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Seeds 2008

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    • 1. The Joy of Seed Collecting and Starting Presented by Sheryl Williams Delta Montrose Technical College
    • 2. Miracle of growing a whole plant from a tiny seed
      • Learn to collect, germinate and start seedlings
      • Expand your palette of plant material
      • Just plain fun
    • 3. Agenda
      • Plant Sex
        • Flower and Seed Anatomy
      • Harvesting, cleaning, storage
      • Germination information
        • Dormancy
      • Paper Towel technique
      • Outdoors for Winter technique
      • Timing
    • 4. Vocabulary
      • Scarification
        • Scratch, nick, chip or notch a seed coat to allow water to penetrate more quickly and speed up germination
      • Stratify
        • Artificial cold period to break dormancy
      • Dormant
        • Alive but in a state of suspended animation until all conditions are right for growth
    • 5. Vocabulary
      • Germination
        • The moment when a plant’s embryo breaks its dormancy and begins to grow
      • Hardening Off
        • Gradually toughen up plant for transition to the garden
      • Damping off
        • Fungal disease that rots seeds as they germinate or seedlings once they emerge from the soil
    • 6. Flower Anatomy
    • 7. Viva la difference!
      • Male – Stamen Female - Pistil
    • 8. Stamen - Anther and Filament
      • Stamen - make pollen available
      • Two parts – anther and filament
      • On top of the filament is the anther
      • Sack containing pollen
    • 9. Filaments can force contact
    • 10. Pollen Grains
      • Each plant’s pollen has a distinct shape and chemical make up
      • Wrong pollen is not accepted
      • Pollen contains protein, necessary for bee larvae
      • Bee larvae is fed pollen and saliva ‘bee bread’
    • 11. Pollen Grains
      • Sunflower Basil Chicory
      Dandelion, Eucalyptus Sunflower petal & pollen
    • 12. Pistil - Stigma, Style, Ovary
      • Physical and chemical characteristics of pollen MUST match the female plant
      • Pollen grain grows a pollen tube
      • Down to the ovary
      • Fertilization of the ovule
      • One pollen grain to one ovule
      • Unfertilized ovules will not make seeds
    • 13. Stigmas
    • 14.
      • Changes shape during the reproductive cycle
      • Stigma catches pollen grains
      • Often hairy or sticky
    • 15. Pollen Tube
      • Pollen match Pollen tube grows down the style to the ovary
      • Fertilization takes place
    • 16. Sunflower – Multiple flowers
    • 17. Snapdragon Flower
    • 18. Lab 1 – Explore Flowers
      • Cut open flowers and find the ovaries, pistil and stamen
    • 19. What’s in a Seed
      • Starch storage
      • Seed Leaves (Cotyledon)
      • Embryonic plant - embryo
      • Embryonic Root
    • 20. Corn Seed
      • Starch storage -energy source for the germinating seed and seedling
      • Seed Leaf
      • Embryonic root – first to emerge
      • Embryonic plant
    • 21. Bean Seed Epicotyl becomes stem leaves and flowers Radicle becomes the root Hypocotyl becomes the portion between the root and stem
    • 22. Lab 2 – Seed Germination Stages
      • Soaked corn and bean seeds
      • Cut or pry each in half and find root, shoot, seed leaf (leaves) and starch storage.
      • Carefully dab with Iodine
      • Iodine will blacken the starch areas.
    • 23. Harvesting, Cleaning, Storage
      • Harvest when dry
      • Place on a newspaper for a week
      • Put upside down in a paper bag until the seeds release
      • Use a sieve to separate the seeds from the chaff
      • Store in sealed and labeled paper packets
      • Keep 35 - 50 degrees
    • 24. Lab 3 – Cleaning seeds
      • Take bag of flower stalks
      • Clean seed from chaff
      • Place in seed envelopes
    • 25. Lab 4 - Finding Germination Information
      • Look up Latin name
      • Take Seed catalogue or database and look up your seed
      • Read codes to see how to germinate
      • Add germination information to your seed packages
    • 26. Where to find Germination Information
      • Catalogues
        • Park, Stokes
        • Thompson & Morgan
        • J.L. Hudson
      • Books
        • Seed Germination Theory and Practice by Norman Deno
      • Internet Databases
    • 27. Breaking Seed Dormancy
      • Dormancy is nature’s way of preventing germination until conditions are favorable for survival
        • Temperature
        • Water
        • Oxygen
        • Light
      • Internal or External
        • Internal chemical or external hard coat
    • 28. Breaking Seed Dormancy
      • Scarification
        • Hard seed coat won’t let in water or gases
        • Any breaking, scratching, nicking will open the hard seed coat
        • In nature seed out in fall and winter freeze and thaw will break down the seed coat
    • 29. Scarification Techniques
      • Sand paper
      • Boiling water – soak until water is room temperature
      • Metal file
      • Nick with nail clippers
        • Don’t damage the embryo
        • Sow immediately, won’t store
    • 30. Lab 5 -Scarification
      • Use a nail file to file some of the seed coat away.
      • Be sure to file until you can see the white starch in the seed.
      • Use a nail clipper to chip a bit of the seed coat away.
      • Clip the starch not the embryo.
      • Look for the embryo
    • 31. Stratification
      • Need a period of moist-pre chilling or moist-warm periods
      • Cold stratification (moist pre chilling) mix seeds with a volume of a moist medium
        • Sand or perlite
        • Closed container
        • Store in refrigerator 40 degrees
        • Check for moist but not wet
        • Amount of time varies
    • 32. Stratification – Moist warm
      • Similar to “moist – pre chill” except temperatures are kept at 68 to 86 degrees
      • Depends on the species
      • A few species even need to be scarified and pre chilled
    • 33. Paper Towel Germination Technique Lab 6
      • Cheap paper towels
      • Small plastic bags
      • Water
      • Labels
      • Basil seeds
    • 34. Germination Lab – Paper Towel Technique
      • Paper towel folded in half three times
      1 3 2
    • 35. Soak Paper Towel
      • Soak paper towel and squeeze out the excess water
      1 2
    • 36. Place Seeds
      • If “Light” is required place the seeds on top of the still folded towel
      • If “Light” is not required, open the towel once and place the seeds inside
      • If you are not sure, put a few inside and a few outside
    • 37. Bag
      • Place label with seed name and date on the plastic bag
      • Place towel with seeds into the bag
      • Lightly close plastic bag – do not seal
    • 38. Germination Lab At Home
      • Basil should germinate 3-7 days at 70 degrees with light or dark
      • Nicked seeds should germinate 7-14 days at 70 degrees
      • Add a small amount of water if towel is dry
      • Open bag to ventilate if moisture inside
      • If you need to pre chill or stratify, put in the refrigerator
    • 39. Tools and Equipment – Seedlings
      • Heating cable
      • Sand
      • Containers
      • Sterile potting soil
      • Plant labels
      • Watering can with a fine rose
      • Overhead lighting
    • 40. When Seeds Germinate
      • Plant in soil when seeds leaves are visible
      • Be careful not to break off the root when taking the seedling out of the paper towel
    • 41. Plant into Soil
      • Be sure the crown is at the soil surface
    • 42. Overhead light
      • Give the seedlings 12 – 16 hours of artificial light
      • 4-6 inches above the seedlings
    • 43. Seed Starting Rack http://davesgarden.com/community/blogs/t/j29/8750/
    • 44. Winter Sow Outdoors Technique – Trudi Davidoff
      • Good candidates – look for these terms
        • Pre chilling
        • Stratification
        • Self Sows
        • Sow outdoors in Early Autumn
        • Sow outdoors in early Spring
        • Hardy seeds
        • Can be direct sown early
    • 45. Winter Sow Outdoors Technique
      • Make slits in the top and bottom of the container for air and drainage
    • 46. Add Soil
      • Fill with soil to about half inch from the top
      • Secure the lid
      • Water well and let drain
    • 47. Sow seeds and pat them down
      • If “light” is not required, add soil to get the correct germination depth
    • 48. Label
      • Put a label on the bottom so the label won’t bleach out from the sun
        • Freezer tape
        • Laundry marker or sharpie
    • 49. Winter Sow Outdoors
      • Put the flat out somewhere safe
      • The freeze and thawing helps break dormancy
      • In early spring when the seedlings emerge, check the moisture in the flats
      • As they grow widen the slits in the covers getting bigger and bigger
      • Transplant to the garden and they are hardened off
    • 50. Timing
      • Seeds will take different amounts of time to germinate and to grow to a size to plant out
      • Our last spring frost are in early May
      • Don’t start too soon or your plants
        • will be leggy
        • Take up too much room in the house or greenhouse
        • Take a lot of babysitting time in the winter/early spring
    • 51. Where to Get More Information
      • Seed Sowing and Saving
        • Carole B. Turner 1998
      • American Horticultural Society Plant Propagation
        • Alan Toogood Editor in Chief
      • The Seed Site – great pictures of seeds and cotyledons
      • http://www.theseedsite.co.uk/index.html
    • 52. Where to Get More Information
      • A Basic Guide to Savings Seeds for Home Gardeners –
      • http://www.virtualseeds.com/seedsaving.html
      • Collecting seeds from Oregon State:
      • http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/fs/fs220/
    • 53. Internet Seed Germination Databases
      • Tom Clothier – intense databases http://tomclothier.hort.net/
      • Thompson and Morgan –genus only http://www.backyardgardener.com/tm.html
      • General Gardening info: http://davesgarden.com/
    • 54. Internet Seed Exchanges
      • North American Rock Garden Society
        • http://www.nargs.org/seed/exchange.html
      • Gardenweb.com
        • http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/exchind /
      • International Seed Saving Institute
        • http://www.seedsave.org
    • 55. Summary
      • Observe your flowers
      • Look for seeds
      • Share with friends
      • Pay attention to the timing to know when to start new plants from seed
      • Have fun