fan  Nuzzle  Fabric Important parts  Burner  Exhaust air fan (4 )  Suction fan (8 )  Overfeed roller  Nozzle  Chain arrangement The basic functions of the stenter machine  To control width.  To control GSM.  To control shrinkage.  To control spirality.  Drying of fabric.  To remove edge curl of the fabric  To remove the crease mark of the fabric  To remove the hardness of the fabric
    •  To increase the better shade properties  To give belter finishing result of the fabric Controlling Points a. Temperature : It depends on color construction and composition of the fabric. For S/J the temp is 150°C and 170°C for stripe fabrics. b. Over feed : Over feed increases the GSM of the fabric. c. Width setting : Higher width setting reduces the GSM. d. Speed :It depends on construction and amount of moisture on the fabric. Observation of stenter setting for different fabric Fabric Inspection : Fabric parameter Single jersey L – Rib P.K. F/T Required Dia 88’’ 80” 54” 80” Actual Dia 90.5” 88” 67” 84” Required GSM 160 240 210 240 Actual GSM 148 218 185 232 Temperature 170o C 170o C 170o C 170o C Overfeed 60% 45% 60% 40% Machine speed 20 18 18 16 Dia setting 2310 mm 2400 mm 1720 mm 2150 mm
    • The finished fabric may have different kinds of faults. This may occur during Knitting, dyeing or finishing. If the fabric delivered then the quality of the fabric may not be good and the buyer will reject the finished garments. For this reason careful inspection of this finished fabric is so important. In finished fabric the following faults are generally found: Fabric inspection report: Here, 4- point system is used for inspecting goods. Spining knitting and processing faults are inspected and enlisted here, commons fauls that are found here are yarn, cont............... slub, neps hole, needle mark, niuker mark lyera miss/out, oil stain , crease mark, softener mark, color spot mark, Bowing mark etc. () 4 Point system: Fault size –––––––––––– Points 0-3––––––––––––––––– 1 >3 -6–––––––––––––––2 >6 -9–––––––––––––––3 >9–––––––––––––––––––4 Hole –––––––––––––––––4 Acceptance Up to 40 Points =A 41-60 Points =B 61-80 Points =C 80 above = Rejected Calculation: Roll length (YD) = Kg/ Roll 155036 PTS/100 lender YDS=
    • 100 36 )( int  widthactual ydlengthRoll sPoTotal Here, PTS= Total fault (%). Shrinkage test report This report is prepared according to buyer name order no. It can be done both for finished fabric /T-shirts. Amount of shrinkage is expressed both in percentage (%) and in can. Dyeing finishing Quality Report This report contain information about roll no, M/C dia Required dia, Finished dia, Finished GSM, Shrinkage (Length &widith wise) etc. GSM Board GSM of finished fabrics from different rolls of a Batch is around here with sample. GSM of 50% acceptable from required.
    • Chapter Ten: Quality Assurance System Quality Assurance System The quality assurance department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material; in process and various stages of its manufacturing. The focus of the quality policy of Fakir Knitwear Ltd has been to provide products at a price and service advantage through direct response mechanism. In order to sustain the investments in the key technology area concerning our business, Fakir Knitwear have made significant investment testing and quality assurance equipment from the best in the world in each of our production bases and also ensured a Company-wide standardization discipline through implementation of OEKO-TEX & ISO 9001:2000. These are reinforced periodically through personal interactions between their filed representatives and consumer of their products. Fakir Knitwear Ltd advance management team along with well-trained Quality Assurance team ensures the best quality of products to meet the international standard.
    • The quality team follows some standardized international rules which are as follows: Fabric Inspection : 4 Points system (for Dyeing) Sewing In process : Traffic light system Factory Garment Quality AQL : 2.5 AQL Line in Process : 7 Pcs system Needle detection report : 9 point system Quality check station point Light : 1000 Lucks Moreover the quality team creates various types of report for maintaining the best quality. They always create GSM check report, Light box system report. The process of the quality teams are:  Pattern test  Trial Inspection  In line Process  Pre-final process  Final Process Fakir Knitwears Ltd is the only factory in Bangladesh that got the nomination from the world renowned buyer H&M’s skip process. The In house quality team maintains the quality and inspection of the H&M’s product and finishes the final inspection. They have also a GPQ team to ensure the work process of quality team. This is for why they always maintaining the best quality for their friend’s (buyers) products. Quality Control: Quality control is concerned with the evaluation of test data and its application to control of the textile process, raw materials, intermediate products and final products. It is concerned not only with quality level and cost of maintaining this quality level but also concerned with the presentation of tangible values to measure quality and changes in quality. In order to control quality one must know about the consumers expectations.
    • Quality assurance: Quality assurance is defined as all those possible planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence than a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing Quality Control Flow Chart: Yarn receiving Sample Knitting Batching Dyeing (Check shade & Faults of dyeing) Dewatering & Untwisting Drying (Check diameter, Pretreatment, Shrinkage Spirality and GSM) Compacting Final inspection If sample OK go for bulk production
    • Quality Management system: Quality assurance procedure may be provided by the following two major parts- Online quality control: Online quality control comprises with the raw material control, process control & finish fabric inspection. Raw material control: As the quality product depends upon the raw material quality, quality assurance department must ensure that the best qualities of raw material (with economical consideration) are used in production.  The Yarn should be with a known concentration and high degree of purity.  The yarn & Lycra should be compatible with each other.  The fabric must be with out faults, with proper absorbency, whiteness as per requirement of the subsequent process. Process control:  The method chosen for process must be provided with necessary parameters.  During knitting, samples are taken and G.S.M checks with the reference samples.  If not properly reset the machine parameter.  Sample is collected after fixation & matched.  During finishing, temperature, speed, padder pressure, overfeed should be controlled as per requirement.  GSM, width, spirality, shrinkage (both length & width) should be maintaining as per buyer requirement. Quality Control On-Line Off-Line
    • Finish fabric inspection: Purpose: To ensure that only an acceptable quality fabric is used for producing garments and proper quantity of shipment is received from the supplier. Scope: All produced and incoming fabrics of Fakir Knitwears Ltd. Procedure:  Store in charge will check the received fabric with the reported length, color and type of fabric with the stated shipment document quantity and the actual order quantity.  The finding will be recorded in inventory report and discrepancy regarding fabric type, color and length will be notified to the Factory Manager/Manager (Dyeing & Finishing).  For in-house products quality control officer will guide all over inspection. 1. Body & rib inspection: All rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time as require. The fabric are spread over the milky white acrylic inspection board ensures high transparency and even reflection of light. Then by the inspection machine fabrics are inspected visually at a standard speed against light. For any major or minor faults like thick-thin, barre mark, fall out, contamination, fly, holes, oil lines, needle line, slubsetc are recorded in inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four points system. 2. Collar & cuff inspection: Collar & cuff are inspected visually under the light box. For any major or minor fault in collar/cuff like having wrong ply, hole, needle line, slubs, wrong design, first round problem etc are properly counted and recorded. Quality inspector (fabric) shall check 100% of receive fabric for quality. He will identify any defect, hole or stain in the fabric and make calculation given bellow-
    • Scope of Quality control and testing: The scope of quality control testing in FKL is little good. It has the following ability for quality control & testing, - Fabric inspection by 4-point system. - GSM & Shrinkage test. - Wash fastness test. - Rubbing fastness test. - Color difference check by data base. - PH test. - Pilling and snagging test. Defects found in the final inspection: Oil mark/Spot Crease mark Shade dull/bright Color spot Shrinkage Stripe Bowing/Skewing Uneven shade Running shadeSticky mark Blake tripe problem Softener spot Shade not OK (Occurred by buyer’s representative) Roll to rllo shade variation On-Line Tests: For Pretreatment For dyeing  PH test Shade matching check  Absorbency test PH check  Fabric width measure Wash fastness Check  Whiteness test Machine checking  Water quality test
    • Off- line Quality Control: FKL have all the facility for off-line quality control of the materials used and processed materials. There are two types of materials are tested in GKL laboratory for the purpose of quality control. This are – A. Fabric testing. B. Raw materials testing. A. Fabric testing: All the Off-line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows: 1. Physical Tests. 2. Chemical Tests. Physical tests:  Fabric inspection by 4-point system.  G.S.M test.  Width of the fabric measure.  Rubbing test.  Pilling and Snagging test.  Shrinkage test  Twisting test Chemical tests:  Color fastness to water.  Color fastness to wash.  Color fastness to perspiration.  Oxidative test damage.  Saliva test. B. Raw material testing:  Yarn count test.  Yarn strength test.  Yarn TPI test.  Lycra count test.
    • List of Equipments: Sl. No. Machine Name Model No. Serial No. Manufacturer Built Year Origin 01 Auto Pill C 1401 145331 Mec Engineers Ltd. 2005 India 02 PH meter 6173 PH JC 00385 Jenco Japan 03 Sample Knitting Machine STN 5 E 290 GeengTyan Enterprise Co. Ltd. 1993 Taiwan 04 Auto Burst 28 C 0601 145340 MecEngineers Ltd. 2005 India 05 Mec Sun Fast C 1399 145329 Mec Engineers Ltd. 2005 India 06 Unistrength 250 C 1450 14939 Mec Engineers Ltd. 2005 India 07 Crock meter James H. Heal & Co. Ltd. England 08 Count Teste AEN 1433 OricineBrustio Ltd. 2005 Italy 09 Sample Dryer DO-452 Precision Oven Ltd. 10 Digioven C1301 145324 Mec Engineers Ltd. 2005 India 11 Washcator FOM 71CLS Electrolux 12 Unistretch C 1451 14940 Mec Engineers Ltd. 2005 India
    • Color Fastness:- The resistance of a material to change in any of its color characteristics, to transfer its colorant to adjacent material or both as a result of exposure of the material to any environment that might be encountered during the processing, testing , storage or use of the material. Color fastness types: – Wash fastness to hot water as per ISO method – Wash fastness to cool water as per ISO method – Rubbing fastness (dry & wet) – Light fastness – Perspiration fastness – Dry cleaning fastness – Chlorinated or sea water fastness Factors affecting color fastness: – Dye size or molecular structure of a dye – Types of bonding (i.e., ionic , co-valent, H-bond etc.) – Amount of dye present in fibre – Chemical nature of fibre or compatibility of dye with fibre – Presence of other chemicals like binder – The actual condition prevailing during exposure and after treatment Reasons of color loss: – Due to decomposition of dye molecules – Due to removal of external media – Due to reaction of dye molecules with acid, alkali, or perspiration – Due to friction with other surface
    • Color fastness and other test result: Different types of fastness standard are given below: Sl. No. Name of the fastness Methods ISO AATCC 01 Color fastness to washing 105 CO1-C06 61 02 Color fastness to light 105 BO2 16 E 03 Color fastness to perspiration 105 EO4 15 04 Color fastness to rubbing 105 * 12 8 05 Color fastness to hot pressing 105 * 11 133 06 Color fastness to cool water 105 EO1 107 07 Color fastness to sea water 105 EO2 106 08 Color fastness to chlorinated water 105 EO3 105 09 Color fastness to dry cleaning 105 DO1 132 Measurement direction: Buyer Name Direction H & M Width Wise Other buyers (Tema, Pennyes, Primark) Length Wise Fig: Bursting Strength Tester Fig: Pilling Resistance Tester
    • Rubbing fastness (ISO 105 X12): Sample size : 20cm×5cm Crock fabric : 5cm×5cm No. of rotation : 10 Time : 10 sec Load : 9N±5% Assessment: Grey scale value for staining Rating Remark 5 Excellent 4-5 Good 4 Good 3-4 Average 3 Average 2-3 Average 2 Poor 1 Very poor Washing fastness (ISO 105 CO1-CO6): Sample size : 10cm×4cm Adjacent fabric : 5cm×4cm Temperature : 40C Time : 45 min
    • Assessment: Grey scale value for change value & staining Rating Remark 5 Excellent 4-5 Good 4 Good 3-4 Average 3 Average 2-3 Average 2 Poor 1 Very poor Dimensional stability: Sample size : 10cm×10cm Temperature : 45C Time : 30 min Accepted range of shrinkage/extension is ±5% Grey scale for assessing change in shade: EN ISO 105-A03 / IUF 132 / VESLIC C 1211 This Grey Scale is for assessing the degree of change in shade caused to a dyed Textile fabric / yarn in color fastness tests. For example, the change of shade of wool and cotton fabrics in the wash fastness, perspiration fastness etc. The scale consists of nine pairs of gray color chips each representing a visual difference and contrast.
    • The fastness rating goes step-wise from: Note 5 = no visual change (best rating) to Note 1 = a large visual change (worst rating). The gray scale has the 9 possible values: 5, 4-5, 4, 3-4, 3, 2-3, 2, 1-2, 1. It is now quite common to measure the Grey Scale change in color instrumentally. This is made using a suitable reflectance spectrophotometer according to the test method procedure, EN ISO 105-A05.
    • Grey scale for assessing staining: EN ISO 105-A03 / IUF 132 / VESLIC C 1211 This Grey Scale is for assessing the degree of staining caused by a dyed Textile / yarn in color fastness tests. For example, the staining of wool and cotton fabrics in the wash fastness, perspiration fastness, etc. The scale consists of nine pairs of gray color chips each representing a visual difference and contrast. The fastness rating goes step-wise from: Note 5 = no visual change (best rating) to Note 1 = a large visual change (worst rating). The grey scale has the 9 possible values: 5, 4-5, 4, 3-4, 3, 2-3, 2, 1-2, 1.
    • It is now quite common to measure the Grey Scale for assessing staining instrumentally. This is made using a suitable reflectance spectrophotometer according to the test method procedure, EN ISO 105-A04. Chapter Eleven Garment Section Sample Section Responsibilities:  Overall management of developing appropriate sample garments as per buyer's requirement.  Conduct Fit & Pattern evaluation.  Make basic block pattern.  Ensure production as per planning and also ensure target of production with standard of quality.  Coordinate merchandising team, procurement team, garments manufacturing team for smooth production.  Ensure effective workforce management of the sample division for smooth operation of the factory.  Coordinating all fabric + trims which are required for sampling purpose Coordinating print, embroidery, wash for sampling. Checking all the technical aspects of samples before releasing to customer.  Checking all the aesthetic aspects of samples before releasing to customer Checking the quantity requirement of each sample. Checking the necessary paper work of reach sample.  Follow up the buyer reg. each sample comments.
    • Usages Machineries: In the sample making section they use all types of machines as in Garments section. These arc Set squares for making basic block. Mack Km cutting machine – Speed- 3000-3600 – Volts-220 V – Current- 3.3/2.6 amp - Cycle-50/60 Sewing machine 1 -Needle Lockstitch (auto thread trimmer) 1-Needle Chain. Stitch, Flatbed 2-Necdle Lockstitch 2-Nccdlc Chain Stitch, Flatbed 4-Thread Over Lock -Bartack Machine (Computerized) -Button Hole Machine -Button Sewing Machine -Blind Stitch (Over lock) etc.  Steam ironing
    • Machine Brand: 1. BROTHER (Japan) 2. Pl-GASUS (Japan) They make three types of sample. Such as 1.Quotation sample: At first they make a sample of medium size as per buyer requirements is called quotation sample. If the sample is not ok they make another sample called revised quotation sample. 2.Size set sample: If the quotation sample is ok then they make the samples of all size which are call size set sample. If it is not ok the make revised size set sample. 3.Production sample: Finally they make the sample for production called production sample
    • Working procedure: The working procedure of sample making department is as follows At first they collect the measurement chart from merchandizing dept.  Make basic block pattern by hand or by CAD (middle size only)  Cut the fabric according to the pattern (for 2-3 sample)  Then the dept. Head or coordinator provide the cutting sample to the sewing operator and provide the measurement sheet by buyer.  Sew a sample according to buyer requirements  Inspect the sample after finishing.  The sample is then provided to merchandizing dept.  If it is ok they are called to make size set sample or if it is not ok they have to make revised quotation sample  They make grading pattern by the CAD department  Make sample of all size as the same procedure and provide to merchandizing department. If it is ok they make production samples or not they have to make revised size set samples.
    • CAD (Computer Aided Design) Section Responsibilities: • Make basic pallern and production pattern. • Make more efficient marker identifying each part of the Garments, • Coordinate merchandising team, procurement team, sample section, garments manufacturing team for smooth production. • Make fabric consumption with allowance %, shrinkage% and total process loss %. • Identify fabric diameter for each si/e of Garments. • Make easy the fabric cutting. Usage equipments: 1. Misfires software for pattern making. 2. Dimarien software for marker making. 3. Lectra printer for marker print.
    • Working procedure: MARCHANDISING Art work Spread sheet from Merchandiser  Making Pattern sewing. Allowance as per Spread Sheet+ Art Work for a large size sample  Make an efficient marker As per Color Art Work  Calculate required fabric consumption with shrinkage% and process loss%  Marker Delivery to Concern Merchandiser for approval with consumption and fabric diameter Received buyer approval Master Pattern '%  Completion of Grading as per spread sheet sample  Grading pattern with marker send to cutting section for Trial cat / Size set  Pattern update after getting Report as per color wise  Delivery to cutting production
    • Considerable factor: 1.Sewing allowance • All 95/5% cotton single jersey fabric 3cm for body length & 2cm for biceps two side. • All 100% cotton single jersey fabric 3cm for body length & 2cm for biceps two side. 2.Shrinkage percentage • All 95/5% cotton single jersey 5%x3°c shrinkage is added. • All 95/5% cotton rib fabric 3% 2% shrinkage is added. • All 100% cotton single jersey 3%X 2% shrinkage is added. • All 100% cotton rib no shrinkage is added. • All lycra fabrics 5% shrinkage is added. 3.Process loss For making actual fabric consumption the CAD section consider following process losses. 1. Temaconsumption lorall type of fabrics with bio finish Actual Consumpt ion Color Cut fabrics losses Cut panel losses Sewing losses Print/Em b losses Process losses Total losses White 3% 2% 3% 1+1% 12% 22% Light color 3% 2% 3% 1+1% 12% 22% Medium color 3% 2% 3% 1+1% 10 20% Dark color 3% 2% 3% 1+1% 8% 1 8% Black 3% 2% 3% 1+1% 6% 16% Grey mel. 3% 2% 3% 1+1% 5% 15%
    • II. H&M consumption for all type of fabrics with bio finish Actual Consumpti on Color Cut fabrics losses Son in« losses Print/Em b losses Process losses Total losses While 3% 3% 1+1% 12% 25% Light color 3% 3% 1+1% 12% 20% Medium color 3% 3% 1+1% 10% 28% Dark color 3% 3% 1+1% 8% 16% Black 3% 3% 1+1% 6% 14% Grey mel. 3% 3% 1+1% 5% 13% III Wash Garments consumption for all Buyer Actual Consiim ption Color Cut fabrics losses Cut panel losses Sewing losses Print/Em b Josses Process losses Total losses White 3% 2% 6% 1+1% 12% 25% .Light color 3% 2% 6% 1+1% 12% 25% Medium color 3% 2% 6% 1+1% 10% 23% Dark color 3% 2% 6% 1+1% 8% 21% Black 3% 2% 6% 1+1% 6% 19% Grey mel. 3% 2% 6% 1+1% 5% 18%
    • IV. Other buyer consumption for all type of fabrics without bio finish Actual Consump tion Color Cut fabrics losses S cuing losses Print/Em b losses Process losses Total losses White 3% 3% 1+1% 10% 18% Light color 3% 3% 1+1% 10% 18% Medium color 3% 3% 1+1% 8% 16% Dark color 3% 3% 1+1% 6% 14% Black 3% 3% 1+1% 4% 12% Grey mel. 3% 3% 1+1% 3% 11% V. H& M and Tema consumption for all type of yarn dyed fabrics with bio finish. Actual ption Color Cut fabrics losses Sewing losses Print/Em b losses Process losses Total losses Average color 6% 3% 1+1% 6% 17%
    • VI. Pigment dyed Garments consumption for all buyer Actual Consum Ption Color Cut fabrics losses Cut panel losses Sewing losses Print/Em h losses Process losses Total losses Average color 3% 2% 12% 1+1% 6% 25% Formula: Fabric consumption in Kg markettheingarmentsofmember markettheofareaTotlal no. of required garments X process loss% x Fabric GSM Fabric Diameter Marker diameter side space (1-2.5") Note: In the CAD section normally they calculate the fabric consumption for a large size sample. For this, the amount of required fabrics is more. So fabric wastages are more. If it is possible to evaluate the fabric consumption for each then some fabrics may be save. And it will be beneficial for the Company. Cutting section In Fakir Knitwears Limited there are three cutting unit 1. Unit 1 (capacity- 70-80 thousand pcs per day) 2. Unit 2 (capacity- 80-100 thousand pcs per day) 3. Unit 3 (capacity- 40-45 thousand pcs per day)
    • Responsibilities: • Collect the information from planning department about which fabrics have to be cut. • Collect the fabric Iron the finished fabric store. • Collect the marker from CAD department. • Fold the fabric according to the roll number. • Spread the fabric in the cutting table with required diameter required amount. • Cut the fabric according to the marker. • Make the fabric according to the si/.e, lot, amount of pieces and etc • Divide the fabrics according to the fabric roll number. • Inspect the fabric. • If required print the fabric. • Store the fabric into input area and deliver the cut fabrics to the sewing department. Working procedure: File collect from planning department  Fabric collects from store  Marker come from CAD  Fabric folding by auto folding machine  Fabric spreading (Lay)  Marker setting on the lay  Cutting (By using Straight knife, and automatic cutter)  Sticker attaches & hand check
    •  Reject part change  Bundling  If required Print / Embroidery  Store on input rack Equipments usage: 1. Cutting table • Unit 1-6 • Unit 2- 7 • Unit 3- 4 2. Auto folding machine • Number- 4 • Brand-KONSAN . 3. Auto spreading Machine • Number- 4 • Brand- fly 4. Auto cutter 1 • Brand- I.cctra • Model- Vector M88K fashion • Fabric diameter- upto 84" • Software- Spread initial 5. Auto cutter 2 • Brand- Takatori • Model- UN
    • • Fabric diameter- upto 73" • Software- Spread initial 6. Straight knife cutting machine • Brand- KM • Speed- 3000-3600 • Volts- 220 V • Current- 3.3/2.6 amp • Cycle- 5060 7. Sticker attaching machine 8. Inspection table 9. Input rack Requirements of fabric spreading:  Alignment of fabric ply  Correct ply tension  Fabric must be flat  Elimination of fabric Haws  (Correct ply direction  Elimination of static electricity  Easy separation of the cut lay into bundles  Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting  Avoidance of distortion in spread  Matching cheeks or stripes  Must indicate the roll no. of the fabric ply.
    • 4. Auto cutter 1 • Brand- I.cctra • Model- Vector M88K fashion • Fabric diameter- upto 84" • Soli ware- Spread initial 5. Auto culler 2 • Brand- Takatori • Model- UN • Fabric diameter- upto 73" • Software- Spread initial 6. Straight knife culling machine • Brand- KM • Speed- 3000-3600 • Volts- 220 V • Current- 3.3/2.6 amp • Cycle- 5060 7. Sticker attaching machine 8. Inspection table 9. Inpm1 rack Requirements of fabric spreading:  Alignment of fabric ply  Correct ply tension  Fabric must be flat
    •  Elimination of fabric Haws  (Correct ply direction  Elimination of static electricity  Easy separation of the cut lay into bundles  Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting  Avoidance of distortion in spread  Matching cheeks or stripes  Must indicate the roll no. of the fabric ply. Process loss: Fabric loss is a major contribution to material utilization. Minimizing fabric loss during spreading can reduce the total production costs for garment manufacturing. This is the key point which has been highlighted in this report. Today garment industry is facing very tough scenario because of more competitors and less buyers, buyers have many options but suppliers have very limited choices, the time has gone when there was quota system and garment industry didn't need to be very many efficient but today suppliers are fighting for price and quality; on fewer prices better quality is expected. Orders are given to the suppliers who offer better quality and less prices. So within such scenario, only the things which can increase profit and minimize loss of a company is fabric saving. Fabric loss in cutting section may be for following reason.  Inefficient marker  Variation of fabric diameter  Higher GSM than required  More fabric faults  More dyeing faults. Note:Strife fabrics and low GSM fabrics arc cut by hand cutting
    • Communication module of Sample, CAD and Cutting Section: Merchandising Printing/ Embroidery Sample CAD Cutting Sewing
    • ChapterTwelve: Cost Analysis Cost analysis Costing of the product: Costing system mainly describe how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company / top managements. As it is a garments manufacturing factory, so according to the buyer / customer requirements of final garments, merchandiser give the consumption of fabric with specifications. Then it is calculated how much dyestuffs & chemicals are required for processing. After that, the final cost is fixed including some profit. Then the unit price is offered to the buyer for their approval. Costing of a product includes:  Yarn cost  Knitting cost  Dyes & chemicals cost  Cost of dyeing  Cost of finishing  Cost of cutting ,sewing, accessories etc  Cost of printing (If any)  Labor cost (direct & indirect)  Factory cost  Office & administrative cost  Sales and caring cost
    •  Others cost  Profit, etc. Price of different operation (Approx.):  Knitting Cost Single Jersey (Normal) : 8 Tk/Kg  Knitting Cost Single Jersey (Feeder Stripe) : 28 Tk/Kg.  Knitting Cost Single Jersey (Auto Stripper) : 120 Tk/Kg.  Dyeing +Finishing charge for medium shade: 85~90 Tk/Kg.  Dyeing +Finishing charge for deep shade : 100~110 Tk/Kg.  Tube finishing (Dewatering +Dryer + compactor) : 15-20 Tk/Kg. The costing of the product is most secret matter of the Industry. They are not interested to flash the cost related data. So we could not collect the Costing process of the products. Production Cost Calculation: Specification Product Type Single Jersey Color Combination 3 given Swatch Finish Dia 56 cm Fabric Weight 10 Kg Calculation: For dyeing total process lost: 12% to 15%. Say, Process lost: 12% for given sample. From given sample, we find out – Yarn count: 30/1 Ne. S L: 3.07 mm. or Finish GSM/S.L =? (When color yarn used for knitting) Gray GSM =?
    • M/C gauge =? (1 inch = No of loops (sample) = No of needles) No of feeder & No of active feeder =? M/C Dia =? Repeat= 2(white) +2 (maroon) + 4 (light blue) + 11(maroon) = 19 color yarn/repeat. Total grey yarn to be purchased: (10 +1.2) kg = 11.2 kg. Yarn price/kg = 3.1 $ or 210 Tk. Total yarn purchased cost = 11.2 X 3.1$ = 34.72 $. Cost for knitting section: Color Machine dia In (Inch) Machine gauge In (Inch) No. of feeder No. of active feeder No. of cones No. of cones/c olor Maroon 30 24 72 57 57 39 Light Blue 12 white 6
    • Cost for Dyeing section: color Dyeing wastes Dyed yarn quantity In (Kg) Weight of dyeing yarn/color In (Kg) Dyeing cost/kg /color In ( $) Total Cost of Dyeing / Color In ($) Total Dyeing Cost In ($) Maroo n 8 % 11.2 – 11.2 X 8 % = 10.30 7.046 2.6 7.046 X 2.6=18.32 18.32 + 3.68 + 1.52 = 23.52 Light Blue 2.168 1.7 2.168 X 1.7=3.68 white 1.084 1.4 1.084 X =1.52 Say, washing & finishing cost = 60Tk/kg (Normal) Total washing & finishing cost = 10.30 X 60 = 618 Tk = 9.08 $ So, Total fabric production cost = (34.72 + 23.52 + 4.24 + 9.08) $ Color Knitting Wastes Dyed yarn quantity In (Kg) Weight of yarn/cone/co lor In (Kg) Knitting cost/kg/c olor In (Tk) Total Knitting Cost Maroon 0 % 10.30 kg 180.6 12 10.30 kg X 28 = 288.4 Tk = 4.24 $Light Blue 180.6 white 180.6
    • =71.56 $ Say, Overhead cost per kg fabric = 12tk. Overhead cost = 10.30kg X 12 Tk/kg = 123.6 Tk = 1.82 $. Profit 30 % = 22.1 $. Total cost = (71.56 + 1.82 + 22.1) $ = 95.48 $ Total selling price per kg fabric = 9.548 $ = 650 Tk. Note: 1. If yarn count change then yarn purchased cost change. 2. If yarn color change then dyeing cost increase / decrease. 3. If washing & finishing process change then washing & finishing cost change. Remarks: The costing of the product is most secret matter of the Industry. They are not interested to flash the cost related data. So we could not collect the Costing process of the products. ChapterThirteen: Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance; Maintenance is the process by which equipment is looked after in such a way that trouble free. Services and increased machine life can be ensured and specific product quality required
    • by the customer is sustained. Maintenance can increased machine life and ensured trouble free service Maintenance of Machinery: Preventive Maintenance: Preventive Maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection or checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description. Routine Maintenance: Maintenance of different machines is prepared by expert engineers of the maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing machine maintenance after 30 days complete checking if different important parts are done. Corrective Maintenance: Corrective Maintenance is done after a failure has occurred. Fakir KnitwearsLTD. has an expert team for maintenance. When problem occurs they actively solve the problems. Maintenance Procedure: As a part of maintenance normally Fakir KnitwearsLTD. follows preventive maintenance. During maintenance procedure following points has to be checked. Maintenance: Mechanical Machine : Dyeing Electrical Maintenance Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Routine Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance
    • S/l No. Items need to be checked and serviced 1 Complete cleaning of machine 2 Check air supply of the machine 3 Cleaning of inside of the m/c 4 Greasing of unloading roller bearings 5 Check water supply of the machine 6 Checking of cooling valve 7 Checking of steaming valve 8 Checking exhauster 9 Checking of heat exchanger Maintenance: Electrical Machine : Dyeing S/l No. Items need to be checked and serviced 1 Check all motor terminals. 2 Check main panels. 3 Clean main inverter. 4 Check all circuit breaker. 5 Check all pressure switches. 6 Visual checking of all power and control cables. 7 Check all pneumatic solenoids. 8 Check all emergency switches. 9 Check all on/off switches. 10 Check all signal isolator.
    • Chapter Fourteen Utility Services Utility Services Available Utility Facilities:  Electricity  Gas  Water  Compressed air  Boiler etc. Gas: Mainly gas is delivered from TITAS. It is mainly used for steam production. Generally 36 m3 gas is required to produce 1 ton of steam. Boiler: Boiler is mainly used to produce and deliver steam to different section as required. Fig: Boiler of boiler Fig: Steam Delivery Chamber
    • Problem associated for hard water in boiler: 1. Scale formation in boiler: Scale thickness Heat loss (%) 1mm Approx 10 3mm Approx 17 5mm Approx 22 10 mm Approx 30 20 mm Approx 43 2. Reaction with soap: 3. Corrosion of boiler: Five Boilers have been use by Fakir Knitwears Ltd. Model Serial no Brand Country Type Total no’s DDHI 5.0-10 188/9 Omnica Germany Fire tube 2 UL-S-1000 103730 Loos Germany 3 CaCO3 Mg (OH)2+ Boiler scale MgCO3 Mg (OH)2 + CO2H2O+ CO2 Mg (HCO3)2 Mg CO3 + H2O+ Ca(HCO3)2 Ca CO3 + H2O+CO2 RCOONa MgSO4 (RCOO)2Mg Na2SO4+ + RCOONa CaSO4 (RCOO)2Ca Na2SO4+ + H2Fe H2O Fe CO3CO2+ ++ FeCO3 H2O Fe(OH)2 CO2+ +
    • Power plant: Our Country’s most important issue is power sector. The government faces lots of problem for supplying the power for industrial sector. Considering all these, at the very beginning of establishment of Fakir Knit wears Ltd; Fakir Knitwears Ltd. using their own power generator. They have vast setup for the own power source and generating 24 hour power system to successfully running our whole project. They have: Electricity: The main utility electricity is supplied by generator. Gas Generator: Total No’s Manufact urer Volts RPM Hz A KVA KW Generate /Day) Used /Day Duty Origin 04 Waukesh a Power Systems 415/ 24 hr 1000 50 1565 1125 900 3.6 Mw 2.8 MW Conti nuous USA Total power is then distributed as per requirements of different section like knitting, Dyeing (yarn/ fabric), Finishing, Maintenance, WTP, ETP etc.
    • Compressor: Compressor is mainly used to deliver compressed air to different section as required. In FakirKnitwears Ltd. they usedcompressors to produce and deliver compressed air to different section. Name Model Brand Country of Origin Total No’s Total No. of Reserve Tank Dryer ASD-147 Kaeser Germany 5 02 Compressor (Big) CSD-102 Kaeser Germany 5 Compressor (Small) TEL-141 Kaeser Germany 5 Generator VHP5904GSID WAUKESHA U.S.A. 6 Water Treatment Plant (WPT): Water for a textile plant may come from various sources. But this water can not be used directly in textile processing because it contains various salts. These salts are mainly the carbonates (CO3 2- ), Hydrogen carbonates or bi-carbonates (HCO3 - ), Sulphates (SO4 2- ) and Chlorides (Cl- ) of Calcium (Ca2+ ), and Magnesium (Mg2+ ). These are called hardness in the water. These must be removed though water treatment plant. Water is supplied in different sections continuously by using submersible and centrifugal pumps. Methods of expressing the water hardness: 1. In Degrees, and 2. PPM (parts per million) Hardness measurement calculation: Required EDTA * 1000 * EDTA factor Total amount of water PPM =
    • There are different types of water softening process: 1. Soda lime process. 3. Base Exchange process. 4. Demineralization. 5. Soda alum process. 6. Aeration process. 7. Chelation on sequestration. In Fakir Knitwears Ltd. follow the base Exchange water softening process for softening the hard water. Base Exchange process: This methods depends upon the use of zeolite or Base Exchange complexes. The zeolites are hydrated silicates of sodium & aluminum with a general formula. (Na2O)X (Al2O3)Y(SiO2)Z (H2O)n The following reaction occur when contact with hard water. For temporary hardness, For permanent hardness, In where Z is the abbreviation for the Al2O3 SiO2 H2O part of Zeolite. Regeneration: 1 kg resin required = 200 gm salt Salt : water = 1 kg : 4.5 L Used water = 6500000 Ltr/Day Ca (HCO3)2 CaO.Z+ Na2CO3 H2O+Na2O.Z + Mg (HCO3)2 MgO.Z+ Na2CO3 H2O+Na2O.Z + CaSO4 CaO.Z+ Na2CO3Na2O.Z + MgSO4 MgO.Z+ Na2CO3Na2O.Z + CaO.Z NaO.Z+ CaClNaCl +
    • The CaCl and residual NaCl washed away and the regenerated Na2O.Z can be used to soften the hard water again. Chapter Fifteen Waste Management system: Waste Management System Following wastes are produced in the factory: Yarn Fly yarn Projectingfibre Plastic bag Dust Dust of fabric ETP: Effluent is the stream of excess chemical liquor extracted from an industry after using in original operation. In the case of dyeing industry, the excess dye liquor extracted from textile industry after dyeing is an effluent of that industry. Fakir Knitwear’s Ltd commitment to the environment can be gauged from the fact they seek to meet all the legal norms. Taking for instance the establishment of ETP & WTP because they have, nothing is more important than the maintenance of pollution-free environment. Fakir Knitwears Ltd. Establish a ETP plant which is the biggest and no.1 ETP plant in Bangladesh.
    • Process sequence: Screen brush Lifting pump unit Storage tank Neutralization tank Distributor tank Biological oxygen tank Sedimentation feeding tank Sedimentation curve Fig: ETP Plant
    • Sludge return pump slump Sludge thickener Filter press Used chemicals:  Sodium hypochlorite  Nutrient salt  Anti foam  Sulphuric acid  Poly electrolyte  decolorant Testing lab instrument:  microscope  BOD sensor system  Thermo reactor  Spectrophotometer  Digital muffle furnace  Portable DO meter  Portable DO meter  Micro-processor PH meter  Electrical balance Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) Parameter Unit Conc. Present Dept. of environment govt. of BangladeshInlet Outlet BOD 281 23 50
    • COD PPM 730 56 200 TDS 2730 1811 2100 TSS 204 31 150 EC 5210 3403 1200 DO 0.1 4.6 4.5 – 8 Chloride - >200 600 Phosphate 2.6 2.2 8 Nitrite 0.15 0.08 50 Nitrate 0.9 0.6 10 Ammonium 0.09 .07 5 Sulphate - 27 - Arsenic - - 0.2 Cobalt - - - Cynanide - - - PH - 10.2 7.8 6 – 7 Tepm. °C 41 37 40 Cadmium PPM - - 0.05 chromiun PPM - - 0.5 Chapter Sixteen Conclusion Conclusion There is large difference between the theoretical knowledge and practical experiences. This is truer in case of the study of Textile Technology. Industrial attachment or, Industrial training is an essential part for textile education because it minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. The Industrial training increase our though a lot about textile technology. It also helps us to know a lot about industrial production process, machineries, and industrial management and made us suitable for
    • industrial life. Besides it gives us the first opportunity to work in industry. So we can say industrial attachment prepare us for the expected destiny of practical life. We have completed my industrial attachment fromFakir Knitwears Ltd.During my two months long industrial training at Fakir Knitwears Ltd. We got the impression that this factory is one of the modern export oriented composite knit garments industry of our country. This factory does not compromise in case of quality. So, they have established on-line and off-line quality control of each product. Besides, they also use the good quality yarn, dyes and chemicals in their production process. Due to this, it has earned a “very good reputation” in foreign market for its quality product over many other export oriented textile mills. It has very well educated and technically experienced manpower to get rid of any defect in production process. It has also a good organizational hierarchy. My Achievements:  We have got a lot of knowledge about the laboratory work and the steps that should be maintained before bulk production.  We have identified the process sequence dyeing and gathered adequate knowledge about each process sequence.  We have earned some mechanical knowledge about dyeing machine.  We have found some special points that should be considered during dyeing production.  We have understood about industrial environment and administration. Some suggestion:  Industrial salt should not be used because it corrodes the inner parts of dyeing machine.  Dyeing production needs to increase as well as technical persons need to be employed there?
    •  More skilled labor should be used in a project and the overall efficiency will have to be increased.  Dyeing machine must keep dust free.  There need proper handling of the machine.  Check all production parameter regularly.  Dyeing floor should keep always net and clean. It kept wet after unloading the fabric from the dyeing machine specially, for Athena. Water must be swept time to time.  During the transport of the fabric and during the loading of the m/c, fabrics get soiled due to their drawing over the floor. This makes the fabric/part of the fabric dirty. It may require more scouring/bleaching agent or may create stain.  Due to the pressure of higher production sometimes machine operators do not maintain accurate time according to the actual process so that less quality product is produced and may reject. So need to be increased machine and reduce the pressure on the operator.  Should increase understanding between the top level personal and floor level personal.  Finishing section need to be enlarged well as more technical persons need to be employed there?  The m/c stoppage time should be analyzed and minimized. The maintenance should be carried out when the m/c is out of action (Wherever possible) and routine maintenance should be carried out regularly.  In the Laboratory there is no technical person, a textile engineer may be employed here.  There is shortage of proper light in the dyeing and finishing floor, specially, when smoke is produced from dryer and stenter. Proper lighting should be provided in the floor.  The person at the top level of a department must take good care of the trainees & he should provide all kinds of support to them.
    • Limitations of the report:  Because of secrecy act, the data on costing and marketing activities have not been supplied.  We had a very limited time. In spite of our willing to study more it was not possible to do so.  Some information in different sections are not included as these were not available.  It is not possible to hold the whole thing of a textile industry in such a small frame as this report. So, try our hard to summarize all the information that we are provided.