Industrial Attachment of Beximco knitting ltd.

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  • 1. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUTRY NAME: BEXTEX
  • 2. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Industrial Attachment Course is an academic function of the Southeast University. Like all other years our teacher Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hasan, Chairman, Department of Textile Engineering, gave us an opportunity to choose preferable mills for Industrial Attachment Course. We, the three students of 04th batch choose BEXIMCO Knitting Ltd. Joyfully with the supervision of our teacher Md. Fazley Elahi. During the attachment with BEXIMCO Knitting Limited we worked in all the departments related with the Wet Processing Section. We not only gave priority to the Wet Processing but also worked sincerely in the Knitting Section, Utilities, Maintenance and Effluent Treatment Plant. Beside these, we learned about Quality Control Section and Finished Fabric Inspection Section, warehouse & Store & Inventory, finishing specially dyeing. We owe a particular debt of gratitude to MD. Lat Mia, Asst. Manager, Dyeing Section, BKL. He gave away some of his valuable time regularly in helping us to achieve our intended goal.We also express our gratitude to all the executives of BKL knitting, batching, store & inventory control. Of course, we wish to pay our special thanks to the persons guided us, inspired us & cared us during these days-Md. Khairul Islam, Manager, Dyeing Section & Mr. Rafikul Islam Raju, GM, BKL. Lastly we express our gratitude to our supervising teacher, the name that should be mentioned first, Md. Fazley Elahi, Lecturer of the Dept. Textile Engineering, SEU, for his valuable direction & supervision. However, we have prepared our Industrial Attachment report overcoming all the difficulties & also the shortage of time. Here we would like to present the report. Date: ……../……../2010 (Rahat Bin Rahman) (Md. Yeasin Arafat)
  • 3. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 3 (Md. Abu Hurayra Chapter- 01 Project Description
  • 4. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 4 Company Information  Name : BEXIMCO KNITTING LIMITED (Dyeing section)  Type : KNIT DYEING.  Year of establishment : 1996  Location : Beximco industrial park, Sarabo, Kashimpur, Gazipur. (5 km north from DEPZ).  Address: Corporate Headquarter: 17, Dhanmondi, R/A, Road no. 2, Dhaka- 1205 Operational Headquarter & Factory: Beximco Knitting Limited, Beximco Industrial park. Sarabo, Kashimpur, Gazipur.  Sponsors : World Bank, Marubeni.
  • 5. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 5 Figure- Location of BEXTEX DEPZ DEPZ Bipile Nobinagar Chakraborti Beximco Industrial Park Abdullahpur Savar Ashulia National Assembly MirpurRoad Farmgate J. U. Asad gate Mirpur Gabtoli Tongi Uttara New Air port Old Air port Prime Minister’s House DhakaMymensingRoad Mohakhali Sat Rasta
  • 6. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 6 HISTORY OF BEXIMCO GROUP 1965-1973: Beximco was born. 1965 New Dacca Industries Ltd 1973 Beximco UK branch. 1976-1989: Beximco diversifies 1978 Beximco foods Ltd. 1979 Beximco pharmaceuticals ltd. 1982 Shinepukur Jute Spinners Ltd. 1985 Beximco apparels Ltd. 1987 Recognised as export house for contribution to country’s export. 1990-1995: Beximco expands 1990 Padma Textile Mills Ltd.(plant -1) 1992 Beximco Synthetics Ltd. 1996-1999: Beximco preparing for the new millennium. 1996 Beximco Textiles Ltd (Phase 1).  Beximco Knitting Ltd.  Beximco Denims Ltd . 1997: Padma Textiles Mills Ltd (Plant -2). 1998: Beximco Textiles Mills Ltd (Phase 2). Beximco Fashions Ltd . Physical Infrastructure  Single storied building (only dye warehouse is double storied )  Concrete structure (about 30 ft high)
  • 7. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 7 Different Department A) Production oriented department Production Planning and control Knitting Batch preparation Dyeing Finishing Lab& Quality assurance Dye warehouse Maintenance Utility Finished warehouse B) Supporting department - Personnel administration - Procurement - Marketing - IT - HRD - Finance & accounting. Remarks: - Available data on physical infrastructure was not available. - Production per day ranges from 8-12 tons.
  • 8. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 8 Chapter- 02 Manpower Management
  • 9. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 9 2.1 Shift change: Per shift is 8hrs 1st shift : 6:00 AM - 2:00 PM 2nd shift : 2:00 PM - 10:00 PM 3rd shift : 10:00 PM - 6:00 AM General shift : 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM Chief executive officer (CEO) Head of manufacturing Chief operating officer DGM (Production) Maintenance Manager Knitting Manager Dyeing Manager Finishing Manager Q.C Manager Asst. Manager Deputy Manager Shift officer Shift officer Shift officer Shift officer Electrical incharge Mechanical Incharge ORGANOGRAM OF MANPOWER
  • 10. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 10 2.2 Responsibility of a production officer:  Overall supervision of dyeing, finishing production.  Batch preparation & pH check.  Dyes & chemical requisition issue & check.  Write Fabrics loading &loading time from m/c.  Program making, sample checking, colour measurement.  Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing m/c.  And also any other work as & when required by the management. 2.3 Job description: Title : Production Officer Dept/Section : Dyeing Report to : Sr. Production Officer Job summary : To plan, execute & follows up the production activities& control the quality production with related activities. Title : Sr. Production Officer Dept/Section : Dyeing Report to : Asst manager (production) Job summary : To plan, execute & follow up the production activities.
  • 11. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 11 Chapter- 03 Machine Description
  • 12. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 12 3.1 Dyeing Machines: BKL is an integrated computerized company. It has total 19 dyeing machines among of them 10 machines are fully computerized. The machines are centrally controlled by Beacon Controller. 3.1.1 Dyeing Machine Specifications: Machine No. : 1, 2, 3, 7, 8 Machine Name : Eco-soft Company Name : Thies, Germany No. of Nozzle : 4
  • 13. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 13 Capacity : 500-600 kg. Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 200-250 m/min. Machine No. : 5 Machine Name : Mini-soft Company Name : Thies, Germany No. of Nozzle : 1 Capacity : 75 kg. Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 200-250 m/min.
  • 14. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 14 Machine No. : 6 Machine Name : Eco-soft Company Name : Thies, Germany No. of Nozzle : 2 Capacity : 350 kg. Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 200-250 m/min. Machine No. : 9 Machine Name : Luft-roto Company Name : Thies, Germany No. of Nozzle : 2 Capacity : 200-350 kg. Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 200-250 m/min. Machine No. : 10 Machine Name : Luft-roto Company Name : Thies, Germany No. of Nozzle : 3 Capacity : 500-550 kg. Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 200-250 m/min. Machine No. : 11 Machine Name : Local Company Name : Beximco, Bangladesh Capacity : 70 kg. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar.
  • 15. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 15 Rope speed : 200-250 m/min. Machine No. : 12 Machine Name : Local Company Name : Beximco, Bangladesh Capacity : 10-20 kg. Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 200-250 m/min.
  • 16. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 16 Machine No. : 13 Machine Name : Local Company Name : Beximco, Bangladesh Capacity : 5-10 kg. Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 100-150m/min. Machine No. : 14 Machine Name : Local Company Name : Beximco, Bangladesh Capacity : 120-150 kg. No. of Nozzle : 1 Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 150-280 m/min. Machine No. : 15 Company Name : Thies, Germany Capacity : 150-200 kg. No. of Nozzle : 2 Diff. Pressure : 500-600 m.bar. Rope speed : 150-280 m/min. Machine No. : 16, 17 Company Name : Thies, Germany Capacity : 350-450 kg. No. of Nozzle : 3 Machine No. : 18,19 Machine Name : Local Company Name : Beximco, Bangladesh Capacity : 8-15 kg.
  • 17. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 17 3.2 Finishing Machines: 3.2.1 Finishing Machine Specifications: Hydro-extractor Manufacturer : Nazar Corporation (Pakistan). Function : To remove water from fabric by centrifugal extraction Year : 1980 Capacity : 120 kg. Extraction % : 65%. Speed : 1400 rpm. Extraction Time : 5-7 min. . Dewatering M/C: Manufacturer: CALATOR BORAS (SWEDEN) Function: 1. Reduce water content. 2. Apply chemicals. 3. Open the fabric from the rope form. Controlling Parameters: Padder pressure : 4-7 bar Fig: De-watering m/c Pick up % : 85% GSM : 20-35% Speed at m/c : 8.5 m/min-60 m/min Stretch : 8 to 12% minimum than the requirement of customers.
  • 18. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 18 Chemical application: Softener: To soften the fabric. Recipe: Baso soft (Fatty acid condensation) : 4 g/L Acetice acid : 0.25 g/L pH : 7.5 Dryer: Drying: Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion of the solution is evaporated from the fabric. Curing: Curing can be defined as a process following addition of a finish to textile fabrics in which materials are heated for a short time in elevated temperature to effect a chemical reaction. Controlling parameters: GSM : 15-35% Shrinkage : 12-15%
  • 19. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 19 Equipment Used: Following equipment are used for relax drying process: a) Ruckh relax dryer (Germany): * Gas burner heated. * Blower motor- 8 * Conveyor net- 2 * Over feed roller- 1 * 4 chamber, 1 burner/ 2 chamber * Maximum temperature- 150 °C * Capacity- 2.5 to 3.0 ton * Cyclon- 2 (for hot air remove) * Tube or open fabric can be dried. b) Santex Relax Dryer (SWITZERLAND): * Model- CH 9555 Tobel * Steam heated. * Blower motor- 2 * Conveyor net- 2 * Expander roller- 1 * Over feed roller- 1 * Variable speed- 10 to 15 m/min Machine Setup: Fig: Drying m/c a) M/C set up for Ruckh relax dryer: M/C parameter Set-up value Temperature setting 1000 c- 1200 c for white shade 1200 c-1300 c for light shade 1300 c-1400 c for Dark shade 1500 c-1700 c for curing Blower fan setting Auto Exhaust fan setting Auto M/C Speed 3-35 m/min. Depends on quality of fabric. Over feed 0-40% depends on fabric construction.
  • 20. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 20 Width of expreader setting 45-114 cm: Depends on the required width of fabric. b) M/C set up for Santex Relax Dryer: M/C parameter Set-up value Temperature 1000 c- 1100 c for white shade 1100 c-1200 c for light shade 1200 c-1300 c for Dark shade Blower fan setting Push button switch on Exhaust fan setting Push button switch on M/C Speed 1-12 m/min. Depends on quality of fabric. Over feed 0-45% depends on fabric construction. c) Recommended Temperature for Various Types of Fabric Rukh Dryer: Fabric Type GSM Color/ Shade Temperature °C TC Single jersey, Pique, Fleece 100-160 White 100-110 Light 110-120 Dark 120-130 TC Single jersey, Pique, Fleece 180-220 White 110-120 Light 120-130 Dark 130-140 CVC, Single jersey, Pique/ Fleece 100-160 White 110-120 Light 110-120 Dark 120-130 CVC, Single jersey, Pique/ Fleece 180-220 White 120-130 Light 130-135 Dark 135-140 CVC, Single jersey, Pique/ Fleece 230-260 White 130-140 Light 140-150 Dark 150-160 CVC, Single jersey, Pique/ Fleece 270-350 White 140-150 Light 140-150 Dark 155-165 100% Cotton, Single jersey, Pique, Fleece 100-160 White 110-120 Light 115-125 Dark 120-130 100% Cotton, Single White 120-130
  • 21. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 21 jersey, Pique, Fleece 180-220 Light 130-140 Dark 140-150 100% Cotton, Single jersey, Pique, Fleece 230-260 White 130-140 Light 140-150 Dark 150-160 100% Cotton, Single jersey, Pique, Fleece 270-350 White 140-150 Light 145-155 Dark 160-165 Checking parameters: 1. Shade Check 2. Width check 3. Weight check 4. Compaction check 5. Fault check: Operator checks - a) Knitting faults b) Spinning faults c) Dyeing faults d) Other faults 6. Bow and Slant check for Ruckh Relax Dryer only. Slitter M/C: Slitting: Slitting is a process that is applied for cutting the tubular fabric through the intended break wales line on lengthwise direction prior to stenter processing. Equipment used : Airtex Slitter Machine (Sweden) Speed: 20-25 m/min. M/C parts: a) Rotary blade b) Ring c) Guide Roller d) Plaiting
  • 22. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 22 Checking parameters: 1) Cutting line check 2) Bow & slant check 3) Fault check Operator checks – a) Knitting faults b) Spinning faults c) Dyeing faults d) Other faults Stenter M/C: Fig: Slitter m/c Equipment used: Name : Krantz Stenter Machine (Germany) No of chamber : 7 No of Burner : 14 No of Padding through : 2 No of exhaust fan : 7 Type : Pin stenter Pick up% : 80% Total length : 22 m Width control range : 1 to 2.6 m Capacity : 9-10 ton/24 hrs. Parts of the Stenter: a) Chamber: Each chamber contain-  4 air duck nozzle  2 hot air fan  1 hot blower motor  2 burner b) Chemical mixing tank  2 chamber Fig: Stenter m/c  2 motor c) Chemical bath
  • 23. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 23  3 roller (1 free, 2 expander)  Padder 2 roller 1 motor d) Controller  To control spirality  2 motor  2 roller (1 blowing) e) Loading section  1 motor  2 expender roller  2 free roller  1 over feed roller  2 sensor f) Connecting device  To centre the fabric  Expender (to expand the fabric)  2 motor  5 roller g) J- box  To store the fabric h) Chain  2 chains  120 m length  Moves horizontally  2 feeding motor/ wheel  4 pin push i) End side Fig: Chain Guider  Cooling chamber  2 cooling fan  4 air duck nozzle j) Selvedge cutting device  To cut the selvedge of the fabric. k) Delivery section  Platting  4 free roller  1 over feed roller
  • 24. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 24 Function: 1. Apply chemicals. 2. To dart set the T/C fabric. 3. Drying of fabric. 4. To control width. 5. Curing of fabric. 6. Apply pigment dyeing. 7. To control GSM. 8. To control shrinkage. Machine Setup: M/C parameters Set up value Padder pressure 2 to 8 bar Temperature setting 90- 1800 c Blower fan setting Lower to high Exhaust fan setting Manual Width of m/c chain setting 110 cm up to 260 cm Over feed 0-60% Burner gas pressure 30-50 m/ bar Machine speed 6 to 60 m/ min Light wt (100-140 GSM) Medium wt (150-180 GSM) Heavy wt (190-250) 20-30 m/min 14-18 m/min 10-15 m/min Checking parameters: 1. Shade Check 2. Width check 3. Weight check 4. Compaction check 5. Fault check Operator check: a) Knitting faults b) Spinning faults c) Dyeing faults
  • 25. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 25 Tubular Compactor: Equipment used : Ruckh Tubular Compactor m/c (Germany). Function: 1. To control shrinkage. 2. To control width. 3. To control GSM. 4. To smooth fabric. Fig: Tubular Compactor M/C set up: M/C parameters Set up value Steam pressure 4-6 bars Air pressure 5 bar Temperature 90-1000 c Cooling fan Motor Auto Width control 48 to 114 cm Speed setting 5- 35 m/min Checking parameters: 1. Shade Check 2. Width check 3. Weight check 4. Compaction check 5. Fault check Operator checks - a) Knitting faults b) Spinning faults c) Dyeing faults d) Other faults 6. Edge line checking
  • 26. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 26 Open Compactor: Manufacturer: Feraro (Italy) Function: 1. To control shrinkage. 2. To control width 3. To control GSM. 4. To smooth the fabric. Fig: Open compactor M/C set up: M/C parameters Set up value Steam pressure 4-6 bars Air pressure 5 bar Temperature 700-1000c Width 36”-100” Speed 5-25 m/min. Checking parameters: 1. Shade Check 2. Width check 3. Weight check 4. Compaction check 5. Fault check Operator checks - a) Knitting faults b) Spinning faults c) Dyeing faults d) Other faults
  • 27. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 27 Beacon Controlling System In BKL Beacon Controller 2800 is used. It contains programs of pretreatment, washing, rinsing, unloading, dyeing. It shows graphs for every program. Where, Yellow line = Indicates theoretical required temperature. Red line = Indicates practical temperature. Blue line = Indicates theoretical chemical dosing to vessel from tank. Pink line = Indicates practical chemical dosing to vessel from tank. Green line = Liquor level in vessel. In BKL from m/c no. 1-10 is controlled by this Beacon Controller. Advantages: 1. One officer can control 10 m/cs at a time. 2. Production is high. 3. Show programs with graphs. Dye Kitchen: Dyeing m/c no. 1-10 require 4 tanks. Tanks no. 1, 2, 3 are present in dye kitchen and tank no. 4 is present with dye vessel. In dye kitchen operator measures dye & soda according to requirement. Then operator dissolves dye with water in tank no. 1. According to program dye passes to tank no. 4 and then to dye vessel. After required time operator dissolves soda with water in tank no.1 which pass to tank no. 4 and to dye vessel. Fig: Dye Kitchen House
  • 28. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 28 CHAPTER - 04 RAW MATERIALS
  • 29. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 29 4.1 Introduction: Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in case of continuous production & for high quality fabric. 4.2 Types of raw material The basic raw materials used are: fabric dyestuffs Chemicals & auxiliaries. Names & source  Fabric: Different types of fabric treated in BKL dyeing section are namely - Single Jersey - Single jersey with lycra attachment - Polo pique - Back pique - Rib Fabric - Lycra fleece - Jacquard - Cross –rib - STB Pique - Thermal - Fleece  Dyestuffs: Dye Brand name Origin/source Reactive dye Bezactive Bezema , Switzerland Ciba Ciba , Switzerland Dychufix Hubei Hwalle dyestuff Ind.co. Kemafix Jaychem,India Levafix Dystar , Germany Procion Dystar, germany Jackazol India Kemazol Jaychem,India Remazol Dyestar , Germany Solazol Solarfine , Taiwan Solacion Solarfine , Taiwan
  • 30. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 30 Brand name Type Source Novolube Jet Anti creasing agent Techna, Italy Bluton BVB1 Violet tone brightener CHT, Germany Cibacel DBC Sequestering agent Ciba, India. Cibafix ECO Fixing agent Ciba, Switz. Cibafluid C Anticreasing agent Ciba, Switz. SandocleanPCLF Detergent Clarient, Germany Permacol FA Stabilizer Techna, Italy Novostone CR Enzyme Techna, Italy Cotton white T Redder tone brightener CHT, Germany Cyclanon E Fixing agent BASF, Germany Cyclanon ECO Reduction cleaning agent BASF, Germany Jinlev RLF349 Dispersing agent Geigy, Taiwan Eulysin S pH buffer in PET dyeing BASF, Germany Felosan NOF Detergent CHT, Germany Uvitex EBF Whitening agent Ciba , Switz. Jinlev CL-225 Leveling agent for reactive dye Geigy, Taiwan Oxalic caid Iron remover - Palegal FA-8 Leveling agent for disperse dye BASF, Germany Respumit BU Antifoaming agent BASF, Germany Permacol SQ Sequestering agent Techna, Italy Na thiosulphate Peroxide killer - Uniperol O Washing agent for PET dyeing BASF, Germany Uvitex EVF PET brightener Ciba, Switz. Uvitex 2B Yellow tone brightener Ciba, Switz. Mollan129 Soapenging agent Rota, dystar Acetic acid pH controller - Reduction HCS Reduction cleaning agent Geigy, Taiwan Mollan130 Sequestering agent Rota, dystar Bluton 2B Whitening agent Ciba, India Remarks - The list is for the time of our industrial attachment. It varies according to the availability of the material & their price. Disperse dye Terasil Ciba , Switzerland Dianix Dystar, germany Dispersol Dystar, germany Boron Zenith chemicals,Taiwan
  • 31. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 31 CHAPTER -05 PRODUCTION PLANNING & SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
  • 32. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 32 Final Inspection inspection Finished Store Delivery to Garment industry SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Knitting Grey inspection Batch preparation Pretreatment White Processing Polyester dyeing Cotton dyeing Hydro extracting Dewatering Drying Compacting
  • 33. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 33 5.1 Introduction and Basic Procedure of Planning and Control: A planned work brings success. Without planning nothing is completed within the required time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. "Planning" gives a scheduled task and 'control' completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. So BEXIMCO has a self-sufficient and high- performance department called "Production Planning & Control". Its Basic working procedure is as follows – 1. Taking orders from marketing division. 2. Analyzing the orders. 3. Planning for knitting the fabric. 4. Planning for dyeing the fabric. 5. Planning for finishing the fabric. It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes, order is places only for finishing the material or only for dyeing the white goods. Then some steps are omitted for planning procedure. 1. Taking orders from marketing division: BEXIMCO marking division supplies Fabric Orders to the BKL Planning and control division by a special format. 2. Analyzing the orders: This section analyzes the orders according to buyers, Order Quantity, type of orders (i.e. type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.), delivery date etc. Then it selects which M/C. to use, no of M/C. to use, time required for production etc. This section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted (Order quantity + 6% of Order Quantity), knitting balance, fabric need to be dyed. Dyeing balance, RFD (Ready for delivery), RFD balance, delivered fabric and delivery balance. 3. Planning for knitting: This section plans for knitting production. It selects machine for knit the fabric for specific type of fabric, type of yarn used, required GSM, width etc. It also gives delivery data for knitted fabric. It also places orders for buying of yarn from spinning mills by a specific schedule. 4. Planning for dyeing the fabric: Production planning for dyeing is called 'Batch Plan'. According to the batch no. And color, width, style and construction the batch plan is made. For easy understand this
  • 34. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 34 section gives some 'T.' cards. 'T' cards are serialized according to the priority of delivery. The batches and 'T' cards also serialized as to dye light shade at first and lastly the dark shades, since faulty shades can be converted to dark color later. 5. Planning for finishing the fabric: Finishing schedule is same us the dyeing. After dyeing the material goes to the finishing section with the batch plan. Finished data is written to the batch card and is informed to the planning section. However, this section always enforces to all the departments to finish all the works within the delivery time given by the buyers. This section delivers materials by truck, micro, air etc to the customer within the meantime. Thus it plays a very important role in the success of the company.
  • 35. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 35 CHAPTER- 06 KNITTING SECTION
  • 36. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 36 6. Introduction: The BEXIMCO Knitting Limited is a self-sufficient modern company. Its knitting section is divided into two sections – 1. Flat knitting section & 2. Circular knitting section. 6.1. Flat Knitting Section: Flat knitting section consists of Flat Knitting Machines. Its main production is Collar and Cuff. Different types of designed collar & cuff is produced here with relation to the body of the garments. 6.1.1 Production Equipment Table: The following equipment are used for production- Name Fabric type Manu. Model Gauge Length No. of m/c. STOLL semi-jacquard Germany -------- 14 84 inch 2 MATSUYA Plain Japan M-100 14 100 cm 26 MATSUYA Plain Japan M-70 14 70 cm 22 KAUO HENG Semi-jacquard Taiwan KH-313 14 54 inch 17 MATSUYA Semi-jacquard Japan 14 64 inch 2 Total machines = 69 Note: Collar & cuff prepared is mainly rib fabric. Tipping is also used in the collar & cuff. ‘Tipping’ is stripe design mainly knitted by Polyester yarn.
  • 37. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 37 Plain flat bed knitting. m/c. (M-70) Semi- Jacquard (KH-313) MATSUYA Semi Jacquard Semi- Jacquard
  • 38. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 38 6.2. Circular Knitting Section: Circular Knitting section consists of Circular Knitting Machines. Different types of body fabric are produced in this section. 6.2.1 Production Equipment BEXIMCO Knitting Limited (BKL) is capable to knit Weft Knitted fabrics only. Following types of machines are available with BEXIMCO Knitting Ltd. for Circular Knitting. Gauge Model No. Origin No. of Cylinder Existing Set-up 18 1995 CAMBER, UK 05 0 20 1995 CAMBER, UK 10 08 24 1995 CAMBER, UK 14 14 28 1995 CAMBER, UK 26 06 16 (RIB) 1995 CAMBER, UK 01 01 18 (RIB) 1995 CAMBER, UK 01 01 20 (RIB) 1995 CAMBER, UK 01 0 Total 58 Note: There are 7 (Seven) machines with lycra facilities. Single Jersey Stripe Single Jersey (Lycra facilities)
  • 39. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 39 Double Jersey Circular kng. m/c. Single Jersey Circular kng. m/c. 6.3 Knitting Faults:  Barre or stripe  Press off  Miss stitch/ drop stitch  Needle mark  Sinker mark  Oil stain  Crease mark/Edge mark  Holes  Excessive slubs  Spirility  Broken needle  Pin hole  Tight course  Missing Yarn etc.
  • 40. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 40 CHAPTER- 07 GRIEGE BODY & RIB INSPECTIONS
  • 41. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 41 7. Inspection: To detect and identify the knitting fault in fabric by visual assessment on Inspection m/c. 7.1 Collar & cuff inspection: Collar & cuff inspection is a process of identifying quality fault in knitted collar & cuff from flat knit m/c. Equipment used: a) Inspection m/c (Calator Sweden) b) Inspection Table. M/C Set up (Inspection m/c): M/C set up Parameter range Set value Roller speed 0-40 m/min 25-30 m/min light Not applicable Artificial day light Length measuring unit Not applicable Attached with m/c. 7.2 Faults: H = Hole OS = Oil stain DS = Drop stitch. WD = Wrong Design NL = Needle line. S = Stripe TT = Thick & Thin yarn. S = Slubs SM = Sinker Mark. WP = Wrong Ply,etc. 7.2.1 Four Point System: Size of defect Penalty 3 inches or less 1 points over 3 but not over 6 2 points Over 6 but nor over 9 3 points Over 9 inches 4 points
  • 42. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 42 Acceptance calculation: Total point per 100 square yards = 100 widthActual 36 lengthRollActual countedpointsActual  = Points/100 square yards. Classification of Inspection Fabric : < 40 points = A 41-60 points = B 61-80 points = C 80 above = Reject. Acceptance: Generally any piece of fabric with 40 points or less faults per 100sq. yard is allowed to pass however for a roll, the average value should not exceed 18point per 100sq.yard.More than 40points faults per 100sq yard is recorded as “REJECT”.
  • 43. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 43 CHAPTER- 08 BATCH PREPARATION
  • 44. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 44 Batch Preparation Sequence Process sequence of Batch preparation receive batch card from Grey In-charge  Make the priority as per dyeing plan  Take one specific Batch card.  Read the Batch Card for own understanding  Check the availability of fabric  Take required quantity of body fabric from ware-house.  Make required no. of Rope maintaining equal length.  Take collar/cuff as per size, keep the total weight.  Distribute the collar /cuff or Rib in each rope equally unsure equal length  Stitch the fabric  Write down the weight against roll no. in the back side of the Batch Card.  Write the total weight in Batch Card.  Put signature & date.  Fill up the production report form. M/c for Batch preparation: Two types of m/c’s : a) Turning m/c b) Plaiting m/c.
  • 45. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 45 CHAPTER- 09 SINGEING
  • 46. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 46 9. Singeing: Singeing is the process of burning of the fibre hairs projecting through the fabric surface. In a gas-singeing machine this burning is carried out by passing fabric against hot flames under specified conditions. Objects:  To obtain a uniform & smooth fabric surface by removing hairiness.  To ensure uniform optical reflectance throughout the fabric surface in subsequent fabric wet process. Equipment-used: Machine : Sando Gas Singing m/c. Manufactures : Sando Iron Works, Japan. Required Parameters: a) Steam: Steam is supplied to the steam box of the machine. b) Compressed air: The standard air supply pressure requirement is 4 kg/cm2 . c) Water: The standard water supply pressure requirement is 1-1.2 kg/cm2 . d) Natural gas: The standard gas supply pressure requirement is 3 kg/cm2 .
  • 47. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 47 M/C Setup: Setup parameters Range Set value Speed(m/min) 0-120 55-60 for cotton. 70 for PC/CVC. Potentiometer Setting (rpm) 0-150 80-90 for cotton fabric 60-70 for CVC/PC. Burner in use 1 or 2 2 Burner operation mode. Auto/Manual Auto Flame height (cm) 1-8 6 for white & light shade fabric. 6.5 for medium & dark shade fabric Flame angle with the direction of fabric. 450 to 900 450 for blends 900 for cotton Flame intensity Low/normal/ high Low – not used Medium – for white & light shade High – for medium & dark shade fabric Singeing Faults: a. Singeing line: Due to ununiform joint of bricks by cement, there become gaps between flame and thus singeing line is formed. b. Uneven singeing: One to uneven flame height uneven singeing is occurred.
  • 48. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 48 CHAPTER- 10 MERCERIZING PROCESS
  • 49. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 49 10. Mercerizing: Mercerizing is a physio-chemical process in which cotton fabric is treated with concentrated solution of caustic alkali & subsequently stretched & washed under specified conditions. Objects:  To increase lusture of fabric.  To increase the strength of fabric.  To improve dimensional stability.  To increase dye absorbency. Equipment used: Dornier mercerizing m/c (Germany). Required parameters: Parameters Value Squeeze pressure 1.5-2 bar (by compressed air) Temperature of washing 800 -900 c PH after mercerizing 7-7.5 Caustic solution temperature In mixing tank : 80-900 c In caustic stroage tank : 70-800 c In chiller : 140 c In Mercerizing bath : 160 -200 c 1st sigar diameter Set with fabric dia +3 2nd sigar diameter Set with fabric dia +5 Caustic strength 280 Be
  • 50. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 50 Function of m/c parts:  Sigar: 1. To stretch the tubular knit fabric. 2. To prevent shrinkage. 3. To retain dimensional stability of fabric. 4. To wash off mercerizing chemicals from the fabric by spraying water on it.  Padder Pressure: To squeeze and drive the fabric to a little extent otherwise there is a risk of forming edge line at two sides of fabric.  Water valves: Supply water to washing tank.  Steam values: Steam value supply steam to washing chamber. Mercerizing process faults:  PH variation  Crease  Water drop mark  Spot  Problem from sigar  Holes  Distortion of dimensional stability
  • 51. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 51 CHAPTER- 11 PRE-TREATMENT
  • 52. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 52 11. SCOURING: Objects:  To remove fats, wax, impurities from fabric.  To increase absorbency of fabric.  To remove natural nitrogenous coloring materials, dirt, dust, husk, broken seed, protein, leaf etc. by oxidizing on chemical treatment.  To obtain pure & permanent white color. : 11.1 Single Stage Scouring-Bleaching: Process steps:  Take water in bath at required level.  Load fabric.  Circulate fabric & raise temp. at 60o c  Add Anti-creasing agent, Detergent, sequestering agent, stabilizer.  Add Caustic soda  Circulate fabric.  Add H2O2.  Continue circulation fabric 25 min. at 100o c  Decrease temp. at 800 c  Rinse & Drain.  Add Detergent & H2O2 killer and raise temp 80o c  Continue circulation for 10’ at 60o c  Rinse & Drain. Hot wash for T/C  To remove waxes, fats.  Increase absorbency for T/C & TTC for dark shades.
  • 53. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 53 Curve: 60 0 00 c Recipe: 1. Anti-creasing Agent : 1 g/L 2. Detergent : 1.5 g/L Steps:  Take water in bath at required level.  Load fabric.  Circulate fabric & raise temp. at 60o c  Add Anti-creasing agent, Detergent.  Circulate fabric and raise temp. 11.2 Enzyme Treatment: If dead fibre or hairiness present in fabric then enzyme treatment is done. Function: It attacks surface cellulose fibre and removes it from surface. Precaution: Excess enzyme is harmful for cellulose fabric. Application of enzyme is done by two ways: a) Before Dyeing  Enzyme treatment  Dyeing b) After Dyeing  Dyeing  Enzyme treatment 2 1 900 c 15 Temperature Time
  • 54. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 54 Curve: 550 c Recipe: 1. Acetic Acid : 0.1g/L (pH 4.5-5) 2. Novostone CR : 0.5~1 % 3. Novolube JET : 0.3~0.5 g/L Steps:  Take water bath at required level.  Load fabric.  Circulate fabric and raise temp. at 55o c  Add acetic acid, Novostone CR& Novolube JET  Drain.  Hot fill for 10 min. at 75o c Novolube JET.  Rinse & Drain. 00 c 2+3 1 30 Drain 3 Drain 750 c 10 Temperature Time
  • 55. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 55 CHAPTER- 12 DYEING PROCESS
  • 56. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 56 12. Reactive Dyeing: Properties: Anionic in nature. Soluble in water. Form strong covalent bond Better wet & light fastness. Have better substantibity. Dyeing is carried out at alkaline condition. Influencing factors: 1. pH 2. Temperature. 3. Conc. of electrolyte. 4. Time. 5. Liquor ratio. Amount of salt, soda, caustic for Cibacron dye at 60o C: Shade % G. salt g/L Soda g/L Caustic Soda g/L <0.25 10 5 _ 026-0.5 20 5 _ 0.51-1 30 7.5 _ 1.01-2 40 10 _ 2.01-3 50 5 0.3 Above 3 60 5 0.7
  • 57. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 57 12.1 REACTIVE DYEING FOR SENSITIVESHADE AT 60o C Dyeing steps:  Take water required level.  Load fabric  Raise temp. at 60o c  Add anti-creasing agent (1), sequestering agent (2).  Add color (3) by injecting for 30 min & circulate fabric (4)  Injection of G. salt (5) & circulate fabric.  Add soda ash by injecting 40 min.  Rinse & Drain  Wash at 60o c by circulating fabric for 10 min.  Hot fill & circulate fabric for 10 at 90o c with soap.  Wash at 50c by circulating fabric for 7 min.  Rinse & Drain  Unload fabric. Dyeing curve: 90˚c 60˚c Dra 0˚c 1 2 3 4 5 12.2 REACTIVE DYEING FOR DARK SHADE AT 60o C: Process steps: 1. Take water (1) required level. Temperature Time
  • 58. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 58 2. Load fabric (2). 3. Raise temp. at 60o c & circulate fabric 4. Add anti-creasing agent (3), sequestering agent m (4). 5. Add G. salt (5). 6. Circulate fabric for 5 min. 7. Continue circulate color inject for 30 min. 8. Circulate fabric & Add soda ash & caustic soda for 60 min. 9. Rinse & Drain. 10. Hot fill & circulate fabric for 10 min & Drain. 11. Add acetic acid & raise temp 600 c for 10 min. 12. Hot fill & circulate fabric for 15’ with soap. 13. Rinse & Drain. 14. Hot fill & circulate fabric for 10 min & Drain. 15. Hot fill & circulate fabric for 10 min. 16. Rinse & Drain. 17. Unload fabric. Dyeing curve: 60˚c Drain 1 2 3 4 5 12.3 Hot Brand Reactive Dyeing: Dyeing at 92o C: Temperature Time
  • 59. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 59 Required Salt, Soda ash : Shade % Glauber salt g/L Soda ash g/L up to 0.5% 70 10 0.51-1.2% 80 15 1.21-2% 90 15 above 2% 90 20 Dyeing curve: 60c Recipe : 1. Anti-creasing agent (Ciba fluid C): 0.5 g/L 2. Sequestering agent (Ciba cel DBC): 1.5 g/L 3. Glauber salt : 90 g/L 4. Procion Flavine HEXL: 0.0942 % Procion Yellow HEXL: 1.633 % Procion Sapphire HEXL: 2.061 % 5. Soda ash : 20 g/L 6. Acetic acid: 0.75 g/L 7. Soap (Albatex S): 1 g/L 920 c Rins e 600 c Rins e 600 c Rins e 600 c Rins e 600 c Rins e 600 c Rins e 600 c Rins e 600 c 60 Shade check 1 600 c 00 c 2 3 20 Rinse 800 c 4 5 10 5 10 Temperature Time
  • 60. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 60 Process steps :  Take water at required level.  Load fabric.  Raise temp at 60o c & circulate fabric  Add anti-creasing , sequest agent & Glauber salt.&check ph.  Circulation fabric for 5 at 60o c.  Color inject for 25 min.  Continue fabric and raise temp. at 92o c and continue 20 min.  Continue circulation & add soda ash for 60 min.  Decrease temp at 80o c.  Check shade.  Rinse & Drain.  Hot fill & raise temp at 80o c & continue circulation for 10 min. & Drain.  Cold fill & raise temp at 60o c add acetic acid and continue 10 min.  Raise & Drain.  Hot fill & raise temp at 90o c Add soda & continue for 10 min.  Rinse & Drain.  Cold fill & raise temp at 60o c for continue circulation for 10 min.  Rinse & Drain.  Unload fabric. 12.4 Polyester Dyeing: Disperse dye: Disperse dye is one kind of organic coloring substances which is free of ionizing group, less soluble in water & used on hydrophobic Textile material . Properties of Disperse dye: 1. Non ionic in nature. 2. Insoluble in water. 3. Wet & light fastness is good. 4. They are used in acidic condition. Influencing factors for dyeing: a) pH of bath (4.5~5.5) b) Temp. of bath. c) Concentration of dispersing agent. d) Time of dyeing cycle.
  • 61. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 61 Dyeing curve: 5+6 Recipe : 1. Acid Buffer (Eulusin FAS) : 1.8 g/L 2. Dispersing agent (Jinlev RLF349) : 1.8 g/L 3. Antcreasing agent (Ciba fluid C) : 0.5 g/L 4. Dianix Red : 0.106 % Dianix Yellow : 0.07% Dianix Black : 0.78 % 5. Reduction clearing (Reduction HCS) : 1-3 g/L 6. Acetic Acid:1g/l. 7. Detergent (Albatex S) : 0.5 g/L Process steps for Polyester part :  Take water at required level.  Load fabric.  Raise temp. at 40o c & circulate fabric  Add Acid Buffer, Dispersing agent, Anticreasing agent  Raise temp at 50o c  Continue circulation of fabric & inject color.  Raise temp. to 90o c by 1.5o c/ min. Then raise temp at 130o c, 1o c/ min. and continue 30 min.  Decrease temp. at 90o c,, 0.750c/min. Thus decrease temp. at 78o c, 1o c/min.  Rinse & Drain.  Mixed fill, add reduction clearing agent.  Rinse temp. at 80o c and continue 15 min. & Drain  Cold fill & raise temp at 80o c & rinse & Drain.  Cold fill, add detergent & raise temp. at 80o c & continue 10 min.  Rinse & Drain. 400 c 800 c 10 00 c Rinse 1 30 1300 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 0 32 780 c Shade Check 500 c 4 7 Rinse 400 c 800 cRinse Temperature Time
  • 62. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 62 12.5 STRIPPING Stripping is carried out to remove uneven of shade or to reduce dark shade. In BKL Stripping is done for 100% cotton, T/C, CVC & TTC. 12.5.1 Full Stripping For 100% Cotton: . Curve: 100CX60min CR 60°CX15`` 80°C 3 1 2 Recipe: 1. Anticreasing agent: 1 g/L Sequestering agent-1g/l 2. Caustic soda: 5 g/L 3. Hydrose : 5 g/L 4. Stabilizer: 0.5 g/L 5. Caustic: 2 g/L 6. H2O2: 2 g/L 7. Acetic acid: 0.5 g/L Process steps:  Take water at required level.  Load fabric.  Raise temp. at 50o c & circulate fabric.  Add Anti-creasing agent, caustic & Hydrous.  Circulate fabric & raise temp at 1000c & continue 60min.  Decrease temp at 800 c & rinse for 10 min. & Drain  Hot fill & raise temp at 600 c, & continue for 15 min. & Drain 50°C 80°C 80°CX10`` Time Temperatur e
  • 63. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 63 12.5.2 Polyester striping Process curve: 3°C/min Recipe: 1. Anti-creasing agent : 1 g/L Sequestering agent : 1g/l 2. Caustic soda : 5 g/L 3. Hydrose : 5 g/L 4. Carrier DTE : 3g/L 5. Acetic Acid : 1 g/l 6. Bleaching agent : 2 g/L Process steps:  Take water in bath.  Raise temp. at 40o c & circulate fabric.  Add Anti-creasing agent, seq agent, caustic soda, Hydrose, Carrier.  Continue 5 min.  Raise temp. at 1350 c & continue 30 min.  Cool rinse & check shade.  Drain.  Hot fill & raise temp at 700 c  Drain  Cold fill & add Bleaching agent.  Raise temp. at 900 c.  Rinse & Drain. 0°C 1 Rinse2 3 30 60°C 610 135°C Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c 5 10 4 70°C 90°C 30 Cold rinse Check shade Time Temperatur e
  • 64. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 64 12.6 Whitening : Whitening Is A Chemical treatment, fabric white at a desried level by bleaching & OBA treatment. Factors Influencing Whitening: 1. PH 2. Temp. 3. Time 12.6.1 Whitening Process for 100% cotton: Process curve: Recipe: 1. Detergent (Sando clean PCLF) : 0.7 g/L 2. Anticreasing agent (Novolube JET) : 0.4 g/L 3. Stabilizer (Permacol FA) : 0.7 g/L 4. Caustic soda : 2.25 g/L 5. Hydrogenperoxide 50% :6.5 g/L 6. Bluton 2B : 0.8% Bluton BVB1:.06% 7. Glauber salt : 5 g/L 8. Acetic acid : 0.8 g/L Process steps:  Take water at required level.  Load fabric.  Raise temp. at 600 c & circulate fabric. 60°C 4 1 Rinse6 3 5 30 80°C 10 2 7 100°C Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 5 10 Time Temperature
  • 65. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 65  Add Detergent, Anti-creasing agent stabilizer.  Add caustic & circulate fabric.  Continue circulation & add Hydrogenperoxide  Add Uvitex 2b & circulate fabric.  Add Glauber salt & continue 5 min.  Raise temp. at 1000 c & continue 60 min.  Decrease temp. at 800 c.  Rinse for 10 min. & Drain.  Hot fill & raise temp at 800 c and continue 10 min. & Drain.  Drain.  Mixed water fill, add acetic acid & raise temp at 600 c & continue 10 min.  Rinse & Drain. 12.6.2 T/C whitening process: Process curve: Recipe: 1. Detergent : 5 g/L 2. Anti-creasing agent : 0.1 g/L 3. Stabilizer : 0.5 g/L 4. Sequestering agents : 1 g/L 5. Caustic soda : 1.5 g/L 6. Hydrogenperoxide 50% : 1.5 g/L 7. Blankophor ER-T330% : 0.066 % 8. Uvitex 2B : 0.363 % 9. Glauber salt : 5 g/L 10. Acetic acid : 0.5 g/L Process steps:  Take water at required level.  Load fabric.  Raise temp. at 600 c & circulate fabric 110 °C 0°C 4 1 Rinse 5 3 6 30 80°C 10 2 8 7 9 Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 90°C Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c 70°C Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Rinse 600 c Temperatur e
  • 66. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 66  Add detergent, anti-creasing agent, stabilizer, sequestering agent.  Continue circulation of fabric & add caustic soda.  Continue circulation of fabric & add Hydrogen peroxide.  Add PES brightener & cotton brightener.  Continue circulation of fabric & add Glauber salt.  Raise temp. at 1100 c & continue 30 min.  Decrease temp. slow at 900 c.  Decrease temp. quickly at 800 c.  Rinse for 10 min. & Drain.  Hot fill & raise temp. at 800 c & continue.  Drain.  Mixed fill & add Acetic acid and raise temp. at 600 c & continue 10 min.  Rinse & Drain. 12.7 Dyeing faults: Dyeing faults are given as below: 12.7.1 Patchy effect: Reasons: 1. Entanglement of fabric. 2. Faulty injection of alkali. 3. Faulty color addition. 4. Due to hardness of water. 5. Due to impure salt addition. Remedies: By partial or full stripping of dyed fabric. Roll to Roll variation / Meter to Meter variation: Reasons: 1. Yarn lot mix 2. Faulty heat setting 3. Hardness of water. 4. Faulty m/c speed.
  • 67. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 67 12.7.2 Dye-stain: Reasons: 1. Undissolved dye particle in bath. 2. Undissolved caustic particle in bath. Remedies: By patrial or full sripping 12.7.3 Crease mark: Reasons: 1. If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal. 2. Due to high speed m/c running . 12.7.4 Rub mark: Reason: 1. Due to reel cranking . 2. Due to sharp point of nozzle. 3. Due to sharp delivery roller. 12.7.5 Nozzle to Nozzle variation: Reason: Pump pressure & reel speed is not equal.
  • 68. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 68 Chapter- 13 Finishing
  • 69. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 69 13. Introduction: After dyeing, knit fabric is required to finish. During dyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer’s requirement knit fabric are finished in Open form or tubular form. 13.1 For Tubular form following m/c is required: Hydro-extractor  De-watering  Dryer  Tubular Compactor 13.2 For open form following m/c are required: Hydro-extractor  De-watering  Dryer  Slitter  Stenter  Open compactor
  • 70. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 70 13.3 For collar & Cuff Finishing Following m/c are Required : Hydro-extractor  Softening Machine  Dryer 13.4 Chemicals Used : TC collars & cuffs: 1. Softener (cationic & nonionic) 2. Additive 3. Stiffener 4. Acetic Acid to adjust pH 100% cotton fabric (soft): 1. Softener 2. Additive 3. Acetic acid to adjust PH 100% cotton collar & cuffs (cross-linking): 1. Softener (cationic /nonionic) 2. Additive 3. Resin 4. Catalyst. 5. Acetic acid to maintain PH
  • 71. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 71 CVC collar & cuffs: 1. Softener (cationic & nonionic) 2. Additive 3. Stiffener 4. Acetice acid to maintain PH CVC collar cuffs (soft) : 1. Softener 2. Additive 3. Acetic acid to maintain PH M/C set up : M/C parameters Set up value Padder pressure 2-7 bar M/C speed As standard speed set by manufacturer. 13.5. Inspection: Inspection refers to an investigation process of accepting or rejecting the final finished fabric from the bulk. It is an observation process of finding. Out each and every visible fault in the fabric. Responsibilities: 1. 100 Fabric Inspection 2. Joint Inspection with buyer. 3. Problem rectification. 4. Fabric transfer to store. Equipment used : a) Nazer Inspection m/c, Pakistan. b) Verivide Day Light box.
  • 72. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 72 13.5.1. Faults: Following faults are detected & identified in final inspection for body : a) Penalty points legend: H = Hole OS = Oil stain CS = Chemical stain. W = Water spots. FY = Fly yarn. YC = Yarn contamination. WX = White speaks. IS = Insect spots. R = Rub mark. DS = Dye stain. D = Dirt stain. Rs = Rust stain. b) Faulty appearance: US = Uneven shade. N = Neps CR = Crease Mark P = Patches. HR = Hairy MS = Machine stoppage. N = Needle line. BR = Barre mark. CM = Crumple mark. DC = Dead cotton. BW = Bowing. Beside these, role to role and meter to meter variation is checked. Four – Points system Size of defect Penalty 3 inches on less 1 point over 3, but not over 6 2 point
  • 73. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 73 Over 6, but not over 9 3 point Over 9 inches 4 point 13.5.2 Acceptance Calculation: Total point per 100 square yards = 100 widthActual 36 lengthRollActual countedpointsActual  = Points/100 square yards. Classification of Inspection Fabric: < 40 points = A 41-60 points = B 61-80 points = C 80 above = Reject. 13.5.3. Collar & cuff inspection: After dyeing & finishing operation measure collar & cuff size and width and compare with buyer requirements. Following faults also detect and identify Faults Decision 1. Rub mark Reject 2. Cutting Reject 3. Hole Reject 4. Crumple Reprocess 5. Tipping bleed Reprocess 6. Uneven shade Reprocess 7. Neps Enzyme wash 8. Oil spot Reject
  • 74. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 74 9. Role to role variation Reprocess 10. Yarn contamination Reject 11. Barre mark Reject 13.5.4. Some definition of yarn faults:  Neps: Neps may be termed as small light balls of tangled fibers.  Contamination: When yarn contains hair, foreign matter, other fibre and speed pot etc along with fibre, it is called yarn contamination.  Dead cotton and hairiness: Hairiness arises from the fibres that protrude outside the fabric surface, it causes pilling. Cotton which is dead cannot absorb dye.  White speaks: Undyed area due to unwanted fiber mixed with cotton. 13.5.5. Some definition of knitting faults:  Oil mark: When excess lubricant use for knitting m/c then Oil mark arises on fabric.  Hole: faulty or damage yarn creates hole in fabric.  Needle mark: Due to faulty needle this fault caused along wales direction.  Sinker mark: Due to faulty sinker this fault caused.  Barre mark: Different lot mixing causes this problem. 13.5.6. Some definition processing fault:  Crease mark: Uneven heat control during process.  Unlevelness: If dyestuffs are not fixed with fabric uniformly causes this problem.  Patches: This problem causes due to different color on some portion of fabric.  Crumple mark: This problem is as like crease mark but looks meeting effect over PC fabric.  Dye stain: Marks of color on fabric surface cause this problem.  Dirty mark: This mark can appear any where in fabric.  Rub mark: Caused by friction with metallic component of m/c:  Water sports: One to accumulation of water.  Chemical stain: Stain caused by chemical during dyeing or finishing.
  • 75. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 75 .  Rust strain: If m/c is affected by rust then rust stain appears on fabric.  Bowing: Bowing means ratio of bow depth at highest point of arc to fabric width. It is expressed in percentage.
  • 76. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 76 Chapter- 14 Quality Assurance System
  • 77. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 77 Lab Before bulk production buyer give a sample to lab. Lab produces similar or nearer shade of it. If buyer approves this shade then this sample is gone for bulk production. If buyer doesn’t approve that shade, Lab again produces similar or nearer shade of standard and give it to buyer for approval. 14.1 Equipments used in Lab: Ahiba Nuance dyeing m/c: Manufacturer: Data color International Capacity: 12 beakers per m/c Purpose: Sample dyeing. Ahiba Spectra dye: Manufacturer: Data color International Capacity: 24 beakers per m/c. Purpose: Sample dyeing. Incubator: Purpose: Pre-drying, Water fastness. Electrolux Washcator: Manufacture: James H. Heal & Co. Ltd. Halifax. Country: England. Purpose: Washing & Hydro-extraction. Tumble dryer: Country: UK (Electra). Purpose: Drying.
  • 78. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 78 Pilling Tester: Manufacturer: James H. Heal & Co. Ltd. Halifax. Speed: 30-60rpm. Electronic Balance: Manufacturer: Ohaus corp. USA Readability: 0.001gm Maxm Capacity: 210gm 14.2 Some Fabrics used in BKL Lab: 1. Single jersey. 2. Polo Pique. 3. Back Pique. 4. Normal Rib. 5. Interlock. 14.2.1 Fabric composition: In BKL, 100% cotton, CVC, T/C, TTC fabric is used. A chemical test is applied to find out cotton & polyester percentage that is present in fabric. The chemical test is followed by : 1. At first weight of a sample is taken 2. Then put it 70% H2SO4. 3. Stir for 10 min. 4. Then wash the sample. 5. Then dry the sample. 6. At last weight of this sample is taken.  Some CVC fabric compositions: a) 80% cotton + 20% Polyester. b) 70% cotton + 30% Polyester.
  • 79. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 79 c) 65% cotton + 35% Polyester.  T/C fabric composition : 65% Polyester + 35% cotton.  TTC fabric composition: 80% polyester + 20% cotton. 14.3 Chemicals & Auxiliaries Used: 14.3.1For reactive Dyeing: For Cibacron Dyes: L: R = 1: 8 600 C Dyeing: Ciba F/w % <0.3 0.3-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-3.0 >3.0 Salt G/L 10 20 30 40 50 60 Soda ash G/L 5 5 7.5 10 5 5 NaOH(50%) G/L Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3 0.5 Cibacel DBC G/L 1-1.5 1-1.5 1 1 1 1 Anti-Crease G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 For Levafix Dyes: L: R = 1: 8 600 c Dyeing:
  • 80. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 80 Levafix % <0.2 0.2-1 1-2 2-3 3-5 >5 Salt G/L 10 20 30 40 50 60 Soda ash G/L 2 5 8 10 10 12 NaOH(50%) G/L Nil 0.3 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4 Cibacel DBC G/L 1-1.5 1-1.5 1 1 1 1 Anti-creasing agent G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 For Remazol Dyes: L: R = 1: 8 600 C Dyeing: Remazol % <0.2 0.2-0.5 0.5-1 1-2 2-3 3-5 >5 Salt G/L 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 Soda ash G/L 5 5 7.5 10 5 5 5 NaOH(50%) G/L Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.5 0.5 0.7 Decol SN G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Anti-Crease G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 For Procion Dyes: L: R = 1: 8 820 C Dyeing: Procion % <0.5 05-1 1-1.5 1.5-2 2-2.5 >2.5 Salt G/L 30 60 60 70 80 90 Soda ash G/L 5 10 15 15 15 20 Dekol SN G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 Anti-Crease G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 L: R = 1: 8 920 C Dyeing:
  • 81. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 81 Procion % <0.5 .5-1 1-1.5 1.5-2 2-2.5 >2.5 Salt G/L 40 60 70 80 90 90 Soda ash G/L 10 10 15 15 15 20 Dekol SN G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 Anti-Crease G/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 14.3.2 For Disperse Dyeing : i) Temp. : 1300 c ii) Dispersing agent : 0.8-1 g/L iii) Acetic acid : 0.5-1 cc/L iv) PH : 4.5-5 For medium and dark shades reduction clearing is required after dyeing : Chemicals % Medium shade Dark shade Detergent G/L 0.5 0.5 Caustic Soda G/L 1 2 Sodium hydrose G/L 2 4 Acetic acid G/L 0.5 0.5 14.4 Lab line: a) Standard Sample: At first Recipe % of standard sample is measured by CCM (Computer Color Matching) system. b) Lab trial: Then by taking that recipe lab officer produces lab trial and match with standard according to buyer requirements.
  • 82. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 82 c) Approved sample: Then sample swatch which is matched with the standard & send to buyer for approval. After approving to this sample this sample is send for bulk production with the recipe. Program Number in Ahiba Dyeing Machine: Program no. Temperature Time 1 1000 c 68 2 800 c 90 3 400 c 20 4 600 c 50 5 500 c 37 6 620 c 60 7 900 c 96 8 600 c 40 9 800 c 40 10 600 c 45 11 600 c 70 12 700 c 30 13 950 c 30 14 950 c 10 15 950 c 60 16 1300 c 76 17 1100 c 30 18 1000 c 40
  • 83. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 83 14.5.1 Reactive dyeing procedure for cotton fabric: Stock solution of Dyes is prepared. Scouring & Bleaching sample is weight for light shade. But for dark shade only scouring. Sample is weight m/c beaker is washed. Then pipetting of dye solution is completed into beaker according to requirement. Water is taken according to requirement into that beaker. Then Glauber salt is weighted and put it into beaker in solid form. Scouring & bleaching or only scouring weighed sample is wet with cold clear water and squeeze then put it into the beaker. Then beaker is closed with its cover and set it in Ahiba dyeing m/c. 8. Set program no. 8. 9. After complete this program cover of m/c beaker is opened and put Soda ash or Soda ash + caustic according to requirement. 10. Then cover the beaker & again put it in Ahiba dyeing m/c. 11. Set program no. according to dye types. 12. After completion of that program dyed sample is taken out from beaker. 13. Then wash the sample with cold water. 14. Then wash with hot soap water. 15. Then again washed with cold water. 16. Then dried. 14.5.2 CVC or T/C Dyeing procedure: At first polyester part is dyed with disperse dye. Then cotton part is dyed with reactive dye. 14.5.2.1 Disperse dyeing procedure: Stock solution of disperse dyes is prepared. Scouring & Bleaching Sample is weight for light shade. But for dark shade only scouring sample is weighted.
  • 84. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 84 M/C beaker is washed and pipetted the dye solution, dispersing agent & acetic acid into the beakers. Water is taken according to requirement into the beaker. Then sample is wet with cold clear water & squeezed, then put it into the beaker. Then beaker is closed with its cover and set it in Ahiba dyeing m/c. Set program no. 16. After complete of the program cover of beaker is opened and sample is washed but if it is medium on dark shade then reduction clearing is carried out. Stock solution of reactive days is prepared. M/C beaker is washed and pipetting of dye solution is completed into beaker. Water is taken according to requirement into that beaker. Then Glauber salt is weighted and put it into beaker in solid from. Then disperse dyed sample is wet with cold clear water and squeeze then put it into the beaker. Then beaker is closed with its cover and set it in Ahiba dyeing m/c. Set program no. 8. After complete this program cover of m/c beaker is open and put soda ash or soda ash + caustic according to requirements. Then covered the beaker and again put it in Ahiba dyeing m/c. Set program no. according to dye types. After complete of that program dyed sample is taken out from beaker. Then wash the sample with cold water. Then wash with hot soap water. Then dried.
  • 85. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 85 Quality Control Quality control department is divided into two sections-  Online quality control  Offline quality control a) Online quality control- On line Knit quality is the process of evaluating the greige, finishing and checking the knit circular & flat machine parameter, in order to ensure conformity with the fabric specifications required by the customer. Working Area of Online Quality Control: On line circular knit: Function:  Design & shade approval.  Yarn & m/c evaluation.  QC parameter checking.  Body & Rib Inspection. On line flat knit: Function:  Design & shade approval.  Yarn & m/c evaluation.  QC parameter checking.  Collar & cuff. Inspection. Greige inspection: Function:  100% Fabric Inspection.
  • 86. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 86  Fabric transfer to store.  Area cleaning.  Co-ordinating & reporting. On line finishing: Function:  100% Fabric Inspection  Problem Identification.  Problem Rectification.  Fabric Transfer for reprocesses. Response to faults: Following response are to be taken: Faults Response Greige inspection Inform yarn supplier & knitting department. Knitting fault Inform knitting Department Finishing fault Inform Finishing Department b) Offline Quality Control- All quality control tests relates to Finished fabric (body, collar/cuff & rib) testing as per customer's required quality standard or international standard. Typical Quality control in BKL:  Shade Check.  Gram per square meter (GSM) test  Width on dia check.  Shrinkage test  Spirility test  Crocking/Rubbing Fastness test.  Pilling resistance test.
  • 87. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 87  Wash fastness test.  Water fastness.  Color fastness to perspiration. a) Shade check: Shade check after finishing of fabric is done according to customer's recommended light source. Equipment used : Verivide Light box. Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England. Light sources:  Artificial day light D65  TL 84  F(Filament)  UV (Ultra violet) light etc. b) Gram per square Meter: After finishing of fabric gram per square meter is check by GSM cutter. Equipment used : GSM cutter. Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England. c) Width on Dia Check: After finishing of fabric width on dia of the fabric is check by measuring tape. d) Shrinkage test: After finishing of fabric shrinkage is tested. Equipment used : Electrolux washcator Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Co. Ltd. Halifax, England. Procedure: Two layer of 1212 sample is cut. Then stitch the layers.
  • 88. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 88 Then wash the sample by – Test Method BS 26330 3A 60 +/- 30 c Prog – 13 BS 26330 4A 50 +/- 30 c Prog – 14 BS 26330 5A 40 +/- 30 c Prog – 15 Then dried the sample according to customer requirements :  Tumble drying or,  Line drying Then measured the dried sample. Standard Shrinkage %: Length (max) : 5% after domestic washing Width (max) : 5% after domestic washing. e) Spirility test: After finishing of fabric spirilily is tested. Equipment used : Electrolux wascator. Manufacturer : James H Heal & Co. Ltd. Halifax, England. Procedure: Two layers of 21 & 21 sample is cut. Then stitch the layers. Then wash the sample by : Test Method BS 26330 3A 60+/-30 c Prog – 13 BS 26330 4A 50+ /-30 c Prog – 14 BS 26330 5A 40+/-30 c Prog – 15 Then dried sample according to customer requirements :  Tumble drying or,
  • 89. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 89  Line drying 5. Then measured the sample following way : Where, L= Length of Sample. D1, D2 = Distance of seam movement. Calculation: Spirility % =         L DD 2 21  100 Standard spirility %: Maximum: 5% after domestic washing. f) Rubbing / crocking fastness: After finishing of fabric rubbing fastness is measured. Equipment used : Crock meter. Manufacturer : James H. Heal & company, Hali fax, England. Method : AATCC 8 Standard result :  Dry rub : 4s  Wet rub : 2s g) Pilling resistance test: After finishing of fabric pilling resistance test is carried out. Equipment used : ICI pilling box LL D1  D2  1st Side 2nd Side
  • 90. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 90 Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England. Method : BS 5811 or according to customer requirement. Revolutions for BS 5811 method:  7000 cycle for low pilling  9000 cycle for Medium pilling  11000 cycle for High Pilling. Procedure: A marker of 55 with two hole line at required distance is put on fabric. Mark the fabric around the marker & draw line through the hole line. Then cut the sample at mark. Then join the draw lines by stitching and put it around rubber tube. 4 Rubber tube is prepared this way. Then put rubber tube in ICI pilling box. Take similar no. of rubber tube in both box. Then put cycle no and start the m/c. After complete cycle rubber tube bearing the sample is taken out from box. Then sample which is pilled compare with – Double Jersey std. Pilling Photograph Nos. 1-5 Stock code 766-464 Standard result: Grade : ¾ h) Wash fastness test: After finish of fabric wash fastness is checked: Equipment used:  AG machine.
  • 91. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 91 Manufacturer: Quyyum textile Engineering, Pakistan  Ahiba Nuance. Manufacturer : Data Color International, U.K. Method : ISO 105-C06 Procedure: Take multi fabric and take also same size of dyed sample and stitch them at one end. Then multi fabric sample put in a m/c beaker and take 20 balls into the beaker. .Then take 50 cc solutions of following recipe :  4 g/l detergent  1 g/l Na-perborate  600 c temp  30 min. Then dried the sample & Measured fastness with staining scale. Standard result: Shade Light shade Dark shade Staining scale 4 3/4 i) Water fastness: After finishing of fabric water fastness is checked. Equipment used:  Perspirometer  Carbolite (Thermostat Oven) Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England. Method : ISO 105-E01/BS 1006 EO1 Procedure: Take multi fabric & take same size of dyed sample & stitch at one end. Dip the sample in distilled water for 20-30 min.
  • 92. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 92 Then wet sample is put in perspirometer and kept it in carbolite thermostat oven for 4 hrs. at 370 c. Then dried the sample not more than 600 c and measured with staining scale. Standard result: Light shade Dark shade Staining 4 ¾ j) Color fastness to perspiration: After finishing of fabric color fastness to perspiration is checked Equipment used:  Perspirometer  Carbolite Manufacturer : James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England. Method : AATCC 15. Procedure: A test solution is prepared with : Sodium chloride : 10g/l Lactic acid, USP 85 : 1g/l Di-sodium hydrogen phosphate : 1g/l Histidine mono hydrochlorite : 0.25g/l pH : 4.3  0.2 Take multi fabric and sample of same size & stitch at one end. Immerse the test specimen for 15-30 min. Then put the test specimen in perspirometer with 8 lbs load. Then put the perspiromenter in carbolite thermostat over for 6 hrs at 380  10 c temperature. Then dry not more than 600 c and measure with staining scale. Standard result: Light shade Dark shade Staining scale 4 3/4
  • 93. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 93 Chapter- 15 MMaaiinntteennaannccee
  • 94. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 94 15.1 Maintenance: Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in such a way that trouble free. Services and increased machine life can be ensured and specific product quality required by the customers is sustained. On time maintenance increase m/c lifetime & ensures trouble free services. 15.2 Types of maintenance: Preventive Maintenance : Preventive Maintenance is a predetermined routine activity to ensure on time inspections / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful depreciation. Corrective Maintenance / Break down Maintenance: In this case, repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it can not perform its normal functions. Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance
  • 95. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 95 PM Tasks list Maintenance : Mechanical Machine : Thies Dyeing Machine Sl. No. Item need to be checked & Serviced 1. Crease the winch bearing (Grease Staburag NBU-12) 2. Complete cleaning of machine 3. Cleaning of drain valves, replace seals if required 4. Check air supply filters, regulators, and auto drain seals 5. Clean filters element and blow out 6. Greasing of Unloading Roller Bearings by BP Energrease LS-2 7. Checking of Oil level and bolts of Unloading Roller Gearbox. 8. Checking of unloading roller coupling and packing 9. Checking and cleaning (if required) of Main Vessel Level Indicator 10. Check the oil level of pump bearing and refill if required by BP Energol THB-100 11. Check the function of heat and cool modulating valves 12. Check all belts and belt tension 13. Check all door seals Maintenance : Electrical Machine : Thies Dyeing m/c Sl. No. Items need to be checked & Serviced 1. Check & clean fluff and dirt at all motor fan covers 2. Check all motor's terminals 3. Check main panels (by using compressed air) 4. Check panel cooling fan & clean it filter 5. Clean main pump inverter and its cooling fan 6. Check all on/off switches 7. Check current setting of all circuit breaker & motor over loads. 8. Visual checking of all power & control cables 9. Check all emergency Switches 10. Check DC drive of neel motors 11. Check all pressure switches 12. Check calibration of main vessel & all additional tank 13. Check all pneumatic solenoids 14. Check calibration of heating/cooling. Modulating value.
  • 96. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 96 15. Check all indicating lamps Maintenance tools & equipments : Pliers Inside Calipers Outside Calipers Digital Multi Meter Heating Shoulder Hammer Philes etc. Remarks : Maintenance of machine’s are very essential to prolong the m/c life and good maintenance is important for economical consideration. In this industry maintenance program is done by expert maintenance team . So very few times production are stopped due to m/c problem .
  • 97. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 97 CCHHAAPPTTEERR-- 1166 UUTTIILLIITTYY SSEERRVVIICCEESS
  • 98. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 98 Available facilities of utility: Electricity Gas Water Compressed air Steam. Electricity: The main utility electricity is supplied from PDB and also by Generator. Specification: Equipment used: Gas generator. No. of generator: 8 (1 self start able & other 7 are air+CH4 start able). Manufacturer : Wartsila-Frank. Gas engine used. 16 cylinders per engine. Overall efficiency : 80%. Heat recovery possible from 4 engines. Stroke of engine : 176mm. Cylinder capacity : 71.6dm3 Ignition pressure : 90bar. Piston speed : 9m/sec. Air flow of full load : 1.65kg/hour. Exhaust flow at full load : 1.7kg/hour. Exhaust gas temp : 500 C. Pressure of gas : 60-62 milibar. Air pressure : 7 bar. Electricity take up from PDB : 1.5MW/sec. Total power is then distributed as per requirements of different section of Beximco industrial park. Gas: Gas is mainly used for steam production. The gas is used from TITAS. Generally 36 m3 gas is required to produce 1 ton steam. Water: Continuous supply of water for BTL,BDL&BKL must be ensured by pump. Mainly two pumps are used for water pick up. PUMP CAPACITY SETUP Submersible pump-I 260 m3/hr Discharge value 100% open Submersible pump-II 204 m3/hr Discharge value 100% open Depth of pump: 140ft.
  • 99. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 99 Also pumps for chemical dosing & Centrifugal pump for yarn dyeing. Steam: Pure steam with required temperature must be produced to meet the continuous demand of steam in different sections. Fire tube type boiler is used. No. of boiler: (4+1) twine boiler.  1 boiler is operated by using burn gas.  4 boiler is operated by Titas gas. 3 pass heating system. Measuring meter for water supply. 4" depth greasol insulation so no heat at outside of drum. The lower drum is 100% water filled & the top drum is 60% water & 40% steam filled. Proper supply of air for gas burnings. Boiler capacity; 10ton. Steam pressure; 8.2bar. Steam flow = 7 ton(approximately) Manufacturer: Thermax;India. Model: TD-100-10-54/6AS/E. Fuel: Natural gas. Water pressure: 10.3bar. Evaporation= 1000*3 kg/hr. Output: 6.28x3 MW. Steam Temperature: 185 C Boiler Temp(inner) =224 C-275 C. Every result is recorded for 4 hours. Chemicals used for boiler feed water:  NaCl solution for regeneration.  NALCO-4654(scale remover). Compressor: Natural gas is drawn by pipe through the filters above the compressor & the air is compressed. In such a case the air becomes slightly hot. Hence cold water is drawn to reduce the temperature of compressed air. Thus the cold water becomes slightly hot & goes through outlet pipe to the overhead reservoir. Then the water falls slowly through a sieve and becomes cool & again feed to the compressor. At the other hand the cooled compressed air along with some vapors are transferred to the reservoir where the vapors are condensed and outlets drop by drop. The moist compressed air is transferred to the dryer & a slight warm compressed air is delivered to required sections of Beximco Industrial Park. Parameters Set value
  • 100. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 100 Unloading pressure 7.5 bar Pressure difference 0.6 bar Oil pressure 1.2 bar Motor running time 15 sec Total no. of compressor : 3+3 =6 Capacity : 774 lt air/compressor/sec. Manu : Atlas capco. Country : Belgium. Oil free air is prepared : By Electronikon. Chemicals used: -Shell Turbo-T-68. -Grease. -Nalco 7328 & 7330. Chiller: Manufacturer : Thermax. Country : India. To start a chiller electricity & steam is required. Capacity :[(21083)+(500*1)] ton = 1130 ton water cooling. Absorption type Chiller is used. Settings: L-cut set point CHWSP : 8 C. Cooling water inlet temp set point : 20 C. HTG temperature set point for AC drive : 140 C. L-cut hysterics : 2 C. Std. continuous flow : 12.2 C - 6.7 C Chemicals used: LiBr (Lithium bromide):- Components: Li=7,99%;Br=92.01%. S.G = 3.464 at 25 C. MP = 549 C. BP = 1265 C. Lythium Molybodate. Octyl Alcohol (2-Ethyl-1 feanol). Nalco 7328 & 7330. Refrigerant. Source of Utility: Electrically : PDB & Generator. Steam : Boiler.
  • 101. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 101 Water : Pump. Compressed air : Compressor. Temperature control : Chiller. Gas : TITAS. Cost: 36 cubic meter gas required for 1 ton steam generation. Required steam/day = 9500 ton. PDB: Pick hour : 4.22 Tk/unit Off pick hour : 3.70 Tk/unit. Generator: Electricity : 2.25 Tk/unit of. The Effluent Treatment Plant The effluent generated from different sections of a textile mill must be treated before they are discharged to environment. Various chemicals & physical means are introduced for this purpose. The effluent treatment plant in beximco is chemical- bio9logical combination process developed by India. Objects: This process is provided for treating the effluents of dyeing, printing, finishing, weaving & thus allow to discharge it as per norms given by world bank dept of environment of Bangladesh. This process comprises of collecting, pumping, clarification, filtering, setting, aeration, pH correction, discharging, etc. Characteristics of raw effluents: Volume : 3600 cubic meter/day Peak flow : 225 cub met/hr pH : 10-12.5 BOD : 500-800 PPM COD : 1300-2000 PPM TDS : 2000-5000 PPM SS : 100-400 PPM Colour : Black/ Blue Requirement of dischargeable effluent as per World Bank: pH : 6-8 BOD : <50
  • 102. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 102 COD : <250 SS : <100 TDS : Not stated Colour : Clear Chemicals used & their colors: Chemicals used : Appearance Ferrous sulphate : Granular solid, greenish color Lime : White bulk form Polyacrylate : White granular solid Sulphuric acid : Clear liquid Alum : White bulk form Na-hypochlorite : Clear liquid Hydrochloric acid : Clear liquid Flow chart of effluent treatment: Raw effluent Skin chamber Collection Sump Pump station Dissolved Air Floatation Tank Clarifier Aeartion tank Setting tank Clear water, pH check Sand filter Carbon filter Drain Sludge separation: Sludge of DAF
  • 103. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 103 Sludge thickening plant Sludge drying be Product quality check: Following chemical tests are carried out to check the quality: BOD COD Total suspended solids Total dissolved solids Colour pH Typical output of the plant: Raw effluent treated : 15000 LPH Raw effluent color : Black Raw effluent pH : :11 Treated effluent color : Light greenish Treated effluent pH : 8.5 Treated effluent temp : 38 C To0tal suspended solids : 35 PPM Iron Removal Plant For Textile dyeing Iron free water is required. This plant removes Iron and makes water 0.03-mg/l iron content. Procedure: Raw water is collected in raw water tank (1) from deep tubewell. Alkali dosing by flow meter (f) to maintain PH 8. Then raw water is passed through MnO2 bed (2) here ferrous iron formed insoluble ferric iron oxide and coagulated. Then water is passed through nozzle (3). Water then passed through sand & stone filter (4). Then filtered water (5) is collected to store tank (6).
  • 104. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 104 For back wash of MnO2 water in through nozzle (3) and back wash water is drain (7) For back wash of sand & stone filter water passes through the end of 5 and out let of is done at 4 and drain at 8. .Excess water of MnO2 or filter is drain out by 9 and 10.
  • 105. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 105 Chapter-17 Store & Inventory Control
  • 106. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 106 Frequency of inventory control: Monthly inventory control Annual inventory control Scope of inventory control Raw materials  Dyes store  Others chemicals store  Grey fabrics Finished fabric Spare parts General store  Capital equipment  Accessories  Stationary  Maintenance parts. Inventory system for raw materials Raw materials partially received from production planning & directly from head office. Material Receiving & Inspection Report (MRIR) is prepared. Received quantity is mentioned & noted down. Submitted to QC department. Some are OK & few rejected. Entry of data of goods in DATATEX . Goods are arranged according to OK or rejected group. Department gives store requisition to warehouse. As per requisition materials supplied & this record is noted down. Stages of grey fabric inventory control After knitting production Grey inspection Warehouse Batch preparation Dye house. Stages of finished fabric inventory control Finishing section After final inspection Warehouse. Store capacity
  • 107. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 107 Dyes : 6-7tons Chemical : 33-35tons Grey fabric : 20-25 tons Yarn storage : 50 tons RFD : 50 tons Set range of dyes: 80-100kg/day Set range of Chemicals: 2-2.5ton/day Remark The inventory system of BKL covers both knitting & dyeing inventories. The space is noticed to be insufficient considerably. An expansion of space is thus desired for sound inventory. The department is computer oriented & connected by ERP.
  • 108. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 108 CHAPTER-18 COST ANALYSIS
  • 109. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 109 Costing of the product: Costing system mainly describes how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company/benificiar. According to buyers/customers requirement at first the fabric is collected from local and foreign suppliers. Then it is calculated how much dyestuff and chemical is required till the end of the processing of that specific fabric. After that, the final cost is fixed including some profit. Then the unit price is offered to the buyer for approval. If the buyer approves it, all the transaction of money is carried out by bank. Costing of the product is done by the consideration of the following factors: 1. Amount of raw materials consumed. 2. Direct labor. 3. Indirect labor. 4. Factory cost. 5. Office and administrative cost. 6. Sales and distribution cost. 7. Profit, etc. Remarks: The costing of product is a secret matter of the industry. They are not interested to flash up the cost related data. So, we could not collect the price of the product and costing of the product.
  • 110. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 110 Chapter- 19 Marketing Activities
  • 111. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 111 Consumer of the products: Beximco knitting LTD. is a100% export oriented industry. All the goods produced in this industry are exported into various foreign countries. Name of the main buyers of the products of the industry are given below:  Ash city.  B&C.  Wall mart.  Haddad.  Pimkie.  Zara.  Charter House.  H&M. Product label: Product label differs from buyer to buyer. The product labels are prepared according to fabric criteria and the buyer requirements. Package size and label: Package size and label differs from buyer to buyer. The package size and labels are prepared according to fabric criteria and the buyer requirements. Local Market: Beximco knitting LTD. is a100% export oriented industry. All the goods produced in this industry are exported into various foreign countries. So, goods are not supplied into local markets. Importing countries: The countries which are importing goods from Beximco knitting Ltd are given below:  USA.  Canada.  Germany.  Europian countries. Marketing Strategy: Marketing strategy is a very important factors to sale the products to the buyer. Beximco knitting Ltd mainly senior marketing officers, merchandiser and higher deal with buyer. There are some fixed buyers of the industry. The buyers give their orders continuously all over the year. The marketing officers and by both side understanding the rate and the order quantity are fixed. Duties& responsibilities of marketing officer: The main duties and responsibilities of a marketing officer are given bellow: To prepare cost sheet by dealing with the buyer.
  • 112. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 112 To take different steps by discussing with the high officials and merchandiser. To maintain a regular & good relationship between commercial officer & merchandiser. To maintain a regular communication with the buyers & buying houses. Communicate with the new buyer. Display the criteria of the products. Actually the responsibilities & duties of marketing officer begins from getting order of buyer & ends after receiving goods by the buyer. so he should be always smart, energetic & sincere. Remarks: Beximco knitting Ltd has a well learned marketing & merchandising team. They always communicate with the buyers. The marketing section also looks for the quality & quantity buyers.
  • 113. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 113 CHAPTER- 20 CONCLUSION
  • 114. BEXIMCO KNITTING LTD. 2013 YRS SEU Page 114 Industrial attachment program send us to the expected destiny of practical life. The completion of tow month industrial attachment at Beximco knitting Ltd I have got the impression that the factory is one of the most modern knit dyeing project in Bangladesh. This company has earned very good reputation for its best performance over any other knit dyeing project. During my industrial attachment program I had tried to my best to done my duty. My supervising officer also satisfied to me & offer co-operation in every steps. It is completely a new experience in my life, which will be very very effective in my service life. During my training period I realized that practical experience is more valuable for service life. In our industrial attachment program contents some secret subject of factory is included. To collect this information like history of project development, costing of products, marketing strategy etc every student face a great problem as it is a secret. so we proposed our college authority to exclude these topics from the contents. Limitation of The Report: Because of the secrecy act, the data on costing and marketing activities has not been supplied and hence this report excludes these chapters. We had a very limited time. In spite of our willing to study more details it was not possible to do so. Some of the points in different chapters are not described as these were not available. These whole process is not possible to bind in such a small frame as this report, hence our effort spent on summarizing them. Lastly: What special is this report is that the information, data and description is very much subjective and practical. So, one can easily have an idea about the whole dyeing unit of BKL at a single look on it. The new comer can use this report for further details study or can know Beximco knitting Ltd without much work. But what should be remembered the chemicals, some process steps may be modified within the period this paper goes to the reader.