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Industrial attachment of square knits fabrics limited (SKFL)

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  • 1. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL)
  • 2. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL) Abstract Textile technology education is based on industrial ground. Theoretical background is not sufficient so, industrial training is an essential part of study to make a technologist technically sound in this field. Industrial training provides us that opportunity to gather practical knowledge. Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL) is a truly integrated undertaking. The textile division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export & domestic textile markets. The goal of this textile factory is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics & clothing from Bangladesh. With high advanced technology & an emphasis on developing local human resources, the textile division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation’s growing readymade garments export sector. The rationale behind the existing structure & future expansion of the textile division is to capture value added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous cotton production capability, Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL)has leveraged Bangladesh’s labor cost advantage & export competitiveness to maximum level.
  • 3. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Declaration We hereby declare that the submitted work was completed using only the mentioned literature and without any Unalloyed assistance.
  • 4. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All the praises are for the almighty, Allah who bestowed me with the ability and potential to complete this Internship. I also pay my gratitude to the Al-mighty for enabling me to complete this Internship Report within due course of time. Project paper is an academic function of the Southeast University. We are highly delighted to express our regards & gratitude to honorable Professor supervising teacher Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan for providing us the chance to complete our internship and completion our project work in Squre knit fabrics limited We take this opportunity to record my deep sense of gratitude and appreciation to our Project Advisor “Mr. Fazley Elahi” (Asst. proff.) Department of Textile engineering, Southeast University for his constant encouragement and inspiring guidance with his Wisdom.We also take the opportunity to express our sincerest gratitude to the management, administration & personnel of Squre knit fabrics limited for their kind assistance.Cordial thanks goes to Mahamuddun Nabi General Manager & Md.Habibuzzman (Shameem)Senior ManagerYarn Processing & Mercerizing Square Knit Fabrics limited for their excellent co-operation during the period of our training. We would also like to thank Mofizur Rahman Senior Manager knit Fabrics dyeing section for their sincere support.Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our university & particularly of Wet Processing Department for their kind inspiration & help, which remain as the backdrop of all our efforts. Finally, we would like to acknowledge that we remain responsible for the in-adequacies & errors, which doubtless remain in the following report.
  • 5. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Contents CHAPTER – I .................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Organizational Over view.................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER –II........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Project description .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER – III ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Man power Management ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -IV....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Raw materials ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -V..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Literature Review ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -VI .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Chemical Laboratory .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -VII ................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Yarn processing ................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER –VIII ......................................................... 102Error! Bookmark not defined. Knitting................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -IX................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Fabric Processing:................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -X .................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Fabric singeing & Mercerizing ......................................... 1Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XI................................................................. 1Error! Bookmark not defined. Fabric finishing ................................................................. 1Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XII ........................................................... 158Error! Bookmark not defined. Quality Assurance Department (QAD) ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XIII ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Effluent treatment plant (ETP)& Custic recovery plant (CRP)Error! Bookmark not defined.
  • 6. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT CHAPTER -XIV ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Maintenance......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XV ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Utility Services .................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XVI ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Store & Inventory Control................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XVII .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Socil & Invironmantal Information ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CONCLUSION .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
  • 7. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Organizational Overview
  • 8. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Introduction: From fiber to fabric, the Textile division of Square group is a truly integrated undertaking. The Textile Division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export textile markets. The goal of the Textile Division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics and clothing from Bangladesh. With this goal Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. is advancement of this journey. With highly advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, the Textile Division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation's growing ready made garments export sector keeping green environment into close consideration. The rational behind the existing structure and future expansion of the Textile Division is to capture value-added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite lack of indigenous cotton production capability of Bangladesh, Square has leveraged labor of Bangladesh cost advantage and export competitiveness to the maximum. Vision: To establish as a one stop source for the Global Knit Apparel market and to satisfy and meet customer's expectation by developing and providing products and services on time, which offer value in terms of Quality, Price, Safety & Environmental impact. Assuring complete compliance with the international quality standards and also providing the employees internationally acceptable working condition and standards. To promote the development and to use human talent & equal opportunity of employment Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. procure the most advanced & sophisticated technology suitable for producing desired product and attain highest level of competence through continuous development of the professional management system and to ensure complete transparency in all aspect of business. Mission: Square realizes the need to stake out a competitive segment in the changing global market of today through technological excellence and human expertise. Square is committed to transpose its local success to the world scene.
  • 9. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dhaka CantonmentGulshan Kakoli Chourasta SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Joydevpur Chandra Master -Bari Bus Stand Gazipur Chourasta Bhawal GorNational Park Square knit fabrics Ltd. Nasir Glass R.A.K Pharmaceuticals Maona BazarMaona Bazar Valuka Thana M Y M E N S I N G H H I G H W A Y Mohakhali Ashulia Rajendrapur Cantonment Location Map of Square Knit Fabrics Limited.
  • 10. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Project Description
  • 11. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Name of the Factory: Square Knit Fabrics Limited (SKFL). Type: Knit fabric manufacturing for 100% export oriented ready made Garments Industry. Year of Establishment: 2001, Commencement of Production in June 2002 Address: It is situated in Jamirdia, Master Bari, Valuka, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. History of Project Development: In 1997, Square entered the textile sector with its manufacturing facilities of cotton yarn. Combining modern technology with skilled manpower under Square's unique inspiring, atmosphere, this new Square venture soon rose to the top of the local textile industry. Today it has one of the most sophisticated vertically integrated set-ups. In 1998: Second unit of Square Textile established. In 2000: Square Spinnings Ltd. started its journey. In 2001: Square Knit Fabrics ltd. and Square Fashions Ltd. established. In 2002: Square Knit Fabrics commenced with its production. In 2009: Square Multi Fabrics Ltd. Commenced with its production. Textile Mills of Square Group: Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. Square Spinnings Ltd. Square Textiles Ltd. Square Fashions Ltd. Square Multi Fabrics Ltd. Physical Infrastructure:  Square at Valuka have three shades. They are Square Knit Fabrics Limited, Square Fashions Limited & Square Multi Fabrics Limited.  Total factory area is 165,000 ft2 . Production space is 135,000 ft2 , single storied.  There are four dormitories for worker, two dormitories for officials.
  • 12. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. maintains its telecommunication with VOIP connection to its different corporate zones, PABX connections and LAN connections.  It’s others facilities are  Own Network Server,  Own power management;  Own utility management,  Free transport facility,  24 – hour medical center,  Free meals,  Fire service facility and  ETP. Different Departments: Square Knit Fabrics Ltd has the following departments approximately: Different Departments Personnel and Administration Knitting Wet Processing Yarn Processing Mercerizing Quality Assurance Finishing Laboratory R & D Fabric Inspection Maintenance Electrical Mechanical Utility ETP Fabric Processing Package and Hank
  • 13. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Product Type:  Piece Dyed fabric,  Mercerized & Dyed fabric ,  Yarn dyed fabric,  Mercerized yarn dyed fabric (double mercerized). Product Mix:  Cotton: - Carded, Combed, Compact, & Organic.  Viscose: - Modal, Mélange,  Polyester,  Lycra,  Polyester-cotton blend,  CVC. Product Range:  Engineering stripe and semi jacquard,  Plain (100% cotton single jersey, slub single jersey, lycra single jersey, double mercerized single jersey),  Pique (100% cotton,100% lycra),  Four Needle structure,  Wofel rib,  1X1 Rib (cotton), 1X1 Rib (lycra), 1X1 Rib (slub),  2X2 Rib (100% cotton), 2X2 Rib (100% lycra),  2X1 Rib,  4X4 Rib,  Interlock,  Pique interlock (pima cotton),  Interlock (double mercerized),  Locust,  Jacquard,  Fleece & Terry fleece, etc.
  • 14. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Capacity: 30,000-31,000 Kg. of Knit fabric processed per day (Open width & tubular finish). Production Capacity in knitting: 15,000 kg. Of greige fabric and 25000 pieces of cuff & collar set per day (depends on design i.e. if design is more then production will be less). Production Capacity in yarn dyeing: 4000 kg. Per day Production Capacity in knit dyeing: 30,000 Kg. Per day Investment Cost: Investment cost is US$ 11.11 million. Remarks: Square Knit Fabric Ltd. is greatest concerned with the quality of its product. For this reason it do not look for the production volume rather the quality of product, this increase its overhead cost. But better quality has welcome buyers with satisfaction. The infrastructure and land asset has the greatest possibility to extension and to create social contributions.
  • 15. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Manpower Management
  • 16. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Organogram of Administration: Organogram of Operation: Managing Director Executive Director General Manager Deputy General Manager Assistant General Manager Senior Manager Manager (Of QAD, YP, FP, Maintenance etc.) Deputy Manager Assistant Manager
  • 17. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Shift Change: There are three shifts for operation personnel in this industry. So the shifts are changed at every 8 hours. The shift timings are as below:  6:00 am to 2:00 pm (“A” Shift)  2:00 pm to 10:00 pm (“B” Shift)  10:00 pm to 6:00am (“C” Shift) Administration i.e. Management personnel work on General (G) shift of duration 8:00 am to 5:00 pm and 6 days per week. Responsibilities of Production Executive:  To follow and execute the daily production plan accordingly.  To give the right decision for the minor troubleshooting.  To match the shade with the approved lab dip and take necessary help from Spectrophotometer.  To prepare dye line correctly and maintain logbook.  To convey the proper information to the next shift.  To maintain target productivity of every section in his shift  To give job card to maintenance department whenever machine is not working or any other problem with the machine. Senior Executive II Executive I Executive II Executive III Production Officer Assistant Production Officer Supervisor Senior Operator Senior Executive I
  • 18. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Job description of Production Executive: Report to: Senior production officer Job Summary: To plan, execute & follow up the production activities & control the quality. Duties & Responsibilities: Overall supervision of dyeing, finishing production. Batch preparation & PH check. Dyes & chemical requisition issue & check. Write fabrics loading & unloading time from m/c. Program making, sample checking, color measurement. Control the supervisors, operators’ asst. operator & helpers of dyeing m/c. And also any other work as & when required by the management. Management System: Corporate Management System. Remarks: Though Square Knit Fabric Ltd. has more than 1100 manpower but Square Fashions Ltd. has manpower more than 6000 in around a single fence & Square Multi Fabrics Ltd. has around 200 manpower. Square pay a great attention for providing food and transport, medical, schooling of personnel’s children, their utility and maintain a safe, secured and calm environment. The working condition here is also standardized. These opportunities for the personnel of the industry have a direct positive impact on the production and also motivate the personnel for better and greater efficiency.
  • 19. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Raw Materials
  • 20. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. is a knit composite textile industry. In the industry raw materials for different section is different. As for example knitting uses the raw material Yarn, Fabric processing department uses the knit fabrics, dyes and chemicals again yarn processing uses the grey yarn and dyes chemicals. Following we describe the raw materials used in Square Knit Fabrics Ltd.  Yarn  Grey fabrics  Dyes  Chemicals  Auxiliaries Yarn: Following types of yarns are used to knit fabrics: Synthetic Polyester Viscose Modal Yarn Mélange Yarn Ecru mélange Cotton yarn Card Yarn Combed Yarn Compact Yarn Organic cotton
  • 21. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Grey Fabrics: Following types of grey fabrics are dyed: Sources: The required yarns are supplied from Square Spinning Mills Ltd. (Bangladesh) , Thermax (Bangladesh), NRG (Bangladesh), Badsha Spinning Mills Ltd. (Bangladesh) Ginni (India), Nahar (India), Flat bed Simple Collar and Cuff Jacquard Collar and Cuff Double jersey 1x1 and 2x2 rib Interlock Flat back Single jersey Single and double lacoste Polo pique Terry fleece Engineering stripe Jacquard etc. Blend PC CVC Mélange
  • 22. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT And special yarns are from Bardhaman (India), Aarti (India), Organic cotton – Indonesia. The required grey fabrics are produced in this industry. Price: Not provided. Dyes: The following dyes are used-  Reactive dyes.  Disperse dyes. The list of dyes for different substrate is as below: For Cotton Group (Reactive Dyes) Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Golden Yellow Type Novacron Yellow FN -2R Singapore Ciba Novacron Yellow NC Singapore Ciba Drimarene Yellow CL-2R Switzerland Clariant Indofix Yellow WHR India Indo Colchem Imcozin Yellow E3R German Impocolor Kimsoline Yellow KLL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline G.Yellow HF-2GR Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Yellow KED Turkiye Cida-Tex KimsolineYellow Shade SL Turkiye Cida-Tex Levafix Yellow CA Gran Singapore Dystar Levafix Amber CA Singapore Dystar Remazol Luminus Yellow FL Singapore Dystar Remazol Yellow RR Singapore Dystar Remazol Golden Yellow RGB Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Ultra Yellow RGB Singapore Dystar Bezaktiv Yellow SLF Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Yellow S-3R Switzerland Bezema Cibacron Yellow H-R Singapore Ciba
  • 23. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Lemon Yellow Type Cibacron Brilliant Yellow H- 4GN Singapore Ciba Kimsoline Yellow HF -3GN Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Yellow HF 4GL150% Turkiye Cida-Tex Everzol Yellow 3GL Taiwan Everlight Levafix Brill Yellow CA Singapore Dystar Remazol Brilliant Yellow 4GL Singapore Dystar Imcozin Brill. Yellow V4GL German Impocolor Blue Type Bezaktiv Blue SLF Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Blue S-FR Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Blue S-GLD Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Blue V-2B Switzerland Bezema Cibacron Blue H-GN Singapore Dystar Cibacron Blue F-GFN Singapore Dystar Cibacron Brilliant Blue FNG Singapore Dystar Novacron Blue FNR Singapore Dystar Novacron Ocean SR Singapore Dystar Drimarene Blue CLBR Singapore Dystar Remazol Blue RR Singapore Dystar Remazol Dark Blue SLT Singapore Dystar Remazol Br. Blue BB New Singapore Dystar Levafix Blue CA Singapore Dystar Levafix Brill. Blue E-FFN Singapore Dystar Imcozin Blue E-NR German Impocolor Kimsoline B. Blue SHF-RL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Blue Shade BL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Blue KLL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Blue BRF Turkiye Cida-Tex Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Novacron Red FNR Singapore Ciba
  • 24. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Red Type Novacron Brill Red FN-3GL Singapore Ciba Novacron Brown NC Singapore Ciba Novacron Scarlet FN-6G Singapore Ciba Cibacron Red H-D Singapore Ciba Indofix Red WHR India Indo Colchem Imcozin Red E-3BF German Impocolor Kimsoline Red KLL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Red HF- 6BN Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Red KED Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Red Shade 3B Turkiye Cida-Tex Levafix Red CA Gran German Dystar Levafix Brill Red E-4BA German Dystar Levafix Brill Red E-BA German Dystar Levafix Brill Red E-6BA German Dystar Levafix Fast Red CA German Dystar Levafix Scarlet CA Singapore Dystar Levafix Rubine CA Singapore Dystar Remazol Red RR Singapore Dystar Remazol Deep Red RGB Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Red RGB Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Ultra Red RGB Singapore Dystar Remazol Brill Red F-3B Singapore Dystar Remazol Ultra Carmine RGB Singapore Dystar Bezaktiv Red SLF Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Red S-2B Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Red S-3B Switzerland Bezema Sunfix Red MFD Korea OH Young Ind. Ltd. Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Navy Type Drimarene Navy CL-R Switzerland Clariant Export AG Kimsoline Navy Blue HF-RN Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Navy Blue SHF-GFN Turkiye Cida-Tex Remazol Navy Blue GG Singapore Dystar Everzol Navy Blue GG Taiwan Everlight Bezaktiv Navy -S MAX German Bezema Bezaktiv Navy SBL Switzerland Bezema
  • 25. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Bezaktiv Navy SLF Switzerland Bezema Cibacron Navy FN-B Singapore Ciba Cibacron Navy H-2G Singapore Ciba Sunfix Navy Blue MFD Korea OH Young Ind.Ltd. Black Type Cibacron Super Black G/Novacron Singapore Ciba Cibacron Super Black R/Novacron Singapore Ciba Indofix Black B India Indo Colchem Kimsoline Black B Turkiye Cida-Tex Remazol Black B Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Deep Black GWF Singapore Dystar Reafon Deep Black NS Singapore Kappa International Bezaktiv Black -S MAX German Bezema Bezaktiv Black S -BUDGET German Bezema Sunzol Black EP Korea OH Young Ind. Ltd. Turquoise Type Cibacron Turquoise H-GN Singapore Ciba Everzol Turquise Blue G Taiwan Everlight Imcozin Turquiss Blue VG German Impocolor Remazol Tuerkis Blue G Singapore Dystar Remazol Brill Green 6B Singapore Dystar Kimsoline Turquise Shade 2G Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Turquise Blue HFG Turkiye Cida-Tex RSPL Type Bezaktiv Blue VR SPCL German Bezema Everzol Blue R SPCL Taiwan Everlight Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Orange Type Cibacron Orange FN-R Singapore Ciba Novacron Orange FBR Singapore Ciba Levafix Orange CA Singapore Dystar Kimsoline B. Orange 3R Turkiye Cida-Tex Sunfix Orange MFD Korea OH Young Ind. Ltd. Violet Type Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R Singapore Dystar Bezaktiv Violet V-5R Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Gray SLF Switzerland Bezema
  • 26. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Grey Type Novacron Gray NC Switzerland Bezema Olive Type Levafix Olive CA Singapore Dystar Novacron Olive NC Singapore Dystar For Polyester Group (Disperse Dyes) Sl. No. Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name 1. Dianix Blue XF Singapore Dystar 2. Dianix Blue CC Singapore Dystar 3. Dianix Rubine CC Singapore Dystar 4. Dianix Crimson S-F Singapore Dystar 5. Dianix Yellow Brown SE-R Singapore Dystar 6. Dianix Terquise C-C Singapore Dystar 7. Dianix Navy X-F Singapore Dystar 8. Dianix Green C-C Singapore Dystar 9. Dianix Scarlet C-C Singapore Dystar 10. Dianix Scarlet X-F Singapore Dystar 11. Dianix Flavine XF Singapore Dystar 12. Dianix Luminus Yellow 10 G Singapore Dystar 13. Dianix Luminus Red G Singapore Dystar 14. Dianix Luminus Pink 5G Singapore Dystar 15. Dianix Luminus Red 3B Singapore Dystar 16. Dianix Brill Orange G Singapore Dystar 17. Dianix Turquise XF Singapore Dystar 18. Dianix Yellow CC Singapore Dystar 19. Dianix Blue AC-E Singapore Dystar 20. Dianix Red AC-E German Dystar 21. Dianix Yellow AC-E Singapore Dystar 22. Dianix Yellow S-4G Singapore Dystar 23. Dianix Navy S-2G Singapore Dystar 24. Dianix Black S-R Singapore Dystar 25. Dianix Deep Red SF Singapore Dystar 26. Dianix Blue S-BB Singapore Dystar 27. Dianix Violet S4R Singapore Dystar 28. Dianix Black XF Singapore Dystar 29. Dianix Yellow Brown SE-R Singapore Dystar 30. Terasil Black SRL Singapore Ciba 31. Terasil Violet BL Singapore Ciba 32. Terasil Blue BGE-01 Singapore Ciba 33. Terasil Blue W-BLS Singapore Ciba 34. Terasil Blue WW2GS Singapore Ciba 35. Terasil Blue W-RBS/W-BLS Singapore Ciba 36. Terasil Gold Yellow W-3R Singapore Ciba 37. Terasil Red W-BF Singapore Ciba 38. Terasil Red W-RS Singapore Ciba 39. Terasil Red FBN German Ciba
  • 27. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 40. Terasil Red W-FS Singapore Ciba 41. Terasil Red W-4BS Singapore Ciba 42. Terasil Red WWFS Singapore Ciba 43. Terasil Red WWBFS Singapore Ciba 44. Terasil Red 3BL Singapore Ciba 45. Terasil Red WW-3BS Singapore Ciba 46. Terasil Navy GRLC Singapore Ciba 47. Terasil Navy W-RS Singapore Ciba 48. Terasil Flabine 8GFN Singapore Ciba 49. Terasil Yellow W-4G Switzerland Ciba 50. Terasil Yellow W-6GS Switzerland Ciba Chemicals: Basic Chemicals Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Acetic Acid (Glacial) India Jubilant Organosys LTD. Acetic Acid 30% India Jubilant Organosys LTD. Sirrix NE Switzerland Clariant Hydro Chloric Acid Singapore Swiss Colour Oxalic Acid Soda Ash Australia/India Penrice soda product/Nirma Sulphuric Acid Indonesia Ptlautan Iuas Tbk Acid Buffer  Sodium Acetate  Ammonium Sulphate Bleaching Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Polyclean SP Viscoclor Turkiye Cida-Tex Viscobleach Turkiye Cida-Tex No Bleach 200% Turkiye Eksoy Kimyevi Cottobleach Turkiye Eksoy Kimyevi Hydrozen Peroxide 50% China Gaungdong Zhong Salt/Electrolyte Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Sodium Sulphite(Glubar Salt) Taiwan FCFC Sodium Sulphite (Refined Salt) Thailand KC Salt Caustic Soda Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Caustic Soda Pearl Saudi Arabia Arabian Alkali Co.
  • 28. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Detergent & Scouring Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Kappawet Bos Germany KaAP-Chemie Kieralon Jet-B Germany BASF Diwet Plus Tannex Noveco India Lanxess Lenaryl RK Germany ACI Foryl BGL India Pulcra Chemicals Feloson NOF Germany CHT R-Beitech KSN NOF Antifoam/Dearreting & Penetrating Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Albaflow JET Singapore Swiss Colour Contripon S Germany Harris & Menuk Primasol NF Germany BASF Anti Creasing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cibafluid C Singapore Swiss Colour Persoftal L India Lanxess Base Ledesan SVE Span Global Chemicals Peroxide Stabilizer Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Stabilizer S0F Thailand Clariant Peroxide Killer Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Bio Kill Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Sequesterent & Dispersent for Bleaching Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Ladiquest 1097 Thailand Clariant Optavon 4UD Germany Harris & Menuk Kappaquest A-41 Germany Hi-Tech Auxi Chem Lufibrol MSD Germany BASF Mercerizing Wetting Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Univerdin MR Singapore Swiss Colour
  • 29. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Levelling Agent for Heat Setting Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Depicol RC 9 Germany Zachimmer Reactive Fixing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cibafix Eco/Albafix ECO Singapore Swiss Colour Rewin ACP German R.H. Corporation Permafix RD Thailand Total quality Tinofix FRD/Albafix FRD Singapore Swiss Colour Cot. Levelling & Prof-Colloid Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Irgasol Co New/Albatex CO Singapore Swiss Colour Levagol RL India Lanxess Drimagen E-2R Switzerland Clariant Drimagen E-3R Switzerland Clariant Oxidizing Agent for Polyester Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Ludigol AR Singapore BASF Albatex AR Singapore Swiss Colour Dispersing Levelling Agent for Polyester Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Univadine DIF Singapore Swiss Colour Acid PH Buffer (For Polyamide)  Setavin PAS After Soaping Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Matexil ADW India Avolan IS India Lanxess Cyclanon XC-W Germany BASF Eriopon OS Singapore Swiss Colour Gliding Agent for Cotton Yarn Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Katamin BW Germany Zachimmer & Schwar
  • 30. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Reducing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Hydrosulphite (Hydrose) Singapore BASF Enzyme Finishing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Nuvosoft / Ecosoft X750 Thailand Vrintex LTD. Biotuch C-39 Biopolish B-500 Primafast Luna CL Mega EH-S /EH-3 China Total quality Fabrilage HDL Optical Brightener for Cotton Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Uvitex BHV Singapore Uvitex BAM India Diamond dye Skywhite BVB India PES-Dyeing PH -Buffer Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cibatex AB-45 Singapore Swiss Colour Rubbing Fastness Improver Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Geitex WRN Taiwan Geigy Ent. De-Colorant for Effluent Treatment Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Water Decolorint Agent. Local Ultra violet protection Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Tanofast CEL Singapore Ciba Antimurobiol Hygiene Protection Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Oleophobol ZSR Singapore Ciba Silicon Stripper Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Silicon Stripper Knitting Oil Removing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Silvatol FLN Singapore Ciba
  • 31. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Special Finishing Agent Softener Type of Softener Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cationic Sapamine CWS Tissocyl RC9 (Used for heat setting) Weak Cationic/Non- ionic Basosoft F-Euk Conc Singapore BASF Jinsofter CWS Soulbio SSK China Global Chemicals Alcamine CWS /Sapamine CWS Singapore Swiss Colour Non-ionic Soulbio FC China Global Chemicals Belsoft 200 Conc. P I German Cognis Silicon Adasil SM German Cognis Albafix ECO Laxsof Taiwan Geigy Ent. Silizen PEP Unisil 2ST Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Unisil NBI Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Unisil NLPW Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Microsillc EG Super Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Ultraphil HCT Singapore Swiss Colour Tubingal MSQ German R.H. Corporation Siligen PEP Ultra-Fresh Silphure Canada Thomson Unidal APY.TH Sanitized T9919 (Anti Bacterial Agent) Hydroperm RPU (Anti Bacterial Agent) Dilasoft JWN-CN (Anti Bacterial Agent) Umidol (Anti Bacterial Agent)
  • 32. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Literature Review
  • 33. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Cotton Fiber and its Chemical Structure: The chemical composition of cotton, when picked, is about 94 percent cellulose; in finished fabrics is it 99 percent cellulose. Cotton contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with reactive hydroxyl groups. Glucose is the basic unit of the cellulose molecule. Cotton may have as many as 10,000 glucose monomers per molecule. The molecular chains are arranged in long spiral linear chains within the fiber. The strength of a fiber is directly related to chain length. Hydrogen bonding occurs between cellulose chains in a cotton fiber. There are three hydroxyl groups that protrude from the ring formed by one oxygen and five carbon atoms. These groups are polar meaning the electrons surrounding the atoms are not evenly distributed. The hydrogen atoms of the hydroxyl group are attracted to many of the oxygen atoms of the cellulose. This attraction is called hydrogen bonding. The bonding of hydrogen's within the ordered regions of the fibrils causes the molecules to draw closer to each other which increases the strength of the fiber. Hydrogen bonding also aids in moisture absorption. Cotton ranks among the most absorbent fibers because of Hydrogen bonding which contributes to cotton's comfort. The chemical reactivity of cellulose is related to the hydroxyl groups of the glucose unit. Moisture, dyes, and many finishes cause these groups to readily react. Chemicals like chlorine bleaches attack the oxygen atom between or within the two ring units breaking the molecular chain of the cellulose. Chemical Structure of Cotton Bleaching: Bleach is a chemical that removes colors or whitens, often via oxidation. Common chemical bleaches include household "chlorine bleach", a solution of approximately 3–6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and "oxygen bleach", which contains hydrogen peroxide or a peroxide-releasing compound such as sodium per-borate, sodium per-carbonate, sodium per- sulfate, sodium per-phosphate, or urea peroxide together with catalysts and activators, e.g. tetraacetylethylenediamine and/or sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate. To bleach something is to apply bleach, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing. The bleaching of textiles appears to have been known as early as 300 B.C. when soda ash was prepared from burned seaweed and used to clean cloth. Then the cloth was treated with soured milk to reduce its alkalinity. The bleaching process was completed when the cloth was exposed to the Sun. This type of sun bleaching typically took several weeks. A Swedish chemist discovered chlorine gas in 1784 and succeeded in demonstrating its use for decolorizing vegetable dyes. Fifteen years later a patent was awarded for a bleaching powder formed by the absorption of chlorine gas into dry hydrate of lime. Following World
  • 34. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT War I the technology for shipping liquid chlorine was developed. This allowed for on-site production of sodium hypochlorite in textile mills and led to the development of other chlorine-based bleaches. In 1928, the first dry calcium hypochlorite bleach containing 70% available chlorine was produced in the United States. This material largely replaced bleaching powder in commercial bleaching. Hydrogen peroxide was prepared as early as 1818 but did not find use in the bleaching of textiles until much later. By 1930, the prices of peroxides had dropped sufficiently to allow the use of hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching of cotton, wool, and silk. By 1940, 65% of all cotton bleaching was done with hydrogen peroxide. Textile bleaching is one of the stages in the manufacture of textiles. All raw textile materials, when they are in natural form, are known as 'greige' material. This greige material will be with its natural color, odour and impurities that are not suitable for clothing materials. Not only the natural impurities will remain on the greige material but also the add-ons that were made during its cultivation, growth and manufacture in the form of pesticides, fungicides, worm killers, sizes, lubricants, etc. The removal of these natural coloring matters and add-ons during the previous state of manufacturing is called scouring and bleaching. Bleaching Chemistry The process of bleaching can be summarized in the following set of chemical reactions: Cl2(aq) + H2O(l) H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + HClO(aq) The H+ ion of the hypochlorous acid then dissolves into solution, and so the final result is effectively: Cl2(aq) + H2O(l) 2H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + ClO- (aq) Hypochlorite tends to decompose into chloride and a highly reactive form of oxygen: ClO- Cl- + O This oxygen then reacts with organic substances to produce bleaching or antiseptic effects. Reactive Dye: The best dyes, by far, to use for cotton and other cellulose fibers are the fiber reactive dyes. They are much brighter, longer-lasting, and easier-to-use than all-purpose dyes. Reactive dyes first appeared commercially in 1956, after their invention in 1954 by Rattee and Stephens at the Imperial Chemical Industries Dyestuffs Division site in Blackley, Manchester, United Kingdom. Reactive dyes are used to dye cellulosic fibres. The dyes contain a reactive group, either a haloheterocycle or an activated double bond, that, when applied to a fibre in an alkaline dye bath, forms a chemical bond with an hydroxyl group on the cellulosic fibre. Reactive dyeing is now the most important method for the coloration of cellulosic fibres. Reactive dyes can also be applied on wool and nylon; in the latter case they are applied under weakly acidic conditions. Reactive dyes have a low utilization degree compared to other types of dyestuff, since the functional group also bonds to water, creating hydrolysis.
  • 35. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Reactive dyes are categorized by functional group Functional group Fixation Temperature Included in Brands Monochlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 80o Basilen E & P Cibacron E Procion H,HE Monofluorochlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 40o Cibacron F & C Dichlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 30o Basilen M Procion MX Difluorochloropyrimidine Haloheterocycle 40o Levafix EA Drimarene K & R Dichloroquinoxaline Haloheterocycle 40o Levafix E Trichloropyrimidine Haloheterocycle 80-98o Drimarene X & Z Cibacron T Vinyl sulfone activated double bond 40o Remazol Vinyl amide activated double bond 40o Remazol Dyestuffs with only one functional group sometimes have a low degree of fixation. To overcome these dyestuffs containing two different reactive groups (i.e. one monochlorotriazin and one vinyl sulfone) were created. Bifunctional Dyestuffs containing two groups are also known as bifunctional dyestuffs, though some still refers to the original combination. Other type of bifunctional dyes has been introduced. The first bifunctional dye made where more tolerant to temperature deviations (better process). Other bifunctionals are created, some with fastness (better quality) or only fixation degree (better environment/economy) in mind. Reactive dyes have good fastness properties owing to the bonding that occurs during dyeing. Cotton is made of cellulose molecules which react with the dye .During reactive dyeing the H atom in the cellulose molecule combines with the cl atom in the dyeing process and results in a bond. Trifunctional dyestuffs also exist.Procion MX. Many people feel quite strongly that the best dye choice for the beginner, as well as for many experienced dyers, is Procion MX, because this dye is very easy to work with. The dyes are relatively non-toxic. Other advantages include the remarkable wash fastness found in all fiber-reactive dyes. Optimum reaction temperatures for Procion MX dyes are between 95° and 105°F = 35° to 41°C (except for turquoise, which prefers up to 130°F = 55°C) Cibacron F. Another very good fiber reactive dye for artists and crafters to use is the Cibacron F line. (Don't confuse Cibacron F with just plain Cibacron! They can be completely different types of dyes; be sure you get the type with the "F" suffix.) Like Procion MX dyes, Cibacron F dyes can be used in warm water, instead of extremely hot water like some dyes. Its advantages over Procion MX dyes are that it 'keeps' better in solution, so you can store and possibly even buy it already in solution (liquid form), avoiding the safety hazard of breathing dye powder; it is also much easier to wash the excess dye out of the fabric when using Cibacron F dyes than when using Procion MX. However, the Cibacron F line has one major drawback when compared to the Procion MX line: there is not as wide a choice of colors.
  • 36. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Cibacron F dyes can be used according to the exact same recipe as Procion MX dyes, and even mixed freely with them. However, Cibacron F dyes are slightly less quick to react than Procion MX type, which is why they can be stored so much longer after dissolving them in water than the Procion MX type dyes; this also means that slightly higher temperatures are needed. Optimum temperatures for Cibacron F dyes are slightly higher than for Procion MX dyes. Ciba says 55° to 65°C (130° to 150°F); ProChem (Sabracron F) says 45 to 55°C. (113° to 130°F) Drimarene K. This is the remaining popular "cool water" fiber reactive dye. It requires higher temperatures still than Cibacron F, but does not require steaming. Instructions for Drimarene K dyes can be found at Batik Oetoro; they are very similar in action to MX type dyes, except for requiring a minimum temperature of 35°C or 95°F. The greatest drawback, besides the need to find a warm place for the dye reaction to occur, is the lack of a truly rich red. Drimarene K has optimum temperatures around 60°C (140°F) for most colors, 80°C (176°F) for turquoise and a couple of others. Procion H dyes are usually used for silk painting; they require steaming or simmering to fix to cotton or silk. They are chemically similar to Procion MX dyes, being monochlorotriazines, but they are far less reactive, and will not work at all well at room temperature. Procion H dyes, may be fixed to cotton using a high-pH solution such as sodium silicate at room temperature, or by moderate heating. Vinyl sulfone dyes are particularly useful for chemical resist dyeing , in which two different types of fiber reactive dyes are used to print foreground and background in different colors. Remazol dyes are more suitable for dyeing for later discharge (bleaching) than are other fiber reactive dyes. Levafix. made by Dystar, for small-scale users. Their temperature optimum is around 50°C (122°F). This is lower than the optimum temperature of 60° to 80° C. for the Drimarene K dyes, which can be used in "cold" dyeing, but higher than the optimum temperature of about 35° to 40°C (95° to 105°F) for Procion MX. It is not necessary to get quite as high as the optimal temperature in order to have acceptable results. Dissolving the Dyes The dyes are in most cases readily water-soluble. They are dissolved either by passing with cold water to which is then added hot water or by strewing the dye powder into hot water which is stirred at high speed. Usually a temperature not greater than 80ºC is used for dissolution. In the case of highly reactive dyes such as Procion MX (ICI) warm (50-60ºC) water is used. Since the dyes are prone to hydrolysis stock solutions should not be stored for long periods. Reaction with Cellulosic fiber Reactive dyes formed covalent bond with cellulosic fiber by Nucleophilic substitution and addition reaction. The reactions are as follows ----- Substitution reaction: D – R – Cl + HO - Cell  D – R – O – Cell + HCl
  • 37. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Addition reaction: D – F – CH2 = CH2 + HO – Cell  D – F – CH2 – CH2 – O – Cell Reaction with water: The cold brand reactive dyes are highly reactive in nature. They react also with water and get hydrolyzed. The reaction is as follows ---- D – R – Cl + HOH  D – R – OH + HCl The hydrolyzed dye is also colored substances and has very low substantivity for the cellulosic fiber. So they are attached with fiber surface after dyeing. If they do not washed away from the fiber surface the fastness property of the fiber must be very low. Salts used for Reactive Dyeing Depends on the substantivity to increase the exhaustion, salt like common salt (NaCl) or Glouber’s salt (Na2SO4) is used. Alkalis for Reactive Dyeing The common alkalis used for reactive dyeing are sodium bi-carbonate (NaHCO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium phosphate (Na3PO4). Sodium silicate is very strong alkali and only used for deep dyeing. Sodium carbonate is mostly used alkali in reactive dyeing. Eliminating the hydrolyzed dye The hydrolyzed dye is also colored substances and has very low substantivity for the cellulosic fiber. They tend to stay on the fiber surface after dyeing for sometimes although there is no bond between the dye and the fiber. These unfixed dyes come of the fibers when washed or rubbed subsequently. If they do not washed away from the fiber surface the rubbing and wash fastness property of the fiber must be very low. The presence of electrolytes in the washing water causes an increase in the hydrolyzed dye affinity making it difficult to extract, therefore very saline water must be avoided even if this water conditioned. Optical Brightener Optical brighteners, optical brightening agents (OBAs), fluorescent brightening agents (FBAs) or fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are dyes that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region (usually 340-370nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emit light in the blue region (typically 420-470nm). Fluorescent activity is a short term or rapid emission response, unlike phosphorescence, which is a delayed emission. These additives are often used to enhance the appearance of color of fabric and paper, causing a perceived "whitening" effect, making materials look less yellow by increasing the overall amount of blue light reflected. Properties The most common classes of chemicals with this property are the stilbenes and older, non- commercial fluorescent dyes such as umbelliferone, which absorb energy in the UV portion of the spectrum and re-emit it in the blue portion of the visible spectrum. A white surface treated with an optical brightener can emit more visible light than that which shines on it, making it appear brighter. The blue light emitted by the brightener compensates for the
  • 38. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT diminishing blue of the treated material and changes the hue away from yellow or brown and toward white. There are approximately 400 brightener types listed in the Color Index, but less than 90 are actually produced commercially and only a handful are commercially important. Generically, the C.I. FBA number can be assigned to a specific molecule, however, some are duplicated, since manufacturers apply for the index number when they produce it. The global OBA production for paper, textiles and detergents is dominated by just a few di- and tetra- sulfonated triazole-stilbenes and a di-sulfonated stilbene-biphenyl. These are subject to fading when exposed long term to UV, due to the formation of optically inactive stilbene cis- isomers found at the center of the molecule. All brighteners have extended conjungation and/or aromaticity, allowing for electron movement. Some non-stilbene brighteners are used in more permanent applications such as whitening synthetic fiber. Basic class types of brighteners include: - Triazine-stilbenes (di-, tetra- or hexa-sulfonated) - Coumarins - Imidazolines - Diazoles - Triazoles - Benzoxazolines - Biphenyl-stilbenes Brighteners can be "boosted" by the addition of certain polyols like high molecular weight polyethylene glycol or polyvinyl alcohol. These additives increase the visible blue light emissions significantly. Brighteners can also be "quenched". Too much use of brightener will often cause a greening effect as emissions start to show above the blue region in the visible spectrum. Besides the formation of cis isomer in stilbene-containing brighteners (only the trans isomer is optically active), continued exposure to UV-containing light will actually cleave the molecule and start the process of degradation. Common uses Brighteners are commonly added to laundry detergents to replace whitening agents removed during washing and to make the clothes appear cleaner. Optical brighteners have replaced bluing which was formerly used to produce the same effect. Some brighteners can cause allergic reactions when in contact with skin, depending on the individual. Brighteners are used in many papers, especially high brightness papers, resulting in their strongly fluorescent appearance under UV illumination. Paper brightness is typically measured at 457nm, well within the fluorescent activity range of brighteners. Paper used for banknotes does not contain optical brighteners, so a common method for detecting counterfeit notes is to check for fluorescence. A side effect of optical whitening is to make the treated fabrics more visible with Night Vision Devices than non-treated ones. This may or may not be desirable for military or other applications. Optically brightened paper is often not useful in exacting photographic or art applications, since the whiteness decreases with time. Endues of optical brighteners include: - Detergent whitener (instead of blueing agents) - Paper brightening (internal or in a coating) - Fiber whitening (internal, added to polymer melts) -Textile whitening (external, added to fabric finishes)
  • 39. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Mercerization Mercerized cotton is cotton which has been treated with sodium hydroxide to bring out certain properties first discovered by John Mercer in 1851. In 1890, Horace Lowe added an additional step to the process, and the British cotton industry began to take an interest in mercerized cotton, which is available today in a wide range of incarnations from thread to completed garments. When treated properly, mercerized cotton is stronger, smoother, and shinier than regular cotton. In addition, it takes dye more readily so that manufacturers can create rich color saturation in their cottons. The brilliant, lustrous hues of Mercerized cotton can be found in fabric stores, yarn shops, and department stores all over the world. John Mercer discovered that immersing fibers such as cotton and linen in a caustic soda bath would increase their strength and also allow them to take dye more readily. He patented his fiber work, but the cotton industry did not express very much interest in it. It was Horace Lowe who popularized the process, by discovering that keeping the fibers under tension while they were soaked yielded a more lustrous thread. Mercer's name is presumably given to the process to recognize his important initial discovery, which paved the way to Lowe's refinement of the treatment. Mercerization starts with gathering the cotton and spinning it normally. Because cottons with long fibers take better to mercerization, Pima, Egyptian, and Sea Island cotton are usually chosen for the process. The cotton thread is held under tension and submerged in a highly alkaline bath of sodium hydroxide in a percentage which ranges, but usually hovers around 22%. After treatment, the mercerized cotton is placed into an acidic bath to neutralize it. Once this process is complete, the cotton can be dyed and knitted, woven, or packed as stand- alone spools of thread. The terms "pearl cotton" and "pearle cotton" are also used to refer to Mercerized cotton, because of the deeply lustrous appearance of the finished cotton thread. In addition to having rich color saturation and a shimmering appearance, mercerized cotton is also much stronger than conventional cotton thread. The process shrinks the cotton fibers, tightening and smoothing the grain of the thread. Because the cotton is preshrunk, mercerized cotton also tends not to shrink as much as regular cotton, so consumers can be more confident about the fit of mercerized garments. Mercerization Process Single Mercerization is a process in which the yarn used to make a shirt is run through the middle of an open flame at a very high speed. It passes through so quickly that the yarn itself doesn't burn but the millions of fuzzies and slubs on the yarn are eliminated instantly. This makes the yarn stronger. Since there is no fuzz on the yarn, it is held together better and can no longer unravel by itself. The yarn is also less prone to shrinking because the mercerization process literally pre-shrinks the fabric. Mercerization also cleans the yarn and gives it a strong affinity for dye. While normal cotton yarn has no clarity or depth to it's color, Mercerized yarn accepts the dye much better and the colors come out deeper, sharper and have a very clean look. The fabric now looks and feels ten times better. Single Mercerization is a huge step up from the quality of regular cotton shirts but Double Mercerization takes it even a step further. During the knitting process some fuzzies will ultimately resurface. In Double Mercerization the knitted fabric undergoes a second Mercerization process to remove these. The fabric is placed in a chemical bath using caustic soda to once again remove any additional fuzzies or slubs and is then washed clean. This makes the fabric even stronger and makes it look and feel even better. It has a luster and sheen that is unmatched. Double mercerized fabric feels so soft and smooth its look and feel can easily be mistaken for silk.
  • 40. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Chemical Laboratory
  • 41. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Chemical Lab Layout Way of physical lab & sample section of bleached fabrics 19 1 2 4 5 6 7 1114 13 12 8 9 10 18 20 16 15 21 3 17 ENTRANCE P a s s i n g w a y 22 23
  • 42. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Description of the Chemical Lab Layout Sl. No. Equipment Manufacturer 1 Light box UK 2 Robo lab Greece 3 Ahiba Nuance sample Dyeing machine (5 piece) U.S. A. 4 Bath tab & Rack to keep apparatus, chemicals etc. 5 Rapid Washer /Quick Wash Plus Rapid 6 Electrolux Wascator SDL 7 Soaping (AH2-Y) Locally made 8 Rota wash SDL 9 Quick wash SDL 10 Washing machine (Siemens) Germany 11 Rota wash M228 SDL 12 Electrolux Washing machine (especially for H&M) UK 13 Washing M/C WASCATOR FOM 71 CLS (all buyer) UK 14 Washing machine Whirlpool USA 15 Spectrophotometer (Data color 600) USA 16 Q-SUN Xenon test chamber Bangkok 17 Lab attendant area + pipetting 18 Senior manager desk of QAD 19 Fabric inspection or approval room 20 Table for executive task 21 Iron on the stand 22 & 23 Senior Executive desk
  • 43. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT LIGHT BOX: Brand name: VeriVide Company name: James. H. Heal Origin: UK Purpose: Sample is examined under different lighting media. With today’s complex color requirements, a shade cannot always be assessed under one light source. Several may be needed so that the shade is viewed in applicable conditions Light Sourc e Name Description C.R .I Length Watts D65 VeriVide D65 "Artificial Daylight VeriVide D65 “Artificial Daylight”. Correlated colour temperature 6500K. Within the tolerances prescribed in BS 950: Part 1; and all international specifications for D65 illuminant. Specified for most applications where there is a need to maintain colour consistency and quality. Conforming highly to the CIE specifications, for accurate colour matching. 98 600mm 1200mm 1500mm 20w 40w 65w F Tungsten Filament Tungsten Filament Lighting. Approximate colour temperature of 2800K. Required by BS 950: Part 1 as a test for metamerism (approximating CIE Illuminant ‘A’). Typical light source used within domestic environments 100 Globe Globe Round Clear- 284mm Opal-284 40w 60w 150w 60w 60w A Tungsten Halogen Tungsten Halogen Lighting (CIE Illuminant ‘A’). This represents incandescent A (inc-A) with a color temperature of 2856K. Typical light source used within domestic environments. Used to check for metamerism. 100 --------- 35w 840 P15 Narrow Band Triphosphor Fluorescent Lamps. Correlated colour temperature of 4000K. CIE Illuminant F11. Often chosen as 85 600mm 1200mm 1500mm 18w 36w 58w Figure: Light box & viewed angle
  • 44. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT SAMPLE DYEING MACHINE Machine name: Top Speed II Brand name: Ahiba Nuance Company name: Data color Origin: America. Uses A rotary dyeing machine yielding the highest production in the laboratory. Process: Exhaust Fibers: Synthetic, Natural, Blends Substrate: Piece, Skein, Loose Stock, Top Testing: Fastness Testing Benefits - Laboratory recipes correlate with production recipes - Uniform temperature inside each dyeing beaker - Level dyeing a European “Point of Sale” light source, with good colour rendering and manufactured to a tighter tolerance specification as prescribed by Marks & Spencer. (Formerly TL84) CWF Cool White Cool White Broad Band Fluorescent Lamps. Correlated colour temperature of 4000K. Used as an American “Point of Sale” light source. Moderate colour rendering. 62 600m 1200mm 1500mm 20w 40w 65/80 w 830 Narrow Band Triphosphor Fluorescent Lamp. Correlated colour temperature 3000K. Often chosen as a European “Point of Sale” light source with good colour rendering.(Formerly TL83) 85 600mm 1200mm 1500mm 18w 40w 65/80 w UV Ultra Violet Ultra-Violet Black light. Used to detect the presence of Optical Brightening Agents and/or Fluorescent dyes. Therefore it is useful when assessing white and Fluorescent shades to check the level present and its evenness. N/A Clear- 450mm Blacklight -600mm 15w 18w Figure: Sample dyeing Machine
  • 45. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT - Unlimited program storage and easy program editing Dyeing Positions & Beaker Size 20 x 150cc beakers (Two machine) 15 x 300cc beakers (Three machine) Features - Infrared heating; Water Cooling - Easy to program controller with memory card - Precision control and constant monitoring of dyeing parameters - Programmable speed and constant movement of the dye bath and substrate - Manual auxiliary additions - Machine standard rpm is 35 - Each M/C contains one sensor beakers. ROBO LAB Manufacturer: Sclavos Country of Origin: Greece Manufacturing Year: 2001 Total Weight: 800kg Stroke force: 7kw Electric consumption: 220v Dimension: Length = 200 cm, Width = 170cm, Height = 200cm. Purpose: -Uniform mixing of dyes. - Mixing up to 24 hours. - To ensure uniform solubility. - Automatic pipetting. Features  Fully automated dyestuff solution preparation.  Fully automated dispensing of dyeing recipes.  High dispensing accuracy +/- 0.003 g Figure: ROBOLAB 240 (Auto dispenser)
  • 46. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  High dyestuff solution accuracy +/- 0.0001%  Fast solution preparation (4 min.) & fast recipe dispensing (2 min. with 3 ingredients)  Patented gravimetric dispensing system  Direct dispensing into the beaker.  Compatibility with beakers of many lab machinery manufacturers.  Windows operating system.  Available in various languages  Data transfer via floppy disk or network. Rapid washing machine  Soaping is done after neutralization to remove unfixed dyes.  Dyeing is also possible except polyester.  Temperature: 95 c (Max).  Speed: 60 rpm.  At a time 24 samples would be washing. Washing Machine Place of Origin: Finland Used but excellent: Year approx 2006 Model Number: Wascator FOM71MP-Lab Brand Name: Electrolux Standard reference washing machine Wascator FOM71MP-Lab is manufactured by Electrolux AB, Sweden. The machine is used to determine the stability of fabrics and garments to washing and to investigate the effects of detergents and chemicals. The machine is in very good condition and fully operational. It is robustly constructed and the drum and external panels are manufactured in stainless steel and are rigidly fixed to a galvanized internal frame. This Wascator is microprocessor controlled and accepts up to 99 programs which can be entered or modified by the user, either manually at the keypad or electronically from a cassette. The Liquid crystal display shows up to four lines of text. The unit is programmed with BS, ISO, IWS and M&S test programs. Figure: Electrolux lab washing machine
  • 47. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine physically:  Width 660 mm  Depth 630 mm  Height 1070 mm  Weight approx 120 kg Rota wash Brand name: Rota wash Company name: SDL ATLAS Country of origin: UK Feature  Using this machine for test color fastness to wash  This machine contains some jar  Also contains 25 steel ball (5mm diameter)  Machine running time accordingly test method used.  Machine run rotationally. Quick Wash Plus Figure: Color fastness test machine Figure: Quick wash machine
  • 48. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine name: Quick wash plus Company name: SDL ATLAS Origin: UK Features  Less than 20 minute wash and dry time.  5 chamber bins handles multiple samples and weights.  Handles from 1-20 samples per bin depending on fabric weight.  Microprocessor controlled wash & dry sequences.  Prolonged programs for AATCC & other testing method. Table top maintaining.  Electronic air & water control & display. Optional fully automatic four liquid dispensing systems. Utilize operator time more efficiently. Utilize space not taken by traditional washer & dryer more efficiently. Quality control-testing dimensional stability, spirality and finish durability. Specification Accessories: Sample tongs Fabric making templates (2) Direct reading shrinkage ruler Marker pens (yellow & black) Sample size: 20*20 cm to 25*25 cm Cycle time: 12-45 minutes, Pre-programmed cycles up to 10. Number of specimens: 1 to 20 per cycle depending on sample weight. Water temperature: up to 70C Air temperature: Up to 90C Air pressure: 2.4 to 4.8 bar Water volume: 2.0 to 4.5 liter Siemens Washing Machine
  • 49. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Product name: Washing Machines Brand: Siemens Origin: Germany Feature Label: A / A / C Capacity: 5 kg Spin speed: 1000/600 rpm Buttons: Rinse Hold, Spin speed reduction, Start Easy-care program: 30°C, 40°C, 60°C Wash optimization: Spin off, Spin speed reduction, Start  Multiple water protection  LED program progress indicators  Aquatronic wash system  Automatic load adjustment system  Unbalanced load detection  Foam detection system  30 cm porthole with 140 degree opening door can be built-under  Whites and colored program: 30°C, 40°C, 60°C, 60°C Pre-washing, 60° Stains Intensive, 90°C  Water protection system  Fully electronic control dials for wash programs, temperature and special programs Special programs: stains, pre-wash, hand-wash wool and delicates Figure: Washing machine especially for Puma
  • 50. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Rota wash M228 Machine name: Rota wash Company name: SDL ATLAS Origin: UK Feature  Increased capacity is capable of holding the same amount of 550 ml or 1200 ml containers  No extra hardware tools or adaptors are required for 1200 ml containers.  Graphical display panel equipped with multi function controller frequency operation.  Built in testing programs for various international standards including ISO.  Communication part for routine updating. The redesigned Rota wash color fastness tester offers many feature upgrades that make it more efficient & easier for the lab technician to operate. The new graphical display & integrated controller provide an easy operating interface. All functions of the Rota wash are preciously controlled.  Water temperature.  Test duration  Rate of temperature rise.  Water level adjustment (Drain & Filling).  Rotation of container for loading & unloading.  Test method selection. Figure: Color fastness to wash test machine
  • 51. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Electrolux Wascator Machine Machine name: Electrolux Wascator Company name: Healink James H. Heal Origin: UK WASCATOR FOM 71 CLS Machine name: WASCATOR FOM 71 C Company name: Healink, James H. Heal Origin: UK Code: 310B Model: Wascator FOM 71 CLS Weight: 195 kg DESCRIPTION High precision washing machine acknowledge as a standard reference for washing tests on fabrics. WASCATOR is suitable for checking dimension stability during washing and for checking the effects of washing detergent and chemical products on textile. Equipped with Fig.: Garments washing machine especially for H&M Fig.: Washing machine for all buyers
  • 52. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT microprocessor for the control of the functioning cycle of the machine. Included are 9 pre- programmed washing cycles, programmable washing cycles are available as optional. OPTIONALS code 310 2 polyester make-weight code 310.4 ECE reference detergent code 310.8 sodium per borate code 310.14 Stability template and percentage rule for checking dimensional stability Whirlpool Washing Machine Machine name: Whirlpool Company name: SDL ATLAS Origin: Made in USA Modal: Heavy duty series 8 Specification Dry load capacity: 8.2 kg Weight approximate: 143 kg Water supply: Hot & Cold Minimum water pressure: 1 bar Minimum water temperature: 603 C Fig.: Fabric/Gts. Washing machine for American
  • 53. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Spectrophotometer Machine name: Spectrophotometer Model: Data color 600 Origin: USA Purposes:  To collect recipe from Data Color.  To measure CMC difference. (Pass/Fail decision). To give staining, wash fastness, light fastness result. To know the metameric value & dye concentration. To give topping recipe. Figure: Spectrophotometer and different parts
  • 54. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Specifications: Feature Description Instrument Type Dual-beam spectrophotometer Measurement Geometry Diffuse illumination and 8° viewing Illumination Source Pulsed xenon filtered to approximate D65 Sphere Diameter 152 mm / 6.0 in Specular Port Automated included or excluded Spectral Analyzer Proprietary SP2000 analyzer with dual 256 diode array and high resolution holographic grating Transmittance Measurements No Wavelength Range 360 nm to 700 nm Reporting Interval 5 nm or 10 nm(1) Effective Bandwidth 5 nm or 10 nm Photometric Range 0 to 200% Black Trap High performance 20 Read Repeatability On The White Tile Using Dual Flash (CIELAB) 0.01 (max) Inter-instrument Agreement(2) for Reflectance (CIELAB) 0.15 (max) , 0.08 (avg.) Lens 4 position auto zoom Aperture plates for reflection measurements 3 standard (LAV, SAV, USAV) 2 optional (XUSAV) LAV 30 mm illuminated 26 mm measured MAV 20 mm illuminated 16 mm measured SAV 9 mm illuminated 5 mm measured USAV 6.6 mm illuminated 2.5 mm measured XUSAV(3) 3.0 mm illuminated 2.5 mm measured Reflection Aperture Plate Detection Yes UV Calibration Yes
  • 55. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Automatic UV Control Automatic UV calibration for the measurement of fluorescent Specimens with UV cutoff filters at 400 nm, 420 nm and 460 nm Q-Sun Xenon Test Chamber Machine name: Q-Sun Xenon test chamber Company name: Color Global Co. Ltd. Origin: Bangkok Purpose: - To measure color fastness to light. - To measure color fastness to light perspiration. Total Table Work Buyer swatch Work sheet open Lab dip submission card send to buyer Sample approved Yes No Production card Re Submission
  • 56. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT TOTAL LAB PROCEDURE Swatch/standard/pantone number from buyer Swatch input in spectrophotometer to get color combination A/C to standard prepare recipe for lab dyeing with the help of database and spectrophotometer, fabrication is important issue. Sample taken a/c to buyer requirements for dyeing Prepare dye solution a/c to recipe with the help of electronic digital pipette (EDP) or hand Pipetting. Dyeing this sample according to recipe in lab dyeing machine. After treatment is done Drying and pressing Shade match with the swatch/standard in the light box according to the recommended light source of buyer Comparison of sample with swatch/standard If Pass If Fail Prepare lab deep submission card for buyer approval Color difference analysis Recipe Correction (Add / less) more than one. NO YES Production card prepared for lab to bulk
  • 57. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Sample Dyeing Procedure Recipe Calculation Shade % × Weight of the fabric in gm Dyes (gm) = Stock solution % Salt (gm) = Auxiliaries & chemicals (cc/ml) = For Caustic soda (38 Be.) Dye line (Recipe) form lab executive Making stock solution (1% & 0.1%) for pipetting if necessary Add salt & soda according to shade percentage Take sample 10 gm and emerged in the solution Dyeing according to sample & dyes properties After treatment is done according to dyeing method. Drying & Ironing Required amount (g/l) × Liquor ratio × sample weight 1000 Required amount (g/l) × Liquor ratio × sample weight 1000 × concentration (%) of stock solution
  • 58. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Required alkali solution in (cc/ml) = Conversion formula from percentage to g/l is as g/l = Required amount (%)× 10 . Stock Solution Making Procedure For solid, X gm chemicals/dyes/auxiliaries in the 100 ml water is called x% stock solution. For liquid, X ml/cc chemicals/dyes/auxiliaries in the (100 - x ml/cc) water is called x% stock solution. Caustic soda: The amounts of alkali recommended for the respective procedures refer to caustic soda 30%, 66Tw (36Be). For other concentrations, the amounts can be calculated with the aid of the following table: Density and conc. of caustic soda at 15C Baume (Be) Twaddle (Tw) Density g/ml g NaOH 100% per 1 Kg NaOH soln. g NaOH 100% per 1 Lit NaOH soln 15 23.2 1.116 103.0 114.9 16 25.0 1.125 110.6 124.4 17 26.8 1.134 119.0 134.9 18 28.4 1.142 126.9 145.0 19 30.4 1.152 135.0 155.5 20 32.4 1.162 143.5 166.7 21 34.2 1.171 151.5 177.4 22 36.0 1.180 160.0 188.8 23 38.0 1.190 169.1 201.2 24 40.0 1.200 178.1 213.7 25 42.0 1.210 187.1 226.4 26 44.0 1.220 196.5 239.7 27 46.2 1.231 206.0 253.6 28 48.2 1.241 215.5 267.4 29 50.4 1.252 225.0 281.7 30 52.6 1.263 235.0 296.8 31 54.8 1.274 244.8 311.9 32 57.0 1.285 255.0 327.7 33 59.4 1.279 265.8 344.7 34 61.6 1.308 276.5 361.7 35 64.0 1.320 288.3 380.6 36 66.4 1.332 300.0 399.6 37 69.0 1.345 312.0 419.6 38 71.4 1.357 325.0 441.0 39 74.0 1.370 337.3 462.1 40 76.6 1.383 350.0 484.1 41 79.4 1.397 363.6 507.9 Required amount (%) × wt of substrate × LR Conversion value from Be. to g/l of alkali
  • 59. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 42 82.0 1.410 376.5 530.9 43 84.8 1.424 390.6 556.2 44 87.6 1.438 404.7 582.0 45 90.6 1.453 420.2 610.6 46 93.6 1.468 435.8 639.8 47 96.6 1.483 451.6 669.7 48 99.6 1.498 467.3 700.0 49 102.8 1.514 484.1 732.9 50 106.0 1.530 501.0 766.5 For Light – Medium Shade (Cotton Fabric) with Cold Brand Dyestuff Sample Weight = 10 gm M: L = 1:8 Fabrication Buyer Name: X Recipe: Leva Blue CA = 0.034% Remazol yellow RGB = 0.447% Remazol Red RGB = 1.051 % Glauber Salt = 45 gm/l Soda Ash (20%) = 16 gm/l Leveling Agent = 1 g/l Sequestering agent = 1 g/l Calculation: Leva Blue CA = 0.034 × 10 = 0.34 cc Remazol yellow RGB = 0.447 × 10 = 4.47 cc Remazol Red RGB = 1.051 × 10 = 10.51 cc Glauber Salt = (45 ×80)/1000 = 3.6 gm Soda Ash (20%) = (16 × 80)/ (1000×20%) = 6.4 cc Sequestering agent = (1× 80)/ (1000×10%) = 0.8 cc Leveling agent = (1× 80)/ (1000×10%) = 0.8 cc Total Required Water = [80 – (0.34 +4.47 +10.51 +6.4 +0.8+0.8)] = 56.68 cc
  • 60. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dyeing Curve . 38 Dyeing Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes & leveling agent by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then add glauber salt into the beaker. After that we put the sample fabric into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker into the sample dyeing machine and dye bath set at 38o c. (4) Raise the temperature up to 60o c (3o c gradient or 3o /min ) (5) Run the machine for 30 minutes at 60o c. (6) At 30o c hold the machine and dosing soda/alkali solution according to dyeline. (7) Then run the machine 60 minutes at 60o c. (8) After that we drop the temperature of the sample dyeing machine and get the Sample from the machine and the sample is ready for after treatment. After that give soaping at 85o c for 10 minutes. We soaped again at 90o c for 10 minutes. Then we again give cold wash. (10)After that dried the sample and ironing it. Tempo C Fig: Dyeing Curve for Light Shade H 60 Time (min) 308 90 B.D Dosing alkali/soda
  • 61. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT After Treatment: For Dark to Extra Dark Shade (Cotton Fabric) with Cold Brand Dyestuff Sample Weight = 10 gm M: L = 1:7 Yarn quality: 40/1 (100% cotton) Buyer Name: X Recipe: Levafix Blue- CA = 0.600400% Levafix Amber-CA = 0.6780% Levafix fast red-CA = 0.5650 % Glauber Salt = 45 gm/l Soda Ash (20%) = 16 gm/l Leveling Agent = 1 g/l Sequestering agent = 1 g/l Calculation: Levafix Blue- CA = 0.06004 × 10 = 6.004 cc Levafix Amber-CA = 0.6780 × 10 = 6.780 cc Levafix fast red-CA = 0.5650 × 10 = 5.650 cc Glauber Salt = (45 ×70)/1000 = 3.15 gm Soda Ash (20%) = (16 × 70)/ (1000×20%) = 5.6 cc Unload the sample from dyeing machine Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 liter water for 4-5 min) Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 85 o C for 15 min Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 90 o C for 15 min. Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash
  • 62. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Sequestering agent = (1× 70)/ (1000×10%) = 0.7 cc Leveling agent = (1×70)/ (1000×10%) = 0.7 cc Total Required Water = [70 – (6.004 +6.780 +5.650 +5.6 +0.7+0.7)]= 44.53 cc Dyeing Curve: Dyeing Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes & leveling agent by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then add glauber salt into the beaker. After that put the sample fabric/yarn into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker into the sample dyeing machine and dye bath set at 30o c. (4) Raise the temperature up to 60o c (3o C gradient or 3o C/min) (5) Run the machine for 30 minutes at 60o c. (6) After 40 min run at 60o c hold the machine and dosing soda/alkali solution according to dyeline. (7) Then run the machine 70 minutes at 60o c. (8) After that drop the temperature of the sample dyeing machine and get the sample from the machine and the sample is ready for after treatment (9) After that give soaping at 95o c for 10 minutes. We soaped again at 90o c for 10 minutes. Then again give cold wash. (10)After that dried the sample and ironing it. Tempo C Fig: Dyeing Curve for light shade H 60 Time (min) 4010 110 B.D Dosing alkali/soda
  • 63. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT After Treatment: Dark Shade for Mercerized Yarn Sample Weight =10 gm M: L = 1:12 Yarn quality = 60/2 (100% cotton double mercerized) Recipe: Levafix Blue CA = 0.07300 % Kimsoline red KED =1.5217 % Kimsoline yellow KED = 0.71199 % Leveling agent (Ludigol) & Sequestering agent (10%) =1 gm/l Soda Ash (20%) =12 gm/l Glauber Salt = 50gm/l Calculation: Levafix Blue CA = 0.07300 ×10=0.735cc Kimsoline red KED =1.5217 ×10=15.21cc Kimsoline yellow KED = 0.71199 ×10=7.11cc Leveling agent (Ludigol 10 %) = (1×120) / (1000×10%) = 1.2 cc Sequestering agent (10%) = (1×120) / (1000×10%) = 1.2 cc Unload the sample from dyeing machine Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 lt water for 4-5 min) Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 95 o C for 15 min Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 90 o C for 15 min. Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash
  • 64. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Soda Ash (20%) = (12×120) / (1000×20%) =7.2cc Glauber Salt = (50×120) / 1000 = 6 gm Total Required Water = [120 – (0.735+15.21+7.11+1.2+1.2+7.2)] = 87.345 cc Dyeing Curve: H Working Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes & leveling agent by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then add glauber salt into the beaker. After that put the sample fabric into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker & Dye bath set at room temperature(30 o c) (4) Raise the temperature at 60 o c (3 o c per minute) and run for 20 minutes. (5) Again raise the temperature at 80 o c (2 o c per minute) and run for 20 minutes. (6) Now temperature migration from 80 o c to 60 o c (4 o c per minute). Then hold the machine for soda dosing according to dyeline. (7) After Soda dosing we run the machine for 65 minutes and finally drop the bath for after treatment. 30 80 60 10 30 40 60 125 0Time (min) Tempo C Fig: Dyeing curve for Mercerized 100% cotton fabric or yarn Dosing soda/alkali B.D
  • 65. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT (8) Now should need cold wash of the sample. (9) Then neutralize the sample fabric by giving a wash with 1 gm CH3COOH in 1litre cold water for 4-5 minutes. (10)After that we give soaping at 90o c for 15 minutes. (11)After that we dried the sample and ironing it. After Treatment: Dyeing of polyester with disperses dyes: Dark Shade for Mercerized Yarn Sample Weight =10 gm M: L = 1:8 Fabrication = S/J (100% polyester) Recipe: Terasil blue WBLS = 0.006 % Terasil red FBN Conc. =0.6742 % Leveling agent & Sequestering agent (10%) =1.5 gm/l Acid buffer (Cibatex AB) = 2 g/l Calculation: Terasil blue WBLS = 0.006 x 10=0.06cc Terasil red FBN Conc. =0.6742 x10=6.74cc Unload the sample from dyeing machine Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 95 o C for 15 min Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 lt water for 4-5 min)
  • 66. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Leveling agent (10 %) = (1.5 x 80) / (1000 x10%) = 1.2 cc Sequestering agent (10%) = (1.5 x 80) / (1000 x 10%) = 1.2 cc Acid buffer (Cibatex AB 10%) = (2 x 80) / (1000 x 10%) = 1.6 cc Total Required Water = [80 – (0.06+6.74+1.2+1.2+1.6)] = 69.2 cc Dyeing Curve: Working Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes, leveling, sequestering, agent and acid buffer by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then put the sample fabric into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker & Dye bath set at room temperature (30 o c) (4) Raise the temperature at 130 o c (2 o c per minute) and run for 70 minutes. (5) Now cooling temperature at 60 o c (2 o c per minute) and drop dyeing bath for after treatment. 50 140120 30 130 B.D Time (min) Tempo C Fig: Dyeing curve for 100% Polyester fabric or yarn
  • 67. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT (6) Now should need cold wash of the sample. (7) Then need reduction clearing the sample fabric by giving a wash with caustic and Hydrose in 1 g/liter for 10 minutes at 80-90 o c (8) Again cold wash and neutralizing with acetic acid 1 g/l (9) Cold wash after that drying and pressing After Treatment: Dyeing of Cotton goods with Hot brand (Turquoise) Reactive dyes Dyeing Curve Unload the sample from dyeing machine Cold wash Neutralize with acetic acid 1 g/l Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash Reduction clearing with Hydrose & Caustic (1 g/l) @ 80-90 o C for 10 min. H 30 60 80 Tempo C
  • 68. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dyeing Procedure 1) At first, we took required Dyes, leveling& sequestering agent by pipetting in a beaker. 2) Then we add glauber salt into the beaker. After that we put the sample fabric into the beaker. 3) Then place the beaker & Dye bath set at room temperature (30 o c) 4) Raise the temperature at 60 o c (3 o c per minute) and run for 20 minutes. 5) Again raise the temperature at 80 o c (5 o c per minute) and run for 6-8 minutes. 6) Now temperature migration from 80 o c to 60 o c. 7) Then hold the machine for soda dosing according to dyeline. 8) After Soda dosing we run the machine for 45 at 80 o c minutes and finally drop the bath for after treatment. 9) Now we should need cold wash of the sample. 10) Then we neutralize the sample fabric by giving a wash with 1 gm CH3COOH in 1 liter cold water for 4-5 minutes. 11) After that we give soaping at 95o c for 10 minutes two times. 12) After that we dried the sample and ironing it. After Treatment: Unload the sample from dyeing machine Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 liter water for 4-5 min) Soaping with Sandphore RSK & Ladiquiest1.5 g/l at 95 o C for 10 min Soaping with Sandphore RSK & Ladiquiest1.5 g/l at 95 o C for 10 min. Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash
  • 69. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Introducing with Buyer Requirements Some buyers of square knit fabrics Ltd. PUMA , G.STAR, H & M, S.Oliver, ESPRIT, ELCORTE, TEMA, Mexx, Strauss, Chater House, Promod, M & S, Ashcity, Kitaro, Mustang, Matalan etc. Buyer requirements receive by mail or hard copy or hand to hand. Maximum requirements are same for all buyers but particular buyers may have exceptional requirements. Some common requirements are given below-  Metameric free.  Shrinkage.  Spirality.  Color Fastness to washing.  Color fastness to rubbing.  Color fastness to light.  Color fastness to light perspiration. (Acid/Alkali)  Color fastness to perspiration.  Pilling properties.  Fabric strength etc. Metal free dyes must be used for Tema kids dress (Exceptional requirements) some tests are done as a special requirement. Right First Time (RFT) RFT is very much important for dyeing plant. Said that whose RFT good his production is good. It means lab to bulk trial. When lab dip approved then it is ready for bulk production at first batch of bulk for one particular batch to be considered as a trial batch If trial batch is okay at first trial without addition, topping as less as time as possible then we can say RFT is good then next batches run as follow as trial batch. But if does not match first trial batch then second trial is run for that some time become delay. But you have to remember it time consuming is very much important issue for profit as well as meet the buyer requirements and maintain schedule delivery time as per dead. If RFT increase simultaneously dyeing production efficiency increases. If we can save one hour per shift then we can save 3 hours per day that means 90 hours per month so it is huge profit if we right use this time.
  • 70. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Yarn Processing
  • 71. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The demand of dyed yarn now a days increasing for the production of export quality knit fabrics. Yarn dyed fabrics add value to the garments and if the yarn is singed and mercerized then quality of garments improve remarkably. The Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. specializes in yarn dyeing both in hank form and package form. Here singeing and mercerizing of yarn is done in modern machineries and quality of processed yarn is maintained strictly which suffice the buyer demand. Variety of shade and yarn type has been processed for producing sophisticated extra qualified – double mercerized fabrics. In this report we will discuss the flow of process of yarn processing, layout, machine studies, different faults occurring at the different stages of production, recipe preparation and quality check.  Flow Process Chart of Yarn Dyeing (Package Section): Yarn receive by store from spinning mill according to buyer requirement Grey yarn receive from yarn storage by SR (Store Requisition) Soft winding / Precession winding on spring holder package Batch preparation for dyeing on the basis of yarn quantity at spindle Scouring & Bleaching Dyeing according to Dye line Washing & Finishing Hydro extracting Drying by RF dryer Random or hard winding at paper cone Packaging & delivery to yarn storage
  • 72. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Layout of Package Dyeing Section:
  • 73. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Description of the Layout of Package Dyeing Section: Sl. No. Equipment Name Sl. No. Equipment Name 1. Sample Dryer Machine 12. BERTA T.E. Hydro extractor Machine 2. SCHOLL Sample Dyeing Machine-011 13. SCHOLL Hydro extractor Machine 3. Fong’s Sample Dyeing Machine-009 14. STALAM RF Dryer Machine-001 4. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-001 15. STALAM RF Dryer Machine-002 5. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-002 16. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-001 6. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-003 17. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-002 7. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-004 18. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-003 8. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-005 19. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-004 9. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-006 & 007 20. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Random (Hard) Winding Machine-001 10. Fong’s Yarn Dyeing Machine-008 21. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Random (Hard) Winding Machine-002 11. Fong’s Sample Dyeing Machine-010 22. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Random (Hard) Winding Machine-003  Specification & Description of Package Dyeing Machine: Soft Winding (Precession Winding) Machine: Grey Yarn is wound on stainless steel dye springs on precession winders from SSM of Switzerland under controlled humidity to give uniform density package for best Dyeing. Here 60 Spindles Winding Machine, each Spindle is individually motor driven clubbed with SSM Propeller Yarn Guiding System which ensures most gentle treatment of yarn material. Yarn tensioning device by permanently rotating bar of disks adjustable by weights, with automatic yarn tension reduction with increase in package diameter. Thread guiding system ensures uniform winding density and no patterning. This machine has traveling blower to suck flies and fluff so that it does not go into soft package.
  • 74. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine Name: SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG (SSM) Machine No.: 883.0109/01 883.0110/01 883.0108/01 883.0491/07 Type: PS6 – W/F U: 415 V I Max: 32 A F: 50 HZ No. of Spindles: 60 RPM: 1000 (Max) Origin: Switzerland Capacity: 60 Packages. Various Parts of Soft Winding Machine: 01) Push button or lock using package in or out. 02) Opening bar using for package out from spindle. 03) Tube holder- Spring tube. 04) Support roller. 05) Yarn bar. 06) In flyer use for proper wind of the yarn on the package. 07) Sensor yarn bar. 08) Yarn clear guide. 09) Tension bar (guide + spring). 10) Feeder. 11) Finger. 12) Anti-balloon. 13) Anti-balloon yarn bar. 14) Package holder 15) Motor 16) Overhead blower 17) Auto splicer. 18) Locking device. Check Points: o Clean over head blower. o Water level in splicer. o Clean the yarn cleaner. Factors Considered / Controlling Parameters in Soft Winding: Winding on tension of the machine should be optimum and constant though the different heads of the machine.  Length of packages should be constant.  Package density should be optimum and constant.  Twist of yarn should be constant
  • 75. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Yarn count mixing or lot mixing should be avoided.  All cones should be wound to a definite length of yarn. Parameters of Soft Winding Machine: Yarn Count Speed (m/min) Tension Length (meter) Feeder Initial Final 24/1 1000 45% 35% 46000 18% 26/1 1000 45% 35% 49000 18% 30/1 1000 45% 35% 58000 18% 34/1 1000 40% 30% 66000 18% 40/1 1000 35% 25% 77000 18% 20/2 1000 55% 45% 19000 18% 40/2 1000 45% 35% 39000 18% 58/2 (mercerized) 900 50% 40% 52500 18% 60/2 (mercerized) 900 50% 40% 54000 18% 100/2 (mercerized) 800 35% 25% 103000 18% Length Calculation in Package: To maintain the constant package density same length of yarn should be wound to all the packages of a batch or lot. The dyeing machine capacity is calculated on weight, so it is necessary to maintain the uniform weight throughout the packages. To do this for a definite count of yarn following calculation is followed, Count (Ne) = )()( )()( WWeightlunitLength wunitWeightLLength   L = w WlNe  = 6.453 840 WNe  yds. = 1006.453 54.236840   WNe meter = Ne × W in Kg × 1.693 m. In this machine length is pre selected. For different count of yarn different length of yarn is pre selected. This is due to maintain the constant package weight and package density. Production Calculation: Production = = ………X……… Kg/day. Production = Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) M/c rpm x No. of m/c x No. of head x Eff. x 60 x 8 x 3 x 1.0936 x 0.453 Yarn count (Ne) x 840
  • 76. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT = Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) x 2.2046 x 840 = Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) x 2.2046 x 840 x 0.914 (yard to meter) = = ………X…….. m/min =……… X…… m/min x 60 x 8 x 3 x No. of head x No. of M/c x Eff. = ………X……..m/day. Batching: Machine name: Telemechanique Type: XCK-J Model: ZCK-EO Origin: France This is the second step of yarn processing, done by a pneumatic pressure unit. The soft wound packages of similar count are batched in a package carrier. The no of packages that will process is defined by the machine manufacturer for a definite machine with a definite carrier. The recommended no of package for carrier is as below: Type of Carrier No. of Packages in each Carrier Standard Height Full carrier 11 1524 mm Middle Carrier 8 1108 mm Half carrier 5 700 mm Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) x 2.2046 x 840 x 0.914 (yard to meter) M/c speed (rpm)
  • 77. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT It should be mentioned that length of 11 packages is not 1524 mm yet. First 11 packages are creel in the spindle then pneumatic pressure is applied from up above the spindle. When 1524 mm reached then a screwed cover is screwed on the top of the spindle. The reason to press the soft wound package is to make uniform density of the packages by pressing all alone. The ratio of compression is recommended by the machine manufacturer. Note: Squeeze packages up to 13% from relax condition (It is depend upon dye bath depth). Exceptional only Fong’s bulk dyeing machine which contains 14 packages in each carrier and only full carrier is used. Package Density Calculation: Formula Total diameter of package = D1 Diameter of spring = D2 Diameter of the package = D (D1 – D2) Height of the package = H Weight of the total package = W1 Weight of the spring = W2 Weight of the package (W) = (W1-W2) We know, Package density () = Package weight / Package volume And volume of cylinder, V = π r2 H = π (D/2)2 H So package volume (V) = π (D1/2)2 H - π (D2/2)2 H = π /4 x H {(D1)2 – (D2)2 } =…X… cm3 Now package density () = =..........X……gm/cm3 = …….X……gm/cm3 x 1000 =……..X…….gm/dm3 . π /4 x H {(D1)2 – (D2)2 } W (gm) H D1 D2
  • 78. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Density Calculation for Several Counts: 1 **Before Pressing Yarn Quality: 30/1 cc Package Height (H) = 162mm = 16.2cm Total Package Dia (D1) = 162mm = 16.2cm Total Package Weight (W1) = 1.38kg = 1380gm Spring Weight (W2) = 0.185kg = 185gm Spring Dia (D2) = 65 mm = 6.5cm Now Package density () = = 426 gm/dm3 2 **After Pressing Yarn Quality: 30/1 cc Package Height (H) = 145mm = 14.5cm Total Package Dia (D1) = 165mm = 16.5cm Total Package Weight (W1) = 1.38kg = 1380gm Spring Weight (W2) = 0.185kg = 185gm Spring Dia (D2) = 65 mm = 6.5cm Now package density () = = 456 gm/dm3 **So we can sure that after pressing for every count, yarn package density will be increase. Causes of Variation of Package Density: Package density may vary due to the following reason:  Head to head tension variation  High yarn irregularity  Differing yarn length among packages  Stoppage of head due to end breakage  Mechanical problem in flyer, tensioner, sensor etc 1.195 x 4 π x (16.22 – 6.52 ) x 16.2 1.195 x 4 π x (16.52 – 6.52 ) x 14.5
  • 79. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Sample Dyeing Machines: 1. Machine Name : Scholl Manufacturer : Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 2.5 kg Spindle no : 1 Package : 2 Temperature : 140o C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 2. Machine Name : Fong’s Manufacturer : Fongs national Engineering Serial no : 29015894 Capacity : 14 kg Spindle no : 2 Package : 14 Design Temperature : 140o C Design Pressure: 660 Kpa 3. Machine Name: Fong’s Manufacturer : Fongs national Engineering Machine no : LABWIN -12 Serial no : 32022483 Capacity : 12 kg Spindle no : 2 Package : 12 Design Temperature : 170o C Design Pressure: 700 Kpa
  • 80. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Bulk Dyeing Machines: 1. Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 50 kg Spindle No. : 4 [1 Spindle = 11 Packages] Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 2 Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 100 kg Spindle No. : 7 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 3. Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 100 kg Spindle No. : 7 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 4. Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 200 kg Spindle No. : 15 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 5. Machine Name: Scholl
  • 81. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 200 kg Spindle No. : 15 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 6. Machine Name : Scholl Manufacturer : Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 300 kg Spindle No. : 23 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 7. Machine Name : Scholl Manufacturer : Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 400 kg Spindle No. : 32 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 8. Machine Name : Fongs Manufacturer : Fongs National Engineering Machine No. : FCT IL Serial no : 612091-1 Capacity : 520 kg Spindle No. : 32 Temperature : 140O C Design Pressure: N/A
  • 82. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DYE LINE YARN PROCESSING UNIT Clients Name TEMA Lot No. 46 Work order no SFL-1531 Yarn quality 26/1 cc Shade Pink Y/P No. 04 Batch No. 4979/09 Total liquor(Lt.) 525 Recipe No. 9y366211 Batch Wt. 48.0 No. of package 48 Dyeing prog. No. 3500 Plan date 02-Nov-09 Shift B M/C No. YP-DY-02 Auxilaliary name Amount (g/l) Amount (%) Total amount (Kg) Addition Machine wash Hydrose 0.00 0.000 Caustic soda 0.00 0.000 Neutralization Acetic acid 0.00 0.000 Demineralization KSN NOF 0.50 0.263 60C – 10 MIN Optavon 4UD 1.00 0525 Bleaching KSN NOF 1.00 0.525 Optavon 4UD 0.50 0.263 Caustic soda 2.50 1.313 Hydrogen peroxide 3.00 1.575 Stabilizer SOF 0.00 0.000 Albaflow jet 0.50 0.263 Hot wash (without chemical) 80C- 20 min. Neutralization (Bleaching) Acetic acid 1.00 0.525 50C – 20 MIN Hot wash (with chemical) Bio kill 0.22 0.116 Check PH 45C- 20 min. Dyeing (Dyes & Chemicals) Leva red CA 0.3729 179 gm Leva fast red CA 0.00035 0.17 gm G. Salt 16.00 8400 Soda Ash 6.40 3360 Caustic Soda (India) 0.000 0.000 Irgasol Co NEW 1.50 0.788 Kappaquest A-41 1.00 0.525 Albaflow Jet 0.50 0.263 Std. PH= 10.0-11.0 Neutralization (Dyeing) Sirrix NE 0.50 0.263 Soaping 1 Cyclanon XCW 0.50 0.263 Kappaquest A-41 0.50 0.263 Soaping 2 Cyclanon XCW 0.00 0.000 Kappaquest A-41 0.00 0.000 Finishing Katamine BW 2.00 2.00 0.960 Tinofix FRD 0.00 0.000 Unisil NBI 0.00 0.000 Acetic acid 0.10 0.053 Std. PH= 4.5-5.0 Dye weight by Machine loading time 11.40 Cost per Kg Machine unloading time 23.30 Dye line for Light-Medium Shade
  • 83. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Process Flow Chart Dyeing (Package Section) For Light Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping (8520) Hot wash (7010) Finishing (4520) Machine wash (10020) Demineralization (6010) Machine neutralization (6015) Running 10 minutes with auxiliaries & chemicals then dyestuff dosing (linear) 6020 & run 20 after that Soda dosing (progressive-3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample If shade match then Unload
  • 84. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Medium Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping 1 (9015) Hot wash (7010) Soaping 2 (8510) Demineralization (6010) Running 10 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals 6020 than Soda dosing (progressive-3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload
  • 85. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark-Extra Dark Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping 1 (9515) Hot wash (8010) Soaping 2 (9010) Demineralization (6010) Running 10 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals 6020 than Soda dosing (progressive-3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Finishing sample Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010)
  • 86. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For White Shade of Cellulosic Fiber Hot wash (8020) Bleaching & Dyeing (12020) Neutralization (5010) Hot wash (9015) Machine wash (10020) Demineralization (6010) Machine neutralization (6015) Dosing 20 & run 10 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Sample taken Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Drain @ 60 C
  • 87. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Black Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Rinsing (3010) Rinsing (3010) Dyeing (6045) Neutral (5020) with Sodium acetate Soaping (9520) Rinsing (3010) Demineralization (8020) Running 20 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals 6020 than alkali dosing (progressive- 3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 15 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Finishing sample Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Wash with NaCl (3010) Rinsing (3010) Soaping (9520) Rinsing (3010) Soaping sample Dyeing sample
  • 88. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Light-Medium Shade (Mercerized Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping (8520) Hot wash (7010) Finishing (4520) Machine wash (10020) Demineralization (6010) Machine neutralization (6015) Running 10 minutes with auxiliaries & chemicals then dyestuff dosing (linear) 6020 & raise temperature at 80 and run 20 min after that migration at 60 & soda dosing (progressive- 3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample If shade match then Unload
  • 89. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark-Extra Dark Shade (Mercerized Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping 1 (9515) Hot wash (8010) Soaping 2 (9010) Demineralization (6010) Running 10 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals at 60 then raise temperature at 80 then run for 20 minutes after that migration at 60 & Soda dosing (progressive- 3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Finishing sample Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010)
  • 90. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT CVC/PC Dyeing Flow Chart ** In CVC/PC dyeing after bleaching process at first need to dyeing polyester part at high temperature & pressure then cotton part dyeing. It is known as double part dyeing or double dyeing. Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Drain Cooling at 90C Dyeing Polyester part (13045) for dark shade & 30 for light shade If light shade then hot wash (8015) without chemical & rinse for 10 minutes If dark shed need reduction clearing with Hydrose & Caustic (8020) Neutral by Acid (5015) Demineralization (6010) Machine neutralization (6015) Check PH (4.5-5.0) Caustic add at 70C If shade match then Unload Machine wash (10020)
  • 91. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Hydro Extractor 01. Machine name: Frauchiger Technik A member of SCHOLL group Man. Country: Switzerland Year of Manufacture: 2001 Spindle: 8 RPM: 3500 Package frame (1-10 rpm most greater then 5 time 5minutes) 02. DETTIN S.P.A SCHIO ITLAY CENTRIFUGA BERTA 24VELOCITA ROTAZ Max 1500 giri/min Carico Max 60 kg Origin: Italy RPM: 1700 (but run at1500) No. of package each basket: 16 No. of basket: 4 (Spare 2 & active 2) Time: Around 5 minutes Function: To remove excess water from package after yarn dyeing by centrifugal force. Calculation for water extraction by Hydro extractor: For 40/1 Cotton Count Weight of the package before hydro = 2.385 kg Weight of the package after hydro = 1.60 kg Water released = (2.385 – 1.60) Kg = 0.78 Kg Water released at percentage = = 32.778 % For 30/1 Cotton Count Weight of the package before hydro = 2.55 kg Weight of the package after hydro = 1.60 kg Water released = (2.55 – 1.60) Kg = 0.95 Kg Water released at percentage = 0.78 100 2.38 0.95 100 2.55
  • 92. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT = 37.254 % RF Dryer: STALAM 36055 NOVY ITALY VIA Dell Olmo 7 (Zona Industriale) Voltage – 400 V Current – 220 A Install Power – 140 KW FASI PHASES – 3 Frequency – 50 Hz Normally Rated Power – 85 KW Normal CEN ELEC EN 6024-1 CEI – 44-5 IEC 204-1 According to Std. No. of package per meter: 36 (New) & 32 (Old) Function: To dry-up the yarn package after de watering process. Technical Data of R.F Dryer Parameter Old Dryer New Dryer Supply voltage 400V 400V Phases 3 3 Maximum power 85KW 85KW Thermal protection 250A 250A Magnetic protection 2300A 2400A Short circuit current 65KA 100KA Belt width 1750 mm 1780mm Belt length 18100 mm 18250 mm New Dryer Speed for various Shed & Count Yarn Count Shade Speed (m/min.) 26/1,16/1,24/1,30/1,40/1 (100% cotton) Dark 7.5-8 Medium 6.5-6.8 Light 5.4-5.5 Black 8-8.5 white 5.6 60/2, 58/2 mercerized yarn Dark 5.6 Medium 5.4 Light 5.0 Black 5.8 white 4.2-4.8 CVC/PC yarn Dark 7.8-8 medium 6.6-7 Light 5.6-5.8 Black 8.6 white 5.8
  • 93. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 100/2 singeing 100% cotton yarn Dark & black 6-6.2 Medium, light & white 5.6-5.8 Hard Winding/Random Winding 1. SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG (SSM) Type: CW1 – W U: 415 V I Max: 40 A F: 50 HZ No. of Spindles: 108 RPM: 1000 (Max) 2. SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG (SSM) Type: CW1 – W U: 415 V I Max: 40 A F: 50 HZ No. of Spindles: 108 RPM: 1000 (Max) 3. SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG (SSM) M/C No. : 863.0033/07 Type: CW2 – W U: 400 V I Max: 28 A F: 50 HZ No. of Spindles: 96 RPM: 1000 (Max) Function: To wind the yarn on the paper cone (from spring to cone) after drying. Various Parts of the Hard Winding Machine: 01) Drum 02) Spindle 03) Handle of spindle 04) Sensor 05) Wax motor & wax device 06) Tensioned box 07) Antiballon 08) Motor 09) Overhead cleaner (blower) 10) Auto splicer 11) Package holder 12) Yarn guide etc.
  • 94. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Various Speed of Random Winding Yarn count Shade Speed (rpm) All White 500 New machine All count & shade 800 40/1,60/2,100/2 Any 500 30/1,34/1,24/1,16/1,26/1,20/1 Any shed 600 Production Calculation of Hard Winding Machine: Production = = ………X……… Kg/day. Hank Dyeing Section Flow Chart of Hank Dyeing M/c rpm  No. of m/c No. of spindle Eff.  60  8  3 1.0936 * 0.453 Yarn count (Ne)  840 Doubling or Twisting Singeing Reeling Mercerizing Dyeing Drying Hank to cone Delivery to yarn store
  • 95. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Yarn Dyeing (Hank Section) Layout 1 2 3 4 5 16 15 T 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 12 13 14 T Exit & Entrance Exit & Entrance Exit & Entrance Finishing floor Washing room Yarn & Chemical Store
  • 96. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Description of the Yarn Processing (Hank section) Floor Layout Serial No. Equipment Name 1 Sample dyeing machine by LORIS BELLINI (5 kg) Liquor required = 90 Liter. 2 & 3 Bulk Dyeing m/c by LORIS BELLINI (250 kg) Liquor required = 90 Liter. 4 Bulk Dyeing m/c by LORIS BELLINI (500 kg) Liquor required = 90 Liter. 5 Dryer by ALEA, Italy. 6,7 & 8 Hank to cone machine by SSM, Switzerland. 9 & 10 Yarn/Gas singeing machine by SSM, Switzerland. 11, 12 , 13 & 14 Reeling machine by ZERBO, Italy. 15 Panel board of yarn mercerizing machine. 16 Yarn Mercerizing machine by JAEGGLI-MCCANOTESSILE, Italia. T Supervisor table.
  • 97. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Yarn Singeing Machine Machine name: SSM Manufacturer: Scharer Schweiter Mettler. Origin: Switzerland Type: COMBIW.GSX Machine No. 877.0130/01&02 I (max): 40A F: 50 Hz U: 415V Made in EU Engineered in Switzerland Various parts of singeing machine 01) Package holder cone form 02) Handle of spindle 03) Drum or roller 04) Roller or drum plate 05) Yarn guide 06) Gas burner 07) Feed Package holder 08) Overhead cleaner 09) Every m/c contains 40 package 10) Each package weight is 2.5 kg 11) Spindle plate (Tension box + sensor + yarn guide) Machine Parameter Yarn quality Speed (rpm) 58/2, 60/2 1000 40/2, 20/2, 30/2, 24/1 850-900 Air pressure 15 bar Gas pressure 17 bar Production Calculation of Yarn singeing machine: Production = = ..X… Kg/day. Length = Count * Weight = Count * Weight * 840 yards = (Count * Weight * 840) / rpm yards per minute = (Count * Weight * 840) / rpm * 60 * 8 * 3 yards per day = (Count * Weight * 840) / rpm * 60 * 8 * 3 * 0.914 =……X…meter/day. M/c rpm × No. of m/c ×No. of head ×Eff. ×60 × 8 × 3 × 1.0936 ×2 Yarn count (Ne) × 840 ×2.2046
  • 98. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Reeling Machine Machine name: ZERBO O.M.P. BODEGA Manufacturer: Aspatrice M/c No.: 5522, 5523, 5524, &5525 Year: 2001 Origin: Italy Machine Parameter 01) No of m/c: 4 02) No. of creel: 16 (2 set for one head) 03) No. of stand (3 set for one head) 04) Yarn support roller/stick 05) Spindle/arm with yarn guide 06) Roller (movable by motor) 07) Circumference of the roller:137cm 08) Hank weight: 750 gm 09) Sensor (Each head contains one sensor) Production Calculation of reeling machine: = ..X… Kg/day. Yarn Mercerizing Machine Machine name: Jaeggli-Meccanotessile Manufacturer: COMO-Italia Machine type: HD-2000 / HL-2000 Serial no.: 0008/021 Years of manufacture: 2001 Machine Parameter 01) Eco block: cooling caustic (17.5 to 19.5)C 02) Hydraulic pump: up& down cylinder, Cover & roller 03) Panel board: CPU 04) Rill holding roller 05) Inside of Caustic, dia of roller: 136.5cm 06) First wash & second wash,dia of roller:141cm 07) Squeezing/pressure roller(Rubber coated) 08) Capacity: at a time 10.5 kg 09) Concentration of caustic: 30.0 – 30.5 baume 10) Mercerizing oil mixing 90ml/doff (Invadin MR) 11) Caustic recycling. 12) Yarn 3.5 minutes run in caustic solution at (17.5-19.5)C 13) Hot wash at 80C for 40-45 seconds. 14) Second hot wash at 60C for 1.15-1.30 minute. M/c rpm × Circumference of swift (d) × No. of m/c × no. of head × Eff. × 24 ×60× 1.0936 *2 Yarn count (Ne) × 840 × 2.2046 × 0.9136 Production =
  • 99. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 15) Normal washes 50-60 seconds. 16) Total process needs 6 to 7 minutes. Flowchart of Hank Mercerization Process: Feed the hank  Caustic impregnation for 3 min 45 sec (With no stretch)  Hot wash at 80ºC for 60 sec (With stretch)  Hot wash at 60ºC for 45 sec (With stretch)  Cold wash for 60 sec (With stretch)  Pull up Dyeing Machine Machine Name: Loris Bellini Made in Italy Highest temperature: 110C Machine Parameter  One Sample dyeing machine (capacity 5kg) liquor required 90 liter.  Three bulk dyeing machine.  Two machines (capacity 250 kg full & half 100kg) required liquor for full 2400 & half 1200 liter.  One bulk dyeing machine (capacity 500 kg) required liquor 4800 liter  Liquor circulate front to back side 3 min. & back side to front side 3 minute.  No. of spindle required for full carrier 92 (23×2×2)  Machine no.3 contains two full carrier chambers.  Machine no. 1&2 used for half carrier dyeing but 3 is not used.
  • 100. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Flow Chart for Hank Dyeing Process For Light Shade (100% Cotton) With Moderate Brand Reactive Dyes. Bleaching (10020) Demineralization (6018) Hot wash (8020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash (6010) Dyeing (6040) Bio kill (4520) Hot wash (7010) Dye bath neutral (5020) Soaping (8018) Machine wash (10020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash for mercerized cotton (6020) At first chemicals inject & run (6012) then color dosing linearly (6040) & run (6020) now salt dosing (6025) & run (6012) Migration temperature at (60 to 80C) @ 1.5 gradient. Run (8030) & cooling @ 60, run 10 & finally soda dosing (6045) check PH (10.0-11.0) & run for (6040), take dye bath sample Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (5.0 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 6.5) Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload
  • 101. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Medium Shade (100% Cotton) with Moderate Brand Reactive Dyes. Bleaching (10020) Demineralization (6018) Hot wash (8020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash (6010) Dyeing (6040) Bio kill (4520) Hot wash (7010) Dye bath neutral (5020) Soaping (9020) Machine wash (10020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash for mercerized cotton (6020) At first chemicals inject & run (6012) then salt transfer run for (6010). Now color dosing linearly (6030) & run (6012). Migration temperature at (60 to 80C) @ 1.5 gradient. Run (8020) & cooling @ 60at 2 gradient, & finally soda dosing (6045) check PH (10.0-11.0) and run for (6040), take dye bath sample With acetic acid run 6 min @ room temperature. Then Katamine dosing 10 min. & run 10 minute @ 45C & transfer Tinofix FRD & run 10 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (5.0 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 6.5) Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (8010)
  • 102. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark Shade (100% Cotton) with Moderate Brand Reactive Dyes. Bleaching (10020) Demineralization (6018) Hot wash (8020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash (6010) Dyeing (6040) Bio kill (4520) Hot wash (7010) Dye bath neutral (5020) Soaping (7020) Machine wash (10020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash for mercerized cotton (6020) At first chemicals inject & run (6012) then salt transfer run for (6010). Now color dosing linearly (6030) & run (6012). Migration temperature at (60 to 80C) @ 1.5 gradient. Run (8020) & cooling @ 60at 2 gradient, & finally soda dosing (6045) check PH (10.0-11.0) and run for (6040), take dye bath sample With acetic acid run 6 min @ room temperature. Then Katamine dosing 10 min. & run 10 minute @ 45C & transfer Tinofix FRD & run 10 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (5.0 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 6.5) Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (8010) Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Hot wash (8010) Soaping (9020)
  • 103. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Light Shade (100% Cotton) with Hot (Turquoise) Brand Reactive dyes. Bleaching (10020) Demineralization (6018) Hot wash (8020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash (6010) Dyeing (8060) Bio kill (4520) Hot wash (7010) Dye bath neutral (5020) Soaping (8018) Machine wash (10020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash for mercerized cotton (6020) At first chemicals inject & run (6012) then color dosing linearly (6040) & run (6020) now salt dosing (6025) & run (6012) Migration temperature at (60 to 80C) 1.5 gradient. Run (8030) & cooling @ 60, run 10 & finally soda dosing (6045) check PH (10.0-11.0) & again raise temperature & 80C (2 gradient) run for (8060), & cooling at 60C to take dye bath sample Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (5.0 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 6.5) Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload
  • 104. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Medium Shade (100% Cotton) with Hot (Turquoise) Brand Reactive dyes. Bleaching (10020) Demineralization (6018) Hot wash (8020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash (6010) Dyeing (8060) Bio kill (4520) Hot wash (7010) Dye bath neutral (5020) Soaping (9020) Machine wash (10020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash for mercerized cotton (6020) With acetic acid run 6 min @ room temperature. Then Katamine dosing 10 min. & run 10 minute @ 45C & transfer Tinofix FRD & run 10 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (5.0 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 6.5) Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (8010) At first chemicals inject & run (6012) then color dosing linearly (6040) & run (6020) now salt dosing (6025) & run (6012) Migration temperature at (60 to 80C) 1.5 gradient. Run (8030) & cooling @ 60, run 10 & finally soda dosing (6045) check PH (10.0-11.0) & again raise temperature & 80C (2 gradient) run for (8060), & cooling at 60C to take dye bath sample
  • 105. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dark Shade (100% Cotton) with Moderate Brand Reactive dyes. Bleaching (10020) Demineralization (6018) Hot wash (8020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash (6010) Dyeing (8060) Bio kill (4520) Hot wash (7010) Dye bath neutral (5020) Soaping (7020) Machine wash (10020) Neutralization (5020) Hot wash for mercerized cotton (6020) With acetic acid run 6 min @ room temperature. Then Katamine dosing 10 min. & run 10 minute @ 45C & transfer Tinofix FRD & run 10 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (5.0 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 6.5) Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (8010) Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010) Hot wash (8010) Soaping (9020) At first chemicals inject & run (6012) then color dosing linearly (6040) & run (6020) now salt dosing (6025) & run (6012) Migration temperature at (60 to 80C) 1.5 gradient. Run (8030) & cooling @ 60, run 10 & finally soda dosing (6045) check PH (10.0-11.0) & again raise temperature & 80C (2 gradient) run for (8060), & cooling at 60C to take dye bath sample
  • 106. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dryer Machine Machine name: ALEA Manufacturer: Cinsello (Milano) Origin: Italy Machine Parameter 01) 23 sticks at a time dry. 02) No. of Chamber:2 03) M/C speed 11.9 mm/min. 03) Belt speed (100 mm/min.) 04) Heat produce by steam. 05) Machine speed (11.9 mm/min.) 06) Blower fan use for heat control. 07) Padder use for dewatering. 08) 1.20 hour required to complete 23 sticks at 100 mm/min. 09) Temperature of first chamber (Hydro extraction) 135C & second chamber (Drying) 130C for dark shade. 10) Temperature of first chamber (Hydro extraction) 130C & second chamber (Drying) 125C for light-medium shade. 11) Revolving zone (stick alter surface of the yarn). Hank to Cone Winding Machine Machine name: SSM Manufacturer: Scharer Schweiter Mettler AG Origin: Switzerland Made in EU Engineered in Switzerland Various Parts of hank to cone winding machine 01) Drum. 02) Yarn guide from roller. 03) Support roller. 04) Tensioner. 05) Sensor 06) Waxing device. 07) Spindle (package holder) 08) Yarn guide. 09) Roller surface contact. 10) Reel drum. 11) Spindle drum. 12) No. of head: 60 13) Package weight: 750 gm. 14) No. of machine: 03
  • 107. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine Parameter Yarn quality Speed (rpm) 58/2, 60/2 450 All single count 500 to 550 Production Calculation of hank to cone winding machine: Production = = ..X… Kg/day. Length = Count  Weight = Count * Weight  840 yards = (Count  Weight  840) / rpm yards per minute = (Count  Weight  840) / rpm  60  8  3 yards per day = (Count  Weight  840) / rpm  60  8  3  0.914 =……X…meter/day. Packaging Section: Flow chart M/c rpm  No. of m/c  No. of head  Eff.  60  8  3  1.0936 2 Yarn count (Ne)  840 2.2046 Making package or guide with 60 packs (If package weight 750 gm) Making package or guide with 40 packs (If package weight 1.1 kg) Package rapping with poly bag Add sticker in side the hole of cone Sticker contain Buyer name, yarn quality, Batch no. etc
  • 108. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Knitting
  • 109. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Layout of Flat Bed Knitting Section:
  • 110. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine Specification (Flat Bed Knitting Section): Machine No. 001 & 004 Machine Type Jacquard Country of Origin Japan Brand Name SHIMA SEIKI No. of Needle 1120 X 2 Gauge 14 No. of Feeder 6 Machine No. 002, 003, 005, 006, 015, 016, 017, 018, & 019 Machine Type Semi Jacquard Country of Origin Japan Brand Name SHIMA SEIKI No. of Needle 840 X 2 Gauge 14 No. of Feeder 4 Machine No. 007 to 014 Machine Type Semi Jacquard Country of Origin Germany Brand Name STOLL No. of Needle 1180 X 2 Gauge 14 No. of Feeder 6
  • 111. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Layout of Circular Knitting Section:
  • 112. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine Specification (Circular Knitting Section): Machine No. 02 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 04 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2112 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 28 inch No. of Feeder 90 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 06 Machine Type Fleece Fabric Country of Origin Taiwan Brand Name PAI LUNG No. of Needle 2256 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 90 Machine No. 01 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 03 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 05 Machine Type Fleece Fabric Country of Origin Taiwan Brand Name PAI LUNG No. of Needle 2256 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 90
  • 113. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No. 08 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 10 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2712 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 144 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 12 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 120 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 07 Machine Type Fleece Fabric Country of Origin Taiwan Brand Name PAI LUNG No. of Needle 2256 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 90 Machine No. 09 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 11 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2712 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 144 Pitch 1.06 mm
  • 114. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No. 14 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 16 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2208 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 18 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 13 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 1944 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 26 inch No. of Feeder 84 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 15 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 17 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm
  • 115. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No. 20 Machine Type Jacquard Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2088 Gauge 22E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 72 Pitch 1.15 mm Machine No. 22 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 1944 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 26 inch No. of Feeder 84 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 24 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 19 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 21 Machine Type Jacquard Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2088 Gauge 22E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 72 Pitch 1.15 mm Machine No. 23 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm
  • 116. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No. 26 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 28 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2712 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 144 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 30 Machine Type Interlock Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1872 Gauge 20E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.27 mm Machine No. 25 Machine Type Engineered Jacquard Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2208 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 27 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 29 Machine Type Single Jersey Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2712 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 144 Pitch 1.06 mm
  • 117. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No. 32 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 34 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2544 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 34 inch No. of Feeder 54 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 36 Machine Type Interlock Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1872 Gauge 20E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.27 mm Machine No. 31 Machine Type Jacquard Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2088 Gauge 22E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 72 Pitch 1.15 mm Machine No. 33 Machine Type Engineered Jacquard Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2376 Gauge 22E Cylinder Diameter 34 inch No. of Feeder 54 Pitch 1.15 mm Machine No. 35 Machine Type Rib Fabric Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 2016 Gauge 18E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 74 Pitch 1.41 mm
  • 118. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No. 38 Machine Type Engineered Jacquard Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2376 Gauge 22E Cylinder Diameter 34 inch No. of Feeder 54 Pitch 1.15 mm Machine No. 40 Machine Type Rib Fabric Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 2016 Gauge 18E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 74 Pitch 1.41 mm Machine No. 42 Machine Type Rib Fabric Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1512 Gauge 16E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 63 Pitch 1.59 mm Machine No. 37 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2268 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 48 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 39 Machine Type Engineered Stripe Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2544 Gauge 24E Cylinder Diameter 34 inch No. of Feeder 54 Pitch 1.06 mm Machine No. 41 Machine Type Interlock Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1872 Gauge 20E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.27 mm
  • 119. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No. 44 Machine Type Rib Fabric Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1920 Gauge 18E Cylinder Diameter 34 inch No. of Feeder 70 Pitch 1.41 mm Machine No. 46 Machine Type Rib Fabric Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1680 Gauge 18E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 62 Pitch 1.41 mm Machine No. 43 Machine Type Rib Fabric Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1800 Gauge 16E Cylinder Diameter 36 inch No. of Feeder 74 Pitch 1.59 mm Machine No. 45 Machine Type Rib Fabric Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1920 Gauge 18E Cylinder Diameter 34 inch No. of Feeder 72 Pitch 1.41 mm Machine No. 47 Machine Type Interlock Country of Origin Germany Brand Name Mayer & Cie No. of Needle 2 X 1872 Gauge 20E Cylinder Diameter 30 inch No. of Feeder 96 Pitch 1.27 mm
  • 120. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machineries of Knitting Section
  • 121. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Production Parameters of Knitting:  Stitch Length (SL)  GSM  Dia  Gauge  RPM  Yarn Count Production Flow Chart of Knitting Section: The knitting section in Square Knit fabrics Ltd. is well decorated with modern machineries, state-of-the-art technology, well established process sequence, quality assurance with an ergonomic environment. This section is capable of producing versatile circular weft knitted structures especially on engineering stripes and semi jacquard designs. The rib based collar and cuff has also been produced in flat knitting at a different shade equipped with semi jacquard and jacquard V- bed flat knitting machines. This section is capable of meeting the production demand of Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. fully. In this purpose we supposed to include the production stages, parameters, resources, quality assessments machinery specification alone with the machinery layout in a short time span primarily. Process Flow Diagram: Work order received Design developed Requisition of raw material (yarn) Machine parameter setup Grey fabric inspection Fabric delivery
  • 122. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Design Produced: Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. is capable of producing stripes of any width and enormous colors. The engineering stripes machines are used for producing such fabrics. Except this feeder stripes are also produced. Single jersey fabrics and its derivatives like lacoste, polo-pique, terry fleece etc are produced. Rib and interlock fabrics and their different derivatives such as 2x2, 6x3 etc. are also produced. Different figured fabrics can be produced by semi jacquard machined by varying the tucking lengths and looping sequences. Collar and cuffs of any designs are produced here in the semi jacquard and jacquard machines. The jacquard design can be computerized and easily transferred to the knitting machine by Floppy disks. The yarn that used in the body fabric is also used in producing collar and cuff. GSM: It is the crucial parameter that is checked and controlled at different staged of processing the fabric after knitting to finishing. Fabric GSM in knitting can be controlled by the following ways:  By varying the loop length by VDQ pulley  By varying the no. of loops by needle gauge setting  By using different count of yarn The yarn count, in all cases, has prescribed by the buyers. So machine setting is the only way to control the grey GSM. The final GSM in the finished fabric depends on the finishing treatments and parameters of finishing machineries. Fabric width: Fabric width can be controlled by changing cylinder diameter or by changing machine RPM: Machine rpm is adjusted with the lead time for production. When lead time is very short then RPM may increase at a certain level for a definite count and strength of yarn. So it also depends on the yarn parameter and also with structure to be produced. Loop length: Loop length determines the fabric GSM. It can be controlled by changing the Dia of VDQ pulley. In Mayer and Cie machine it can be controlled digitally. No. of feeder or No. of cone: It depends on the urgency of production, available cone packages, color to be knit and structure of the fabric.
  • 123. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Gauge: Needle gauge determines the number of loops in a course which in terms determine the GSM of the fabric. Production Calculation: For Machine No. 02: No. of Needle = π × Machine Diameter (D) × Machine Gauge (N) = 3.1416 × 30 × 24 = 2262 Yarn Count = 30/1 Ne No. of Feeder = 96 Machine RPM = 28 Stitch length = 3 mm Efficiency = 85% = 0.85 Shift = 8 hr. = 8 × 60 = 480 min No. of Needle × No. of Feeder × Stitch length (mm) × RPM × Shift × Efficiency Production/Shift = 10 × 2.54 × 36 × 30 × 840 × 2.206 2262 × 96 × 3 × 28 × 480 × 0.85 = 10 × 2.54 × 36 × 30 × 840 × 2.206 = 146.407 Kg Production of the machine is 146.407 Kg/Shift. Note: If any parameter in this calculation is changed then production capacity per shift will be changed. GSM Calculation: WPI × CPI × Stitch length (mm) × (39.37)2 × 453.6 WPI = 32 GSM = CPI = 45 1000 × 840 × Ne × 0.9144 Stitch length = 3 mm Yarn Count = 20’S Ne 32 × 45 × 3 × (39.37)2 × 453.6 = 1000 × 840 × 20 × 0.9144 = 197.72
  • 124. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Processing
  • 125. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Dyeing Batching Section Name: Turning Machine Brand Name: Dong A Sr. No: 0110055 Manufacturing Year: 2001 Manufacturing Country: Korea Capacity: 23 m/min Speed: 2930 rpm Power: 7.5 kW Voltage: 400 Hertz: 50 Steel bar capacity: 50-60 kg Purpose: Turn the fabric surface to avoid dyeing unevenness on face side of the fabric. Flow Chart of the Batching Section Fabrics receive by machine operator. Fabric put in trolley Separate fabric according to nozzle Fabric from grey store according to requisition. Prepare batch card according to machine capacity
  • 126. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Product Mix  S/J Lacoste Rib Finished fabric Yarn dyed fabric Collar & cuff Allowance consider for further process in batching section Fabric type White (%) Average (%) Black (%) S/J 10 8 8 Rib (11) 10 8 8 Rib (22) 10 8 6 Lycra cotton 14 12 10 Lycra viscose 14 14 12 Calculation 8% = 0.92 10% = 0.90 12% = 0.88 14% = 0.86 ** Extra 2% allowance is also adding for the enzyme treated fabrics and for collar, cuff & Tape allowance will be 5-6 %.
  • 127. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Dyeing Floor Layout 1 2 3 4 65 109 T Offi ce Roo m D 7 8 T 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 9 20 2 1 1 1 D W Finishing floor F i n i s h i n g f l o o r H a n k D y e i n g & M e r c e r i z i n g Enter/Exit Enter/Exit of Yarn storeEnter/Exit in the plant Enter/Exit in finished fabric store L Sin gein g Mer ceri zing
  • 128. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Description of the Fabric Dyeing Floor Layout Serial No. Equipment Name Serial No. Equipment Name 01 FONG’S - 10 15 FONG’S - 60 02 SCLAVOS - 01 16 THIES 03 SCLAVOS - 02 17 SCLAVOS - 06 04 SCLAVOS - 03 18 SCLAVOS - 07 05 SCLAVOS - 04 19 FONG’S - 3 06 SCLAVOS - 05 20 FONG’S - 2 07 FONG’S - 20 21 FONG’S – 60N 08 FONG’S - 30 T Supervisor table 09 FONG’S - 01 D Sample Dryer machine 10 AK DYEING MACHINE - 1 DW Sample Dewatering machine 11 AK DYEING MACHINE - 35 L Light Box 12 AK DYEING MACHINE - 2 13 SCLAVOS S.A - 08 14 FONG’S - 120
  • 129. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machineries of Fabric Dyeing Section Specification of Fabric Dyeing Machineries:
  • 130. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No – 03 SCLAVOS Ser. No : 03-2A-2402 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 540 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3.5 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 52 A (max.) Winch Speed : 280 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 31 HP Machine No – 04 SCLAVOS Ser. No : 03-2A-2400 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 360 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3.5 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 44 A (max.) Winch Speed : 280 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 24.5 HP Machine No – 05 SCLAVOS Ser. No : 03-2A-2403 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 720 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3.5 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 68 A (max.) Winch Speed : 280 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 40 HP Machine No – 06 SCLAVOS Ser. No : 03-2A-2404 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 720 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3.5 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 67 A (max.) Winch Speed : 280 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 39.5 HP Machine No – 01 Fong’s (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 27013232 M/C. No. : ALLFIT-60 Origin : China Capacity : 10 Kg – 12 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 440 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 415 M: L : 1: 6-10 Current : 17 A (max.) Winch Speed : 50 m/min (max.) Machine No – 02 SCLAVOS Ser. No : 03-2A-2401 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 360 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3.5 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 44 A (max.) Winch Speed : 280 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 24.5 HP
  • 131. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No – 07 Fong’s (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 29015893 M/C. No. : ALLFIT-30 Origin : China Capacity : 30 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 400 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 415 Current : 14 A (max.) Winch Speed : 150 m/min (max.) Machine No – 08 Fong’s (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 27013233 M/C. No. : ALLFIT-30 Origin : China Capacity : 30 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 440 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 415 Current : 25 A (max.) Winch Speed : 172 m/min (max.) Machine No – 09 FONG’S Ser. No : 29015895 M/C. No. : ECO-38-4T Origin : China Capacity : 1000 Kg Temperature : 100 0 C (max.) Pressure : 350 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 415 Current : 79 A (max.) Winch Speed : 280 m/min (max.) Machine No – 10 AK (Asian Kingdom) Dyeing M/C Ser. No : 03378 M Model : AK – RED 4T Origin : Taiwan Capacity : 800 Kg Temperature : 100 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3 bar (max.) M : L : 1 : 5-7 Winch Speed : 350 yd/min (max.) Machine No – 11 AK Dyeing M/C (Sample Dyeing) Ser. No : 03378 M Model : AK – MSL 25 Origin : Taiwan Capacity : 35 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3 bar (max.) M : L : 1 : 6-10 Winch Speed : 450 yd/min (max.) Machine No – 12 AK Dyeing M/C Ser. No : 03378 M Model : AK – RED 3T Origin : Taiwan Capacity : 600 Kg Temperature : 100 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3 bar (max.) M : L : 1 : 5-7 Winch Speed : 350 yd/min (max.)
  • 132. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No – 13 SCLAVOS Ser. No : 04-2A-2741 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 360 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 2.6 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 53 A (max.) Winch Speed : 350 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 32HP Machine No – 14 FONG’S (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 31020644 M/C. No. : ALLFIT-120 Origin : China Capacity : 120 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 350 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 380 Current : 21 A (max.) Winch Speed : 175 m/min (max.) Machine No – 15 FONG’S (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 31020643 M/C. No. : ALLFIT-60 Origin : China Capacity : 60 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 350 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 380 Current : 20 A (max.) Winch Speed : 175 m/min (max.) Machine No – 16 THIES Manufacturers No. : 04-2A-2741 M/C Type: Heizschalange f AG 7.10 m2 /4 Lagen Origin : Germany Capacity : 500 Kg Temperature : 174 0 C (max.) Pressure : 0.9 bar Winch Speed : 350 m/min (max.) Machine No – 17 SCLAVOS (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 03-1A-2504 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 180 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3.5 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 26 A (max.) Winch Speed : 250 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 14 HP Machine No – 18 SCLAVOS (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 01-1B-2396 Origin : Athens, Greece Capacity : 50 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 3.5 bar (max.) M/C V : 3400 AC Current : 14 A (max.) Winch Speed : 135 m/min (max.) Total Horse Power: 7.5 HP
  • 133. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine No – 19 FONG’S Ser. No : 32022611 M/C. No. : HSJ-1T Origin : China Capacity : 250 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 350 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 400 Current : 51 A (max.) Winch Speed : 456 m/min (max.) Machine No – 20 FONG’S Ser. No : 32022613 M/C. No. : ECO-38-4T Origin : China Capacity : 1000 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 350 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 400 Current : 112 A (max.) Winch Speed : 400 m/min (max.) Machine No – 21 FONG’S (Sample Dyeing m/c) Ser. No : 32022610 M/C. No. : ALLFIT-60 Origin : China Capacity : 60 Kg Temperature : 135 0 C (max.) Pressure : 350 Kpa (max.) Frequency : 50 Hz M/C V : 415 Current : 20 A (max.) Winch Speed : 180 m/min (max.)
  • 134. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Flow Chart of Fabric Dyeing Procedure For Light-Medium Shade (100% Cotton) with Moderate Brand Reactive dyes. Neutralization (705) Aquachron (955) & (703) Bio kill (5015) Bio polishing (6260) Dyeing (6060) Aquachron (4020) Rinsing (250 L/min10) Dye bath neutral (406) Soaping (8010) Machine wash (11020) Bleaching (9830) At first chemicals & auxiliaries inject & run (405) then salt transfer & run for (405). Now color dosing linearly (4030) & run (4020). Now soda dosing (1 gm/L) progressive-3, (4020) & run (406) Again soda dosing (progressive-3) for (6035) & run (6060) check PH maintain (10.0-11.0) and run for (6040), take dye bath sample Check PH (5.8 to 6.0) Dyeing sample Washing (4020) Finishing (405 dosing & 10 run) If shade match then Unload Aquachron (802), (702) & (604) Check PH (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (5.0 to 6.0) Soaping sample Check sample Check sample Auxiliaries & caustic transfer at 60C raise the temperature at 70C & dosing peroxide for 5 minutes. Finally raise temperature at 98C (4C/min.) & run for 30 min. Finishing agent dosing 5 min. & run 10 min. at 40C Digressive dosing Enzyme
  • 135. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark-Extra dark Shade (100% Cotton) with Moderate Brand Reactive dyes. Neutralization (705) Aquachron (955) & (703) Bio kill (5015) Bio polishing (6260) Dyeing (6060) Aquachron (4020) Rinsing (250 L/min15) Dye bath neutral (406) Soaping (9520) Machine wash (11020) Bleaching (9830) At first chemicals & auxiliaries inject & run (605) then salt transfer & run for (605). Now color dosing linearly (6020) & run (6020). Now soda dosing (1 gm/L) progreesive-3, (6020) & run (606) Caustic dosing (linear) for (6020) & run (6060) check PH maintain (10.0-11.0), take dye bath sample. Check PH (5.8 to 6.0) Dyeing sample Washing (4020) Finishing (405 dosing & 10 run) If shade match then Unload Aquachron (802), (702) & (604) Check PH (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (5.0 to 6.0) Soaping sample Check sample Check sample Auxiliaries & caustic transfer at 60C raise the temperature at 70C & dosing peroxide for 5 minutes. Finally raise temperature at 98C (4C/min.) & run for 30 min. Finishing agent dosing 5 min. & run 10 min. at 40C Digressive dosing Enzyme
  • 136. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For White Shade (100% Cotton). Hydrogen-per-oxide transfer @70C Caustic transfer @ 60C & run for 5 Temperature up to 80C Skywhite BVB dosing 10(linear) +Univerden BAM Check sample Temperature up to 98C & run for 10 Normal wash Dye bath neutral (4010) Enzyme transfer & run for (6260) Machine wash (11020) Run for (603) Fabric load & chemicals transfer @ 80C Sample check If shade match then Unload Rinse for 10 Check PH (4.5 to 5.0)
  • 137. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Light - Medium Shade (100% Cotton) with Hot Brand (Turquoise) Reactive dyes. ` Neutralization (705) Aquachron (955) & (703) Bio kill (5515) Bio polishing (6260) Dyeing (8020) Aquachron (4020) Rinsing (250 L/min15) Dye bath neutral (6010) Soaping (9010) Machine wash (11020) Bleaching (9830) At first chemicals & auxiliaries transfer & run (406) then color dosing linearly (4030) & raise temperature @ 80C (1/min.) & run (8015).Now salt dosing 10 (linear) & run for (805). Again salt dosing 15 (linear) & run for (805). Finally salt dosing 20 (linear) & run for (8020). Now migration temperature @ 60C (1/min.) & run for 10. Soda dosing progressive-3, (6040) & run (605) Caustic dosing (linear) for (6020) & run (6010) check PH maintain (10.0-11.0), & take dye bath sample. Check PH (5.8 to 6.0) Dyeing sample Washing (4020) Finishing (405 dosing & 10 run) If shade match then Unload Aquachron (802), (702) & (604) Check PH (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (5.0 to 6.0) Soaping sample Check sample Check sample Auxiliaries & chemicals inject @50C then caustic transfer at 60C. Per-oxide dosing (linear) (706) raise the temperature at 98C (3/min.) & run for (9830) Finishing agent dosing 5 min. & run 10 min. at 40C Digressive dosing Enzyme Machine neutral (5010)
  • 138. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark - Extra Dark Shade (100% Cotton) with Hot Brand (Turquoise) reactive dyes. Neutralization (705) Aquachron (955) & (703) Bio kill (5515) Bio polishing (6260) Dyeing (8020) Aquachron (4020) Rinsing (250 L/min15) Dye bath neutral (6010) Soaping (9010) Machine wash (11020) Bleaching (9830) At first chemicals & auxiliaries transfer & run (606) then color dosing linearly (6030) & raise temperature @ 80C (1/min.) & run (8015).Now salt dosing 10 (linear) & run for (805). Again salt dosing 15 (linear) & run for (805). Finally salt dosing 20 (linear) & run for (8020). Now migration temperature @ 60C (1/min.) & run for 10. Soda dosing progreesive-3, (6040) & run (605) Caustic dosing (linear) for (6020) & run (6010) check PH maintain (10.0-11.0), & take dye bath sample. Check PH (5.8 to 6.0) Dyeing sample Washing (4020) Finishing (405 dosing & 10 run) If shade match then Unload Aquachron (802), (702) & (604) Check PH (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (5.0 to 6.0) Soaping sample Check sample Check sample Auxiliaries & chemicals inject @50C then caustic transfer at 60C. Per-oxide dosing (linear) (706) raise the temperature at 98C (3/min.) & run for (9830) Finishing agent dosing 5 min. & run 10 min. at 40C Digressive dosing Enzyme Machine neutral (5010)
  • 139. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Flow Chart of Fabric Dyeing for CVC/PC Polyester Part Color dosing (6010) linearly Check PH (4.0 to 4.5) Temperature up 60 to 80C Again temperature up 80 to 135C (1/min.) Cooling @ 85C (1/min.) Run for 60 minutes @ 135C Take sample If ok Then bath drop Bleaching Transfer chemicals & auxiliaries Fill water @ 60C Sample check (carbonizing) If shade match then Unload Soaping or RC (For PC) @ (8515) Auxiliaries & caustic transfer at 60C raise the temperature at 70C & dosing peroxide for 5 minutes. Finally raise temperature at 98C (4C/min.) & run for 30 min.
  • 140. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT N.B.: For CVC dyeing don’t need RC (Reduction Clearing) & for cotton part dyeing followed by previous method mentioned above. Flow Chart of Fabric Dyeing for Black Shade Chemical 60xT Check PH (4.0 to 4.5) Run 60x5 min Bleaching Transfer chemicals & auxiliaries Fill water @ 60C Auxiliaries & caustic transfer at 60C raise the temperature at 70C & dosing peroxide for 5 minutes. Finally raise temperature at 98C (4C/min.) & run for 30 min. Run 6010 Salt -60xT Color dosing 60 x20 min(linear) Run 60x20 min Soda dosing 60x20 min 1g/l(progress-3) All soda dosing 6030P#3 Run -60x3 pH check(10-10.8) Hold time 45 min Sample check Batch Drop Aq 60x20 min
  • 141. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Drain A Acid (60x5min) Filling water x60 pH check(5.5-6.5) Soaping 95x20 min Wash (60x5min) Aq.40x10 Water clean Sample check Ok/not ok Fixing 40x10 Unload
  • 142. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Singeing & Mercerizing
  • 143. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Singeing Brand Name: Dornier Origin: Germany No. of Burners: 8 Angle of Burners: Tangential Maximum Cigar Diameter: 220-230 cm Burner Distance from Fabric: 37 cm Gas Pressure: 10 PSI Flame Pressure for Compaction: 1.5-2 Bar
  • 144. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Passing Speed: Fabric Type Speed (m/min) Single Jersey 50 Rib/Interlock 45 Terry Fleece 45 Faults in Singeing: o Crease Mark o Line Mark o Bowing mark Fabric Mercerizing
  • 145. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Brand Name: Dornier Origin: Germany Type: CM B/2 Serial No.: 100625 Year: 1999 Maximum Width: 36 inch Process Flow Chart: Grey / Yarn dyed fabric received from the store  Batch making  Stitching and checking for knitting defects and holes  Yarn dyed fabric mercerized and Grey fabric singed & mercerized  Yarn dyed transferred to the finishing department Grey fabric turning and transfer to the dyeing department Process Control Parameter: Caustic soda concentration  30 - 32 ºBe Caustic soda temperature  16 - 18ºC Concentration of wetting agent  5 gm/lt. Initial width of the fabric  increase to 10cm Final width of the fabric  as per requirement Dwell time  22 - 25 sec in caustic soda Nip pressure: Cigar setting  35 to 45 % as per fabric quality and stretching, for solid grey 35% Position For yarn dyed fabric in Bar For gray fabric in Bar After NaOH bath 1.5 1.5 Before acid bath 1.0 1.0 After acid bath 1.0 1.0 After washing 1.0 1.0
  • 146. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Washing water temperature  for yarn dyed fabric all 50ºC and for grey fabric 90ºC, 80ºC, 70ºC, 60ºC. Inlet fresh water velocity  7 m3 /hr Fabric PH after mercerization  5 – 6 Neutralization at 60o C with Sirrix NE @ 10 gm/lt. Fabric Passing Speed: Fabric Type Speed (m/min) Grey Fabric Single Mercerizing 12 Grey Fabric Double Mercerizing 15 Yarn Dyed Double Mercerizing 15 Total Time Needed for Mercerization: 4.50 minute @ 15 m/min (Fabric Passing Speed). 25 second submerged in caustic soda solution @ 15 m/min.
  • 147. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fabric Finishing
  • 148. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Layout of Fabric Finishing Section:
  • 149. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Specification of Fabric Finishing Machines: Machine Type Brand Model Year Origin Slitting Corino APRICORDA 2001 Italy Slitting Corino APRICORDA TAGLIERIDA 2005 Italy Dewatering Corino ST-4 2001 Italy Dryer Monforts 4F-DYNAIR 2001 Germany Dryer Santex Santa Shrink 2003 Switzerland Stenter Monforts MONTEX-50002F 2001 Germany Stenter Sun Super SST-6GP 2004 South Korea Stenter Sun Super SST-7GP 2007 South Korea Compactor Ferrraro Comptex/RC-2800 2004 Italy Compactor Monforts DOGAL-04 2001 Germany Compactor Navis Array Tex (TM-100) USA Compactor Santex Santa Spread-TS 2001 Switzerland Description of Fabric Finishing Machines: 1.) Corino Slitting & Dewatering Machine (For Open Width Fabric): No. of Machine: 2 No. of Padder: 1 Pair Capacity: 20 kg/min. Maximum Fabric Passing Speed: 60 m/min Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 225 cm Minimum Fabric Dia Capacity: 65 cm Maximum Over feed (%): 40% Minimum Over feed (%): 25% Maximum Padder Pressure: 4 Bar (Depends on Shade) Minimum Padder Pressure: 1 Bar (Depends on Shade)
  • 150. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Process Flow Diagram: Tube Fabrics Detwisting Slitting Dewatering Open Fabric Trolley Standard Operating Procedure:  To check the machine to keep it cleans.  To check the blade.  To check the padded pressure.  To check the sensor.  To check the proper movement of basket.  To check the amount of overfeed.  To check the activities of auto sensor.  To check the movement of turning table.  To check the activities of dewatering device. Work Instruction: Fabric Type Padder pressure (Bar) Machine Speed (m/min) Over feed (%) Single Jersey 2.50 - 3 40 – 50 40 PK 3 40 – 50 40 11 Rib 3- 3.50 50 – 60 25 22 Rib 3- 3.50 60 40 Plain Interlock 3- 3.50 40-50 35-40
  • 151. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Mercerized:- Single Jersey 2 40 40 PK 2.50 40 40 11 Rib 2.50 – 3 50 25 22 Rib 2.50 – 3 60 40 Plain Interlock 2.50 2.) Corino Dewatering Machine/Squeezer Machine (For Tube Fabric): No. of Machine: 1 No. of Padder: 2 Pair Maximum Padder Pressure: 1.5 Bar Minimum Padder Pressure: 1.5 Bar Maximum Speed for Fabric: 30 m/min Maximum Speed for Cuff/Collar: 20 m/min Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 128 cm Minimum Fabric Dia Capacity: 50 cm Maximum Over feed (%): 30% Minimum Over feed (%): 0% (For Collar No Overfeed) Process Flow Diagram: Tube Fabrics Detwisting Dewatering Trolley Standard Operating Procedure:  To check the machine to keep it cleans  To check the padded pressure  To check the proper movement of basket  To check the amount of overfeed  To check the activities of dewatering device  To check the activities of auto sensor
  • 152. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Work Instruction: If Fabric Dia is 70 cm Fabric Type Stretch (%) Machine Speed (m/min) Over feed (%) Single Jersey 85 40 30 PK 92 40 30 11 Rib 20 40 30 Plain Interlock 92 40 30 Mercerized 80-85 40 30 11 Lycra Rib 100 40 30 3.) Monforts Dryer (Dynair 5000): No. of Chamber: 4 No. of Burner: 4 No. of Padder: 1 No. of Expander Roller: 5 (Motor Controlled) No. of Free Roller: 13 (Easy Controlled) No. of Blower: 4 No. of Finger Roller: 4 Capacity: 6 tons/day Maximum Temperature: 180o C Minimum Temperature: 100o C Fabric Passing Speed: 8 m/min to 50 m/min (Depends on fabric type, temperature & dry requirement i.e. half dry/full dry) Maximum Over feed (%): 60% Minimum Over feed (%): -10% Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 260 cm Minimum Fabric Dia Capacity: 85 cm
  • 153. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Standard Operating Procedure:  Machine should be cleaned  Padder should be cleaned  Stenter pin should be checked  Tray of each chamber should be cleaned  Function of auto chamber should be checked  Padder pressure should be adjusted  Function of burner should be checked  Overfeeding speed should be checked  Conveyor belt should be checked  Dancing roller should be checked. Work Instruction: Type of Fabric Over feed (%) Temperature (o C) Stretch (%) S/J Non-Mercerized -10/60 100-180 35 Mercerized -10/60 100-180 45 Dyed (Yarn) -10/60 160-180 35 Dyed Mercerized -10/60 160-180 45 PK White -10/60 100-150 50 Dyed -10/60 160 50 1X1 Rib White -10/60 100-150 20 Dyed -10/60 160-180 Maximum P.I.L. White -10/60 100-150 50 Dyed -10/60 160 50
  • 154. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 4.) Santex Dryer Machine: No. of Chamber: 6 No. of Burner: 3 No. of Padder: 0 No. of Blower: 3 No. of Exhaust Fan: 1 No. of Expander Roller: 1 No. of Motor Controlled Roller: 3 No. of Conveyor Belt: 2 Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 222 cm Maximum Fabric Passing Speed: 35 m/min Minimum Fabric Passing Speed: 2 m/min Maximum Over feed (%): 35% Minimum Over feed (%): 0% Maximum Temperature: 180o C Minimum Temperature: 90o C Process Flow Diagram: Open & Tube Fabric Drying Trolley Standard Operating Procedure:  To clean the machine properly.  To clean the trey for every chamber.  To check the proper activity of burner.  To check over feeding and vibrating.
  • 155. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  To check the conveyor belt. Work Instruction: Fabric Type Temp. (o C) Over feed (%) Vibration Ext. Temp. (o C) Speed S/J White 110 25-30 750 65 30 Color 100-165 10-35 500-750 70 10-45 PK White 130-140 35 750 65 20-30 Color 140-150 30-35 700-750 70 20-30 1X1 Rib Tube 140-150 10-20 700-750 65-70 25 Open 140-150 20-35 700-750 65-70 25 P. Interlock 120-140 35 750 65-70 25 Mercerized Grey Fabric 165 - - 80 5-10 1X1 L. Rib 120-150 20-35 700-750 65-70 20-30 s 5.) Monforts Stenter (Montex 5000): Maximum Fabric Passing Speed: 40 m/min Minimum Fabric Passing Speed: 5 m/min Maximum Over feed (%): 50% Minimum Over feed (%): -10% Maximum Under feed (%): -3% Minimum Under feed (%): -5% Maximum Temperature: 190o C Minimum Temperature: 120o C Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 240 cm Minimum Fabric Dia Capacity: 60 cm
  • 156. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT No. of Burner: 2 No. of Steaming Chamber: 2 No. of Temperature Chamber: 2 No. of Cooling Chamber: 1 No. of Expander Roller: 2+2 = 4 No. of Finger Roller: 4 No. of Bianco Roller: 1 Process Flow Diagram: Open Fabric (Dried) Mahlo (Bowing control only yarn dyed fabrics) Stentering Trolley Standard Operating Procedure:  Machine should be cleaned  Function of auto chamber should be checked  Machine net should be cleaned  Steam line should be checked  Function of burner should be checked  Function of Mahlo should be checked  Bowing control should be checked  Tray of each chamber should be cleaned  Conveyor belt should be checked Work Instruction: Type of Fabric Over feed (%) Temperature (o C) Stretch (%) S/J Non-Mercerized 50 120 5 Mercerized 50 120 15 Dyed (Yarn) 40-50 120-160 5-7 Dyed Mercerized 40-50 120-160 15 White 50 120 15
  • 157. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT PK Dyed 40-50 120-160 15 1X1 Rib White 50 120 2-3 Dyed 40-50 120-160 2-3 P.I.L. White 50 120 10 Dyed 40-50 120-160 10 D/N Interlock Mercerized 50 120 8-10 Non-Mercerized 50 120 7 Dyed (Yarn) 45-50 120-160 10 6.) Sun Super Stenter Machine: No. of Machine: 2 (6 Chamber & 7 Chamber) For 6 Chamber Machine No. of Padder: 2 Pair No. of Burner: 12 Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 290 cm Minimum Fabric Dia Capacity: 90 cm Maximum Fabric Passing Speed: 28 m/min Minimum Fabric Passing Speed: 10 m/min Maximum Over feed (%): 40% Minimum Over feed (%): -19% Pinning Maximum: 19% Pinning Minimum: 0% Maximum Temperature: 190o C Minimum Temperature: 120o C Maximum Temperature for Heat Setting: 190o C (For Lycra, CVC, PC, Viscose) & 180o C (For Model Fabric) No. of Blower: 12 (0-1800 r.p.m.)
  • 158. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT No. of Exhaust Fan: 3 Maximum Padder Pressure: 2.5 kgf /cm2 Minimum Padder Pressure: 1 kgf/cm2 For 7 Chamber Machine No. of Burner: 14 Process Flow Diagram: Open Fabric (Dried) Chemical with padding Mahlo (Bowing control only yarn dyed fabrics) Stentering Trolley Standard Operating Procedure:  To check the machine to keep it cleans.  To check the activity of burner.  To keep the padded clean.  To check the amount of overfeed.  To check the control for bowing.  To check the machine for auto moisture control.  To check the movement of densing roller.  To clean the tray for every chamber.  To adjust the padded pressure perfectly.  To check the gas pressure. Work Instruction: Type of Fabric Padder Pressure Over feed (%) Temperature (o C) Stretch (%) P1 P2 Non- 2.5 2.5 25 120 8-10
  • 159. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT S/J Mercerized Mercerized 2.5 2.5 35 120 12 Dyed 2.5 2.5 30 120-130 8-12 PK White 2.5 2.5 30 120 10-12 Dyed 2.5 2.5 30 120-130 10-12 1X1 Rib White 2.5 2.5 35 120 5 Dyed 2.5 2.5 35 130 5 2X2 Rib White 2.5 2.5 35 120 8-10 Dyed 2.5 2.5 35 130 8-10 Note: Softener is used in padder pressure (P2). Standard R.P.M.:- Fabric Type RPM S/J up to 160 GSM 22-24 S/J up to 200 GSM 21-22 Fleece up to 280 GSM 16 Fleece up to 320 GSM 12 PK up to 200 GSM 18-20 PK up to 220 GSM 13 Rib up to 250 GSM 12 2X2 Rib up to 220 GSM 12-13 Lycra S/J Heat Set 21 Lycra S/J Finished 16-18 7.) Monforts Compactor Machine:
  • 160. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Maximum Speed: 40 m/min Minimum Speed: 7 m/min Steam Pressure: 4 - 4.5 Maximum Over feed (%): 22% Minimum Over feed (%): 18% Pressure Type: Cylinder + Rubber Belt Standard Operating Procedure:  Machine should be cleaned  Machine cylinder should be cleaned  Machine rubber belt and blanket should be checked  Machine dumping should be checked  Machine cylinder temperature should be checked  Machine overfeed should be checked  Machine padder pressure should be checked  Water and air line should be checked  Machine out line steam should be checked. Shrinkage Tolerance of Different Fabric: Fabric Type Length (%) Width (%) S/J -5.50 -5.50 Lycra S/J -6.00 -6.00 Single Lacoste -7.00 -7.00 Lycra Single Lacoste -7.00 -7.00
  • 161. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 1X1 Rib -7.00 -7.00 Lycra 1X1 Rib -7.00 -7.00 2X2 Rib -8.00 -8.00 Lycra 2X2 Rib -8.00 -8.00 Interlock -7.00 -7.00 Terry Fleece -5.00 -5.00 8.) Navis Compactor Machine: Type: Blade Compactor Machine Types of Roller: 4 (Anti Roll, Expander Roll, Retard Roll, Pad Roll) Compaction depends on Retard Roller. Shade depends on Shoe Depth. Feed Roll Temperature is automatically set by the machine. Shoe Pressure: 2.5 - 3 Maximum Fabric Passing Speed: 40 m/min Minimum Fabric Passing Speed: 20 m/min Maximum Over feed (Bilateral Slat) %: 98% Minimum Over feed (Bilateral Slat) %: 90% Maximum Temperature: 80o C 9.) Ferraro Compactor Machine:
  • 162. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Type: Blanket Compactor Machine No. of Steam Chamber: 2 Steam Temperature: 100o C Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 225-228 cm Minimum Fabric Dia Capacity: 100 cm GSM Control: 7-8 Maximum Fabric Passing Speed: 20 m/min Minimum Fabric Passing Speed: 10 m/min Maximum Over feed (%): 35% Minimum Over feed (%): 0% 10.) Santex Compactor Machine (Tubular Knitted Fabric Compactor): Type: Blanket Compactor Machine Minimum Fabric Dia Capacity: 126 cm Maximum Fabric Dia Capacity: 28 cm Steam Temperature: 120o C
  • 163. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Maximum Overfeed (%): 40% Minimum Overfeed (%): -10% No. of Cylinder: 2 Padder Pressure: 6-7 Flow Process of Finishing Range: Working Steps at a Glance: Collect the work order from marketing dept., merchandising dept or from local buyer or from other production dept of SKFL/ SFL. Make a production plan according to work order & style. Collect/ received dyed yarn or washed fabric from fabrics dyeing section. Collect/ receive greige fabrics from batching section. Commence production. Send product to QAD (final inspection). Collect daily production info & prepare a report. Faults in Finishing: o Shade Change o Softener Mark Finishing Range Open fabric Tubular fabric Slitting, dewatering and detwisting Open width line 1 Padder with dryer Open width line 2 6 & 7 chamber Stenter with padder 2 chamber stenter Compactor Compactor Dewatering and detwisting Dryer Tube compactor
  • 164. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT o Crease Mark o Shrinkage Problem o Water Spot o Pinning Problem o Diameter Variation o Spreader roller does not work properly o Slitting Uneven
  • 165. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Quality Assurance Department (QAD)
  • 166. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. is more concern about quality. In this factory quality assurance is more preferred than quality control, but both are in advancement. The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing. Objective of Quality Control:  Research.  Selection of raw materials.  Process control.  Process development.  Product testing.  Specification test Scope of Quality Control, Quality Assurance and Testing:  Testing Lab  Machine auditing system  A good training system.  Excellent analytical backup.  Technical expertise. Quality Control Procedure:  On line quality control  Off line quality control Off-Line Tests: Physical Tests: Chemical Tests: Threads per inch Fastness to washing Fabric weight (GSM) Fastness to light Fabric Width test (Dia) Fastness to heat Tensile strength Fastness to actual laundering Tear strength Fastness to sea water Seam slippage Fastness to Chlorinated water Abrasion resistance Fastness to water spotting Pilling resistance Fastness to perspiration Thermal stability Fastness to light perspiration Crease resistance Fastness to rubbing Stretch ability & growth recovery Smoothness appearance
  • 167. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Bursting Strength Quality Control Flow Chart: Yarn Processing (Yarn test) Pass Fail Knitting Send to spinning mill Grey fabric inspection Pass Fail Send to store as reject Grey store Batch making Dyeing Finishing Fabric checking Physical Lab Inspection Shade Pass Fail Delivery RejectReprocess Send to store as reject Shade check Pass Fail Redyeing Quality Control On Line Off line
  • 168. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT List of Equipments: Machineries & equipment used:  Spectrophotometer with Software (Data Color)  Martindale Abrasion Tester  Day Light Box  Sample Dyeing Machine (5)  ROBO Lab  Iron  Electric Balance  Crock Meter  Washing Machine (Electrolux Wascator/Siemens)  GSM Cutter  PH Meter  ICI Pilling Box  Martindale Pilling Machine  Bursting Strength Tester  SDL ATLAS Rotawash  Perspirometer  Xenon Test Chamber  Mechanical Shaker Machine Fabric Inspection: The inspection of fabric is a procedure by which the defects of fabric are identified and fabric is classified according to degree or intensity of defects. The fabric inspection is done for both grey and finished fabric. Grey Fabric Inspection: In SKFL grey fabric inspection is performed according to 4 point system. Four-Point System: Size of Defect Penalty 0 inches to 3 inches 1 Point 3 inches to 6 inches 2 Point
  • 169. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 6 inches to 9 inches 3 Point More than 9 inches 4 Point Acceptance Calculation: o Any Hole – 4 Point o Upto 20P/100m = Class “A” o Upto 20-30P/100m = Class “B” o Upto 30-40P/100m = Class “C” o More than 40P/100m = Reject. Faults found during Grey Fabric Inspection:  Wrong Design: Causes:  Wrong insertion of yarn during knitting.  Wrong setting of fabric design in knitting machine.  Lycra out: Causes:  Lycra tears out during running the machine for production.  Barrie Mark/Patta: Causes:  Yarn package is either hard or soft.  Lot Mixing of yarn.
  • 170. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Improper yarn tension.  Uneven yarn dyeing.  Thick & Thin: Causes:  Diameter of yarn is uneven i.e. yarn irregularity.  Variation of yarn tension in course wise direction.
  • 171. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Sinker Mark: Causes:  Defective sinker.  Dust in sinker.  Improper servicing time of knitting machine.  Needle Line: Causes:  Needle mixing.  Dust in needle group.
  • 172. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Improper servicing time of knitting machine.  Oil Stain: Causes:  Dust in cylinder & Dial group.  Dust in needle group.  Improper oil flow.  Pin Hole: Causes:  Breakage of needle tail.  If needle tail bends.  Loop: Causes:  Dust in yarn during running the machine for production.  Yarn knot thicker.  Breakage of needle.  Fly Yarn: Causes:  Fly fiber during knitting.  One colors dirt is knitted with another color during running the machine.  Slub: Causes:  Excessive ply during yarn production.  Improper machine setting (Blow Room, Carding, Ring Frame).  Uneven Loop  Loose tension/Tight tension  Over looping  Finished Fabric Inspection: 4 point numbering system is followed for finished fabric inspection. Four-Point System: Size of Defect Penalty 3 inches or less 1 Point Over 3, but not over 6 2 Point Over 6, but not over 9 3 Point Over 9 inches 4 Point
  • 173. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Acceptance Calculation (Classification):  < 40 PTS = A  41 – 60 PTS = B  61 – 80 PTS = C  80 ABOVE = REJECT. Faults found during Finished Fabric Inspection:  Chemical Stain: Causes:  Padder contains dust during silicon finish.  Improper mixing of silicon softener.  Improper PH of softener mixing.  Too much m/c stoppage within short time.  Dirt Stain: Causes:  Fabric is stored in floor.  Trolley is not properly cleaned.  Finishing m/c is not properly cleaned.  Oil Stain: Causes:  Dust in cylinder & Dial group.  Dust in needle group.  Improper oil flow.  Dye Stain: Causes:  Appearance of the darker spots of the same colour caused by incomplete dissolution of the dye.  Improper dyes quality & dyes dosing.  Insect Spot: Causes:  Fabric is finished with insect when insect is in surface area of the fabric.  Fabric is stored for long time.  Barrie Mark/Patta: Causes:  Yarn package is either hard or soft.  Lot Mixing of yarn.  Improper yarn tension.  Uneven yarn dyeing.
  • 174. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Slub: Causes:  Excessive ply during yarn production.  Improper machine setting (Blow Room, Carding, Ring Frame).  Wrong Design: Causes:  Wrong insertion of yarn during knitting.  Wrong setting of fabric design in knitting machine.  Lycra out: Causes:  Lycra tears out during running the machine for production.  Thick & Thin: Causes:  Diameter of yarn is uneven i.e. yarn irregularity.  Variation of yarn tension in course wise direction.  White Specks/ Dead Cotton: Causes:  If fibre is immature.  Fabric construction contains dead fibre/ damage fibre.  Crease mark: Causes:  More cycle time.  Faulty plaiting device.  Slack on tight selvedge causes crease at an angle to each selvedge.  Incorrectly set bowed-expander.  Compacting is done when fabric is in folded condition.  Variation of heating and cooling rate.  Improper fabric movement. Physical Laboratory Tests Determination of Dimensional Stability (Shrinkage): Method Followed: ISO: 6330/ 3759/ 5077, AATCC: 150 Required Equipment: Electrolux Wascator/ Siemens, Loading cloth, Detergent (Light, Persil, ECE, Sodium Perborate)
  • 175. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Working Procedure: Taking the sample fabric (1.5 m) from the bulk. ↓ Put it into the conditioning for test for 04.30 to 06 hours. ↓ Take measurement of 50 cm  50 cm and mark 35 cm 35 cm and cut according to taken measurement. ↓ Overlock three edges & One edge (Length wise) open. ↓ Put into the Washing m/c (Wascator/ Siemens) with loading cloth & Detergent Loading cloth 02 to 03 kg, Detergent 02 to 04 gm/lt. ↓ Start the programme & Wash according to the programme Electrolux Wascator- Prog. 5A 60O C Temp. 60 min Siemens Washing m/c- Prog. Cotton Manual Temp. 90 min ↓ Put into the Dryer (Tumble Dryer) for 60o C Temp/ 40o C Temp with 60 min If required Line/Flat dry, generally hang with line dry &lay down with flat dry ↓ After drying conditioning the fabric for 4.30 hours. ↓ Take the measurement and make a test report. Determination of Spirality (Twisting): Method Followed: Inhouse system, AATCC: 179 Required Equipment: Electrolux Wascator/ Siemens, Loading cloth, Detergent (Light, Persil, ECE, Sodium Perborate) Working Procedure: Taking the sample fabric (1.5 m) from the bulk. ↓ Put it into the conditioning for test for 04.30 to 06 hours. ↓
  • 176. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Take measurement of 50 cm  50 cm and mark 35 cm 35 cm and cut according to taken measurement. ↓ Overlock three edges & One edge (Length wise) open. ↓ Put into the Washing m/c (Wascator/ Siemens) with loading cloth & Detergent Loading cloth 02 to 03 kg, Detergent 02 to 04 gm/lt. ↓ Start the programme & Wash according to the programme Electrolux Wascator- Prog. 5A 60O C Temp. 60 min Siemens Washing m/c- Prog. Cotton Manual Temp. 90 min ↓ Put into the Dryer (Tumble Dryer) for 60o C Temp/ 40o C Temp with 60 min If required Line/Flat dry, generally hang with line dry &lay down with flat dry ↓ After drying conditioning the fabric for 01 hours. ↓ Take the measurement according to the following diagram and make a test report. Before washing After Washing After Washing A B C D A B C1 D1 A B C1 D1 Here the Spirality% = (CC1 / AC1 X 100 + DD1/BD1 X 100)/2
  • 177. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Determination of Fabric Weight (GSM): Method Followed: ISO: 3801, ASTM: D3776 Required Equipment: G.S.M. cutter, Balance. Working Procedure: Taking the sample of fabric from bulk and conditioning for 4.30 to 06 hours ↓ Taking the conditioning fabric for test on the G.S.M. cutter pad so that no crease or crinkle is formed. ↓ Cutting the fabric with G.S.M. cutter (GSM Cutter Diameter 11.2 cm) ↓ Taking the weight of the cut fabric (Length & Width 11.2 cm) in balance and multiply with 100. ↓ Make a test report Determination of Fabric Width (Dia): Method Followed: ISO: 3932, ASTM: D3774 Required Equipment: Measurement Tape, Scale. Working Procedure: Taking the sample of fabric from bulk and conditioning for 4.30 to 06 hours ↓ Taking the conditioning fabric for test on the table so that no crease or crinkle is formed. ↓
  • 178. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Measuring the fabric width with Measurement tape or scale ↓ Taking the result of the test fabric ↓ Make a test report Determination of Pilling (Martindale): Method Followed: ISO: 12945-1/2, ASTM: 3512 Required Equipment: ICI Pilling Box, Martindale Pilling m/c, Fales fabric, Cotton fabric, Grey Scale. Working Procedure: Taking the fabric from bulk and then conditioning for 04.30 to 06 hours ↓ Cut the sample for test as per pilling cutter size (Dia meter 13.8 cm) ↓ Make two round shaped samples (13.8 cm) for testing by cutter. ↓ There are two portions in the Martindale abrasion machine, Upper part and lower part. Upper part can be taken out from the lower part which is attached with the lower part with screws. Loose the screws and take the upper part detached from the lower part. ↓ There are some parts in the lower part on which there are kept some felts. One piece of cut sample is placed on a felt and then a tensioning weight is placed on the sample fabric so that an even tension is created on the sample fabric. ↓ Start the program (At a time SKFL have 06 test facilities in that m/c) ↓ SKFL use 2000 Revolution, Time 3600 sec
  • 179. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Measuring the sample with grey scale & make a test report. Determination of Crocking (Rubbing): Method Followed: ISO: 105 X12, AATCC: 8 Required Equipment: Crockometer, Crocking cloth, Grey scale, Distill water. Working Procedure: Taking the sample of fabric from bulk and conditioning for 04.30 to 06 hours ↓ Select the sample fabric for test and cut 50 cm x 40 cm (02 Pcs) ↓ for Dry & Wet Rubbing Dry rubbing:- Put in tract of the crockometer for dry rubbing. ↓ Mount the crocking cloth on the head of the finger. ↓ Lower the finger on the test specimen and turn for 10 times within 10 sec so that it will cover all the dyed area of the specimen, do the same way two specimens. ↓ Evaluate with grey scale. Wet rubbing:- Put in tract of the crockometer for wet rubbing. ↓ Wet the crocking cloth in distilled water with pick up 100%, remove excess water with blotting paper.
  • 180. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ↓ Mount the crocking cloth on the head of the finger. ↓ Lower the finger on the test specimen and turn for 10 times within 10 sec so that it will cover all the dyed area of the specimen, do the same way two specimens. ↓ Dry the white fabric and evaluate with grey scale. ↓ Measurement & make test report Determination of Color Fastness to Washing: Method Followed: ISO 105 C06/C08, AATCC: 61 Required Equipment: Rotawash, Stainless Still Ball, ECE Detergent, Multi-fibre fabric, Grey scale, Sodium Perborate, TAED. Working Procedure: Collecting the sample from bulk and then conditioning for 04.30 to 06 hours ↓ Making a specimen of 04 cm10 cm in size. ↓ Sewing the specimen with multi-fibre fabric of same size at one corner. ↓ Making the solution of 4gm/litre ECE detergent & 1 gm/litre sodium perborate, (If required SKFL use 0.15 gm/litre TAED). ↓ Putting the specimen with multi-fibre fabric into the solution in Rotawash m/c Prog.: C2S Temp.: 60O C/ 40O C Time: 30 min Still ball: 25 pcs ↓ Rinsing with hot water respectively. ↓ Squeezing with cold water of the sample is done (Hand Wash). ↓ Then drying is done at a temperature in the air not exceeding 60 0 C ↓
  • 181. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The stitching is then broken out except on one of the shorter end. ↓ Measuring the staining and color change by grey scale & make a test report. Determination of Color Fastness to Perspiration: Method Followed: ISO 105 E04, AATCC: 15 Required Equipment: Perspirometer, Woven Dryer, Multifibre, Below mentioned Chemicals, Distilled water and Grey scale. Working Procedure: Taking the sample fabric from bulk and then conditioning for 04.30 to 06 hours ↓ Select the sample for test and cut the specimen in 04cm10 cm. ↓ Attach with multi-fibre fabric of same size. ↓ Make-up solution with below chemicals: For Acid: L-histadine monohydrochloride: 0.5 gm/litre Sodium Chloride: 5 gm/litre Sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate dihydride: 2.2 gm/litre For Alkali: L-histadine monohydrochloride: 0.5 gm/litre Sodium Chloride: 5 gm/litre Di Sodium hydrogen orthophosphate 2-hydrate: 2.5 gm/litre Water: 1000 cc ↓ Immerge the sample and Multifibre fabric into solution for 01 hours ↓01 sample 50 ml, Solution 1:50 Place in between the perspirometer plate and fix with proper weight. Put into the perspirometer with 100% pick up ↓ Set the perspirometer in woven dryer at 37o C temp for 4 hours ↓
  • 182. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Out the perspirometer in woven dryer & set it another dryer ↓ Dry the sample at 60o C temp for 60 min ↓ Measurement with grey scale for shade change and staining & make a test report. Determination of Color Fastness to Water: Method Followed: ISO 105 E01, AATCC: 107 Required Equipment: Perspirometer, Woven Dryer, Multifibre, Distilled water and Grey scale. Working Procedure: Taking the sample fabric from bulk and then conditioning for 04.30 to 06 hours ↓ Select the sample for test and cut the specimen in 04cm10 cm. ↓ Attach with multi-fibre fabric of same size. ↓ Put into the distilled water for 01 hours ↓ 01 sample 50 ml, Solution 1:50 Put into the perspirometer with 100% pick-up. ↓ Set the perspirometer in woven dryer at 37o C temp for 4 hours ↓ Out the perspirometer in woven dryer & set it another dryer ↓ Dry the sample at 60o C temp for 60 min ↓ Measurement with grey scale for shade change and staining & make a test report.
  • 183. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Determination of Bursting Strength: Method Followed: ISO: 13938-2, ASTM: D3786 Required Equipment: Bursting Strength Tester. Working Procedure: Taking the sample fabric from the bulk and conditioning for 04.30 to 06 hours. ↓ Make reading of F1 and F2 zero by presenting them for 3 seconds respectively. ↓ Loose the handle by moving it anticlockwise. ↓ Put the fabric in the middle of the pressure (glycerin container) and the envil. ↓ Tighten the handle by moving it clockwise. ↓ In switch on condition take the switch at first in off mode and then in forward mode. ↓ After bursting, the switch is needed to move at first in offside and then in reverse mode. ↓ When the pressure comes in neutral condition there will be no sound. In this condition by pressing F1 and F2 we can get the result of pressure created to get the strength. The measurement is counted in kPa (Kilopascal). ↓ Received the measurement & make a test report.
  • 184. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Determination of Color Fastness to Light: Method Followed: ISO 105 B02, AATCC: 16 Required Equipment: Xenon Test Chamber, Sample stand, Test Paper, and Blue Wool Std. Working Procedure: Taking the sample fabric from bulk and then conditioning for 04.30 to 06 hours ↓ Select the sample for test and cut the specimen in 05cm10.5 cm. ↓ Attached with Test Paper (same as sample fabric) ↓ SSeett iinnttoo tthhee SSaammppllee wwiitthh ssaammppllee ssttaanndd ↓ Put into the Xenon Test Chamber Disk & start the program Light- Day, Wave Length- 35W/m2 , Temp- Black Panel 50o C, Chamber Air 39o C Relative Humidity- 40%, Test Time- 24 hours. ↓ Position change- 04 times for 24 hours test ↓ After test collect the sample & measurement with Grey Scale ↓ Make a test report Determination of PH Value: Method Followed: ISO: 3071, AATCC: 81 Required Equipment: Mechanical Shaker m/c, PH Meter, Distill Water. Working Procedure:
  • 185. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Taking the sample fabric from bulk and conditioning for 4.30 to 06 hours ↓ Taking the sample for test weight 2 gm & make it very small pieces ↓ Collect the 100 ml distill water & boiled it 05 min (Temp 40o C to 100o C) The sample placed into the beaker (100 ml) with deionized water (PH 5.0-6.5) ↓ The beaker placed into the mechanical shaker at 40o C temp for one hour. ↓ Measure the PH value of the solution by inserting the PH meter into the glass flask. ↓ Wait until the reading has settled before taking and recording the result. ↓ Make a test report LLaabb DDiipp PPrreeppaarraattiioonn While training in Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. we prepared the several lab dip and match with the standards by the spectrophotometer. The preparation and matching with the standards is described below: Sequence of Lab dip Preparation: STD receive from Merchandiser (Physical swatch/R. Value)  Scan / Input in spectrophotometer } Color Tools  Save / Store  DCI Match – Recipe  Substrate (S/J, 1 * 1 rib, 26/1, 30/1 etc)  STD  Dye Set  Combination → as per buyer Requirements  Then recipe  Salt/ Soda/ Caustic as per Recipe  Dyeing Program Selection
  • 186. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Pipe ting  Salt + Sample + Aux  Dyeing  Alkali Inject  Unload after dyeing  Wash → as per program  Dry → 60ºC * 20' – 30'  Finish (Iron)  Shade matching Washing Procedure: For Light Shade (<1.0%): Rinse  Cold Wash  Neutralization with 0.5 gm/l Acetic Acid  Soaping with RSK 1 gm/l at 85ºC * 10' – m/c wash  Cold Wash  Dry For medium Shade (1.0 – 3.0): Rinse  Cold Wash  Neutralization with 0.5 gm/l Acetic Acid  Soaping with RSK 1) 1.5gm/l at 85ºC * 10' – m/c wash 2) 1.0gm/l at 90ºC * 10' – m/c wash  Hot wash  Cold Wash  Dry
  • 187. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark Shade (3.0 above): Rinse  Cold Wash  Neutralization with 0.5 gm/l Acetic Acid  Soaping with RSK 1) 1gm/l at 90ºC * 10' – m/c wash 2) 1.5gm/l at 85ºC * 10' – m/c wash  Hot wash  Cold Wash  Dry Recipe no : Yarn Fabric: L:R = Shade: Quality: Sample weight: Dyes / Auxiliaries % / g/lit dE Trial Sample Trial – 1 Rema Blue RR 1.979% 2.1 Rema Yellow RGB 3.598% Rema Red RGB 1.587% Salt 95g/l Soda ash 20% 5g/l Caustic 38º Be 2ml/l Trial – 2 Rema Blue RR 1.999% 1.02 Rema Yellow RGB 3.633% Rema Red RGB 1.587% Salt 95g/l Soda ash 20% 5g/l Caustic 38º Be 2ml/l Trial – 3 Rema Blue RR 1.941% 0.551 Rema Yellow RGB 3.528% Rema Red RGB 1.512% Salt 95g/l Soda ash 20% 5g/l Caustic 38º Be 2ml/l Trial – 4 Rema Blue RR 1.999% 0.38 Rema Yellow RGB 3.598% Rema Red RGB 1.557% Salt 95g/l Soda ash 20% 5g/l
  • 188. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Caustic 38º Be 2ml/l Test for Mercerizing: Necessary Equipment:  Volumetric flask  Beaker  Burette  Pipette  Measuring flask  Electric balance  Shaker  Scissors Necessary Chemicals:  Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2 0.25(N)  Hydrochloric acid, HCl, 0.1(N)  Water  Methyl Orange Sample: Yarn sample → 58/2 s singed and mercerized Single mercerized fabric → Grey mercerized, Yarn count – 58/2s , Speed – 10m/min. Double mercerized fabric → Grey mercerized, Yarn count – 58/2s , Speed – 10m/min. Stock solution preparation: To prepare 0.25(N) Ba(OH)2 Solution from a hydride barium hydroxide powder following formula should be applied N = VM W   1000 where, N = Normality W = Weight of Ba(OH)2 M = Molecular mass equivalent of hydride Ba(OH)2 i.e. Ba(OH)2 . 8H2O, V = Volume of Ba(OH)2 solution, For 250 ml solution of 0.25(N) Ba(OH)2 following parameters should maintained,
  • 189. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT W = 1000 VMN  = 21000 25048.31525.0   = 9.8587gm  Now dissolve this Ba(OH)2 in to 250 ml distilled water.  Keep the solution overnight in a safe position in a volumetric flask Procedure: 2 gm of mercerized sample (fabric or Yarn) has to taken The sample has to immerse in 30 ml 0.25(N) Ba(OH)2 solution. The sample in immersion under Ba(OH)2 solution should keep 4 hrs After 4 hrs the sample mercerized cotton should remove from the solution and shaken carefully and well by a shaker. From the left out solution 10 ml has to take for titration. The solution is titrated with 0.1 (N) HCl in presence of methyl orange indicator. The volume of HCl required to titrate the Ba(OH)2 solution has been recorded. Now the mother/stock solution of Ba(OH)2 also titrated with same HCl and the amount has been recorded. Then can be calculated by the following formula, Ba(OH)2% absorbed by the mercerized sample = stockoftitrationforrequiredHCl solutionoutleftoftotrationforrequiredHClstockoftotrationforrequiredHCl  × 100% Chart: Sample no Sample type Impregnation Required ml of HCl to titrate Ba(OH)2 Ba(OH)2 % absorbed by the mercerized sample Start time End time 1 Mercerized Yarn 10:50 am 2:50 pm 20 20.319% 2 Single mercerized 11:00 am 3:00 pm 19.1 23.904% 3 Double mercerized 11:10 am 3:10 pm 18.7 25.5% Result:
  • 190. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Ba(OH)2 % absorbed by the mercerized Yarn sample = 20.319% Ba(OH)2 % absorbed by the single mercerized fabric sample = 23.904% Ba(OH)2 % absorbed by the double mercerized fabric sample = 25.5% Evaluation: Below 15% → Unmercerized Above 15% → Mercerized 70% → Fully mercerized So the samples are mercerized. Remarks: The easy test done is not a standardize test. It is generally practiced in mills and factories for quicker evolution of mercerization. In this test accuracy is maintained as much as possible. Titration is done manually. More over the concentration of HCl and Barium Hydroxide also measured by the same titration procedure. As the test result comes in a percentage basis the initial concentration variation does not hamper the test result. For this reason the test result is claimed accurate and satisfactory.
  • 191. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) & Caustic Recovery Plant (CRP)
  • 192. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. is very much concern about its effluent, for this reason they established two effluent treatment plant and they are ETP-I (capacity1200 m3 per day) & ETP-II (capacity 3000m3 per day). The ETP in SKFL is a biological one. Here bacterial and protozoa are the catalyst of biochemical reaction to convert the toxic material into environmental friendly gases and substances. The initial cost of biological ETP is more but it has a low running cost if control is greater.  Reaction Time:  8-12 hr for secondary treatment  50 m3 / hr for secondary treatment  3-4 ppm/30-35c(for proper bacterial action)  Quantity of micro-organism 1:4  Total capacity of ETP plant: 1200 m3 /day + 3000 m3 /day = 4200 m3 /day.  Sludge removes level: 800 MI/ 1/2hr f  Effluent Analyzing Report: Parameter Unit Quantity Std. Value PH 7.5 6-8 COD mg/lt 39 150-200 BOD5 mg/lt 23 29-50 Color APHA/Pt.Co 335 220-250 Phosphate mg/lt 3.2 5-15 Sulphate mg/lt 560 1000 Ammonia mg/lt 2.50 5-10 Chloride mg/lt 120 500-600 Nitrate mg/lt 6.16 08-10 TSS mg/lt 80 60-80 TDS mg/lt 2075 2100 Chlorine mg/lt 0.1 1 Nitrite mg/lt 0.21 >1 Sludge (wet) ml / ½ hr 800-820 700-800
  • 193. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 1.CollectionSump 2.ScreenFilter 3.HomozenigingTan 4.NeutralizationTank 5.DistributionTank 6.OxidaitonTank 7.Sedimentationtank 8.Sludgereturn 9.Sludgethikener 10.Filterpress 11.Airblower 12.Acidtank 13.Antifoamingtank 14.Decolorenttank 15.Polyelectrolytetan 15.NaHOCltank 16.Treatedeffluent. Ref: USPEA (United States Environment Protection Agencies) IWRA (International Water Resources Association) GOB (Government of Bangladesh) 1 345 6 7 17 8 9 10 1516 121314 2 11
  • 194. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Equipments for ETP Laboratory:  HACH method (for measuring BOD & COD)  BOD Incubator  Electric Shaker  Reflex Condensat for COD measuring  PH meter  TDS meter  Inhoff con for measuring sludge quantity  Desiccators  Separating funnel  Electric Balance  COD Reactor  Farness;  Portable Spectrophotometer-Meter  Parameters of ETP:  Waste water outlet  3000 m3 /day  Treatment capacity  1500 m3 /day  Running cost  2 – 4 Tk./m3  Plant capacity  1200 m3 /day  Bacterial: Protozoa  60:1  Sludge collection at  60 – 70 %  Screen allowance  1 in2  PH  6.5 – 8  Dissolved oxygen (DO)  2 – 3 ppm  Outlet water temperature  30 - 35ºC  Dwell time for effluent discharge  48 hrs. (For oxidation tank) Bacteria in oxidation tank: Protozoa: Bacilli Paramecium caudatum Cocehi Euplotes Beggiatoa Vorticella dutrina Spirillum Colpidium Vitreoscilla
  • 195. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Biochemical Reaction: Bacteria decompose the organic matter and other matters are related with oxygen by microbial action i.e. biochemical reaction and produce gases and free radicals. Metals are bio-chemically reacting with the enzyme and produces gases. Mn + O2  Enzyme MnO2 Organic radicals Gases and free radicals C + O2   ORGANISMMICRO CO2 H H20 N NO3 S SO4 2- P PO4 3-  Process Water Test Report: Sl. No. Water quality parameters Unit Dye house standard Test result 1. PH - 6 to 8 6.23 2. Color Pt.Co 5 2.0 3. Turbidity NTU 2 1.0 4. Total Alkalinity as CaCO3 mg/lt 150 46 5. Chloride mg/lt 100 8.7 6. Total Hardness as CaCO3 (TH) mg/lt 2o Gh = (2X17.85) = 35.7 ppm 16.45 7. Manganese (Mn) mg/lt 0.1 Nil 8. Iron (Fe) mg/lt 0.1 0.02 9. Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) mg/lt 100 to 180 145 10. Sulphate mg/lt 100 1 11. Oil & Grease mg/lt Nil - 12. Arsenic (As) ppb 0.005 - 13. Dissolved Silica mg/lt - 42.6 Note: Sample Collection from Hanks Dyeing Area.
  • 196. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Weaklye tank Pre Heater Pre Heater Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger EvapuratorEvapurator Heat Exchanger Evapurator Condenser Sedimentation tank Strong lyetank HeatingSteaminlet Steaminlet Fig:ShhematicdiagramofCausticRecoveryPlant Caustic Recovery Plant (CRP) Square Knit Fabrics Ltd is very much concern about the environmental issues. Here a large volume of caustic both liquid and solid used in different wet processes as a basic chemical. In case of Yarn and Fabric Mercerization most of the liquid caustic produced and effluent containing caustic produced. The recovery of these caustic of 2º to 5º Be concentration is beneficial for cost minimization and reduction of effluent which may cause environmental hazard.
  • 197. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Recovery Process: Effluent reached to weak lye tank Concentration is 2º - 5º Be  Pre heating done in pre heater Temperature 60ºC - 65ºC  Boiling occurs in 1st Heat exchanger Temperature 120ºC  Evaporation of water in 1st evaporator Concentration 10ºBe  2nd Heat exchanger Temperature 114ºC  2nd Evaporator Concentration 20º Be  3rd Heat exchanger Temperature 84ºC  3rd Evaporator Concentration 30º Be  Vapor Condensation at condenser (Condense flow rate)  Strong lye tank / sedimentation tank Dosing H2O2  Strong lye tank  Mixing tank Mixing with pre stored caustic (1litre 30o Be Caustic + 25 gm Solid Caustic) Concentration 40ºBe  Few Parameters: Inlet steam pressure  7 – 8 bar Vacuum condenser pressure  0.3 – 0.4 bar Condenser temperature  70ºC - 75ºC, Pressure  2 bar, Flow  60lit/80sec Weak lye temperature  35 - 37ºC, Concentration  5-6ºBe Strong lye temperature  75 ºC - 85ºC, concentration  28 - 30ºBe 1st stage: Shell side steam pressure  1.2 – 1.6 bar Shell side temperature  120 – 130ºC Pipe temperature 110 – 115 ºC  2nd stage: Shell side temperature 110 ºC Pipe temperature 90 – 100 ºC 3rd stage: Shell side temperature  85 -100ºC Pipe temperature  70 - 85ºC
  • 198. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Maintenance
  • 199. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MACHINE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM OF SKFL Maintenance of Machinery: Maintenance of machinery is very essential mechanical effort for achieving smooth running of different machines. Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in such a way that trouble free. Services and increased machine life can be ensured and specific product quality required by the customers is sustained. On time maintenance increase m/c lifetime & ensures trouble free services. In Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. following two types of maintenance are done.  Break down maintenance  Preventive maintenance Maintenance System used in SKFL: YEARLY MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST  Demag monorail hoist  Grease all the moving parts and bearings  Check all the nut and bolts  Check oil level  Check each sprocket, chain and chain collector are ok  Check the thickness of the lines  Check visually the damage of main girders  Pressing machine  Check rotating table balls and lubricate.  Lubricate the axial bearings  Yarn singeing machine Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance
  • 200. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Clean control cabinet using a vacuum cleaner.  Do not touch the circuit card and soldering joints.  Every 4 year change the battery on the RAM card.  Santex compactor machine  Check the machine for visual damages.  Replace the worm reduction gear oils.  Check the compacting shoes for wearing.  Check the blankets for wearing.  Check the foundation bolts of the machine.  Fabric dyeing machine  Check the machine for visual damages.  Drain & replace the main pump bearing oil.  Drain & replace the oil of gearboxes.  Check and if necessary replace all plaiter bearings balls.  Check the platter/ J-box center alignment  Check the manhole O-ring.  Check and grease all greasing points.  Check and tight all plaiter, catch basket, reel and other support bolts from the inside of the machine.  Check all the PTFE carbon supports and sleeves in the plaiting device system inside the machine  Santex compactor machine  Check the machine for visual damages.  Replace the worm reduction gear oils.  Check the compacting shoes for wearing. Replace if necessary.  Check the blankets for wearing.  Check the foundation bolts of the machine.  Dornier mercerizing machine  Grease all the bearings and moving parts.  Check the bearing bolts and replace them if necessary.  Change the gear oil of the gear boxes  Check the rubber coating of the fixation & drive rollers  Complete check of the cooling plant  Check the spray rings, piping and armatures
  • 201. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Check the pneumatic piping for proper connection  Check and retighten the electric connections of machine  Replace the chains and the chain wheels of the drives HALF YEARLY MAINTENANCE  Alea hank dryer machine  Adjust the chain tension and lubricate it  Check the oil level of the gear box  Change the gear oil once a year  Lubricate the bearings with grease  Calator ruckh inspection machine  Lubricate chain and adjust the tension.  Grease all the bearings.  Change gear oil once a year.  Precision winding machine  Clean the cable channels and electric cabinet  Clean the flyer set and displacement unit  Check certain  Every 5 year replace buffer batteries on the control cabinet  Loris Bellini hank dyeing machine  Clean and check the compressed air filter.  Check the pneumatic cylinders.  Tightening of every bolt.  Tightening of foundation bolts.  Check and replace the roller bearings if necessary.  Maintenance for piston pneumatic valves.  Tightening of terminals of electric motors.  Tightening of terminals of electric boards.  Yarn singeing machine  Check condition of variator, remove any wound on thread.  Check automatic contrails of all sensors. TWO MONTHLY  Stalam yarn dryer  Check inside of the panel  Check the nut, bolts and belts of dryer
  • 202. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Grease the roller support every 4 month MONTHLY MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST  Assembly winding machine  Check the cone holder's looseness  Clean the inverters  Clean the yarn path properly  Check the package diameter sensor  Jaeggli yarn mercerizing machine  Grease hooks draught bearings. (B)  Grease function bearings of the squeegee roller (H)  Grease fulcrum bushes of the lifting cylinder(L)  Check the hydraulic oil pressure  Loris Bellini hank dyeing.  Inspection of wear and tear of lid gasket  Lubricate the electric motors.  Check the mechanical seals of add pumps  Inspect the serviceability of safety valves.  Maintenance of stuffing box.  Pressing machine  Check the function of rotating table moving arm  Check thoroughly the sliding pneumatic parts.  Yarn singeing machine  Check spindle motor supply  Check function of the vacuum monitor of the suction off switch.  Check function of the compressed air monitor on the gas mix section  Scholl package dyeing  Check main pump v- belt connection  Check the safety, steam and water valves  Dornier mercerizing machine  Clean and lubricate the motors the motors  Clean and lubricate the pumps and check the impellers  Clean the switch board and the switching elements visually
  • 203. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Check the bearings of all rollers  Check the bearings of the chain reversing sprockets  Check the magnetic attachment  Clean the entire plant  Hydro extractor machine Lubricate the spindle bearings at the end of the shaft and greasing nipple on the rotary treble behind the front part of removable casing. Lubricate the guide pulley behind the front part of removable casing.  Monforts Padder, Stretcher & Dryer Machine  Lubricate:  Bearings of padder rolls with "N"  Sprockets and chains with "E"  Hand wheel, idle rollers with "B"  Check, Grease If necessary.-  Nuts of width adjustment spindles for wear  Check all spindle bearings for free running  Free running of guide rollers, deflection rollers & contact rollers  Pressure springs of chain pensioner  Perform visual inspection:  Gear box oil level  Belts, pulleys  Move width adjustment motor to the end position & check counters  Mahlo setter and compactor  Check, Grease if necessary:  Nuts of width adjustment spindles for wear  Check all spindle bearings for free running  Free running of guide rollers, deflection rollers and contact rollers.  Pressure springs of chain pensioner  Perform visual inspection:-  Gear box oil level  Belts, pulleys  Move width adjustment motor to the end position & check counters  Corino slitting machine
  • 204. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Grease the squeeze for the rope fabric part  Grease the dewatering bearings  Grease the bearings of water slitting device & driving screw for basket opening  Grease the bearings of open width squeezer  Change gear oil once a year  Sclavos fabric dyeing machine Check the main pump oil level. Check all bearings, seals, gaskets. Check all mechanical seal flush pipes. Discharge the water from air filter. Check all m/c flange & platform bolts. Grease RCR rotary joints every 2 weekly Clean & check the control panel. Check the adjustment of catch basket mechanism and plaiter system. FABRIC DYEING MACHINE  Check the machine for visual damages. Check the main pump bearing oil level. Replace the oil. Check the operation of all alarms.  Check and clean the sedo master controller.  Clean the inlet filter of magnet level indicator.  Check the pressure & temperature gauges.  Check and grease all greasing points.  Check all mechanical seal flush pipes. Specially check the plaiter water nozzle.  Santex compactor machine  Grease rotary joints.  Grease heated rollers supports bearings.  Grease all the bearings.  Grease all the transmission chains.  Grease centering device guide and bearings.  Check driving belts tension and wear. WEEKLY MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST  Stalam yarn dryer  Clean the dryer by compressed air  Clean the foreign matters in the inductor and between electrode
  • 205. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Clean the filter of asplirator air intake  Hydro-extractor  Remove all the centrifugal heads & check  Clean the entire machine  Lift the c over & clean the drain cannel.  Lubricate the rotary table behind the front part removable casing.  Yarn pressing machine  Check the joints for tightness.  Check the foundation bolts  Check pneumatic oiler oil level  Scholl package dyeing machine.  Flange connections checked for tightness.  Open outlet of V68 valves and clean.  Open outlet pipe after V, 38 valve and clean.  Check lip seal & clean grease with PROBA 270( kluber)  Upper side of cams on lid ring treated with lubricant. Use molykote graphite grease.  Checked oil level in atomizer  Jaeggli yarn mercerizing machine  Ease bearings of stretching rollers. (A, E)  Ease sleeves of stretching rollers. (F)  Ease bearings of squeezer rollers. (G)  Ease bushes candle. (I)  Check hydraulic oil level and leakages.  Check hydraulic -oil cooling system Is ok  Loris bellini hank dyeing machine  Clean the grid filter of the electric board  Clean the protective grid of the electric motor  Tighting all the bolts and nuts  Maintenance of safety device with program test  Monforts padder, stretcher & dryer machine  Perform visual inspection & clean  In feed roller control unite cylinders
  • 206. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Guide rod. guide roller & bearings  Lifting device cylinders bearings  Under liquor squeeze roller adjustment  Teflon coated bearings, immersed rollers  Belt tension, gear unit  Universal joint shaft coupling  Width adjustment functional wheels  Selvedge sensor uncovers. Pinning shoes. brush  Never grease graphite chain guide rails  Brushes after pinning  Clean & oil  Filter housing & replace.  Sprockets. Clamps with E  Sliding guides cylinders  Dryer removable screens  Air suction control butterfly valves  Oil level of pneumatic oiler filter  Monforts padder, stretcher & dryer machine  Lubricate:-  Bearings of padder rolls with "N"  Sprockets and chains with "E"  Hand wheel idle rollers with "B"  Check, Grease if necessary: -  Nuts of width adjustment spindles for wear  Check all spindle bearings for free running  Free running of guide rollers, deflection rollers & contact rollers.  Pressure springs of chain tensioner  Perform visual inspection:  Gear box oil level  Belts, pulleys  Move width adjustment motor to the end position & check counters  Calator ruckh inspection machine  Clean the reflector for the edge guiding photocell  Check drive belt and chain
  • 207. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Check the inspection table with a cloth  Yarn singeing machine  Cleaning the burner rings.  Cleaning the root blower suction air filter.  Clean the traveling blower.  Dornier mercerizing machine  Visually check the motors and pumps  Check the chain drives and tension of chains  Check that all the expanders are properly adjusted Check the surface & readability of the expander rollers.  Clean the machine from fluffs, dirt, chemicals  Check the function of the solenoid valve  Check the function of the cooling plant,  Check the spraying nozzles and clean them if blocked  Check the rubber coating of the drive rolls  Corino slitting machine  Check turntable tire pump & spring pressure.  Grease the turntable.  Check de twister speed reducer, transmission belts pneumatic brake.  Check oiler oil level of the fabric expander.  Check movable reel plaiter driving system.  Fabric dyeing machine  Check the main pump oil level.  Check all bearings, seals, and gaskets.  Check all mechanical seal flush. pipes.  Discharge the water from air filter.  Check all m/c flang & platform bolts.  Grease RCR rotary joints every 2 weekly  Clean & check the control panel.  Check the adjustment of catch basket mechanism and plaiter system.  Corino squeezer machine  Clean the machine rollers with wet cloth..  Check visually all bearings & drive chains.  Check all air and water hose joints.
  • 208. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Clean compressor filter.  Check tyre pump bellow the turntable.  Check and clean fabric spreader.  Check tension of trapezoidal belts.  Grease turntable- bearing balls.  Santex compactor machine  Clean the machine properly.  Check all bearings & chains.  Check all mechanical joints.  Check all the machine alignments.  Top up the compressed air lubricant.  Clean the panel A/C properly.  Check tension and wear of the spreader belt pulleys. DAILY MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST. .DORNIER MERCERIZING MACHINE  Check the quantity of fresh caustic soda in the caustic soda storage tank.  Check the complete machine and the auxiliary equipment visually.  Check whether all chains, chain wheels and drives are properly running.  Check the soda temperature to ensure that the cooling plant works properly  Check that all rollers are easily relatable. ETP WEEKLY  Clean the glass electrode of pH meter.  Check the filter net of dosing pump.  Check the current of air pressure.  Clean air filter of blower (monthly). EVERY 4 MONTH  Calibrate the PH meter with buffer solution, 7 & 4.  Calibrate the blower meter,  Grease the oxygen meter.  Grease the scraping, bridge, bridge wheel of ball bearing.
  • 209. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT EVERY 2 YEAR  Grease the spring ball bearing.  Change the oil of sludge transfer pump.  Change the oil of feed pump.  Change the oil of lifting pump.  Change the oil of sludge blower.  Change the sensor of oxygen blower (if necessary).  Change the electrode of pH meter (if necessary).  Change the oil of dosing pump.  Change the oil of scraping grease motor
  • 210. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Utility Services
  • 211. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Utility Facilities Available: The following utility facilities are available at SKFL Water. - Steam. - Electricity. - Gas. - Compressed air. Description of the Utilities  Water:  Raw water hardness: 18-200 (Generally 30 ppm)  Boiler water hardness: 0 0  M/c used: Water conditioner  Submergible pump : 2 (For SKFL) & 1 (For Dormitories) Process water: 200m3 /hr and 150 m3 /hr Domestic use: 150 m3 /hr  Company: Cleaver Brooks  Country of origin: USA.  Water consumption: 4500-5000m3 /day  Water pressure: 6-6.5 bar  Steam:  Boiler Steam: 10.2 tons/hr. & 2.3 tons/hr.  Steam pressure: 7.5-8 bar  Steam temp: 150-1600 C  M/c used: Fire tube type Gas Boiler & Exhaust Gas Boiler  Piece: 02 (Fire tube type Gas Boiler) & 01 (Exhaust Gas Boiler).  Capacity: 10.2 tons/hr. & 2.3 tons/hr.  Power Supply:  Supply: Self  M/c used: Electricity Gas Generator  Brand: Cater Pillar  Origin: USA
  • 212. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Piece: 05  Total Capacity: 5.6 MW (1 MW+1 MW +1 MW +1 MW+1.6 MW).  Chiller: Hot water chiller Vapour absorbent chiller Vapour compression chiller (Centrifugal Chiller) Flue gas with steam absorption Chiller (Dual core chiller) Brand: Prochill Thermax Brand: Prochill Thermax Brand: Mc Quay Brand: Shuang Liang Capacity: 400 rt/hr. Capacity: 400 rt/hr. Capacity: 400 rt/hr Capacity: 661 rt/hr. Origin: India Origin: India Origin: USA Origin: China  Air Compressor: Piece: 07 Brand: BOGE (No. of machine 6) & ROLL AIR (No. of machine 1). Country of origin: Germany Capacity: 6 m3 /hr.  Cooling Tower: Use in: Generator Country of origin: Thailand Piece: 12  Source of Utility: 1. Water- Own supply (Pump) 2. Steam-Own supply (Boiler) 3. Electricity-Generator & PDB 4. Gas- Titas Gas Transmission & Distribution Co. Ltd. 5. Compressed air- Own supply (Air compressor)  Remarks: SKFL is using 0-5deg (total) hardness water which is suitable very for dyeing. The under ground water is free from hardness creating metals and eliminates the need for water treatment plant. The electricity supply system is very good and fluently. It is fully equipped to produce its necessary power. Its capacity of power generation is increasing with another two generators to be established. The constant pressure of water also eliminates the need for high rise water tank and maintains flow speed in different machines.
  • 213. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Store & Inventory Control
  • 214. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Inventory System for Raw material: In SKFL there are different inventory systems for different raw materials. Grey Fabric Store: All the grey fabrics are stored in the fabric store near the batch section. Different types of fabric are listed in the sheet according to fabric types, quantity and consumer's requirement. Dyes and Chemicals: There is a different store for dyes and chemicals. Vanes types of dyes and chemicals are stored here according to dyes and chemicals companies. Different types of dyes and chemicals are listed in a sheet. In the sheet the stored quantity of dyes and chemicals are also included. Every day the sheet is updated and a copy of this sheet is supplied to the dyeing manager, dye house and lab section. Spares: In SKFL required amount of spears of different machines are stored in the mechanical store room. All the spares are listed in a sheet which is controlled by the mechanical & maintenance personnel. Spares are arranged in the store room according to there size, quantity & requirements. There are shelves in the store room to keep the small spare parts. Finished Goods: SKFL supplies its finished dyed fabrics to its garments section. So, dyed finished fabrics are stored for short time in the finishing section. All the delivered fabrics are noted on the tally khata according to the lot no, quantity, fabrics diameter, buyer's name, Color & considering other technical parameters. Remarks: SKFL has individual stores for raw materials, finished goods etc. the store of dyestuff & chemicals are not so clean. There is no enough space to store the finished goods. It requires increasing the store area.
  • 215. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Social & Environmental Information
  • 216. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Scope of Employment Opportunity: As SKFL is continuously expanding with new innovation and advanced modernization in a diversified manner it creates ample opportunity for employment in our country. Here in SKFL people have the opportunity of intensively learning about worldwide textile technology. Internship Program: SKFL offers a very promising internship program to post graduate and under graduate students across Bangladesh. Every year SKFL gives opportunity internees to join with them and they provide as much help as an internees needs during the internee periods. All the renowned educational institution in Bangladesh highly prefer their students to attend internship program in SQUARE because of its modem art of state, high profile of manpower, recognition of superb management. Environmental Pollution Control: SQUARE is still an example to the industries in the country of a conscientious and civil and socially responsible manufacturer. Their commitment to improve the environment to provide their workers with a health and friendly workspace and their neighbours with a pollution free clean area continues to be strong as ever. All their chemically contaminated water is treated, neutralized, cleared and given to neighbouring farmers. They provide Ecotex label to their customer which is a proof of free from carcinogenic dyes and are accepted as a very environment friendly production unit. Environmental Policy (For ISO 14001: 2004): SKFL is committed to the protection of the environment and the conservation of natural resources SKFL will comply with environmental laws and regulations and will closely monitor its service, manufacturing, storage, treatment and disposition processes to ensure that the company’s operations do not create any adverse impact on environment, health and safety of communities. SKFL is committed to continual improvement of environmental management system and environmental performance.
  • 217. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Noise, Dust Pollution Control and Air Emission: Proper administrative and engineering control is deployed in rectifying, reducing and controlling noise and dust pollution. Air emission is another major concern in the factory area. Periodic monitoring is conducted to rectify contamination on the air and the air quality of the area. Health, Safety and Hygiene Awareness: SKFL believes that all employees are to work in a safe, healthy and hygienic work atmosphere. In each and every unit, First Aid and Hygiene team along with appropriate training to care for its people. In all our industrial units SUL have both male and female physicians with necessary aid and medical facilities. In order to increase the awareness level of the employees the management also takes great initiative to take part in ergonomics area such as child care, Family Planning, Pure drinking water, Arsenic, Diarrhea, Sanitation, HIV, Dengue and general health and hygiene. This has been practiced in order to aware them and their families. Conclusion: Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. has now established in the world as a manufacturer of reputed fabric and capable of producing value added products and executing difficult orders at very short lead time. The planning, organizing, controlling, designing, creativity, the technical skill and above all the quality conscious have cemented the base of this leading textile industry. With highly advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, its seems to be clear that Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation's growing ready made, garments export sector and makes a example for others. Industrial training is an important and essential part of education as through this training I learn all the implementations of the processes which I have studied theoretically. It gives me an opportunity to compare the theoretical knowledge with practical facts and thus develop my knowledge and skills. This industrial training also gives me an opportunity to enlarge my knowledge of textile administration, production planning, procurement system, production process, and machineries and teach me to adjust with the industrial life. I have found myself fortunate to have my industrial training at SKFL. It has a huge production capacity with a very efficient production team. SKFL has a very good, well
  • 218. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT equipped and modern laboratories and producing a wide range of color. During my training period I have noticed that SKFL is very concern about their quality and they rarely have any quality complain. The management of SKFL is very organized, pre-active and co-operative. At the end of the day I realized that industrial training make my knowledge’s application practically and make me confident to face any problem of my job sector. Bibliography:  www.square-bd.com  www.swicofil.com  www.pburch.net  Basic Principles of Textile Coloration – Arthur D Broadbent  Mr. Md. Habibuzzaman (Shameem) Senior Manager Yarn Processing & Mercerizing Square Knit Fabrics Limited.

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