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Hairy fibre removal system using singeing & enzyme wash

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  • 1. 5/22/2014 Hairy Fiber Removal System Using Singeing & Enzyme Wash
  • 2. Name : MAZADUL HASAN SHESHIR ID: 2010000400008 Batch: 13th Batch (Session 2009-2013) Department: Wet Processing Technology Email: mazadulhasan@yahoo.com Blog: www. Textilelab.blogspot.com Southeast University Department of Textile Engineering PREPARED BY ©right
  • 3. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering A textile or cloth is a flexible woven and knit material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. 5/22/2014
  • 4. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 5. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is necessary to subject the material to different types of physical and chemical treatments. For example, wash and wear finish for a cotton fabric is necessary to make it crease-free or wrinkle-free. In a similar way, mercerizing, singeing, flame retardant, water repellent, waterproof, anti-static and peach finishing achieve various fabric properties desired by consumers. For example- 5/22/2014
  • 6. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 7. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 8. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In the textile industry, loose fibres protruding on the surface of textile goods are singed or enzyme wash to remove them. 5/22/2014
  • 9. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 10. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 11. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 12. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 13. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness. The fabric passes over brushes to raise the fibres, then passes over a plate heated by gas flames. 5/22/2014
  • 14. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 15. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering During the singeing process, fibers which are not tied in threads or in the cloth are burned or turned to gas through the action of thermal energy, normally by means of a flame. This means that a fabric surface is achieved which is virtually free of hairs and fibers. 5/22/2014
  • 16. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 17. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 18. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering • Singeing of a fabric is done in order to obtain a clean fabric surface which allows the structure of the fabric to be clearly seen. • Fabrics, which have been singed, soil less easily than un- singed fabrics. • The risk of pilling, especially with synthetics and their blends, is reduced in case of singed fabrics. • Singed fabrics allow printing of fine intricate patterns with high clarity and detail. • The risk of skitter dyeing with singed articles dyed in dark shades is considerably reduced, as randomly protruding fibers are removed in singeing which could cause diffused reflection of light.5/22/2014
  • 19. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 20. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering The action of burning away the protruding ends of the fibers is brought about by the direct action of the flame ensuing from the gas burners. Direct Singeing Includes: • Gas singeing • Cylinder singeing • Blade singeing • Gas singeing • Plate singeing • Roller singeing
  • 21. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In this system, the heat, in the forms of diffused infra-red radiations, produces a more even singeing effect. • Infra-red ray burning system(both for woven & knit fabric) 5/22/2014
  • 22. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In case of knitting process normally singing is not done. Because the purpose of singing like removing of having fibres from the fabric surfaces is done in here by using enzyme . But simply in some special cases like processing of viscose knit singing is done. An enzyme-based process was applied in finishing viscose fabrics, which are very susceptible to pilling because of individual loose fibres ends which protrude from surface, and impurities and fuzzes.5/22/2014
  • 23. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 24. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering Finishing of knit-goods commonly was effected in tubular form until recently. But there is a clear tendency in the industry to process knits more and more in open-width form. There are significant Advantages such as • improved quality • reduced losses • lower production cost 5/22/2014
  • 25. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering • Equal distribution of the mixture by means of a series of expansion and compression chambers. • Uninterrupted flame band achieved by exit of the gas-air mixture from two parallel slot nozzles. • Generation of a homogenous flame by ideal combustion of the gas-air mixture within the combustion chambers formed of molded ceramic bricks. • Generation of a highly concentrated, high-energy flame: the prime requirement for singeing textile materials of natural, regenerated and synthetic fibers. These properties clearly distinguish the DOUBLE-JET burner from conventional burners, in terms of reliability, precision, performance, capacity, and energy consumption.5/22/2014
  • 26. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 27. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering This is the most intensive singeing position with highest efficiency. In this position, the flame bounces onto the free-guided fabric at right angles. 5/22/2014
  • 28. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In this position, the flame bounces at right angles onto the fabric while the fabric passes onto water-cooled guide roller. This position avoids the penetration of the flame into the fabric. The flame does not pass through the fabric, and because of the fabric passing onto water-cooled roller, any thermal damage of temperature-sensitive synthetic fabrics is avoided. 5/22/2014
  • 29. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In this position, the singeing flame falls on the fabric tangentially. The flame touches only the protruding fibres without having any significant contact with the main fabric body. This position is usually recommended for very light weight and sensitive fabrics as well as fabrics with broken filaments. 5/22/2014
  • 30. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering • Following are three essential conditions for good singeing: • A flame with high mechanical & thermal energy to quickly burn thermoplastic protruding fibres (e.g. polyester) without any molten beads formation • A homogeneous flame with uniform mechanical & thermal energy to result in uniform singeing • An optimal flame/fabric contact time to neither result in incomplete not over-singeing. • The flame should more bluish (less yellowish) to give the maximum temperature. • Recommended flame should Control and maintain the length and angle of contact, depending on the fabric construction, thickness, weight, heat sensitivity, etc. • Fabric speed should be regulate according to the fabric construction/thickness/weight etc.. • The flame should be set to cover just a little more than the fabric width. This will ensure conservation of energy. • Guide rolls next to the flames or the guide rollers on which flame is directed in case of heat-sensitive fabrics should be cooled, generally by cold water circulating through the guide rollers. Otherwise they could become red hot and scorch the fabric. 5/22/2014
  • 31. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering • Incomplete Singeing • Uneven Singeing Across the Fabric Width • Uneven Singeing Along the Fabric Length • Horizontal Singeing Stripes • Vertical Singeing Stripes • Over-singing or Thermal Damage of the Fabric • Formation of Small Beads of Molten Material • Both side of fabric is singed in gas singeing m/c. • Uniform temp can be controlled. • In gas singeing, brush is used which stands the lying projecting the fibers. • Plates not decay on gas singeing machine. • The fabric in interstices of warp and weft can be singed. 5/22/2014
  • 32. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 33. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering • Each enzyme is a made of a sequence of amino acids (like pearl on a string, picture 1) folded into a unique three-dimensional structure that determines the function of the enzyme. • Only a small part of the enzyme participates in the catalysis of biochemical reactions: the active site (picture 2). Enzymes are therefore very specific (e.g. cellulose can only degrade cellulose). 5/22/2014
  • 34. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 35. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 36. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering • Proteases act on soils and stains containing proteins. Examples are collar & cuff soil- lines, grass, blood. • Amylases remove starch-based soils and stains, e.g. sauces, ice-creams • Lipases are effective in removing oil / greasy body and food stains • Cellulases provide general cleaning benefits, especially on dust and mud, and also work on garments made from cellulosic fibers, minimizing pilling to restore color and softness • Active at very low levels (1 to 2 ppm, and sometime even below 1 ppm) • Highly specific, • Active at low temperatures, from 60°C to as low as the "30-40°C range" • Highly biodegradable • Wash at varying pH levels, from mild to high alkalinity; • Retain laundering performance in the presence of chemicals such as bleach; builder, surfactant, etc…. • Soften fabrics; • Brighten their colors; • Improve whiteness; • Remove fatty stains at low wash temperatures;5/22/2014
  • 37. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 38. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 39. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014 •Detergent + Wetting Agent •Sequistering + Anticreasing + Sabilizer Di-Mineralization •Caustic •Hydrozen Per Oxide Scouring & Bleaching •To controll PH at 4.5 Addition of Acetic Acid •Temp-55 C •PH-4.5 •Run Time-60 min Enzyme Wash •Temperature risi to 80 C to i activate the Enzyme Temperature Controll Dyeing Rinsing Unload
  • 40. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 41. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 42. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 43. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering For Black color: 5/22/2014
  • 44. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014 •Detergent + Wetting Agent •Anticreasing Agent + Sequistering Agent Di-Mineralization •Wetting Agent + Anticreasing Agent •Caustic + Hydrozen Per Oxide scouring & Bleaching •6.00-7.00 Check PH •Retrocell PL-ECO •Temp:60 C, PH-6.00-7.00 Enzyme Wash Levelling •Brightener Dyeing •To controll PH at 4.5 Addition of Acid •Temp-55 C •pH-4.5 , Run time-60 min Enzyme Wash Drain WAsh Unload
  • 45. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 46. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering If a fabric is to have a smooth finish, singeing is essential. Singeing is a dry process used on woven goods that removes fibers protruding from yarns or fabrics. These are burned off by passing the fibers over a flame or heated copper plates. Singeing improves the surface appearance of woven goods and reduces pilling. It is especially useful for fabrics that are to be printed or where a smooth finish is desired. Pollutant outputs associated with singeing include relatively small amounts of exhaust gases from the burners.5/22/2014
  • 47. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 48. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In this type of singeing machine, the cloth passes over and in contact with one or two heated curved copper plates. The thickness of the plates ranges from 1 to 2 inches. The heating of the plates is done by a suitable burning arrangement of gas mixed with air. The plates are heated to bright redness and the cloth passes over and singeing is done in contact with these plates at a speed ranging from 150 to 250 yards per minute. 5/22/2014
  • 49. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In this type of singeing machine, the cloth passes over and in contact with a heated rotary cylinder made of copper or cast iron. The rotary cylinder has internal firing and revolves slowly so that constantly a fresh surface of the roller comes in contact with the cloth. The direction of rotation of the cylinder is opposite to the direction of the fabric so that the protruding fibres or nap of the fabric is raised. Fig: Line diagram of rotary-cylinder singeing machine 5/22/2014
  • 50. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering In this type of singeing machine, the fabric passes over a burning gas flame at such a speed that only the protruding fibres burn and the main body of the fabric is not damaged by the flame. This is the most common type of machine used for singeing fabrics as well yarns . Fig. 3. Principle of gas singeing machine. 5/22/2014
  • 51. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 52. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering 5/22/2014
  • 53. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY School of Science and Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering The fabric to be singed should be dry as wet fabric tend to scorch more readily than dry. Uneven singeing may cause streaks on fabric or bubbles when the fabric is finished. Stopping the machines may cause bars on the fabrics. The fabric should not contain any acid releasing salt,which may release acid on heating and tender the fabric. 5/22/2014