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  • 1. $9.95 WEED SEEDLING IDENTIFICATION RESPECT THE LAND A GUIDE TO RECOGNIZING BROADLEAF AND GRASS WEEDS FOR EARLY CONTROL
  • 2. INDEX Pigweed, Redroot 18 Prickly Sida (Tea Weed) 26 Page(s) Puncture Vine 21 Purslane, Common 25 Broadleaf Weed Characteristics 4-5 Ragweed, Common 23 Broadleaf Weed Seedling Ragweed, Giant 23 Identification Key 6-9 Russian Thistle 21 Grass Weed Characteristics 10-13 Sicklepod 27 Grass Weed Seedling Shepherd’s Purse 30 Identification Key 14-17 Smartweed, Pennsylvania 19 Broadleaf Weed Colored Photos 18-31 Spurred Anoda 27 Sunflower, Common 23 Grass Weed Colored Photos 32-38 Tansymustard 31 Velvetleaf (Buttonweed) 26 BROADLEAF COLORED PHOTOS: Venice Mallow (Flower of-an-hour) 26 PAGE Waterhemp, Tall or Common 18 Bindweed, Field (Creeping Jenny) 29 Wild Mustard 29 Bindweed, Hedge 29 Wild buckwheat 19 Blue Mustard 31 Buffalo Bur 21 GRASS AND SEDGE Bur Cucumber 24 COLORED PHOTOS: Bushy Wallflower (Treacle Mustard) 31 Barnyardgrass 32 Canada Thistle 25 Brome, Downy or Japanese 33 Chickweed, Common 22 Bromegrass, Smooth 34 Cocklebur, Common 20 Cheat 33 Copperleaf, Hophornbean 27 Crabgrass, Large and Smooth 32 Devilsclaw (Unicorn plant) 24 Fall Panicum 37 Flixweed 31 Foxtail, Yellow 36 Groundcherry, Smooth 22 Foxtail, Giant 36 Hemp Sesbania 25 Foxtail, Green 36 Henbit 27 Johnsongrass 35 Horseweed (Marestail) 30 Jointed Goatgrass 33 Jimsonweed 19 Orchardgrass 34 Kochia 20 Quackgrass 34 Lambsquarters, Common 20 Sandbur, Longspine or Field 37 Marijuana (Wild Hemp) 24 Shattercane 35 Morningglory, Tall 28 Wild Proso Millet 38 Morningglory, Ivyleaf 28 Wild Oats 35 Morningglory, Pitted 28 Witchgrass 38 Musk Thistle 25 Woolly Cupgrass 37 Nightshade, Eastern Black 22 Yellow Nutsedge 32 Nightshade, Hairy 22 Credit is given for many of the weed pictures for this brochure Pennycress, Field 30 to Kansas State University, the University of Illinois, Iowa State University, Nebraska State Department of Agriculture, American Palmer Amarath 18 Cyanamid, BASF, Dr. Jim Nelson and Arlyn Evans. 2 3
  • 3. Cotyledon and Leaf Shapes Broadleaf Weed Characteristics Since shape can sometimes vary, the The leaves of broadleaf weeds are wider than approximate length to width ratio is grasses and have branching, net-like veins. also given to assist identification. The seed of broadleaf plants has two halves or cotyledons, which separate on germination. The 3:1 or cotyledons emerge with the seedling, expand and more become the first visible leaves. 2:3:1 2:1 Linear Lanceolate Oval Spatulate Ovate The true leaves develop above the seed leaves. 1:1 The shapes of cotyledons and first true leaves are important in weed identification. Round Round with Tapered Tip Kidney Butterfly Cotyledon size provides additional clues. Large Cotyledon Size cotyledons indicate large-seeded weeds such as cocklebur, jimsonweed, morningglory and giant ragweed. Small cotyledons are typical of weeds In this key, small cotyledons are gener- such as pigweed, lambsquarters, nightshade, ally less than 1/2” long; large cotyledons kochia and many others. are more than 1” long. Relative Position of True Leaves The next important plant characteristic is the relative position of the first true leaves on the stem. Opposite Leaves* Alternate Leaves. • One leaf per node. • Paired leaves of similar Leaf petioles and stem nodes in the buckwheat • Newest leaf is smaller size attached to opposite than preceding leaf. plant family are encircled by a membranous sides of the same node. papery sheath called an ocrea or stipule. Weeds in *Note: On some weeds, all true leaves are opposite, this family include smartweeds, wild buckwheat, but on many weeds the later leaves are alternate. knotweeds and docks. 4 5
  • 4. Cotyledon Shape LINEAR (Sides nearly parallel) Length-width or ratio at least 3:1 LANCEOLATE (Narrow at tip and base) Are the first true leaves OPPOSITE but ALTERNATE alternate or opposite? later leaves alternate Ocrea present? NO YES Large cotyledons – thick and waxy. YES NO Large cotyledons Hypocotyl reddish with prominent, violet tinged. NO recessed midvein? Lanceolate cotyledons. Small linear cotyledons. Older true leaves with Nick in tip of three prominent veins. first true leaves. Older stems develop YES Stem reddish violet purple spots. Pigweed species Smooth stems Hair on stems Smooth True leaves and stems hairy? glossy leaves, and bud area. glossy leaves, Rough leaves, oval to ovate. Oblong to Oval to ovate lanceolate Long petiloes. YES NO COMMON COCKLEBUR True leaves heart shaped? First true REDROOT or COMMON PALMER True leaves leaves ovate, OR TALL SMOOTH AMARANTH are linear, True leaves red-violet PIGWEED WATERHEMP without petioles. long and below. (See other Pigweed species below) Unpleasant odor YES NO Red-violet below; very thin Frosty or when bruised. frosty or mealy (needle-like) mealy above Later leaves above. coarsely toothed. PENNSYLVANIA WILD KOCHIA COMMON RUSSIAN SMARTWEED BUCKWHEAT JIMSONWEED LAMBQUARTERS THISTLE Other weeds with linear-lanceolate Other weeds with an ocrea – Other weeds with linear- cotyledons and first true leaves Alternate: membranous, papery sheath lanceolate cotyledons and Buffalo Bur Cutleaf Nightshade encircling nodes and petioles: first true leaves opposite: Pigweed species with Pigweed species without Swamp Smartweed Puncturevine (may fine hairs on stem: fine hair on stems: Docks appear alternate) Powell Amaranth Prostrate, Spiney and Knotweeds Tumble Pigweeds Red Sorrel 7 6
  • 5. Cotyledon Shape Cotyledon Shape or or SPATULATE OVAL OBLONG OVATE (EGG SHAPED) Narrow tip. Broad base. Broadleaf Weed Broad tip. Narrow base. Rounded sides Straight sides Seedling Key Length-Width Ratio near 2:1 Length-Width Ratio 2:1 to 3:1 First true leaves opposite? First true leaves alternate? (Later leaves may alternate) YES NO Often purple underneath. Leaves sparsely Leaves and •True leaves alternate. First true leaves lobed? hairy or smooth cotyledons very hairy YES NO •Large cotyledons. •True leaves star shaped (wild cucumber) or Rough leaf surface. pentagon shaped Later leaves (bur cucumber). Five lobes Three lobes alternate with three Small cotyledons Large cotyledons prominent veins. EASTERN BLACK HAIRY NIGHTSHADE NIGHTSHADE Other weeds with Ovate cotyledons: GIANT WILD CUCUMBER ANNUAL First true leaves RAGWEED BUR CUCUMBER SUNFLOWER Alternate: Opposite: COMMON Ground Cherry Chickweed Other weeds with Spatulate or Oval or Oblong cotyledons: RAGWEED Horseweed White Cockle First true leaves alternate: First true leaves opposite: Shepherd's Purse Blue Mustard Canada Thistle Spurge, Annual, Purslane Tansy Mustard Musk thistle Jerusalem Artichoke* Prickly Lettuce Dandelion Marijuana*, Devilsclaw* Hemp Sesbania * Later leaves alternate Cotyledon Shape Cotyledon Shape ROUND OR ROUND WITH TAPERED TIP KIDNEY BUTTERFLY Notched tip Deeply notched tip & base “Heartshaped” Length-Width or Ratio near 1:1 First true leaves alternate? First true leaves alternate. First true leaves alternate. Large cotyledons YES with prominent veins. YES NO Heart-shaped true leaves with short hairs? First true leaves Arrowhead Cotyledons often opposite. shaped leaves. velvety True leaves hairy with Perennial with TALL MORNINGGLORY Third and subsequent NO uneven margins. YES vining leaves deeply lobed? growth habit. Slight nick in tip Long Petioles of cotyledons IVY LEAF MORNINGGLORY PRICKLY SIDA VELVETLEAF VENICE MALLOW PITTED MORNINGGLORY WILD MUSTARD FIELD BINDWEED Other weeds with Round cotyledons: Other weeds with Kidney cotyledons: Other weeds with Butterfly cotyledons: First true leaves alternate: Hedge Bindweed First true leaves opposite: Most Morningglory species Common Mallow Sicklepod Wild Radish Henbit Copperleaf Spurred Anoda Yellow Rocket Marshelder F. Pennycress (later alternate) 8 9
  • 6. Grass Weed Seedling Identification The following is a description of plant parts and growth habits which are very useful for identifying grass seedlings. Example grasses Useful vegetative characteristics to are listed (list not complete). help identify a young grass seedling: Ligules • The leaf blades are long, narrow, alternate with parallel veins. Hairy Membranous Absent • The leaf sheath encircles the stem. • The junction of the leaf blade with the leaf sheath is called the collar. • Most grasses have a projection at the base of the leaf blade called a ligule, which may be a Barnyardgrass Foxtail Shattercane membrane, a fringe of hairs or a combination Note: Ligule is absent on First leaf of most grasses of both. Ligule is absent on first leaf. • Grasses may be smooth (glabrous) or hairy Leaf Sheath and Stem Type (pubescent). Round to Distinctly • Some grasses have claw-like projections at somewhat Flattened Flat the leaf collar called auricles that partially encircle the stem. Yellow Foxtail Sandbur Most Barnyardgrass Blade Common Goosegrass Grasses Orchardgrass Ligule Sheath Margins Collar United Split (Not Split) Auricle Sheath Smooth Bromegrass Most Annual Bromegrasses Common Orchardgrass Grasses 10 11
  • 7. Leaf Twist Auricles (Direction of twist is consistent on first leaves only) Absent Prominent Clasping Counter No Distinct Clockwise Clockwise Twist Quackgrass Jointed Goatgrass Most Grasses Wheat Most Wild Oats Wheat, Barley, Rye Annual Bromegrasses Grasses Oats Jointed Goatgrass Leaf Midrib or Midvein Leaf or Sheath Pubescence (Hair) Prominent Faint or Obscure Smooth Hairy Short Hair Long Hair quot;Fuzzquot; Foxtail Fall Panicum Sheath Growth Habit – Developing Plant Margin Hairy Giant Yellow Erect Decumbent (Reclining) Shattercane Foxtail Foxtail Seed size and shape The seed of grasses often remains attached to the primary root after Shattercane Crabgrass germination. If the grass seedling is carefully removed from the soil, the Growth Habit – Seedling (1st Leaves) seed size and shape may help identify the plant. Horizontal Erect Woolly Sandbur Shattercane Johnsongrass Cupgrass Woolly Cupgrass Wild Proso Jointed Annual Wild Oats or Foxtail or Crabgrass Millet Bromegrass Goatgrass Annual Bromegrasses 12 13
  • 8. Grass Seedling Identification Key Blade Ligule START Collar Auricle HERE Sheath Stems Triangular • No ligule Stems round or flat YELLOW NUTSEDGE LIGULE ABSENT LIGULE LIGULE HAIRY MEMBRANOUS Sheath distinctly (See next page) flat by third leaf stage BARNYARDGRASS Blade or sheath Blade and sheath with dense hairs hairless or sparsely hairy First leaf wide, First leaf blades short, not erect. narrow and erect • Blades Blades narrow, Blades wide, • Horizontal with distinct long and erect short, not erect growth habit. twist. • Sheath united. • Prominent veins. • Sparse hairs near collar. LARGE • Winter annual. • Sheath flat with • Horizontal growth habit. CRABGRASS • Long, awned seed. whitish base. SMOOTH CRABGRASS Sheath Sheath very hairy GOOSEGRASS hairy to JAPANESE BROME or smooth DOWNY BROME CHEAT Auricles present (except first few leaves) Note: Wheat, Auricles absent Barley and Rye also have auricles. Annual Winter annual Perennial Perennial with rhizomes • Smooth, white • Blades and sheath • Blades erect • Stems wire-like. • Western Similar to rhizomes. erect and smooth. with distinct • Prominent nodes. wheat region. Shattercane but • Narrow, • Ligule jagged. twist. • Scaly rhizomes. • Hair on blade seed is oblong twisting leaves • Large, black, shiny, • Oat-like seed. margin. shaped WIRESTEM ovate seed. • Long, joint-like seed. MUHLY QUACKGRASS WILD OAT • Leaves with distinct twist. JOHNSONGRASS SHATTERCANE JOINTED GOATGRASS Sheath united • Sheath distinctly flattened. • Short ligule • Prominent ligule. SMOOTH BROME ORCHARDGRASS 14 15
  • 9. LIGULE HAIRY Blade with hair Blade with little or no hair Blade hairy Sheath Sheath margin without hair. on both surfaces Blade hairy upper margin hairy Sheath occasionally with hair or blade margins surface only Blade with long hair on upper Blade with Sheath nearly round Sheath flattened surface near base short hair (fuzz) Small oblong seed Large spiny seed by third leaf stage on upper surface • Seedling • Occasional sparse occasionally with hair on collar margins hair on sheath • Sheath smooth, often • Sheath flat, • Underside of blade or blade, but later with reddish base Small ovate seed without hair, smooth or sparsely hairy smooth and shiny often with • Sheath margins hairy GREEN FOXTAIL • Prominent, white FIELD SANDBUR reddish base midrib on older plants GIANT FOXTAIL YELLOW FOXTAIL FALL PANICUM Blade & sheath hair very short, Blade with distinct hair dense & difficult throughout or on margins only. to see. Random hairs on Prominent sheath hairs FIRSTleaf and sheath at 90° angle to stem • First blade horizontal, wide with blunt tip. • Blades and sheaths • Blades hairy to • One blade margin often crimped later smooth & shiney nearly smooth • Very large seed • Prominent, white midrib WITCHGRASS on larger plants (small seed) or WOOLLY CUPGRASS FALL PANICUM WILD PROSO MILLET (large seed) 16 17
  • 10. COTYLEDONS LINEAR OR LANCEOLATE COTYLEDONS LINEAR OR LANCEOLATE REDROOT PIGWEED JIMSONWEED (Amaranthus retroflexus) (Datura stramonium) WATERHEMP, COMMON OR TALL PENNSYLVANIA SMARTWEED (Amaranthus rudis or tuberculatus) (Polygonum pensylvanicum) PALMER PIGWEED WILD BUCKWHEAT (Amaranthus palmeri) (Polygonum convolvulus) 18 19
  • 11. COTYLEDONS LINEAR OR LANCEOLATE COTYLEDONS LINEAR OR LANCEOLATE COMMON COCKLEBUR RUSSIAN THISTLE (Xanthium strumarium) (Salsola iberica) stem COMMON LAMBSQUARTERS BUFFALO BUR (Chenopodium album) (Solanum rostratum) KOCHIA PUNCTURE VINE (Kochia scoparia) (Tribulus terrestris) 20 21
  • 12. COTYLEDONS OVATE COTYLEDONS SPATULATE OR OVAL EASTERN BLACK NIGHTSHADE COMMON RAGWEED (Solanum ptycanthum) (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) HAIRY NIGHTSHADE GIANT RAGWEED (Solanum sarrachoides) (Ambrosia trifida) COMMON SUNFLOWER SMOOTH GROUNDCHERRY COMMON CHICKWEED (Helianthus annuus) (Physalis subglabrata) (Stellaria media) 22 23
  • 13. COTYLEDONS OVAL OR OBLONG COTYLEDONS SPATULATE OR OVAL BUR CUCUMBER MUSK THISTLE (Sicyos angulatus) (Carduus nutans) MARIJUANA (Wild Hemp) CANADA THISTLE (Cannabis sativa) (Cirsium arvense) DEVILSCLAW (Unicorn plant) HEMP SESBANIA COMMON PURSLANE (Proboscidea louisianica) (Sesbania exaltata) (Portulaca oleracea) 24 25
  • 14. COTYLEDONS ROUND (TAPERED TIP) COTYLEDONS ROUND SPURRED ANODA SICKLEPOD VELVETLEAF (Buttonweed) (Anoda cristata) (Cassia obtusifolia) (Abutilon theophrasti) HOPHORNBEAN COPPERLEAF VENICE MALLOW (flower-of-an-hour) (Hibuscus trionum) (Acalypha ostryifolia) HENBIT PRICKLY SIDA (Teaweed) (Lamium amplexicaule) (Sida spinosa) 26 27
  • 15. COTYLEDONS BUTTERFLY SHAPE COTYLEDONS KIDNEY SHAPE TALL MORNINGGLORY WILD MUSTARD (Ipomoea purpurea) (Brassica kaber) IVYLEAF MORNINGGLORY FIELD BINDWEED (creeping jenny) (Ipomoea hederacea) (Convolvulus arvensis) PITTED MORNINGGLORY HEDGE BINDWEED (Ipomoea lacunosa) (Calystegia sepium) 28 29
  • 16. WINTER ANNUAL BROADLEAVES WINTER ANNUAL BROADLEAVES HORSEWEED (MARESTAIL) BLUE MUSTARD (Conyza canadensis) (Chorispora tenella) FIELD PENNYCRESS BUSHY WALLFLOWER TANSYMUSTARD (Descurainia pinnata) (Thlaspi arvense) or FLIXWEED(Descurainia sophia) (Cassia obtusifolia) SHEPHERD’S PURSE TANSYMUSTARD FLIXWEED TANSYMUSTARD (Capsella bursa-pastoris) (Descurainia pinnata) (left) (right) 30 31
  • 17. YELLOW NUTSEDGE DOWNY BROME CHEAT, JAP., DOWNY (Cyperus esculentus) (Bromus tectorum) BROME (left to rt.) BARNYARDGRASS ANNUAL BROME CHEAT (Echinochloa crus-galli) (Clockwise leaf twist) (Bromus secalinus) CRABGRASS (Digitaria sp.) JOINTED GOATGRASS Large Smooth (Aegilops cylindrica) 32 33
  • 18. SHATTERCANE QUACKGRASS (Sorghum bicolor) (Agropyron repens) SHATTERCANE SEED ORCHARDGRASS JOHNSONGRASS - Rhizomes (Dactylis glomerata) (Sorghum halepense) JOHNSONGRASS SEED WILD OATS SMOOTH BROMEGRASS (Avena fatua) (Bromus inermus) 34 35
  • 19. LONGSPINE (“FIELD”) SANDBUR YELLOW FOXTAIL GREEN FOXTAIL (Cenchurus longispinus) (Setaria lutescens) (Setaria viridis) seed bur FALL PANICUM GIANT FOXTAIL (Panicum dichotomiflorum) (Setaria faberi) WOOLLY CUPGRASS GIANT, YELLOW & GREEN FOXTAIL (Eriochloa villosa) Seed heads (left to right) Giant Woolly Foxtail Cupgrass seed seed 36 37
  • 20. WOOLLY CUPGRASS (Eriochloa villosa) Woolly Giant Cupgrass Foxtail WITCHGRASS (Panicum capillare) WILD PROSO MILLET (Panicum miliaceum) 38
  • 21. RESPECT THE LAND P BOX 64089 .O. St. Paul, MN 55164 P BOX 7305 .O. Kansas City, MO 64116 www.agriliance.com