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Industrial Attachment of Ananta group


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  • 1. Page 1 of 172 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036
  • 3. Page 3 of 172 INTRODUCTION: From 1991, Ananta has grown to be one of the leading apparel solution providers in Bangla- desh. Engaged in the marketing, development and manufacturing of apparel, Ananta employs 12500 people and has an annual turnover of over $75 million. Through a wide range of prod- ucts & services, Ananta has earned the goodwill of reputed brands from across the globe. Producing over 12 million pieces of garments per year, it is among the largest vendors in Bangladesh for both Gap and H&M. Ananta has consistently excelled with a strong perfor- mance record of 25% annual growth over the last few years, and has earned several awards & recognitions such as the Bangladesh "Best Exporter Award" in 2002 and the “Wal*Mart” Best Vendor Award" in 2004. Ananta's success is rooted in its investments in human capital and world class manufacturing facilities. Ananta possess the skills, experience, infrastructure and financial strength necessary to attain customer satisfaction through excellence in product quality, flexibility and cost competitiveness. The company is always exploring new markets across the world with an experienced perspective, contemporary professionalism and high- end technology. VISION: To establish as a one stop source for the Global Apparel market and to satisfy and meet cus- tomer's expectation by developing and providing products and services on time, which offer value in terms of Quality, Price, Safety & Environmental impact. Assuring complete com- pliance with the international quality standards and also providing the employees internation- ally acceptable working condition and standards. To promote the development and to use human talent & equal opportunity of employment. Procure the most advanced & sophisti- cated technology suitable for producing desired product and attain highest level of compe- tence through continuous development of the professional management system and to ensure complete transparency in all aspect of business.
  • 4. Page 4 of 172 MISSION: Ananta is committed to enhancing its capabilities to serve its customers better. It is planning to expand its manufacturing capacity over the next 3 years to reach production of 30 million pieces of woven bottoms a year, with special focus on producing premium denim products which require extensive washing and finishing effects. In addition, it is also starting several new pilot projects for the production of jackets, knitwear and sweaters in order to diversify its product portfolio. Ananta is a trendsetter in the apparels industry. It provides the highest val- ue products and services possible to customers & seeks to foster long term relationships with their partners and provide industry leading benefits and opportunities to employees. To extend its position as a world-class manufacturer, Ananta strives to achieve global stan- dards in quality, cost, service and scale of operation. Ananta focused on using innovative processes, technologies & machines to manufacture the finest products at a reasonable cost. By being responsive to their customers requirements and anticipating changes in market trends, hope to provide a superior level of service than they are accustomed to. They are committed to the success of all the partners that they work with and try best to accommodate their needs.
  • 5. Page 5 of 172 Location Maps: Banani DOHS Mohakhali Kakoli chourasta Uttara Kamal Attaturk Avenue Gulshan 1 Road no #99 House no #20 SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Gulshan 2 PREMIER BANK ANANTA HEAD OFFICE WESTIN HOTEL Location map of Ananta Head Office
  • 6. Page 6 of 172 Saydeabad Jatra bari Narayongonj Demra Kanchpur Bridge Shitalakkshay River Nayabari Norsindi Sonargoan ADTL Location Map of Ananta Denim Technology Limited (ADTL) Chittagong road
  • 7. Page 7 of 172 Gulshan 2 Asulia  Gazipura bus stand Targach Location Map of Ananta Casual Wear Limited (ACWL) kakoli Abdullapur Gazipur chourasta SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY ACWL
  • 9. Page 9 of 172 Name of the Factory: ANANTA GROUP AAL- Ananta Apparels Limited ADTL-Ananta Denim Technology Limited ACWL-Ananta Casual Wear Limited Type: 100% export oriented Woven readymade Garments Industry. Year of Establishment: From 1991, Ananta has grown to be one of the leading apparel solution providers in Bangla- desh. Address: AAL- Gulshan 2; house no# 20; road no#99 ADTL-Nayabari, Kanchpur, Narayangonj ACWL-Gazipura, Gazipur. Sponsors: Bank: Prime Bank Limited Branch: Elephant road Branch Account Name: Ananta Apparels Limited Account No: STD-31000303 Account Currency: United States Dollars.
  • 10. Page 10 of 172 Physical Infrastructure: The organization shall determine and maintain the infrastructure needed to achieve confor- mity to product requirements, infrastructure included, as applicable  Ananta maintains its telecommunication with VOIP connection to its different corporate zones, PABX connections and LAN connections.  It’s others facilities are  Own Network Server,  Own power management;  Own utility management,  Free transport facility,  24 – hour medical centre,  Free meals,  Fire service facility Product type:  Denim.  Non Denim. Capacity: 57 Lines: 1,000,000 pcs/month – E/Rd, Gazipur & Elephant Road factories. Remarks: Ananta is greatest concerned with the quality of its product. For this reason it do not look for the production volume rather the quality of product, this increase its overhead cost. But better quality has welcome buyers with satisfaction. The infrastructure and land asset has the greatest possibility to extension and to create social contributions.
  • 13. Page 13 of 172 Organogram of manpower management: Organogram of Administration: (Transport, construction, development, operation, security) Asst. Officer Officer Site Engineer Mix m/c Operator Asst. Store in charge Transport Construction Front Desk Operation Security Director (E. Road) Director(ACWL) Administration A.G.M
  • 14. Page 14 of 172 Organogram of Administration Department :( Rejection, Time section, Floor admin) Computer Operator Time Keeper Officer Peons Cleaner Sweeper In chargeSr. Officer Time ExecutiveIn charge Time section Floor AdminRejection Manager A.G.M Administration Asst. Director (HR)Director (ACWL)
  • 15. Page 15 of 172 Organogram Of Production Department :( Sewing Section) Director (ACWL) Production Manager Executive Line chief AGM DGM GM Supervisor Worker
  • 16. Page 16 of 172 Organogram Of Production Department :( Cutting) Director (ACWL) GM Coordinator Cutter man Marker man Supervisor In charge Manager Sr. Manger
  • 17. Page 17 of 172 Organogram of Production department :( Finishing) Director GM Manager CTPAT Area Button Section Shipment coor- dinator In charge Supervisor In charge Supervisor In charge Supervisor Jr. Coordinator Worker Finishing Unit
  • 18. Page 18 of 172 Organogram of Production Department: (Store) Director GM Manager Keeper Officer Arranger All Buyer Sub-Contract G. Store Work Arranger Sr. Officer KeeperAsst. OfficerOfficer Officer Manager Keeper Arranger FabricGAP H&M Asst. Manager
  • 19. Page 19 of 172 Shift Change: There are two shifts for operation personnel in this industry. So the shifts are changed at every 12 hours. The shift timings are as below:  8:00 am to 8:00 pm (“A” Shift)  8:00 pm to 8:00 am (“B” Shift) Administration i.e. Management personnel work on General (G) shift of duration 9:00 am to 7:00 pm and 6 days per week. Responsibilities of Production Executive:  To follow and execute the daily production plan accordingly.  To give the right decision for the minor troubleshooting.  To convey the proper information to the next shift.  To maintain target productivity of every section in his shift  To give job card to maintenance department whenever machine is not working or any other problem with the machine. Job description of Production Executive: Report to: Senior production officer Job Summary: To plan, execute & follow up the production activities & control the quality.
  • 20. Page 20 of 172 Duties & Responsibilities:  Overall supervision of production.  Batch preparation & PH check.  Write Garment pcs loading & unloading time from m/c.  Program making, sample checking, color measurement.  Control the supervisors, operators’ asst. operator & helpers.  And also any other work as & when required by the management. Management System: Corporate Management System. Remarks: Though Ananta. has more than 12500 manpower. Ananta pay a great attention for providing food and transport, medical, schooling of personnel’s children, their utility and maintain a safe, secured and calm environment. The working condition here is also standardized. These opportunities for the personnel of the industry have a direct positive impact on the production and also motivate the personnel for better and greater efficiency.
  • 21. Page 21 of 172 CHAPTER– IV GARMENT WASHING
  • 22. Page 22 of 172 General discussion on Garment washing In line with ever changing human behaviors and longing to be unique in outlook, mankind dress themselves in fashionable as well as comfortable garments. To be or get unique in out- look garment washing is very convenient way. This is a wing of garment wet processing technology. This is the textile technology by which a unique appearance along the seam, size, comfort ability &. Fashion etc. Properties are changed of a solid or multi colored or printed garment. Fabric of the garment may be dyed with reactive dye, direct dye, Sulpher dye, acid dye, basic dye, pigment and even metal complex dye and printed with pigment, direct dye, reactive dye etc. Object for garment washing: These are the main objectives for garments wash- • To develop softness in garment: Size materials in fabric are removed by washing & there is also advantage to add softener. Drape ability also increased. • To introduce unique appearance: washing that introduces fading effects along with the seam on the garments by washing out dyes or pigments in the garments. • To create new fashion: Washing process of garments bring different out looks (faded, color tinted, old look etc.) of garment that is used for creating new fashion. • Special type of finishes are also possible such as wrinkle, wrinkle free, soil retardant finish etc. • To satisfy the customer: As shrinkage occurs so customer can wear it just after pur- chasing/buying. Advantages or garment washing: • Starch or size materials, which are applied during fabric production especially in case of woven fabric are removed by wash as a result the garment become soft and hence the drape ability and comfort ability increased significantly.
  • 23. Page 23 of 172 • Softness could be increased by addition of softeners by doing soft finish or applying the softener at the end of washing process. • Dirt's, impurities, germs etc. Obviously will be added in the garment during its man- ufacturing^ arc removed due to washing because a variety of chemicals are used such as detergent, bleaching agents etc. • Due to washing, maximum shrinkage occurs; hence there is the zero possibility of further shrinkage. As a result there is no size or fitting problem in washed garments. • Faded effect and a variety of stylish effects produced by different washing tech- niques. Nowadays these faded and stylish effects are accepted as a new fashion for fashion world. • Similar outlook and effect could be produced by different washing techniques or by different process. As a result there is a great scope of implementation of brilliances of technicians. Every machine of a garment washing factory can be used for multi- purpose for this reason total project cost is comparatively lower where as washing add a handsome value to the garments. Limitation of Garment washing: Garments Size Change: This change takes place due to shrinkage properties of the fabric. The amount of shrinkage properties of fabric determines the amount of size changing of the gar- ments. Size materials and finishing partly removed: Different types of washing are done with different types of chemicals and process, which are responsible for the removal of size materials and finishing from the fabric. Color is partly removed: Unfixed dyes may remain on the garment after dyeing. This un-fixed dye will be subsequently removed due to washing. Thus color is partly removed.
  • 24. Page 24 of 172 The change occure by the following action during washing: 1. Mechanical/Rubbing/Abrade action with a. Garment-to-garment: In case of compact fabric it is more. b. Garment to machine: In this case the degree of abrasion mainly depends on the machine surface. The machine inner drum is perforated and the edges of each perforation create the ab- rasion with garments during processing. The degree of this abrasion is more than the abrasion of Garment-to-garment. 2. Chemical Action: A wide range of chemicals is used in different types of washing and each chemical provide its action as its character. We will know and understand of the actions of different types of chemical from the discussions about different types of wash. In case of above mentioned mechanical actions liquor ratio and machine rotation i.e. rpm also influence the degree of abrasion. There Are Different types Garments washing in our country: Normal wash/Garment wash/Rinse wash /Soft wash, Pigment wash, Silicon wash, Bleach wash. Caustic wash, Acid wash, Enzyme wash, Stone wash, Enzyme washes with stone, Supper white wash, Wash & over dyeing, Wash & Tinting, & Over all wrinkles. Basic machineries of a washing plant: Garments washing m/c for sample, Garments washing m/c for bulk, Hydro extractor,
  • 25. Page 25 of 172 Tumble Dryer: i) Gas dryer, ii) Steam dryer. Normal wash It is the easiest, shortest and cheapest process as a result it is most popular wash. Size material is removed partially. Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. With the addition of softener the softness of the garments can be improved as well as drape ability All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven and knit garments. No significant fading effect can be achieved. But increasing processing time and de- creasing the liquor ratio we can pronounce the wash effect. Note: White garments should be soften with non-ionic softener and dried in the steam dryer. Otherwise a reddish tone will appear. How to solve Back-staining Problem during Normal Wash We have to follow the bellow sequences: Trial a sample batch (If back-staining occur) Wash another sample batch with anti back-staining chemicals. (If back-staining occur) Wash another sample batch without detergent (If back-staining occure) Wash another sample batch without temperature (If back-staining occure) Wash another sample batch without detergent & temperature and with anti back- staining agent after fixing with fixing chemicals (If back-staining occure). Stop washing and inform customer. Process: Suppose a lot size of 100 kg garments: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg of garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 4. Add detergent to the liquor 0.3-1% i.e. 0.30-1kg 5. Supply steam to raise temp. 40 c to 60 c
  • 26. Page 26 of 172 6. If back staining is occur then use anti back staining chemicals to minimize such kind of problem 1-2% i.e. 1.0-2.0 kg 7. Run the process 5-20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with minimum liquor 1:3 i.e. 300 lt (its temp 40-60c) 10. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 11. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 to 0.5% i.e. 100 gm to 500 gm 12. If back staining & bleeding then use anti back staining & fixing chemical Anti back 1 -2% i.e. 1 -2 kg, Fixing agent 0.5-1 % i.e. 0.5-1 kg 13. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c to 60c) 14. Continue the process for 2-15 min 15. Drop the liquor 16. Unload the garment 17. Hydro extracts the garment. 18. Dry it in a tumble dryer. Pigment Wash It is also easiest, shortest and cheapest process as a result it is most popular wash like as nor- mal wash. • Pigment dyed/Pigment printed fabric used for making garment can be pigment washed. • Size material is removed partially • Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. • With the addition of softener the softness of the garments can be improved as well as drape ability. But as pigments harden the printed or dyed surface softener need more in compare with normal wash. • All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. • Significant fading effect can be achieved. But we can achieve more wash effect by in- creasing processing time and decreasing the liquor ratio. Note: white garments should be soften with non-ionic softener and dried in the steam dryer. Otherwise a reddish tone will appear.
  • 27. Page 27 of 172 Process: The process is very similar to normal wash. But it always varies company to company and on desired wash effect. Suppose a lot size of 100kg garments: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg of garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 4. Add detergent to the liquor 0.3-1% i.e. l kg 5. Add Caustic soda (if required) 0.5-1.0gm/ lt i.e. 50-100gm 6. Add Soda Ash (if required) 0.5-1.0 gm/lt i.e. 50-100 gm. 7. Supply steam to raise temp. 40 c to 60 c 8. If back staining is occur then use anti back staining chemicals to minimize it 1-2% i.e. l-2kg 9. Run the process 5-20 min 10. Drop the liquor 11. Hot wash with minimum liquor 1:3 i.e. 3001t (its temp 40-60c) Note: If alkali is used then a neutralization process for alkali should be done. 12. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 13. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 14. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5% i.e. l00gm to 500gm 15. If back staining & bleeding then use anti back staining & fixing chemical Anti back 1 -2% i .e. 2kg, Fixing agent 0.5-1% i.e. 500gm-lkg 16. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c to 60c) 17. Continue the process for 2-15 min 18. Drop the liquor 19. Unload the garment
  • 28. Page 28 of 172 20. Hydro extracts the garment 21. Dry it in a tumble dryer. Silicon wash Silicon wash is generally done on all type of fabrics i.e. woven and Knit. It is easier, short- er process like normal wash as a result it is also popular wash. Size materials are removed by an extra process named Desizing. i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. • It gives durable softness, elastic handle anti-pilling effects, dimensional stability and tear resistance. With the addition of softener the softness of the garments can be im- proved as well as drape ability. • It also improves wear and easy-care properties. • All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. • No. significant fading effect can be achieved. But increasing processing time and de- creasing the liquor ratio we can pronounce the wash effect. Process: Suppose a lot size of 100kg garments: Step 01 or Desizing: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running Speed 1 5/12 rpm 4. Add amylase enzyme 1-3% 1-3 kg 5. Add detergent/anti stain to the liquor; 1% i.e. 1kg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02: 1. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm
  • 29. Page 29 of 172 3. Add Silicon to the liquor 0.1 to 0.5% i.e. l00gm to 500gm 4. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 to 0.5% i.e. l00gm to 500gm 5. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c to 60c) 6. Continue the process for 10-15 min 7. Drop the liquor 8. Unload the garment Step 03: 1. Hydrocxtract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer. In case of knit garments desizing step is not required but a wash for 5 minutes at room temperature is necessary. Caustic wash • Caustic wash generally doing on Reactive dye, Sulpher dye, Direct dyed or printed Garments. • If printed fabric is used for making garments then about 20-30% pigment is washed out, as a result faded color effect is produced. • Size material is removed partially but more then normal wash & pigment wash. • Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process. • All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. • Significant fading effect can be achieved. But we can achieve more wash effect by increasing processing time and decreasing the liquor ratio. • To improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. • To increase the hairiness on garments this increases its old look appearance. Process: The washing procedure follows the bellow mentioned steps. Supposed a lot size 100kg garments. 1. Load the garments in the washing m/c= 100kg garments. 2. Load the m/c with water at 1:5 liquor ratio= 500Lt water 3. Start m/c running with moderate speed= 12-15 rpm 4. Add caustic soda to the liquor 4% 4kg
  • 30. Page 30 of 172 5. Add soda ash to the liquor 2% 2 kg 6. Add detergent to the liquor 1% 1 kg 7. Add H202 to the liquor 4% 4Lt 8. Add stabilizer to the liquor 2% 4Lt 9. Supply steam to raise the temp 70 c 10.Continue the process for achieving the desire shade 60-90 min 11.Drop the liquor 12.Hot wash 50c to remove all unaccepted material for 5 min 13.Drain the liquor 14.Neutralization: a. Add water in 1: 5 Liquor ratio 500 Lt b. Start machine running speed 12-15 rpm c. Add acetic acid to the liquor 1 -2ml/lt 0.50- 1 Lt d. Continue the process 5 min e. Drop the liquor 15.Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 500Lt 16.Run m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 17.Add softener as required 0.1 to 0.5% 10-50gm 18.Continue the process at 40-50c 5-10 min 19.Drop the liquor 20. Unload the garments. 21. Hydrocxtract & dry the garments with the tumble dryer. Bleach Wash Garments made from indigo, vat, reactive, direct etc dyed fabric can be bleach washed. It is a decolorization process by oxidation action. Color can be removed uniformly from the garment and removal of color done as per re- quirement. In general there are three categories such as light bleach (where maximum color is removed), medium bleach and bleach. All types of garment can be washed. Such as: woven knit garments. In case of woven fabric a pretreatment (Desizing) process is required. Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cut- ting, stitching and the back process.
  • 31. Page 31 of 172 • Significant fading effect can be achieved. But we can achieve more wash effect by in- creasing processing time and decreasing the liquor ratio. • To improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. • To increase the hairiness on garments this increases its old-look appearance. • Maximum weight losses occur in case of light bleach. Process This washing process follows the following steps. • Step 01 or Desizing • Step 02 or Bleaching • Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine) • Step 04 or Neutralization • Step 05 or Softening • Step 06 or Drying Suppose a lot size 100kg of twill trouser. Step 01 or Desizing: 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 500It 3. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm v 4. Add amylase enzyme 1-3% l-3kg 5. Add detergent/anti stain to the liquor; 1 % i.e. 1 kg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02 or bleaching: 1. Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 12-15 rpm Add soda to liquor 2% i.e. 2kg 3. Add caustic to liquor 2% i.e. 2kg 4. Add bleaching powder (K.C.I.) 10 gm/lt i.e. 5 gm Rinse thoroughly.
  • 32. Page 32 of 172 Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine"): ' 1. Add water with 1:5 liquor ratio 500Lt 2. Start m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add 35% of H202 0.5-1.0% 500gm-lkg 4. Add bisulphate 1-2% lkg-2kg 5. Continue the process at Room temp. 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & a hot wash at 40-60 c 5 min 7. Add water in 1: 5 Liquor ratio 500 Lt 8. Start machine running speed 12-15 rpm 9. Add sodium hyposulphite 3 gm/ltr 1500gm. 10. Supply steam to raise temp As required (40c) 11. Continue the process 10-20 min 12. Drop the liquor, 13. Rinse thoroughly. Step 04 or Neutralization: 1. Add water in 1: 5 Liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start machine running speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add acetic acid to the liquor 1 -2ml/lt 0.5-1 Lt 4. Continue the process 5 min 5. Drop the liquor Step 05 or Softening: 1. Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5% 100- 500gm 4. Supply steam to raise the temp. As required 40 to 60 c 5. Continue the process 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & unload the garments Step 06 or Drying:
  • 33. Page 33 of 172 1. Hydroextract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer. In case of knit garments desizing step is not required but a wash for 5 minutes at room temperature is necessary. Problem- Weight loss Strength loss Shade miss match Stone Wash Stone wash is done on garments made from denim & jeans fabric. Sometimes twill fabric garments are also subjected stone wash. Fading effect is produced in the garments in irregular pattern. Fading effect is more Pronounced across the seam line and the multiple ply position. Stone wash mainly followed by a decolouration process. Garments become comfortable during use. Process: This washing process follows the following steps: Step 01 or Desizing Step 02 or Stone Wash with Bleach wash Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine) Step 04 or Neutralization Step 05 or Softening Step 06 or Drying Step 01 or Desizing 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg Step 03 (Neutralization of Chlorine): 1. Add water with 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add 35% of H202 0.5-1.0% = 500gm-lk Or Add bisulphate 1-2% lkg-2kg 4. Continue the process at Room temp. 5 min 5. Drop the liquor & a hot wash at 40-60 c 5 min Note: H202 Neutralization gives brighter tone then the bisulphate.
  • 34. Page 34 of 172 Step 04: (Neutralization) 1. Add water with 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running with moderate speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add acetic acid 1-2% lLt-2Lt 4. Continue the process at Room temp to 60c. 5-8 min 5. Drop the liquor Step 05 or Softening: 1.Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 500 ltr 2. Start m/c running speed 12-15RPM 3. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5% 100-500 gm 4. Supply steam to raise the temp 40-60c 5. Continue the process 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & unload the garments Step 06: 1. Hydroextract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer Enzyme wash Enzyme wash is done on garments made from denim & jeans fabric, twill fabric garments. Sometimes knit items are also subjected for Enzyme wash Garments made from indigo, vat, direct etc dyed fabric can be enzyme washed. Reactive dyed garments can be washed also but wash effect not pronounced as mentioned earlier. It produces frosty/ice effect on garment and seam abrasion across the*seam. Enzyme works chemically not mechanically for this reason it provide less damage/wastage then stone wash. It improves improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. Enzyme improves the anti-pilling properties and decrease the hairiness hence it gives a very smooth surface of the garments. Process: It follows the bellow mentioned steps. Suppose 100kg of garments in a lot size. Step 01 or Desizing
  • 35. Page 35 of 172 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Start m/c running 15/12 rpm 4. Add amylase enzyme 1 -3% l-3kg 5. Add detergent/antistatic to the liquor; 1 % i .e. 1 kg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02 Enzyme 1. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 3. Supply steam to raise temp. As required 55-60 C 4. Add acetic acid 1-3% l-3kg 5. Add anti back staining 1% i.e. 1kg 6. Add Acid Enzyme As required 1-3% i.e. 100-300gm 7. Continue the process depending up on the effect 30-50 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 80-90c run 1 -2 min. (for killing the enzyme). 10.Drain the bath 11.Rinse thoroughly Step 03 or Softening: 1. Add water in 1:5 liquor ratio 500 Lt 2. Start m/c running speed 12-15 rpm 3. Add softener to the liquor 0.1 - 0.5%= 100- 500gm 4. Supply steam to raise the temp As required 40 to 60 c 5. Continue the process 5 min 6. Drop the liquor & unload the garments Step 04:
  • 36. Page 36 of 172 1. Hydroextract the garments. 2. Dry in the tumble dryer. Note: Enzyme wash usually followed by bleaching; and it depends upon the lightening the gar- ments. Enzyme wash with stone Enzyme wash with stone is done on garments made from denim & jeans fabric, twill fabric garments. Sometimes items are also subjected for Enzyme wash with stone Garments made from indigo, vat, direct etc dyed fabric can be Enzyme washed with stone. Reactive dyed garments can be washed also but wash effect not pronounced as mentioned earlier. It produces frostier/ice effect on garment and seam abrasion across the seam than the enzyme wash. Enzyme works chemically and stone works mechanically for this reason it provide ef- fect more quickly than enzyme wash. It improves improve the color fastness & rubbing fastness. Enzyme improves the anti-pilling properties and decrease the hairiness where as stone mechanically increase hairiness. On the other hand this process shortens the time. For this reason enzyme and stone amount should be used very carefully. Process: It follows the bellow mentioned steps. Suppose 100kg of garments in a lot size. Step 01 or Desizing 1. Load the garment in washing m/c 100kg garment 2. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 3. Stan m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm 4. Add amylase enzyme 1-3% 1 -3kg 5. Add detergent/anti stain to the liquor; 1% i.e. lkg 6. Supply steam to raise temp. 60 c 7. Continue the process 20 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water temp 40-50c for 5 min. Step 02 Enzyme with stone 1. Add water at 1:5 liquor ratio 5001t 2. Start m/c running Speed 15/12 rpm
  • 37. Page 37 of 172 Supply steam to raise temp. 55-60 C 3. Add acetic acid 1-3% 1.3kg 4. Add anti back staining 1% i.e. lkg 5. Add Acid Enzyme As required 1-3% i.e. 100-300gm 6. Add pumic stone '/* of volume of garments volume or as required 30kg to 50 kg 7. Continue the process depending up on the effect 30-50 min 8. Drop the liquor 9. Hot wash with water (for killing the enzyme) temp 80-90c run 1-2 min. 10. Drain the bath 11. Rinse thoroughly
  • 38. Page 38 of 172 FOCUS ON ADTL: Fabric store: ADTL is the central store of the of ANANTA group. 70% of the fabrics are stored and supply to ANANTA group from here. ADTL is totally working on denim washing. Washing is the most important part of the readymade garments. For innovative outlook and fashion based style that doing by washing specially on denim fabric. Fabric store which maintained the fabric roll and its quality. There are some employees with worker whose are working on it. First, they received the roll as per purchase order. Then it counted by order sheet and started inspection. Main things of inspection try to find out the fabric fault and its quality. There are different types of fault. Such as stick mark, missing yarn, thick yarn, slub, knot, spot, and hole. Faults are detected by follow the 4 point system and strictly follow to hold the fabric quality keep the best. 4 point system: Up to 3 inch 1 point 3 inch to 6 inch 2 point 6 inch to 9 inch 3 point Above 9 inch 4 point According to the 4 point system they inspect 10% of the fabric. After counting if average no is 28 then it is granted otherwise then 20% will be the coming in checking. At last if there is more than 28 then inspection will be hold for the total fabric roll. 28 is the granted no of fa- bric fault.
  • 39. Page 39 of 172 Fig 1: Fabric Quality Inspection Report On the other side from each roll 22˝ cut as width wise and making blanket and then it goes to washing section to measuring its shrinkage. Shrinkage% = (After wash – Before wash) ÷ before wash) ×100. After washing how much fabric shrinked from its previous size that is measuring because when they got shrinkage result then they informed about fabric shrinking measurement. So when a readymade garment made then the percentage of shrinkage measurement put on it be- cause after washing the garment will be shrinked and don’t hold the actual buyer measure- ment which will be one of the main reasons to be rejecting the order. So it is the most impor- tant part of the checking the fabric shrinkage. Also shade will be the marked after washing. 50 cm/sq big blanket is making and send it to washing. Differences come out from the before wash and after wash. Shade variation differences come out from that. Lot card maintain by fabric store. In lot card keep information of different shade of each sample which is going to be easy that what buyer choose for them what they like. Color shade marked by serial no. There have 2 sets of sample of after wash and 3 sets of before wash sample. Then package
  • 40. Page 40 of 172 will be made by the before wash and after wash sample. A lot card will be also included in the package which contains all information of that fabric samples. Sample Development section: Before going to bulk production of a sample that is trying to develop as per buyer require- ment. Buyer informed different types of styles, color, shades through email, standard body or picture. To achieve buyer requirement there have been followed different types of process. Wet process and dry process is the main process to achieve the different types of styles and outlook. Wet process is direct connected with washing and in dry process whisker, scraping, laser, sand blasting, 3D, wrinkle making, grinding, tagging are followed. Sample section is the miniature of the whole bulk production. First here trial the sample and when it confirmed by the buyer then it goes to bulk production. Sample section consists of: Types of machine: (Wet)  Washing machine  Hydro extracting machine  Drying machine For dry process:  Hand whisker paper  Hand sand  Destroy machine  3D machine  PP spray machine Types of Operation:  Sample Development  Shrinkage test  Blanket test
  • 41. Page 41 of 172 M/C Used:  Tonello- 1 pc  Tolker- 4 pcs  NGAI shing- 6 pcs  Hydro extracting m/c- 1 pc  no. of Dummy(3D)- 3 pcs  Dryer m/c- 8 pcs Style wise process development: Pattern make Hand whisker Sand blasting Tagging Desize Rinse Engyme wash with stone Rinse Bleach Rinse Neutral
  • 42. Page 42 of 172 Hydro & Dryer Destroy area mark Destroy Grinding PP spray Neutral GAP style follow up process:  Standard sample comes from the buyer.  Then 1st sample developed and send it to buyer and then buyer approved the sample.  Pattern will be cut down and ready or the bulk production.  As per buyer requirement pattern design made on the marker ready to make the Whisker.  By the help of pattern whisker is made on the both side of the body.
  • 43. Page 43 of 172  Engyme is done.  Then tearing or destroy will be done if buyer want as their style.  PP spray (make more whiteness for shinning).  Neutralize (Meta by sulphate).  Sample goes to buyer for approved.  If they like then it goes to bulk production or make correction on the sample body.  Before packing for quality control check the finishing.
  • 44. Page 44 of 172 Flow chart of wet process:
  • 45. Page 45 of 172 Wet process receipe from a specific buyer:- Buyer: C&A Style: 108B Receipe for: 100 pcs Hand whisker-Hand sanding-Tagging-Tie Process name Chemical Name Water Temp Time Desize D-80 LP-30 600L 60c 20 mins Rinse 800L 2 times Engyme Powder En- gyme LP-30 ID 500L 45c 20 mins Rinse 80L 2 times
  • 46. Page 46 of 172 Bleach Silicon Paste 700L RT 2 mins Rinse 800L 2 times Neutral Hypo 600L 50c 5 mins Rinse 800L 2 times Then, Hydro, Dryer, 3D, PP Spray After PP spray Process Name Chemical Water Temp Time PP Neutral Meta 600L 50c 3 mins Rinse 800L Cleaning ID 600L 50c 3 mins Rinse 800L Then complete to Hydro dryer, Q/C Check, Audit, then it goes to delivery section.
  • 47. Page 47 of 172 Flow chart Of Dry Process:
  • 48. Page 48 of 172 Dry Process: There are different processes followed in dry process. Here try to describe most of them: Hand Whisker: Hand whisker is one type of process by which surface color of garments is [partially removed according to standards with the help of scraping paper which paper is classi- fied as 180, 220, 320, 400&600. But GAP buyer always wants that 400 and 600 scraping paper have been used. For hand whisker first of all make pattern according to buyer design and tent put into the body and make effect on the body side. Fig 2: Different types of pattern according to Buyers specification
  • 49. Page 49 of 172 Fig 3: Pattern made followed by a Style Fig 4: Try to making effect on the body
  • 50. Page 50 of 172 Fig 5: Clear effect on the body Fig 6: Standard Body measurement
  • 51. Page 51 of 172 Needed Equipment:  Dummy  Various types of scraping paper  Rubber pad for pattern  Blade Remidities:  Pattern must be made accurately according to design.  Scraping paper must be used.  Be conscious when scraping is used then careful about the hand pressure. 3D & wrinkle: First have to do spray resin on the specific area we want to create 3D effect. Without resin spray 3D effect is not possible. Then it set to the dummy and make 3D effect by the help of hand of workers manually. Three heating light is used to cure the resin and it is treated into oven for making 3D effect permanent on the body. Light temp is 1000 watt, it deep the resin and then it send to the curing to make wrinkle. Fig 7: 3D Effect Making
  • 52. Page 52 of 172 Fig 8: Making ready to make wrinkle effect Fig 9: Send it to the curing oven make wrinkle perfect Remidities:  The temp and time set must be perfect.  Time- 26 min and Temp- 155c  Because due to excessive heat or time the garments burn or damage.  In the body where clip will be stuck there using white fabric cause of that aluminum clip may be occure spot on the fabric.
  • 53. Page 53 of 172 Tagging, Grinding and Destroy: Tagging is done before wash. Grinding and destroy is done before final wash. By tag- ging we got one type of effect after washing. By grinding and d story the warp yarn of the garments is damaged. Its only doing for style or innovative look on garments body. But grinding is only done at the starting or ending point of the garment like; Pockets, opening point, Hemming point, Waist band. The m/c which is used in this section:  Tagging m/c  Destroy m/c  Grinding m/c Fig 10: Tagging effect Fig 11: Destroy Effect
  • 54. Page 54 of 172 Fig 12: Grinding Effect Sand Blasting: The first sandblasting process was patented the US in 1870. As a cleaning method, it is often used for priming a surface for the application of paint or sealant. For sandblasting nozzle (dia 1-1.5mm), tunnel board, compressor and chemical Al2O3 (sand) used. Aluminum oxide is look like normal sands but very hard and fine gra- nules like sands. These aluminum oxides are blown at very high pressure through a gun. This gun has a switch to start and stop flow of aluminum oxides. Garments to be sandblasted are placed on the bed of a closed chamber. Then the gun is operated by hand, when the switch of the gun is operated, aluminum oxides from a feeding cham- ber through a pipe and gun starts blowing. The blowing of aluminum oxide is done on the garment fabric surface. The area of the garment fabric surface is instantly faded by the blowing action of aluminum oxides due to frictional affect of aluminum oxides. The blow of aluminum oxides on the garment fabric surface is controlled at 10o – 20o angle. This blowing angle is very important. Higher the blowing angle, higher the fad- ing affect and higher the risk of garment fabric damage. In this process fading is done on the pre marked areas of the garments. Fading in the pre marked areas may be done in various patterns or design, by using folding or blocking techniques
  • 55. Page 55 of 172 Objectives:  To create a new fashion.  To create a fading effect in specific area of garments.  To produce an irregular fading effects or old looking effect.  For soft feeling to wear the garments i.e. to improve softness.  To increase the rubbing fastness. Fig 13: Sand blasting Chamber and used sand
  • 56. Page 56 of 172 Flow chart of process: At first garments collection. Now select pressure & angle. The garments are placed inside the spray chamber. Highly compressed air supplied through the pipe. Sand poured the tank. Then compressed air & sand passed through the spray nozzle.
  • 57. Page 57 of 172 Remidities:  Compressed air supply pipe may breakdown.  Often sand scattering or spraying occurs.  Due to high pressure fabric can be damaged.  1% wastage is accepted.  There is a high risk of accident.  The blasting pipe may be jammed with sand.  Working condition is hazardous for health. The garments are placed inside the spray chamber with a hard backing. Then the operator does the spraying according to the requirement. Sandblasting is done before washing and after dyeing.
  • 58. Page 58 of 172 Laser Section: Laser section is the most modern equipment in the factory. In this machine different effect are making on the body without any touch of chemical or water. By helping Photoshop there design will be developed and send it to the buyer or when buyer give requirement effect of laser. In Bangladesh there are only few factories (Opex, Hams, ABA group, Clombia group, Hamim group) where laser effects have been used. Laser m/c are mainly used for create critical effect. Procedure of development Process:
  • 59. Page 59 of 172 Fig i: Create design on computer Fig ii: Make the marker on body Fig iii: Chamber box Fig iv: Laser marking on the body Fig 13: Serial working process in laser section
  • 60. Page 60 of 172 Fig 14: Different types of laser effect
  • 61. Page 61 of 172 WTP & ETP: WTP means water treatment plant. In Ananta Denim Technology Ltd. the required water for garments washing is delivered form WTP continuously. Here the hard ness of raw water is removed on neutral PH of water is controlled by applying some process. And the meaning of ETP means effluent treatment plant. Here the effluent water form washing and other sector of the factory directly come and applying some process on this wa- ter for getting effluent free water. Then drain the water to the channel. The capacity of WTP and ETP: Capacity of WTP is : 80000 Lt/hour Capacity of ETP is : 65 m3 /hour Capacity of Equalization tank is : 12 lac Lt Required water per day : 15 to 20 lac Lt Process sequence of WTP: Deep machine Raw water tank Oxidation tank Multi-grade filter Softener tank Reserve tank
  • 62. Page 62 of 172 Fig 15: Diagram of WTP Oxidation filter: Here sand and four steps of stone is used to break the iron of water. The iron is drained by back wash. Multi-grade Filter : The maximum quantity of iron is stored here because of MnO2 and four steps of stone. Based on performance the chemical is changed 2 to 3 years later. Softener tank: Here resin and four steps of stone is used which is also changed 2 to 3 years later. And every 12 hours 400kg salt is used to clean the water.
  • 63. Page 63 of 172 Process Sequence of ETP: Equalization tank Floculation tank Lamala clarifier -1 PH Correction Sludge pit tank Bio-tower (one type of filter acts as media) Centifuge Aeration tank Lamala Clarifire-2 Chloration Tank Secondary Sludge pit (Deform is used to reduce foam & NACL to de-active bacteria) Out let tank
  • 66. Page 66 of 172 M/CTYPE: WASHING M/C M/C NO: 13-18 M/C NAME: NGAI SHING MODEL: NS-2250 VOLTAGE: 380 V/ 3PH
  • 68. Page 68 of 172 DESTROY M/C GRINDING M/C
  • 69. Page 69 of 172 CHAPTER– V SEWING SECTION
  • 70. Page 70 of 172 ACWL (ANANTA CASUAL WEAR LIMITED) INTRODUCTION: ACWL operating the sewing section of Ananta group. There are 29 lines which directing the sewing products. It stands in Gazipura of Gazipur district. ACWL is the 7 stored building in which upper 4 stored are sewing section. And rest of floor is containing different types of section. Yearly average target of ACWL is 5,74,167 pcs. Here try to describe different sec- tions of ACWL and it working system. DIFFERENT DEPARTMENT IN GARMENTS:  CUTTING  SEWING  FINISHING  EMBROIDARY  WASH STORE  MAINTENANCE  COMPLIANCE  HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT  WELLFARE  QUALITY CONTROL  ACCOUNTS  ADMIN  TRAINNING  RAW/ WORK STUDY  CENTRAL PLANNING AND CO-ORDINATOR  SECURITY
  • 71. Page 71 of 172 SEQUENCE OF GARMENTS PRODUCTION: 1. Design/ Sketch 2. Pattern Design 3. Sample Making/Production Pattern/ Grading 4. Marker Making 5. Spreading 6. Fabric Cutting 7. Sorting/ Bundling 8. Sewing or Assembling 9. Inspection 10. Pressing/ Finishing 11. Final Inspection 12. Packing 13. Despatch
  • 72. Page 72 of 172 1. Design/ Sketch: For the production of any garments design or sketch is so much important to know how the garment followed which style. Design feature is essential to produce on paper so that the manufacturing of that garment could be verified or check whether could be done manually or help of a computer. Here design is developed by computer and then it printed for the different types of size which is ready to make the garments of the first step. 2. Pattern Design: Each part of a garment size is copy by a hard paper which is pattern. Different types of pattern will be made for each part of a garment. This pattern will be used on the fa- bric before cutting. In garments block pattern is the basic pattern which is dependent on the perfect body measure without any style and design. Block pattern is made by three ways  Flat method  Modeling  Garments pattern Different parts of a garment especially body and sleeve is made by drawing on the pattern. It also is doing help of a computer. Actually here CAD system followed. Pat- tern will be made here in two ways. One of them is manual and the other is by soft- ware that is CAD. For CAD Lectra version-5 is used. Flow chart of technical depart- ment: Basic pattern Grading Final pattern making Printing Cutting Section Production
  • 73. Page 73 of 172 Fig: Pattern making & grading by computer. Fig: Lectra m/c At first Buyer gives order as per different size. Then it send it to the technical section for making sample. First make LA fit sample, next revise, then sealer sample and when every- thing is confirmed then production start. When pattern is making that time Block pattern will made according to follow measurement. In making of sample with actual measurement shrin- kage percentage will made with that. Then inseam, front rise, back rise, bottom opening,
  • 74. Page 74 of 172 knee, hip all things are made by follow the actual measurement. After that doing the grading. It means making other sizes. Then find out the consumption. Consumption depends on fabric width, thread, YY. Then fabric booked how many need for order. Cutting wastage 2% will be added in fabric booking. 3. Sample garments making/ production pattern/Grading: In garment section any design of garments will be produced in business strategy. So there have been produce a lot of pieces followed by one style. So first of all there need a sample which have been followed. So it is important to make a sample. Every style of each sample going to before bulk production there need to confirmation from buyer. Design of a body Main block Working Pattern Sample body Confirmation Production pattern Design of a garment will be developed by 3 ways:-  Own thinking or creativity  Copy of any design  Add more design with selected previous items. When design or style selected then it will be marking on the paper. It will be manually or with the help of a computer. Then ready to make sample body for selected garments. That will be started from basic block. Basic block means a pattern which defined different shapes of a body. Then a working pattern will be made with the help of computer. Marker is made
  • 75. Page 75 of 172 with the help of working pattern. At last sample maker will made the sample to follow by the working pattern. Then the sample body checked because to find out any types of mistake which may be occurred a big hamper in bulk production. Then it sends to the buyer for con- firmation and making deal of costing. When everything is confirmed then made counter sam- ple. In bulk production counter samples are followed. Fig: Sample section 4. Marker making: Marker means in which paper all patterns of every sizes are set up in that way in which all sizes of pattern are used by using minimum quantity of fabric. Width of marker selected lowest width of fabric. Marker width is also related with some topic such as:  Length of cutting table  production planning Efficiency of marker: Efficiency of marker maker depends on marker efficiency. Fabric wastage will be reduced if efficiency will be high. Fabric price belongs half cost of a garment, so if effiency will be in- creased 1% then profit will add with the total profit. Related factor of marker effiency:  Marker maker: Marker effiency depends on marker maker. Cause it related with marker mak- er experience, efficiency, honesty.
  • 76. Page 76 of 172  Sizes of garments: To making time marker making how many sizes have then experience will be upgraded.  Marker length: If marker length have more than efficiency will be increased.  Fabric Specialty: Some fabric is very difficult to identify about its front side and back side. This type of fabric is defined symmetrical fabric. That condition efficiency will be high. Otherwise in asymmetric fabric there tough to increase marker efficien- cy.  Making method of marker: Marker has been made in 2 ways; manually and by computer. With help of computer efficiency comes high. Constraints of marker making: When marker maker placed big pattern first then he trying to placed small pattern between the gap of big pattern for reducing the wastage and increasing the effiency. Some factors are making problem to increase efficiency:  Grain line  Specialty of fabric  Design of a fabric  Cutting quality  Production planning Fabric wastage outside of marker: Actually most use of fabric depends on the efficiency of marker. Sometimes a few wastages are occurred which is out of control of marker. Factors are:  Ends of ply looses: When fabric is spreading on the layout then some restriction of fabric for that there put have some extended fabric. To hold the actual garment measurement. This may causes Wastage of marker.
  • 77. Page 77 of 172  Loss of fabric ends: When fabric comes into the store then it comes as roll wise. So that time when it in- spected then finds out that fabric ends are loose for fabric quality restriction. It is the one of the cause to wastage of the marker.  Selvedge losses: Every fabric has two edge or selvedge according to widthwise. So most o the time it would be cut down. Using of Width of a fabric depends on the quality of the selvedge.  Purchase loss: In purchase time fabric roll is counted as lengthwise. So in the roll that measurement will be marked by the supplier. But sometime that was not found as per order. so before buying it must be clear that about the measurement of roll. 5.Fabric spreading: In garment business for production fabric will be cut down at a time at a lot. At a time to cut down the lot of fabric need planning and assembling the fabric length and width wise on the marker table that is defined as spreading. After the fabric spreading which fabric part is formed that is known as lay. There are 100 of plies between the lay. Purpose of making of lay is two reasons.  Fabric saving  Time savings Because of more than 100 lays are remaining. So structure of fabric will be hard and top of the table will be smooth. Requirements of fabric spreading: Alignment of the fabric: Fabric will be spreading according to length and width wise. When lay will be set then care- ful about the setting of the fabric. Try to set up the fabric on the table according to length and width. If length or width of the fabric set out of the table then it will be counted as faulted
  • 78. Page 78 of 172 marking. So when fabric will be set then according to lengthwise 2cm fabric will be taking more. Correct ply tension: Fabric lay is made set the fabric one by one from top. Fabric is spreading by manually or by the machine. In time of spreading be careful about the fabric tension. If in there have no fa- bric tension then cutting will not properly then it turns to fault piece. Otherwise fabric tension is more in fabric lay then after sewing the garments it will be shrinked. So it is a most impor- tant fact of spreading. Fabric must be flat: In fabric spreading must be careful about that fabric will be wrinkle free. In spreading flat is the most important thing. Without flat fabric after spreading it will occure damage situation in cutting. Elimination of fabric flaws Correct ply direction. 6. Fabric cutting: Fabric cutting is the most important part to make a garment. Without cutting the fabric a garment will not ready for the despatch. So it is also important to make that during cutting it will occur without any damage. For good cutting from the fabric have some factors to make sure its cutting quality:  Precession of cut.  Clean Edge.  Infused Edge.  Support of the lay.  Consistent of cutting. Methods of fabric cutting: 1. Manual method  Hand operated scissor  Round knife
  • 79. Page 79 of 172  Straight knife  Band knife  Die cutting  Notcher  Drill 2. Computerized Method:  Knife cutting.  Cutting by water jet.  Laser cutting.  Plasma torch cutting. 7. Sorting or bundling: After cutting the entire fabric lay, all the garments components in stack form is sorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistake in sorting , it is better to use code number on each pattern. 8. Interlining: An insulation, padding, or stiffening fabric, either sewn to the wrong side of the lining or the inner side of the outer shell fabric. The interlining is used primarily to provide warmth in coats, jackets, and outerwear. Woven or non woven fabric layer between outer cloth and lin- ing of a garment for stiffening or giving warmth. Any One Of A Wide Variety Of Fabrics Used Between The Inner And Outer Layers Of A Garment To Improve Shape Retention, Strength, Warmth Or Bulk. Interlining May Be Of Woven, Knitted, Or Non-woven Material And May Be Produced With Or Without A Fusible Adhesive Coating. A soft, but thick fabric that is inserted between the main fabric and the back lining. Interlining helps fabric drape gracefully. An insulation, padding, or stiffening fabric, either sewn to the wrong side of the lining or the inner side of the outer shell fabric. The interlining is used primarily to provide warmth in coats, jackets, and outerwear. Interfacing - Fabrics used to support, reinforce and give shape to fashion fabrics in sewn products. Often placed between the lining and the outer fabric. It can be made from yarns or directly from fibers, and may be woven, non-woven, or knitted. Inner lining between the lining and fabric of a garment.
  • 80. Page 80 of 172 9. Sewing: In processing of garments sequences sewing is the most important part. Fabric is attached by sewing. There are different parts in sewing which is most important for this section. Sewing machines of different types are arranged as vertical or zigzag line to assemble the garments. Sequences of types of sewing machine arrangement depend on sequence of assembling op- erations. Number of sewing machine per lines depending on the style of the garment to be produced. Production per line per hour also varies from 100 to 150 pieces depending on spe- cific circumstances. Number of sewing machine arrangement per line may be up to 60 de- pending on design and output quality of garment. There are different types sewing machines are used in line which are:  1 needle lock stitch m/c  2 needle lock stitch m/c  2 needle chain stitch m/c  kansi multi needle m/c  Feed of the arm m/c  1 needle vertical m/c  Bar tack m/c  Button hole m/c  Eyelet hole and button attach m/c  Straight knife cutting m/c  Flat lock m/c  Automatic bon pocket making m/c  Automatic back pocket attach m/c  Fabric end cutter m/c  Compressor m/c 10. Inspection: Each and every garment after sewing passes through the inspection table/point. Where the garments are thoroughly and carefully checked to detect/find any defect if present in the gar- ment. The defects may be for example variation of measurement, sewing defect, fabric de- fects, spots etc. If the defect is possible to overcome, then the garment is sent back to the re-
  • 81. Page 81 of 172 spective person for correction. If the defect is not correction able, then the garment is sepa- rated as wastage. 11. Pressing or finishing: After passing through the inspection table, each garment is normally ironed/pressed to re- move unwanted crease and to improve the smoothness. So that the garment looks nice to the customer. Folding of the garment is also done here for poly packing of the garments as per required dimension. 12. Final inspection: It is the last stage of inspection of the manufactured garment of behalf of the garment manu- facturing organization, to detect any defective garment before packing. 13. Packing: After final inspection, the garments are poly-packed, dozen-wise, color wise, size ratio wise, bundled and packed in to the cartoon. The cartoon is marked with important information in printed form which is seen from outside the cartoon easily. 14. Despatch: The cartoons of the garments are delivered or placed in the despatch department or finished product godown, from where the garments lot is delivered for shipment.
  • 82. Page 82 of 172 Literature view of seam and stitch: Seam: In sewing a seam is the line produced by services of stitches and applied to one or more lay- ers of fabric. Properties of a Seam:  Strength  Elasticity  Durability  Security  Comfort  Specialized fabric properties. 1. Seam strength: Seam must be as strong as fabric. If seam is weaker than fabric, it may easily break under force at particular situation. If seam strength is higher than the fabric strength the fabric may break down due to extra pressure on the fabric. 2. Elasticity of Seam: Seam must stretch or recover with fabric. Otherwise, seam may break with stretching of fabric. Normally knit fabric is more stretch able than woven fabric. In swimwear, amount of stretch may be up to about 30%. So seam must be compatible with extensibility of fabric. 3. Durability of seam: Seam must be durable. So that it is not broken or damage for ab- rasion during wearing and washing. 4. Security of seam: Seam must be secured against fraying a part or the unraveling of stitches. 5. Comfort ability of seam: In some special garment such as close fitting or underwear garment, seam must not present an uncomfortable ridge or roughness to the skin. 6. Special properties of seam: If a fabric is coated with Teflon, PVC or polyurethane to make it totally waterproof, seam must be water proof. Needle holes cause gap along the seam. That is why seam must be welded or taped to seal over the join and block up the needle holes. For flame proof garments seam must be constructed with sewing threads which will prevent a flame along the seam.
  • 83. Page 83 of 172 Seam types: Seam may be hundred types. As per British standard these types are classified into 8 main classes:-  Class1- Super Imposed Seam  Class2- Lapped Seam  Class3- Bound seam  Class4- Flat Seam  Class5:- Decorative Seam  Class6:- Edge Neatening  Class7&8:- Special  Class1- Super Imposed Seam:-  These seams are formed by placing one ply of material above another with the edge together and the seam along one side.  Most commonly used.  Seams are sewn in one or several operation.  Superimposed seams are usually made with two plies of material, although than two plies can be used for special projects. Types of super imposed seam:-  Plain seam: This is the common way of joining fabric. In most cases, fabric edges are neatened first and then sewn or joining and neatening the edges are down simultaneously. Fig: Super imposed seam
  • 84. Page 84 of 172  Class2- Lapped seam: A lapped seam is achieved with two or more pieces of fabric overlapping each other lapped seam commonly, but not always, have one ply of fabric fold under itself for a fi- nished edge. Types:  Common lapped seam: This is commonly used in joining of panels in sails not commonly used in clothing due to raw edges of fabric.  Lap filled seam: The seam is sewn with two rows of stitches produced by twin needle m/c equipped with a folding device. Most widely used in jeans for inseam or out seam/side seam. Fig: Lapped seam  Class3-Bound seam: Bound seam consist of an edge of material which is bound or enclosed by a stripe of fabric. The binding is usually a bias-cut strip of light-weight fabric. Now a days commercially bias type is used. Uses: To finish the row edges of fabric. A common usage of this finish is seen on the neck line of a collarless garment. For produces decorative edge by using binding of constracting color. To attach elastic. To insert interlining at the waist band of trousers, skirt or jeans.
  • 85. Page 85 of 172 Fig: Bound Seam  Class4-Flat seam: A flat seam is constructed by having two pieces of fabric which meet preciously at their edge and the fabric edges don’t overlap. Fabric edges may be joined together with or without gap a cover stitch is used to sew the two pieces of fabric together. Uses: Used mainly items made of shear knit fabric such as women stocking and the like. Zigzag stitches gap are used for decorative purpose. Fig: Flat seam  Class5-Decorative seam: Decorative seam may be produced by single or multiple rows of stitches which are sewn through one or more layers of fabric. These several layers can be folds of the same fabric. Used only for decorative sewing on garment.
  • 86. Page 86 of 172 Fig: Decorative seam  Class6-Edge neatening: The cut edges of fabric, specially woven one, will fray. The fraying of fabric row edge is undesirable because it will affect the accuracy of the seam allowance and will cause diffi- culty in the manufacturing process. Therfore the Raw edges of cut parts should be nea- tened before the seaming process. A finished garment with neatened edges will look neater and tidier and will be more durable for wash and wear. There are various method of neatening:  Over locking  Edge stitching  Binding  Over edging  Lining  Picot Edging  pinking Fig: Seam neatening
  • 87. Page 87 of 172  Class7- Special: Seams in this class relate to the addition of separate items to the edge of the garment part. They are similar to the lapped seam except that the added component has a definite edge on both sides. Stitch: Every category of sewing machine produces a specific type of stitch formation depending on the number of needles, loppers and threads which combine to construct the stitch. Each of these configurations is known as a stitch type and they are classified according to their main characteristics. There are various national and international standards for stitch types and they all use a similar taxonomy for classifying the main and sub-classes of stitch types. The following is an example of the system used by the British and USA standards, both of which contain the specifications for over 70 different stitch types. The six main classes are identified by the first of the three digits. . Class 100 these are chain stitches formed from a needle thread only and they are typically used for basting, felling and blind stitching. Class 200 originally hand stitches, these are mostly, formed by single threads passed from one side of the material to the other with each successive penetration of the needle. Various classes of this stitch are used for Saddle stitching and the prick stitching of edges. Class 300 these are also referred to as lock stitches because the top and under groups of threads are interlaced to form the stitch. The most widely used stitch formation in this class is no. 301, which is produced by a regular sewing machine. Class 400 formed by two or more groups of threads, the loops of which are interlaced and interloped, stitch no. 401 is a chain stitch formed from two threads and is widely used for knitted materials because the stitch formed from two threads and is widely used for knitted materials because the stitch formation makes for good extensibility and lateral strength. Class 500 these are known as over edge stitches because at least one group of threads covers the edge of the material. In this class, stitch no. 504 is a three
  • 88. Page 88 of 172 thread over looking stitch used for assembling light weight knits and also for cleaning and finishing the seam and hem edges of garments. Class 600: There are many complex stitch formations in this class because the stitches can be formed from three to nine threads and the use of up to four needles. This class of stitches is characterized by high elasticity and strength.
  • 89. Page 89 of 172 CHAPTER– VI RAW MATERIALS
  • 90. Page 90 of 172 Raw materials: Raw materials are most important for product. Cause without good quality raw materials good quality product is impossible. In Ananta merchandising section handle it. Sometime raw material booked on buyer’s specification. Raw Material Suppliers Origin TRIMS  Main Label and Care Label  Paxar BD Ltd.  Bangladesh  Joker Label  City Label  Bangladesh  Zipper  YKK BD Ltd  Bangladesh  Snap Button  YKK Intl.  Thailand  Plastic Button  UD Jindal  India  Adjustable Elastic  Golden Cedar Ltd.  Pakistan  Thread  Coats BD Ltd(UK Based)  Bangladesh  Apparel Clip  Check point System Inc.  Hong kong  Cotton Tape  Wilson Garment  Hong kong  Metal Rimmed Eye- let  Prym  Hong Kong
  • 91. Page 91 of 172 Raw Material Suppliers Origin NON DENIM  Todds Twill  Bombay Rayon  India  Peached Twill  Vardhaman Tex- tiles Ltd  India  Pocket twill  Golden Fashion  India  Printed Twill  Winnitex Ltd  Hong Kong  Dense Poplin  Kohinoor Weaving mills Ltd.  Pakistan  Light Chambray  PT. Grandtex Ltd  Pakistan  Color Canvas fa- bric.  Nahar Mills  Pakistan
  • 92. Page 92 of 172 Raw Material Suppliers Origin DENIM  EFFORTO DENIM  Arvind  India  KANSAS DENIM  Arvind  India  DANBEE DENIM  PT APAC INTI- CORPORA  Singapore  SPARROW DENIM  PT TYFOUNTEX LTD  Singapore  LITES OUT DENIM  Naveena  Pakistan  HIGHWAY-2  Arvind  India
  • 94. Page 94 of 172 Production planning We will be shouldering the responsibilities of executive of tomorrow so it is to understand methods, plans, various techniques that are essential to operate the effectively and efficiently. For this purpose we must have the knowledge of production planning. This is also true that this subject intervene into many departments of industrial organization, their relations with these departments are explained in first few topics. This basic objective of creating the manufacturing organization is to make the products. Thus the production is the nucleus or the centre of entire business operations. It must be empha- sized, however, that on signal system of forecasting, preplanning, planning and control is suited to all industrial enterprises, no matter how well it may meet the needs of this on that special company. Production planning functions look after the manufacturing activities. Pro- duction planning comprise the total planning, routing, dispatching in the manufacturing process so that the movement of material, performance of machines and operation of labor however are subdivided and are directed and coordinated as to quantity, quality, time and place. Planning and control are two basic and interrelated managerial functions. They are so interre- lated that they can be and often are considered as being one function. Planning is the prepara- tion activity of operation function. Planning sets the objectives, goals, targets on the basis of available resources with their given constraints. Planning involves setting up to such stan- dard. The controlling is made by comparing the actual performance with these present stan- dard and deviations are ascertained and analyzed. Production is an organized activity of con- verting raw materials into useful products but before starting that work of actual production, production planning is done in order to anticipated possible difficulties and decide in advance as to how the production should be carried out in the best and economical way. Since mere planning of production is not only sufficient, hence management takes all possi- ble steps to see that project or plan chalked by the planning department are properly adhered to and the standards set are attained in order to achieve it. The aim of production planning is to produce the products of right quality, in right quantity at the right time by using the best and least expensive methods.
  • 95. Page 95 of 172 Garment Production Planning Garment production planning involves creating a schedule for the mass production of cloth- ing. Producing garments requires a lot of coordination and schedule management. Every pro- duction requires different elements, depending on how large the production is and what is being produced. The time frame for a production depends on the elements of the production, but generally speaking planning for the production is the same. Planning for a production can be very simple if all steps are followed, assuming have already sourced your materials and subcontractors prior to this stage. Be sure to inspect garments tho- roughly before determining a schedule in order to make sure all the elements needed in the garments are included in your production schedule. If you not already a garment manufactur- er, check your local state and city laws regarding certification, permits and licenses that might be needed for garment manufacturing—they vary greatly and many times require certifica- tion. Forecasting • Process of predicting a future event • Underlying basis of all business decisions – Production – Inventory – Personnel – Facilities • FORECASTING APPROACHES – Overview of Qualitative Methods – Overview of Quantitative Methods • TIME-SERIES FORECASTING – Decomposition of Time Series
  • 96. Page 96 of 172 – Naïve Approach – Moving Averages – Exponential Smoothing – Exponential Smoothing with Trend Adjustment – Trend Projections – Seasonal Variations in Data – Cyclic Variations in Data Types of Forecasts by Time Horizon: • Short-range forecast – Up to 1 year; usually less than 3 months – Job scheduling, worker assignments • Medium-range forecast – 3 months to 3 years – Sales & production planning, budgeting • Long-range forecast – 3+ years – New product planning, facility location Short-term vs. Longer-term Forecasting: • Medium/long range forecasts deal with more comprehensive issues and support man- agement decisions regarding planning and products, plants and processes. • Short-term forecasting usually employs different methodologies than longer-term fo- recasting
  • 97. Page 97 of 172 • Short-term forecasts tend to be more accurate than longer-term forecasts. • Economic forecasts • Address business cycle, e.g., inflation rate, money supply etc. • Technological forecasts • Predict rate of technological progress • Predict acceptance of new product • Demand forecasts • Predict sales of existing product Seven Steps in Forecasting: • Determine the use of the forecast • Select the items to be forecasted • Determine the time horizon of the forecast • Select the forecasting model(s) • Gather the data • Make the forecast • Validate and implement results Realities of Forecasting: • Forecasts are seldom perfect • Most forecasting methods assume that there is some underlying stability in the system • Both product family and aggregated product forecasts are more accurate than individ- ual product forecasts
  • 98. Page 98 of 172 Forecasting Approaches: Qualitative Methods : • Used when situation is vague & little data exist – New products – New technology • Involves intuition, experience – e.g., forecasting sales on Internet • Quantitative Methods: • Used when situation is ‘stable’ & historical data exist – Existing products – Current technology • Involves mathematical techniques – e.g., forecasting sales of color televisions Overview of Qualitative Methods: • Jury of executive opinion – Pool opinions of high-level executives, sometimes augment by statistical mod- els • Delphi method – Panel of experts, queried iteratively • Sales force composite – Estimates from individual salespersons are reviewed for reasonableness, then aggregated
  • 99. Page 99 of 172 • Consumer Market Survey • Ask the customer Jury of Executive Opinion: • Involves small group of high-level managers – Group estimates demand by working together • Combines managerial experience with statistical models • Relatively quick • ‘Group-think’ disadvantage Delphi Method: • Iterative group process • 3 types of people – Decision makers – Staff – Respondents • Reduces ‘group-think
  • 100. Page 100 of 172 Sales Force Composite: • Each salesperson projects his or her sales • Combined at district & national levels • Sales reps know customers’ wants • Tends to be overly optimistic Consumer Market Survey: • Ask customers about purchasing plans • What consumers say, and what they actually do are often different • Sometimes difficult to answer Time Series: • Set of evenly spaced numerical data – Obtained by observing response variable at regular time periods • Forecast based only on past values – Assumes that factors influencing past and present will continue influence in future • Example Year: 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Sales: 78.7 63.5 89.7 93.2 92.1 Time Series Component Trend Component: • Persistent, overall upward or downward pattern
  • 101. Page 101 of 172 • Due to population, technology etc. • Several years duration Seasonal Component: • Regular pattern of up & down fluctuations • Due to weather, customs etc. • Occurs within 1 year
  • 102. Page 102 of 172 Common Seasonal Patterns: Period of Pattern “Season” Length Number of “Sea- sons” in Pattern Week Day 7 Month Week 4 – 4 ½ Month Day 28 – 31 Year Quarter 4 Year Month 12 Year Week 52 Cyclical Component: • Repeating up & down movements • Due to interactions of factors influencing economy • Usually 2-10 years dura- tion Random Com- ponent: • Erratic, unsystematic, ‘residual’ fluctuations • Due to random variation or unforeseen events
  • 103. Page 103 of 172 – Union strike – Tornado • Short duration and no repeating. Naive Approach: • Assumes demand in next period is the same as demand in most recent period – e.g., If May sales were 48, then June sales will be 48 • Sometimes cost effective & efficient Moving Average Method: • MA is a series of arithmetic means • Used if little or no trend • Used often for smoothing – Provides overall impression of data over time • Equation
  • 104. Page 104 of 172 Schedule Creating a time frame is the most crucial part of garment production planning. Working backwards is the best way to determine this schedule. Determine a finish date for your pro- duction and move backwards from that. Fabric and Materials Ordering materials is a crucial element in beginning production. If your items require mate- rials from multiple vendors this coordination can become more difficult. Be sure to give ap- propriate lead times for your orders depending on when your sewing contractor needs mate- rials for production. Patterns, Marking and Grading This is the first step of production planning and if often finished after sample making. Once orders are in place, get your patterns and grading completed. Your markers will determine the yield of fabric needed for your order. Once markers are complete, fabric can be ordered. Cutting and Sewing Many sewing contractors also offer cutting services. If this is the case, include this time in your contractor's schedule, otherwise, use a cutting contractor. Once you select a sewing con- tractor for your production, they can tell you the time frame needed to sew your garments. Create a contract stating the schedule with your sewing contractor. Determine what they will provide, such as thread and what you will provide. It is advisable to provide a sewing instruc- tion card along with sewn samples for the contractor. Inspection and Finishing Be sure to allow time to inspect sewn garments before they are finished. Many times, sewing contractors will give only a few days to return items for them to fix. Anybody do not want to send defects to stores.
  • 105. Page 105 of 172 PLANNING Planning is exercise of intelligent anticipation in order to establish how an objective can be achieved, or a need fulfilled, in circumstances which are invariable restrictive. Planning pro- vides the supporting arithmetic for an objective which has already been decided. It does not establish whether the objective is right or wrong, good or bad, worthwhile or worthless ex- cept in terms which have also been decided beforehand. Consequently, only plan is invariably biased in favor of the chosen objective. Incidentally, to attack it on this count is rather like shooting the plainest and setting fire to the plans, not be- cause the plainest is playing badly or the plans are out of the tune, but simply because one does not like the music which is being played. Planning is an act of prediction, the accuracy of which varies enormously depending upon the kind of objective, kind of circumstances, the skill of the planner and his techniques and chance. Planning is necessary because resources are limited. Production planning activities originate at the aggregate level and consider decisions relevant to a specific planning horizon. A plan- ning horizon can be a period as short as four weeks a month, or a quarter (03 weeks) but more commonly refers to periods of from six months to a year or more. The aggregate planning problem is to determine the production rate which satisfies the anticipated output require- ments; while minimizing the related costs associated with the fluctuation of work force, in- ventories, and other relevant decision variables such as overtime hours subcontracting and capacity utilization. Production planning translated sales forecast into master production schedules. There are three distinct types of production planning: • Project planning. • Lot or batch planning. • Progressive of continuous planning.
  • 106. Page 106 of 172 PROJECT PLANNING Before starting every project its planning is done. Planning a project is a very important task and should be taken up with great care as the efficiency of the whole project largely depends upon its planning. While planning a project each and every detail should be worked out in anticipation and should be considered carefully considering all the relevant provisions in ad- vance. Project planning consists of the following important steps. 1. Market Survey: Market survey in a broad sense, is a commercial survey for the suitability of business it provides necessary statistics helpful for forecasting planning project. 2. Project Capacity: Capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount of money which can be invested for particular type of product and how the money which can be invested for a par- ticular type of product and how the money can be arranged. While deciding the capacity of the project, following factors must be considered. 1. Demand of the product in the market. 2. Quantity of power, water, land and raw material available. 3. Nature of product. 4. investment capacity 3. Selection of Site: While selecting the site, technical, commercial and financial aspects should thoroughly be considered. Site should be selected in two states; in first stage general location for factory should be selected in this location. Important factors to be considered for the selection of site. a. General location of the factory. b. Selection of exact site. 4.Plant Layout: One of the most important aspects of production system design is layout of facilities primary object of these is to optimize the arrangements " 4 m's" and supporting services.
  • 107. Page 107 of 172 5.Design and Drawing : After deciding the product its detailed drawing are prepared so that no doubt is left for future. Detailed specifications for raw materials and finished product should be decided carefully along with the specification of the machines required for their manufacture. 6. Material requirement: The list of materials required for manufacture is prepared from the engineering drawings. This list is known as ''Bill of materials" part list". 7. Operation Planning: Work of this is to select the best method of manufacturing, so that the wastage of material, labor, machine and time can be eliminated, to have more production with less fatigue. This work is done in two phases, namely. Method study is conducted to eliminate the wastage due to ill directed and inefficient motions. Time study is the exact estimation of time and is very essential for correct pricing. 8. Machine loading: Number of machines to be installed in a plant should be decided very carefully while plan- ning, proper care should be taken to find out the machining time for each operation as correct as possible, so that arrangement for full utilization of machines can be made and machines loading program is prepared accordingly. 9. Sub-contract consideration: With the development of technology and specialization, it is difficult to manufacture all the components in the same factory, due to fact that specialized machines plants and workers. The decision about particular item, whether to purchase or to manufacture, is taken by plan- ning department after making a through study of the relative merits and demerits. 10.Equipment Requirement: After knowing the number of equipments, their accessories and tools required, cost data can be collected to give and idea of capital requirement. 11.Organizational Layout and staff Requirement: Layout of organization is decided by considering the nature of work, type of industry size of industry, etc and in line of above the stalls are appointed.
  • 108. Page 108 of 172 12.Material Handling: The material handling problems must be studied before the erection of the factory building and plant layout. 13. Budgeting: Budgeting is forecasting and preplanning for a particular future period using past expe- rience and market trends. 14.Cost Calculation Total cost of a product is calculated by adding the expenses incurred during the period on a product. 15.Procurement of Finance : Generally large industries manage their block capital through partners and shareholders. While the working capital arranged through 'shares debentures, loans and banks. 16.Critical Report on Feasibility : Generally, rate of return on the invested capital is taken as the criteria for analyzing the feasibility of the project. CAPACITY PLANNING:  Capacity Capacity is the maximum rate of output for a process. Capacity is a relative term; in an operations management context, it may be defined as, the amount of resource inputs available relative to output requirements over a particular period of time.  Production capacity is depend on as well as affected by facilities, equipment, processing, method, labor and supplies.  If facility is too large, portions of it sit idle and add cost to existing system.  If facility is too small, customer and perhaps entire markets are lost.
  • 109. Page 109 of 172 So determining facility size, with an objective of achieving high level of utilization and a high return of investment is critical. Design capacity is the maximum theoretical output of a system in a given period under ideal conditions. Shortly, design capacity is maximum obtainable output. It is normally expressed as a rate, such as number of tons of steel can be produced per week, per month or per year. It is also called peak capacity. Effective capacity is the capacity a firm expects to achieve given its product mix, methods of scheduling, maintenance and standard quality. Measures of Capacity Two measures of the system performance are particularly useful: • Utilization • Efficiency • Utilization is simply the percent of design capacity actually achieved. Utilization is ex- pressed as- Efficiency is the percent of effective capacity actually achieved. capacityDesign OutputActual nUtilizatio  %100 capacityMaximum rateOutputAverage nUtilizatio %100 levelOpeartingBest usedCapacity nUtilizatio capacityEffective OutputActual Efficiency 
  • 110. Page 110 of 172 • Capacity Cushion is the amount of the reserved capacity that a firm maintains to handle sudden increase in demand or temporary losses of production capacity. • It measures the amount by which the average utilization (in terms of effective capacity) falls below 100 percent. Specially, • Capacity cushion =100% - Utilization rate (%). A Systematic Approach to Capacity Decisions Although each situation is somewhat different, a four step procedure generally can help mangers make sound capacity decisions. • Estimate capacity requirements • Identify gaps by comparing requirements with available capacity. • Develop alternative plans for filling the gaps. • Evaluate the alternatives, both qualitatively and quantitatively and make a final choice. Step-1: Estimate capacity requirements • In determining capacity requirement, the demands for individual product lines, indi- vidual plant capabilities and allocation of production throughout the plant network must be addressed. The foundation of estimating long term capacity need is forecast of de- mand. Then calculate machine and labor requirement to meet product line fore- casts Suppose that capacity is expressed as the number of machines at an operation. When just one product is being processed, the number of machines required, M is- cushiondesireddeductingafteryear,permachineonefromavailableHours demandsyear'forrequiredhoursProcessing requiredMachinesofNumber  cushiondesireddeductingafteryear,permachineonefromavailableHours demandsyear'forrequiredhoursprocessing requiredMachinesofNumber 
  • 111. Page 111 of 172 Where, D=number of units (customers) forecast per year. p = processing time (in hours per unit or customer). N = total number of hours per year during which the process operates. C = desired capacity cushion rate (%). Step-2: Identify Gaps A capacity gap is any difference (positive or negative) between projected demand and current capacity. Identifying gaps requires use of the correct capacity measure. Complications arise when multiple operations and several resource inputs are involved. Step-3: Develop Alternative The next step is to develop alternative plans to cope with projected gaps. One alternative called, base case is to do nothing and simply lose orders from any demand that exceeds current capacity. Other alternatives are various timing and sizing options for adding new capacity. Step- 4: Evaluate the alternatives Evaluate each alternative in both quantitatively and qualitatively and make a final choice. )] 100 (1[ CN Dp M  
  • 112. Page 112 of 172 PRODUCTION PLANNING, SEQUENCES & OPERATIONS i) Production parameters ii)Description of production process iii)Daily production report iv) Monthly average production v)Production flow chart vi) Monthly efficiency vii)Remarks. Production planning: Production planning is a suitable & clear study and pre- arranging the technique involve to a long series of operation for achieving best possible time by using men, machine, materials present in industry. Production engineering: The engineering approach which is used applied in every stage of a production process of a product is known as production engineering. Production engineering includes: I. Ensures smooth production. II. Involves with maintenance management. III. It is applied on every stages of production.
  • 113. Page 113 of 172 WORK STYDY: Work study is defined as- Work study is a collection of techniques used to examine work - what is done and how it is done-so that there is systematic analysis of all the elements, factors, resources and relation- ships affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of the work being studied. OBJECTIVES: • To standardize the method of doing a task. • To determine the standard time for doing a task. • To minimize the materials movements, operators movement, idle time of the workers and machines by proper plant layout. • To eliminate the unnecessary human motions in performing a task. • To utilize the facilities such as men, machines or materials most efficiently and effec- tively. • To establish the standard of performance. WORK STUDY TECHNIQUE: Work Study is a generic term connotes both  methods study and  Work measurement. Method-study concerned with “the way in which work is done (i.e., method)”. Work measurement deals with establishing a time standard. Motion study: Motion study is a technique of analyzing the body motions employed in doing a task in order to eliminate or reduce ineffective movements and facilitates effective movements.
  • 114. Page 114 of 172 Method study: systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work as means of developing and applying easier and more effective method and thereby reducing cost. Principles of motion economy: Motion economy provides a set of well-structures guidelines for analyzing and designing (or improving) the jobs. It encompasses a wide set of guidelines for the scientific use of human body, tools and work-place arrangement to increase the efficiency of the man-machine sys- tem. It also covers the aspects for reducing work-related fatigue. There are 3 principles- 1. Principles related to the use of the “human body” 2. Principles related to the “Arrangement of the workplace” 3. Principles related to the “Design of tools and equipment” WORK MEASUREMENT: Work measurement refer to the estimation of standard time, that is the time allowed for com- pleting one piece of job using the given method. International Labor Organization (ILO) de- fines work measurement as, “Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specific job at a defined level of performance.” The fundamental purpose of work measurement is to set time standard for a job. OBJECTIVES: • To establish the standard time for various operation • To schedule work and allocate capacity • To provide an objective basis for motivating and measuring workers’ performance • To provide benchmarks for improvement • To determine manpower requirements, and labor cost
  • 115. Page 115 of 172 • To understand the production capacity of the factory, and to draw up an appropriate target output, suitable range of divided labor and optimum production. • For use as basis for determining the unit cost of manufacture and wage rate. TECHNIQES OF WORK MEASUREMENT: There are four basic techniques for measuring work and setting standards. They are- • Historical experience • Time studies • Predetermined time standards • Work sampling TIME STUDY: Time study is a systematic technique which measures and estimates the standard time of per- forming any task. Time study is defined as a work measurement technique for recording the times and rate of working for the elements of a specified job, carried out under specified con- dition, and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance. PURPOSE OF TIME STUDY: • To determine the standard time of performing any operation. • To determine the time value for each work component under the motion study, which support improvements and standardization • For use as a yardstick in evaluation the operations • To find out individual worker capacity • Provide information for line balancing.
  • 116. Page 116 of 172 STANDARD TIME: Standard time is the time required for an average operator, fully qualified and trained, and working at standard pace, to perform the operation. It must include time for all the elements in the operation and in addition it must contain time for all necessary allowances. Standard time is equal to the normal time plus the allowances. Standard time = Normal time + Allowances = Normal time + (Normal time ×Allowances) = NT (1+ Allowances). In garments production world, the terms SMV or SAM used frequently. • SMV stands for Standard Minute Value. • SAM for Standard allocated minute or Standard Allowed Minute. SMV CALCULATION: SMV calculation of a basic T-shirt from a time study sheet of a garments industry. Following formulas are use- • Normal time = (Average observed time) × (Performance rating factor). • SMV (Standard Minute Value) = Basic Time + (Allowances × Basic time). = Basic Time× (1+ Allowance). • Allowances are assumed for this calculation is 20%.
  • 117. Page 117 of 172 IMPORTANT TERMS: Observed Time: Observed time comes from a direct observation by an observer that an operator takes to com- plete his / her relevant operation or elements. Performance Rating  During the time study, it is necessary to apply some 'adjustment' to the mean observed time to arrive at the time that the normal operator would have needed to do that job when working at an average pace. This 'adjustment' is called Performance Rating.  Rating is the assessment of the worker’s rate of working relative to the observer’s concept of the rate corresponding to the standard pace.  Therefore, the rating of the worker gives the comparison of the rate of working ob- served with respect to the standard level, which is the average rate at which qualified workers will naturally work at a job, when using the correct method and when moti- vated to apply themselves to their work. Standard rating is 10 Performance rating factor= • For example, an operator performs a task in two minutes and the time study analyst estimates to be performing about 20% faster than normal, the operators performance rating would be 120 percent of normal. Flow chart of production planning: Merchandising order sheet Pilot production Per-production meeting
  • 118. Page 118 of 172 Bulk production Shipment Description of Production process: Merchandising order sheet: Merchandising Department communication with Buyer. Buyer at first asks for a sample to product development department by their specified data. After complete a sample, send to the Buyer by following every instruction given by Buyer. If Buyer is pleased they give the order and if found any problem or change is required Buyer give comments on sample. Product development section again fulfills their com- ments and send sample. Finally when everything is ok, then buyer give instruction about Quantity for bulk production. Pilot Production: When production order is fixed, before going to bulk production. Pilot production /pre-production/trail are done as like bulk production. Pilot production is done before bulk production because reduce wastage. Pre-production meeting: Before going to bulk production planning and material man- agement start working. Planning department make a schedule for which section need how much time and how much line and sequence of line balancing for smooth bulk. Production by organizing a pre-production meeting. Material management section closely related with planning section. Material management section manages all kind of materials for smooth production. Bulk Production: When order Quantity get fixed and all materials are ready authority go for bulk production. Before going to bulk production all calculation (fabric, accessories, line, time, manpower, others) should be perfectly calculate for proper shipment. Materials book- ing and receive schedule taken by merchandiser and coordinate with all team members.
  • 119. Page 119 of 172 Shipment: After complete successfully bulk production, shipment process (finishing, pack- ing, cartooning) Q.C is done for proper shipment. Production report: before going to know about production report, we have to know about purchase order sheet. Different buyer gives different type of PO sheet. According to PO sheet production planner do his production plan. Different buyer gives different type of PO sheet. Some buyer mention all measurement, someone give ratio. Production planner arrange shipment plan coordinate with all department according to PO sheet. A production report contain with:  Daily line planning.  Daily input & output repot.  Daily balance report.  Line quantity.  Line balancing.  Shipment date. etc. Pre-production meeting: Pre-production meeting is held before bulk production for smooth production. Re- sponsible person for meeting:  Merchandiser.  Pattern master.  Cutting supervisor.  Printing.  Embroidery.  Sewing.  Work study.  Quality controller.  Finishing.  Store manager  Buying QC.
  • 120. Page 120 of 172 Meeting materials:  Sample.  Trim card.  P0 sheet.  Pre-meeting sheet. Discussing agenda:  Coordination with every department for smooth production.  Clear about all measurement.  Get proper instruction form merchandiser.  Take a decision about critical point by discussion.  If any changes is required, can be done in pp meeting by negotiation with buying qc.  Problem can arise in bulk production if arise any problem in bulk then decision is make by quick discussion.
  • 122. Page 122 of 172 To get quality products it requires good quality control of piece goods. Even the most modern manufacturing methods can’t ensure the quality of the product if the material is defective. Fabric and the end product must meet the expected requirement of the valued customer. It is the responsibility of manufacturers and the fabric suppliers to ensure the quality. Ananta ensures its quality assurance checkpoints are staffed with a Trained workforce, effective measures and in-line procedures:  Stringent quality checks at every process ensuring AQL 2.5  Employs 6-8 QCs and adequate Quality Assurance Manager(s) in each sewing, Cutting and finishing line.  Standalone QI (Quality Inspection) division reporting directly to executive management.  Implements the traffic light system to ensure Quality  Goal: Focus on improving operational performance  Track and improve Internal reject, rework and scrap rates  Reduce buyer return rates  Improve return rates to suppliers
  • 123. Page 123 of 172 In Washing: Sample section: 1. Buyer requirements get from buyer as picture, body or email. 2. That comes from design studio or sewing studio. 3. Experiment on the sample that how much close come to the body in the sample sec- tion can develop. Raw material inspection: Raw material QC inspection PP meeting QC inspection Dry process QC inspection Shade segregation for base wash After base wash have also segregation After PP Individual shade (QC Inspection) Process Control system: In process samples when entering in to machine, perfect chemical mix, in time hydro , and other things are observed. After wash: Get one standard from local buying house. Three types of wash are contains, such as , Light, Medium, Dark. In every style of first lot which problems are identified that’s are informing different department if they faced any kind of problem. Without solving previous lot problem don’t start next wok procedure of lot.
  • 124. Page 124 of 172 Different types of report: Lab testing report:  PH check  A.P.O check( one type of chemical testing )  Color fastness  rubbing Fastness  Ozone fading  Humidity Checking  Tearing test STORE The systems which is we are following in our factory is (as per buyer's requirement given be- low. After the fabric and accessories received; the store manager and the in-charge will pre- cede the next steps. 1. Fabric Inventory: 100% fabric color/ width /construction and yardage Confirmation. 2. Fabric Inspection: ] Fabric inspection team from quality assurance dept. Will do the inspection and pre- pare the reports as per 4 points system. If may inspection will fail will inform to mer- chandising dept. Head and senior factory head. In the mean time 10% to 15% fabric will again do the inspection. As per the report will take decision. 3. Accessories Inspection : QA teams will inspection 10% accessories when store received. If may found any discre- pancy that will inform to manager to take decision. 4. Shade segregation: Will cut the fabric 22 inch end to end, each colors each lot, for blanket making pur- pose.
  • 125. Page 125 of 172 5. Blanket making: As per the record wash standard will wash the blanket shade washing. 6. Shrinkage test: The store will do the fabric shrinkage test. Blanket will make 30×30 or 20×20. As per the report will adjust the pattern and make size set sample, before test cutting. Sewing: Quality Control System in sewing line: Each line must be in processing time being careful always. Quality control for inline in- spection and final inspection. One quality auditor will control full line. The total factory will control by QA Manager with all responsibility. Finishing: 1. Production account departments will issue P.O wise garments to fi- nishing section. The system which we are following in factory is giv- en below:  Input (Color wise)  Thread cutting (Helpers)  Inside QC checking.
  • 126. Page 126 of 172 Here AQL chart is strictly followed. It is one type of measurement table which helping quality section to keep the quality that how much betters it is: Total Quantity Order Sample Quantity Accept Reject 90-150 20 1 2 151-280 32 2 3 281-500 50 3 4 501-1200 80 5 6 1201-3200 125 7 8 3201-10000 200 10 11 10001-35000 315 14 15 35001 to above 500 21 22 Ananta is certified and has been successfully performing Final Inspection for select buyers. It is continuously investing in technology, process and human resources in order ensure Global Quality Standards within in-line processes.
  • 127. Page 127 of 172 CHAPTER– IX MAINTENANCE
  • 128. Page 128 of 172 Maintenance of Machinery: Maintenance of machinery is very essential mechanical effort for achieving smooth running of different machines. Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in such a way that trouble free. Services and increased machine life can be ensured and specific prod- uct quality required by the customers is sustained. On time maintenance increase m/c lifetime & ensures trouble free services. There are two types of maintenance are done.  Break down maintenance  Preventive maintenance But at Ananta followed Breakdown maintenance. Maintenance System used in Ananta: Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance Mechanical Maintenance Electrical Maintenance
  • 129. Page 129 of 172 Some details about Breakdown Maintenance.  Breakdown maintenance: Breakdown maintenance is basically the run it till it breaks maintenance mode. No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment as the designer originally intended to ensure design life is reached.  Low cost and Less Staff.  Increased cost due to unplanned downtime equipment.  It is critical piece of equipment that needs to be back on line quickly, have to pay maintenance overtime cost Name of different maintenance equipments or tools:  Screw driver  Hand socket wrench set  Manual and digital slide calipers  Slide wrench  T-wrench  Pipe wrench  Pliers  Timing gauge  Table vice  Hand vice  Hack saw  Hack saw frame  Hand drill m/c  Stand drill m/c  Hammer  Ball pin hammer  Grinder  Welding m/c  Drill bit  Top bit  Top bit drill  Vanier outside calipers
  • 130. Page 130 of 172  Tester  Multi meter  Shouldering wire  Electronic balance  Digital luck metre  Vibration metre Requirement for good maintenance:  Good supervision & administration of maintenance department.  Operators should be well trained.  Proper maintenance record should be maintained.  Manufacturer of the machine tools should be consulted and when required.
  • 131. Page 131 of 172 CHAPTER– X UTILITY SERVICES
  • 132. Page 132 of 172 UTILITY SERVICES: Boiler house-Self steam. Ananta itself make own boiler house under self production unit. Utility refers to gas, electricity, water treatment plant, and ETP where as maintained by ANANTA team takes all the facilities from govt. alliances. In total view all facilities are approved from compliance/ welfare even ananata is working with foreign buyer who absolutely given approved of all facilities and compliances. Source of Utility: 1. Water- Own supply (Pump) 2. Steam-Own supply (Boiler) 3. Electricity-Generator & PDB 4. Gas- Titas Gas Transmission & Distribution Co. Ltd. 5. Compressed air- Own supply (Air compressor) Remarks: Ananta is using 0-5deg (total) hardness water which is suitable very for dyeing. The under ground water is free from hardness creating metals and eliminates the need for water treat- ment plant. The electricity supply system is very good and fluently. It is fully equipped to produce its necessary power. Its capacity of power generation is increasing with another two generators to be established. The constant pressure of water also eliminates the need for high rise water tank and maintains flow speed in different machines.
  • 133. Page 133 of 172 CHAPTER– XI STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL
  • 134. Page 134 of 172 Inventory System for Raw material: In ANANTA there are different inventory systems for different raw materials. Grey Fabric Store: All the grey fabrics are stored in the fabric store near the batch section. Different types of fabric are listed in the sheet according to fabric types, quantity and consumer's requirement. Dyes and Chemicals: There is a different store for dyes and chemicals. Different types of chemicals are stored here accord- ing to dyes and chemicals companies. Different types of chemicals are listed in a sheet. In the sheet the stored quantity of chemicals are also included. Every day the sheet is updated and a copy of this sheet is supplied to the Production manager. Spares: In ANANTA required amount of spares of different machines are stored in the mechanical store room. All the spares are listed in a sheet which is controlled by the mechanical & maintenance personnel. Spares are arranged in the store room according to their size, quantity & requirements. There are shelves in the store room to keep the small spare parts. Finished Goods: ANANTA supplies finished fabrics are stored for short time in the finishing section. All the delivered fabrics are noted on the tally khata according to the lot no, quantity, fabrics diameter, buyer's name, Color & considering other technical parameters. Remarks: ANANTA has individual stores for raw materials, finished goods etc. the store of chemicals are not so clean. There is no enough space to store the finished goods. It requires increasing the store area.
  • 135. Page 135 of 172 CHAPTER–XII COST ANALYSIS
  • 136. Page 136 of 172 Costing: Costing means total cost of garments. In costing every price is included. Costing of a garment is very necessary and important task. In this factory costing is carried out by the merchandis- ing department. Firstly merchandiser contacts with the buyer and collect the order. Then he is provided a sample section according to the buyers specification. The sample section also sup- plies the fabric consumption. Cost of the fabric is determined according to the consumption. Then he makes the costing of other raw materials, Accessories, trimmings, etc. He adds than all production cost, transport cost, commission(C&F agent) and profit At last total cost of a garment is known as FOB. Costing of a garment: Fabric cost + Accessories cost + Trimming cost + Production cost + Transport cost + Commission + Profit
  • 137. Page 137 of 172 Costing for new born baby girls: Style no: 857664 For trimming Trim Break-up Total cost Inter lining Joker label Care label Main label & size label Basic packing Poly spun thread coats Snaps/eyelet 1 pc per garment Hanger & Sizer Pocketing PX Tkt EAS Hangtag Add tag ON_261 & 261c Elastic back waist 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.20 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.01 0.08 0.01 0.12 Total 1.11
  • 138. Page 138 of 172 For washing: Wash name Cost Enzyme Tint Grinding PP spray Hand sand 0.25 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.20 Total 0.75 Final all cost: Style no: Jas’11/103/857664 Description: NG G denim Pant Fabrication: 100% cotton denim Fabric Width: 61/62 Fabric cut able width: 60” Fabric price with freight: 2.90 Financial charges: 5.00%
  • 139. Page 139 of 172 YY: 0.47 Total Fab PRX: 1.43 CM: 1.50 Trim cost: 1.11 Wash: 0.75 MISC for artwork or lining+ Diaper cost: 0.07 Total FOB: 4.86  All prices are counted in US $.
  • 141. Page 141 of 172 Introduction about garment merchandising: We should understand the term "Garment Merchandising' at first.”Garments" means apparels, or clothing which we need to wear every day, everybody, every time not only in our country, all over the world also. "Merchandising" means buying, producing and selling of any goods or products or services for the local or international market. If we combine this two English term "Garments Merchandising" then the meaning of "garments merchandising" becomes like following definition. All the activities involved in procuring export order of any garment of any particular design for a specific quantity, analysis of the garment requires to produce the garments, production of those quantity of garments with specific attention to required quality level, production scheduling & exporting the garments within fixed time frame, may be called garments mer- chandising. From the said definition of garments merchandising it can be assumed clearly that procuring a garment export order that is export L/C, production of those garments as per buyers satis- faction within limited time is not so easy. The activities involved in garments merchandising is normally done by a dynamic & expert person called garments merchandiser. The person "Garments Merchandiser" is one of the important key people of a garments production & garments export sector. Garments production & export of Bangladesh: Garments are produced in the garments factories on industrial basis for all the people of a specific country. Bangladesh is one of the garments producing & exporting country in the world market. At present, there are about 6200 garments factories running in Bangladesh. Growth of garments factories started in Bangladesh around 1980. Around 1980, garment pro- duction & export business was almost unknown to us. Foreign currency earning through gar- ments export from Bangladesh started in 1980-81 with starting figure US $ 3.24 million which was not countable in percentage of the total national foreign currency earnings. After- wards, tremendous growth of garment factor}', garments productions and garments export , the percentage of foreign currency earnings through garments export reached from 0% to around 80% of the national foreign currency earnings, in 2007-08 financial year.
  • 142. Page 142 of 172 At present Bangladesh is producing & exporting more than 60 items of garments. The most common items are shirt, trouser, Jacket, Sportswear. T-Shirt. Polo shirts. Ladies wear, swea- ter, socks, hats etc. These produced items are exported in USA. Canada, EEC. Japan. Austral- ia Middle-East and many other countries in the world. Bangladesh is one of the important & competitive garments exporting country in the world market. Cheapest labor cost is the big- gest advantage for Bangladeshi garments producers & exporters. To produce & export garments from those 4500 garments factories about 20, 00.000 people is engaged full time basis. For backward linkage around 20,000,000 people is needed & for forward linkage about 20, 00,000 people is need. Hence for year to year continuous garments export around 60, 00,000 people is needed. 90% of this huge work force is illiterate & re- maining 10% may be counted for literate. It is a very big challenge for Bangladesh to survive as garment exporter in the world market with that type of man power. But it still remains true that the growth of Bangladesh garments sector is satisfactory, Role of a garments merchandiser: The main role of a garments merchandiser is to collect garments export order (Export L/C), Produce the garments, export the garments and earn profit. To perform those functions suc- cessfully needs lot of knowledge, experience & tremendous effort for a merchandiser. What type of knowledge & experience needed for a garment merchandiser can be understood from the next topic. Duties & responsibilities of a garment merchandiser: The major duties & responsibilities of a garment merchandiser are listed below: 1. Get contract sheet or product package and other requirements which buyer needs that confirmed through email. 2. Then do the consumption of all fabric and accessories with the help of given product package or specification sheet. 3. When all accessories and fabrics and whatever need than complete the costing of garment. 4. Prepare T&A calendar. 5. Cost approval for all accessories, knitting, dyeing, printing, finishing from authority. 6. Master L/C from buyer.
  • 143. Page 143 of 172 7. Arrange to open back to back L/C for all suppliers. 8. Color standard to prepare lab-dip. 9. Then lab-dip submitted for approval. 10. Receive size and color breakdown for the confirmed order to procure all fabric and accessories. 11. Develop and obtain approval for all accessories. 12. Ensure received fabric as per quantity, quality, and color. 13. Ensure preparation and submission of all samples to specified destinations. 14. Ensure of all lab test as per schedule date and time. 15. Ensure PP meeting on time. 16. Ensure all inspection.(In line, bulk, lot, pre-final) 17. Keep in touch in local buying office, buying house abroad. 18. Keep update schedule. 19. Do constant monitoring 20. At last ensure relization of payment of shipped garments, constant monitoring for garments in production. Develop all fabric, accessories, printing, and embroidery for confirmed order. 21. Do costing for new orders and source buyers for future order. WORKING WITH THE BUYER:
  • 144. Page 144 of 172 Fig: A part of Merchandising section of Ananta Knowledge & skillness requirement for a garments merchandiser: As mentioned in 1.04 about the duties and responsibilities of a garment merchandiser, it is clear that, to perform successfully those duties & responsibilities, sufficient related know- ledge & skillness of a merchandiser is most necessary. To acquire knowledge & skillness. Institutional support is essential. However a brief guide about the knowledge & skillness re- quirement of a garments merchandiser is pointed out below.  Should be a smart person with fluent speaking, reading & writing ability in Eng- lish language.  Should be a technically sound person having clear conception about textile fibre, yarn, fabric, dyeing, printing, finishing, garments manufacturing, garment wash- ing, garments dyeing. Textile testing. Textile product & Raw materials inspection and quality control.  Should have clear knowledge about procurement/ collection of an export order.
  • 145. Page 145 of 172  Should have the ability to plan & execute time schedule.  Should have the ability to make liaison with buyer & production people.  Should have clear knowledge about garments shipment formalities.  Should have clear knowledge about banking & commercial formalities.  Should have clear knowledge about sourcing of raw materials.  Should have clear knowledge about garment costing & raw materials consump- tion calculation.  Should have self motivated hard working ability.  Should be able to maintain commitment. Procurement of garments exports order: The most critical work is the procurement of garment export order. Normally garments ex- port order is found from the potential garment importers called garment buyer. Anybody wants to collect garments export order, should be able to convince the buyer. When the buy- er is convinced about garment production, garments quality, garments costing and garment delivery/shipment ability of a garments exporter, he or she can think about issuing a gar- ments export order. To convince the buyer it is better if you can visit his/her office in abroad with your produced some sample garments & company profile. Even it will be more helpful, if you can invite & arrange the visit of your prospective buyer to your office, factory to see production facility, product quality, so that the buyer gets confidence about your garments export ability. Without clear confidence among buyer & exporter from both sides, may be a risky business deal. If a garment exporter can continuously deal with only two or three buyer with buyers satisfaction, it will be sufficient enough to run garment production & garment export busi- ness smoothly round the year.
  • 146. Page 146 of 172 Consumption for fabric and trims booking: Bulk Fabric  After getting order Technical section send YY by making marker.  Then a merchandiser finds out from YY how much fabric will need per piece.  Then by using calculator measure the bulk fabric requirement. Suppose garments Quantity = 4000 pcs. YY = 0.55 yd Bulk fabric Requirement = 4000×0.55 = 2200 yds 2200 yds × 6%+ = 2332 yds Let, 2400 yds fabric will be booked. Extra amount of fabric will be remaining for safety of any accidental purpose. Zipper Different types of zipper will be used for different sizes such as 2˝, 2.5˝, 2.75˝, 3.0˝. For size 2˝ (For pant, short pant, Bermuda, Capri) For skirt = Infant(2.5˝){6-12,12-18,18-24months} Toddler(2.75˝){2T-5T} Zipper Requirement = Garments quantity ×6%+ =Ans. 4000pcs×6%+ = 4240 pcs So, let zipper will be booked approximately 4300 pcs. Button(Plastic Button) Garments quantity×80%×2 = ÷144 × 10%+ = Ans. Consumption of elastic Garments Quantity×80%×0.56×7%+ = Ans Consumption of Hanger And Sizer Hanger needs for Brand-e + Canada-e. No hanger is remaining in online. Garments Quantity (Brand-e+Canada-e) × 2%+ = Ans. There is different sizer for Brand-e And Canada-e. Consumption Of Joker Label Garments Quantity×10%+ = Ans.
  • 147. Page 147 of 172 Consumption of Main Label and Care Label Garments quantity ×6%+ =Ans. Consumption of Diaper Fabric Diaper fabric is need from 6-12 to 2T. Garments quantity ×50%×0.25+ =Ans. Consumption of Snap and Shank button Quantity of snaps in a garment×6%+ = ÷144 = Ans. Sampling for GAP before and after order confirmation: Before order confirmation: 1. LA sample ( Line adoption ): Need to send for buyers approval to place final or- der. Need to follow 1St BOM for fabrics and trims details. 2. Proto/LA fit sample: This samples made with 1st GSS for construction approval/ comments. After order confirmation: 1. JSS sample ( jump size set ): Size: 18-24 & 4T Quantity: 4 pcs/size JSS samples need to send for construction approval incorporating LA fit comments and GSS. 2. RE-sample: This samples send to wash, trims and thread approval. Actual trims can be used but it must have to be mentioned in sending mail to buyer. Size: 18-24 Quantity: 5 pcs/color 3. AD sample (Advertisement): This samples send as per buyer advised sizes and destina- tions.
  • 148. Page 148 of 172 Size: 6-12 12-18 18-24 2T Quantity: 1 pc/color 1 pc/color 6 pcs/color 4 pcs/color 4. Technical top or Reference JSS sample: These samples send if buyer requires. Once GSS is final buyer can ask for reference samples. Otherwise they can advise to go ahead for PP and sealer samples. 5. PP/ green tag samples: These samples send for all fabrics, wash and trim approval with all actual trims. If we fail to send PP and sealer samples with actual trims, we need to inform this to buyer before sending. Size: 18-24 & 4T Quantity: 5 pcs/color Buyer will tag a green tag once this is approved. Pilot run cannot be conducted without green tag samples. 6. Sealer sample: These samples send to buyer for construction approval once GSS is fi- nal. Buyer will tag a yellow tag once this is approved. Size: 18-24 & 4T Quantity: 3 pcs of any one of the style 7. GPT sample(Garment package test): These samples send to gap approved Labs for testing. Shipment can’t be released without GPT approval. Size: 18-24 Quantity: 6 pcs/color 8. Top samples: Top samples represents how bulk shipment will be shipped. Need to send samples with all actual trims and actual pack factors. We can’t use a single available item in top samples. Size: 18-24 & 4T Quantity: 5 pcs/color
  • 149. Page 149 of 172 Execution of garments exports order: After receiving the garment export order, without wasting any time, it is essential to prepare a time schedule for the jobs to be done for safe execution of the export order. The main jobs for the execution of an export order are as follows.  Detail analysis of export L/C.  Preparation of a time schedule for the export L/C.  Collection/Procurement of fabric & accessories for the garment to be ex- ported. [Source, quantity of items, cost of the items, receiving date of the items, quality and quantity, inspection of the items, etc.]  Distribution of responsibilities for the jobs & duties.  Production plan.  Inspection of the produced garments for quality, quantity, packing & other requirements of the buyer.  Preparation of banking & shipment formalities.  Continuous follow-up of progress.  Others. Normally one person, called garments merchandiser is engaged & given responsi- bility for a particular garment export order (L/C). A garment merchandiser should monitor all the jobs related to execution of an export order. He/she should also maintain continuous liaison with the garment exporter & garment importer to in- form continuous progress of the garment export order. Progress of garment production quantity with required quality level within sche- duled time is the most important & critical job of the garments merchandiser. Hence, thorough knowledge is essential for a garment merchandiser for successful execution of the export order. With the change of time, now a days, garments quality became very important. To maintain the produced garments with required quality level, it is essential to start from fibre, yarn, fabric, dyeing, printing, finishing, garment production, gar-
  • 150. Page 150 of 172 ments inspection & quality control, testing, garment washing/dyeing, garments finish- ing, packing etc. technical affairs. A brief discussion on those technical areas is dis- cussed systematically. To understand the discussion of the subsequent chapters, theoret- ical & practical cooperation of others may be helpful for easy understanding. You can help our-self for easy understanding if you go through the book systematically. L/C (Letter of credit): Letters of Credit (L/C) is in general a conditional document extended by the bank in connection with presentation of export value, L/C plays a very dominant role in this matter, on receipt of this document from the buyer, the exporters become sure that they would obtain foreign currency after the peaceful shipment of the Consignment directed by the buyer in the L/C. And for monetary transactions in this connection the negotiat- ing banks stand as a symbol of surety for the exporters. Negotiating bank act on behalf of the exporter and is held liable or responsible for realization of exporter's money from the L/C opening bank. A credit may be advised to a beneficiary through another bank (the advising bank) without engagement on the part of the advising bank, but that bank shall take reasona- ble care to check the apparent authenticity of the credit which it advises. Which type of L/C has been used?  Back to back L/C Firstly open who got the order. 75% of L/C used for raw materials to start producing product. Negotiation Skills: One of the most important skills a buyer and a saler must muster is the ability to nego- tiate. As most high street fashion selling prices are very competitive, the greatest scope for improving profit in a product is the reduction of cost price. There are many factors that in-
  • 151. Page 151 of 172 fluence the final cost price of a product including fabric, garment construction, order vo- lume, lead-time, and delivery terms these particular issues are discussed in more detail throughout the book. Negotiation is a process of communication and exchange through which the interested parties make a series of demands and compromises: it involves the trading of benefits be- tween parties. The basic principle is to trade what is of low value to you but of greater value to the other party, thereby reducing the cost of success to you. However the aim of a negoti- ation should be to ensure that both parties are happy with the final outcome or agreement, otherwise one or the other will not continue to participate. The old scenario of the retailer always winning and supplier always losing results in both parties effectively losing. Traditionally, the dominant fashion retail groups have seen the availability of large numbers of supplies as a means of trading one off against another to achieve a cheaper cost price. Consequently many of the suppliers who lost out ceased to do business with those retailers again Short-term cost-price gains resulted in short-term rela- tionships with many suppliers, with the end result being a large, unwieldy and diverse sup- plier base operating as efficiently as it should. By the same token an inexperienced buyer can be vulnerable to a supplier wanting to secure an unreasonable cost price, resulting in the fashion retailer delisting them in the fu- ture for being uncompetitive. As such it is no better for the supplier to be in a situation where they are winning and the retailer is losing. The common wisdom about negotiation is that both sides should aim to work together to achieve a mutually acceptable result, w hich is usually referred to as a win-win situation. The Process of Negotiation: A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of nego- tiation, various parties and the way they communicate at various stages in the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation.
  • 152. Page 152 of 172 Researching the needs of both parties: The greater the knowledge a buyer has of their own and the supplier's requirements, the better able they are to construct an acceptable solution. The buyer must be clear about both the department mark-up to be placed on the product cost price and the intended retail selling price so that she or he can judge the viability of the supplier's products. She or he should al- so have sufficient product construction knowledge to understand how changes can be made to achieve better value in the product. Frequently the supplier will make suggestions to try to bring the cost price closer to the buyer's target. However an experienced buyer can speed up the process by making sugges- tions which will be acceptable to her. Lead-time is another lever for negotiation with differ- ing operational issues for both parties. If the buyer starts the sourcing process early enough she may have enough time in hand to use extended lead-time as a bargaining tool. The process of researching needs does not stop once the negotiation is underway as the body language and facial expression of both parties will signal their reactions of the ongo- ing discussion. Successful buyers will listen to and watch suppliers carefully, making judg- ments about how to trade benefits with them. In addition to listening and observation skills, buyers need to be able to use questions effectively. Open questions require a respondent to elaborate, which may provide the buyer will valuable knowledge on how to proceed when meeting a supplier. Closed questions can be used to generate specific responses. Preparation: Effective preparation is also vital to successful communication. The particular preparation required will vary according to the nature of meeting, but some factors are always important. Meetings should begin on time and follow a clear agenda with a realistic amount of time to accommodate the work. Where there is an existing relationship with a supplier, 'a file con- taining the relevant notes and documentation relating to the order's should be read prior to the meeting and taken in for reference. Supplier meeting are usually held in uncluttered or empty rooms or offices to avoid any distraction from the business of the meeting. It is also
  • 153. Page 153 of 172 usual for there to be two people from buying in the meeting so that buyer can have an objec- tive view point available while personally involved in the negotiation. It is essential that the buyer also has identified the maximum and minimum positions that she will accept for a range of factors including.  Product Price  Order Size  Lead-time Offer: Having identified where the respective positions lie between them. The buyer and supplier can make specific proposals to set the boundaries of the negotiation. It is unlikely that many of the offers initially made will end up being accepted, so both parties allow for some man oeuvre. This is the opportunity for the buyer to being trading what is of relatively low value for her but of more value to the supplier. Discussion: The likely framework of a final settlement will emerge in the discussion as each side probes the other and makes suggestions. Answers to suggestions can be revealing, with choice of words and tone signaling interest of reluctance and should be noted as potential bargaining material. There will be areas on which one side can move than more than the other and vice versa it is important for the buyer to make a note of w which ones provide the greatest and least opportunities for flexibility, for the trade off later on in the negotiation. Counter and revised offers: This is the real bargaining where elements of the order, such as numbers of units, product details, lead-time and so on, are being decided in the context of an overall cost price. The buyer should make firm proposals and be cautious of offering concessions un- less she is getting one in return. The final element that will pull all of the other variables together will be the cost price, which is agreed at the end. Although the bargaining may
  • 154. Page 154 of 172 be tough, the spirit of the communication should be remaining friendly and not adver- sarial. Parities are more likely to cooperate if they are being treated fairly and reasona- bly. Agree and commitment: Once the parties have agreed an order, they have to communicate the details to other functions. The supplier may need to book production space, order fabric/trimmings and source labels/tickets. The buyer will need to inform the merchandiser of the retail selling value of the order so that a track can be kept on spending. Summaries: It is vital to summaries at key stages throughout the negotiation when significant points are agreed, to avoid losing early gains as to ensure that both parties understand each oth- er. With-so many potential variables included in the negotiation, small but significant points can be easily forgotten unless there is a record of agreement throughout. Records will also provide both sides with an explanation of how the deal was constructed should a particular variable become contentious at a later date.
  • 155. Page 155 of 172 CHAPTER–XIV ISO
  • 156. Page 156 of 172 ANANTA has ISO 9000:2000 certifications. This certification indicates that ANANTA contains a good reputation with the quality. Maintaining these standard parameters is focusing also standard qualification which is followed by the company. ISO: ISO means International Organization for Standardization.  ISO is a worldwide federation of national bodies (ISO member bodies).  The work of preparing International standards is normally carried out through ISO tech- nical committees.  ISO work together closely with the International Electro technical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electro technical standardization. History of ISO: Formed in 1947 as outcomes of World war-II. Situated in Geneva at Switzerland. Purpose of ISO:  Harmonization of standards.  To facilitate the world trade and transfer of technology. Structure of ISO: ISO ITALY USA UK CANADA JAPAN FRANCE GERMAN AUSTRALIA
  • 157. Page 157 of 172 Development of ISO 9000 Series: Formation Of technical Committee-176 in 1980 Last version came up in 2008 as ISO 9001:2008 Research & accumulation of NATO, BS-5751 & other relevant standards Initial launch of ISO 9000 series in 1987 Standard upgraded in 1994 as ISO 9002:1994 Further Up gradation done during 2000 as ISO 9001:2000
  • 158. Page 158 of 172 ISO 9000:2008 family standards: ISO 9001:2008: Quality Management Systems Requirements (QMS). ISO/TR 10013:2001: Guidelines for quality management system documentation. ISO 10002:2004: Guidelines for complaints handling in organizations. ISO 9004:2005: QMS- Guidelines for Performance Improvement. ISO 9000:2005: QMS- Foundation & Vocabulary. ISO 19011:2002: Guide for Auditing Management Systems. Deming Cycle/ P-D-C-A Cycle: P-D-C-A Plan DO ACT CHECK
  • 159. Page 159 of 172 Process approach P-D-C-A: The methodology known as ‘‘PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT’’ can be applied to all process. PDCA can be briefly described as follows. PLAN: Establish the object and process necessary to deliver results in accordance with customer re- quirements and to organizations policies. DO: Implement the processes. CHECK: Monitor and measure processes and product against policies, objectives and requirement for the product and report the results. ACT: Take actions to continually improve process performance. Quality management Principles: Eight management principles have been identified to facilitate the achievement of quality ob- jectives. 1. Customer Focused. 2. Leadership. 3. Involvement of People. 4. Process Approach. 5. System Approach of Management. 6. Continual Improvement. 7. Factual Approach to Decision Making. 8. Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships.
  • 160. Page 160 of 172 1. Customer Focused: Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and should strive to exceed customer expectations. 2. Leadership: Leaders establish unity of purpose, direction and the internal environment of the organi- zation. They create the environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organizations objectives. 3. Involvement of people: People at all levels are the essence of an organization and their full involvement their abilities to be used for the organization maximum benefit. 4. Process approach: A desired result is achieved more efficiently when related resources and activities are managed as a process. 5. System approach of management: Identifying, understanding and managing a system of interrelated processes for a given objec- tive contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. 6. Continual Improvement: A permanent objective of the organization is continual improvement. 7. Factual approach to decision making: Effective decisions are based on the logical or intuitive analysis of data and information. 8. Mutually beneficial supplier: The ability of organization and its supplier to create value is enhanced by mutually beneficial relationships.
  • 161. Page 161 of 172 Benefits:  Define authority, responsibility, interfaces  Ensures activities meet specified requirements 'Promotes reputation in the market place through’ customer satisfaction.  Ensures that all non-compliance - errors -deficiencies - complaints and quality prob- lems are immediately identified, controlled and dealt with through feedback loops.  Motivates staff f towards pride in carrying out job.  Provides product performance data through feedback analyst.  Controls all activity/ product changes.  Identifies and controls training need.  Provides historical records to confirm levels of system effectiveness and assist with product liability claims.  Make continuous improvement visible.  Ensure better and effective control of processes.  Ensure Team Work Environment in the Organization.  Less disruption in the process and ensure minimum scrap & rework.
  • 163. Page 163 of 172 Purpose of the Policy As an organization expands, it develops norms, rules, regulations, and practices which be- come the way of life for everyone within the organization. As the organization continues its way to expansion, these norms and procedures that are typically followed, need to be written down in the form of a policy manual so that everyone across the organization knows what they are expected to do, and how they are expected to act or react under various situations. It is with this main broad objective that, this policy manual has been prepared. In addition, this manual has been prepared so that there is consistency in the way that the management and employees respond to similar situations arising at different times and so that those who join new into the company can also learn all these norms and general practices at a time. This is also to help existing employees to refresh their memory about how to respond to a situation in case, they have any confusion arising in their minds. Furthermore, this policy is intended to help reduce time and stress involved on the manage- ment end, in thinking on ways to solve a problem, whenever it arises, by providing pre- formulated solutions to most typically arising contingencies. This is also intended to increase fairness in treatment of all employees, or employees holding similar designations and to re- duce the opportunity for any particular employee receiving undue advantages or benefits. This policy is also intended to be a book that spells out the rights and privileges and also the limitations that all employees have to be governed under as employees of ANANTA GROUP. Thus, this can also be used as an instrument of defense by the employees, to protect themselves, from unnecessary harsh action from the management end; as well on any occa- sion and to protect themselves from being deprived in an unfair manner of any right or privi- lege that they may be entitled to. The spirit of a policy is that, it will be abided by even the top most echelons of the organiza- tion, including the Chairman, and that all decisions of the company will be based on these, so that the organization becomes a process and system dependant one, instead of being one which depends on the whims and moods of anyone or some persons. This also helps to pre- serve consistency over extended periods of time. It needs to be said however, that exceptions to policies can be made, but there also, records have to be maintained on what grounds the exception had been made. Also if the policies are
  • 164. Page 164 of 172 modified, which can happen to respond to changing needs of the organization, there has to be proper cataloguing of why the modification was required and examples have to be cited to ensure validity of the need for the modification. Employment policy: This policy is applicable for all the employees of ANANTA GROUP. Most sections also ap- ply to the management and board of directors except where it is mentioned otherwise. ANANTA GROUP will not make any discrimination in employment in favor or against a candidate based on race, district of origin, gender, religion or any personal prejudice of HOD. There will be no discrimination made in salary allocation based on any of the criteria men- tioned above. However some jobs may require a candidate of a certain gender and only in such cases can there be a preference made in choosing the candidate based on the gender cri- teria. Anti-Forced labor policy: To maintain a pleasant and harmonious working environment. All staff and employee will be required to provide a notice period before they leave, so that the company is able to find a replacement or prepare for that situation. If the company compels someone wanting to leave the company’s service, to serve out this notice period as specified above, and which the em- ployee has agreed to by signing the appointment letter, then such compulsive measures can- not be called “forced labor”. The company can ask the employee to sign a bond to ensure ser- vice for a certain length of time only if the company provides any special training to the em- ployee at some training institute or where the training was imparted by any external party where additional cost was incurred. The company cannot force its employees to forgo any government holiday that the company has declared as being ones that it will allow, in the an- nual calendar. If any employee is made to work on any such day, then if he/she is a staff, he/she would have to be paid a day’s basic salary for each day of declared government holi- day forsaken. The company cannot force the employees to work on the weekends unless it is as a compensation for a day that the company had been forced to remain closed, such as, for a political disturbance. The company cannot force its employees to not take the leaves that they
  • 165. Page 165 of 172 are entitled to ( as elaborated in Leave Policy Section). They can ask the employee to not take the leave and to receive a financial benefit equivalent to that day’s basic salary instead. Zero discrimination and Harassment policy: To practice fair and harassment free working environment in the work place. Company will not consider race, religion, color, marital and maternal status during the recruitment process and will abide government rules and regulations. Authority will strictly deal with any kind of sexual harassment related issues from superiors toward the subordinates The term harassment will include –  Unpleasant sign and gestures toward the person of opposite sex  Taking any sort of unfair advantage, in exchange of recruitment or other organiza- tional benefits  Any sort of coarse and odd addressing toward the person of opposite gender No one should physically abuse someone or force someone to do any specific work and also should not allow others to undertake such activity. Intern or trainee policy: To lay down the hiring norms, procedures and appointment conditions for interns/ trainees. To enable students of Management Schools to get practical exposure in the work environ- ment. The organization gets an opportunity to build a rapport with its academic counterparts and establish a mutually beneficial relationship with Business or Technical schools.  The company will recruit select numbers of interns/ trainees and offer them assignments according to their specialization and availability of projects.  The duration of the internship/training will range from three to six months depending on the extent of the project.
  • 166. Page 166 of 172  The company will offer a consolidated stipend per month to the internee/ trainees to meet their incidental expenses in the city, which will be lesser than the regular pay given to an of- ficer, unless the trainee is from a foreign country.  The project report prepared by the trainee intern shall only be used for academic purposes and in no circumstances report should be accessible to any other institute, if the trainee is re- quired to make such a report. The report that the trainee submits to his/her institute will first have to be verified by the reporting supervisor for accuracy and also to ensure that no such information is revealed which could be of strategic sensitivity to the company. After the veri- fication, the trainee will have to submit a copy of his/her final report to HR Department, in addition to his/her institution.  On completion of the Summer Project the trainee will have to make a presentation to a selected top management group who may also decide the trainee’s candidature for final placement/ employment in the 0rganization.  While on training or internship, the same policies will apply for all trainees as do to all regular employees with regards to leave, punctuality, discipline etc.  They will not be entitled to any retirement benefits.  For exceptional performance, on completion of internship, the person can be eligible for regular employment and his/her introductory period will be waived if he /she get selected by the company.  For trainees on training, there will be a 2 week notice period either way, in case they want to leave the company or if the company wants to discontinue his/her service.  If it is not possible to offer employment ,he/she may be compensated with a financial reward, if the trainee was otherwise capable of being hired, but could not be simply for lack of job-opening.  A trainee will be entitled to receive bonus equivalent to his/her monthly take home salary if his/her traineeship period coincides with any of the 2 festivals.
  • 167. Page 167 of 172 Child Labor policy: To ensure not to recruit any employees less than 18 years old and treating them fairly in case of hiring them  ANANTA GROUP will not recruit any worker under age of 18 years.  In case if required to recruit adolescent workers i.e. under 18 years and above 14 years of age, will follow following procedure: - Working hour should not be more than 5 hours a day. - Will not work between the hours of 7 pm & 7 am - Will require certificate of fitness from civil surgeon. - Will require written consent from parents. - Separate register should be maintained or the child labors and they should be marked with token - Will carry a token - Will not work in any machines that are in motion. - Will get one day leave for every fifteen working days  By mistakenly, if any child labor, who is under 14 years of age, will be recruited, company will immediately discontinue his/her service and will arrange and bear the cost of education for him/her. Company also will guarantee that, on completion of education and becoming eligible to work (at the age of 18 years), he/she will be of- fered a job opportunity here.
  • 168. Page 168 of 172 Health, safety, hygienic at work: The Company shall ensure as far as practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all its employees and conduct its business in such a manner as not to expose persons to any risks that may affect their health and safety. The Company regards its health and safety responsi- bilities as equal to any other and therefore, will expect the cooperation of all employees. .  Adequate facilities and arrangements for the welfare of employees at work;  Handling of heavy and / or special equipment by authorized personnel only.  Cleaning of water tanks on a quarterly basis.  Painting of walls and stairwell area once a year, including of scrubbing and polishing of floor on a yearly basis.  All support staff will be evaluated for checking on how well they maintain these stan- dards.  First Aid boxes are kept at various places to meet any emergency.  Fire extinguishers have to be positioned at easily accessible points in every Department, and there has to be smoke alarms on each floor. Extinguishers have to be replenished every 6 months.  Ensuring performance of fire drill twice a year Installation and maintenance of high power water hose pipe Each level of management shall, so far as is reasonably practicable, provide and main- tain.  Company equipment and systems of work that are safe & without risks to health.  Adequate arrangements for ensuring the absence of risk to health in the handling, storage and transport of articles and substances.  Sufficient information, instructions, training and supervision to ensure all employees avoid hazards and contribute positively to their health and safety at work.  A safe place of work without risk to health and means of access that are safe and without risks.  A working environment that is safe and without risks to health which includes the fact that the management will ensure daily swiping of floors and vacuum cleaning of carpets, monthly pest control, and regular change of water filters, insertion of filtration.
  • 169. Page 169 of 172 Environment Policy: The objective of this policy is to make the employees of ANANTA GROUP concerned about their workings and its effects on the environment. Pure drinking water: This policy is to make sure that all the employees get pure drinking water in the workplace  Everyone should take pure drinking water, which would be supplied at all the floors  Floor workers should drink water from the provided filtered water line, not from the line provided for general purpose usage  Employees should not waste the filtered water and use for other purposes rather than drinking  Drinking water should be tested by authorized agencies (i.e. BUET) Waste materials: The objective of this policy is to make sure that, all the wastes and surroundings of the facto- ry are properly been taken care of  One spittoon should be provided at every floor for dumping garbage, phlegm or spit.  Sufficient number of garbage baskets should be provided at each floor.  One cleaner should be there for each line and section for cleaning garbage and dis- carded materials.  Every over lock machines should be provided with one basket to collect machine dirt.  At every floor there should be one sweeper to clean the toilets.  Sufficient number of cleaner should be assigned for cleaning the cutting, finishing and dining areas.  One trolley should be provided beside of every cutting table for collecting the cut pieces.
  • 170. Page 170 of 172  All the electrical channels, switch boards should be cleaned everyday by blower ma- chine.  Music should be played every day on a specific time to clean the machines.  Boilers, electrical switch boards, dark room should be cleaned at the end of each week ad should be recorded in the checklist.  The surroundings of the factory buildings should be cleaned after every 4. Wastage disposal: To ensure proper disposal of the wastages  Impure water, used for various purposes should be disposed to the sanitation tank by sanitary pipes and later those should be disposed to the city corporation’s disposal line. This pipes and tanks should be washed yearly.  Dust/ food wastages/ wasted fabrics/ wasted papers/ garbage produced from daily op- eration should be disposed regularly in the dustbins, which are provided at the floors.  Fabric wastages and rejected cut-pieces, which are produced due to daily operation, should be kept in a designated area from where those will be sold to the local agents.  Any sort of wastages like; empty drum/ containers/ bottles/ plastics should be kept in a specific area to be recycled or sold.  Broken wooden boxes/ table and chairs/ furniture should be sent for repairing at the first place. Those which can’t be repaired should be stored in a designated area for re- cycling by the manufacturers or to sell to the local agents.  Cartons/ buttons/ hangers/ poly bags/ zippers and similar types of accessories which are left out after usage, should be disposed in 3 ways – a) Repeat order b) Stock order c) New order Some of these accessories can be used for preparing samples.
  • 171. Page 171 of 172 Conclusion: Ananta has now established in the world as a manufacturer of reputed fabric and capable of producing value added products and executing difficult orders at very short lead time. The planning, organizing, controlling, designing, creativity, the technical skill and above all the quality conscious have cemented the base of this leading textile industry. With highly ad- vanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, its seems to be clear that Ananta group of textile has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation's growing readymade, garments export sector and makes a example for others. Industrial training is an important and essential part of education as through this training we learn all the implementations of the processes which we have studied theoretically. It gives us an opportunity to compare the theoretical knowledge with practical facts and thus develop our knowledge and skills. This industrial training also gives us an opportunity to enlarge our knowledge of textile administration, production planning, procurement system, production process, and machineries and teach us to adjust with the industrial life. We have found ourselves fortunate to have our industrial training at ANANTA. It has a huge production capacity with a very efficient production team. ANANTA has very good, well equipped and modern Machineries and producing a wide range Product. During our training period we have noticed that ANANTA is very concern about their quality and they rarely have any quality complain. The management of ANANTA is very organized, pre-active and co-operative. At the end of the day we realized that industrial training make our knowledge’s application practically and make us confident to face any problem of our job sector.