Seeds 2008


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  • Seeds 2008

    1. 1. The Joy of Seed Collecting and Starting Presented by Sheryl Williams Delta Montrose Technical College
    2. 2. Miracle of growing a whole plant from a tiny seed <ul><li>Learn to collect, germinate and start seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Expand your palette of plant material </li></ul><ul><li>Just plain fun </li></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Plant Sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower and Seed Anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvesting, cleaning, storage </li></ul><ul><li>Germination information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dormancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paper Towel technique </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoors for Winter technique </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul>
    4. 4. Vocabulary <ul><li>Scarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scratch, nick, chip or notch a seed coat to allow water to penetrate more quickly and speed up germination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial cold period to break dormancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dormant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alive but in a state of suspended animation until all conditions are right for growth </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Vocabulary <ul><li>Germination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The moment when a plant’s embryo breaks its dormancy and begins to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardening Off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually toughen up plant for transition to the garden </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Damping off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungal disease that rots seeds as they germinate or seedlings once they emerge from the soil </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Flower Anatomy
    7. 7. Viva la difference! <ul><li>Male – Stamen Female - Pistil </li></ul>
    8. 8. Stamen - Anther and Filament <ul><li>Stamen - make pollen available </li></ul><ul><li>Two parts – anther and filament </li></ul><ul><li>On top of the filament is the anther </li></ul><ul><li>Sack containing pollen </li></ul>
    9. 9. Filaments can force contact
    10. 10. Pollen Grains <ul><li>Each plant’s pollen has a distinct shape and chemical make up </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong pollen is not accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen contains protein, necessary for bee larvae </li></ul><ul><li>Bee larvae is fed pollen and saliva ‘bee bread’ </li></ul>
    11. 11. Pollen Grains <ul><li>Sunflower Basil Chicory </li></ul>Dandelion, Eucalyptus Sunflower petal & pollen
    12. 12. Pistil - Stigma, Style, Ovary <ul><li>Physical and chemical characteristics of pollen MUST match the female plant </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen grain grows a pollen tube </li></ul><ul><li>Down to the ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization of the ovule </li></ul><ul><li>One pollen grain to one ovule </li></ul><ul><li>Unfertilized ovules will not make seeds </li></ul>
    13. 13. Stigmas
    14. 14. <ul><li>Changes shape during the reproductive cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma catches pollen grains </li></ul><ul><li>Often hairy or sticky </li></ul>
    15. 15. Pollen Tube <ul><li>Pollen match Pollen tube grows down the style to the ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization takes place </li></ul>
    16. 16. Sunflower – Multiple flowers
    17. 17. Snapdragon Flower
    18. 18. Lab 1 – Explore Flowers <ul><li>Cut open flowers and find the ovaries, pistil and stamen </li></ul>
    19. 19. What’s in a Seed <ul><li>Starch storage </li></ul><ul><li>Seed Leaves (Cotyledon) </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic plant - embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic Root </li></ul>
    20. 20. Corn Seed <ul><li>Starch storage -energy source for the germinating seed and seedling </li></ul><ul><li>Seed Leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic root – first to emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic plant </li></ul>
    21. 21. Bean Seed Epicotyl becomes stem leaves and flowers Radicle becomes the root Hypocotyl becomes the portion between the root and stem
    22. 22. Lab 2 – Seed Germination Stages <ul><li>Soaked corn and bean seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Cut or pry each in half and find root, shoot, seed leaf (leaves) and starch storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully dab with Iodine </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine will blacken the starch areas. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Harvesting, Cleaning, Storage <ul><li>Harvest when dry </li></ul><ul><li>Place on a newspaper for a week </li></ul><ul><li>Put upside down in a paper bag until the seeds release </li></ul><ul><li>Use a sieve to separate the seeds from the chaff </li></ul><ul><li>Store in sealed and labeled paper packets </li></ul><ul><li>Keep 35 - 50 degrees </li></ul>
    24. 24. Lab 3 – Cleaning seeds <ul><li>Take bag of flower stalks </li></ul><ul><li>Clean seed from chaff </li></ul><ul><li>Place in seed envelopes </li></ul>
    25. 25. Lab 4 - Finding Germination Information <ul><li>Look up Latin name </li></ul><ul><li>Take Seed catalogue or database and look up your seed </li></ul><ul><li>Read codes to see how to germinate </li></ul><ul><li>Add germination information to your seed packages </li></ul>
    26. 26. Where to find Germination Information <ul><li>Catalogues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Park, Stokes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thompson & Morgan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J.L. Hudson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed Germination Theory and Practice by Norman Deno </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Databases </li></ul>
    27. 27. Breaking Seed Dormancy <ul><li>Dormancy is nature’s way of preventing germination until conditions are favorable for survival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal or External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal chemical or external hard coat </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Breaking Seed Dormancy <ul><li>Scarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard seed coat won’t let in water or gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any breaking, scratching, nicking will open the hard seed coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In nature seed out in fall and winter freeze and thaw will break down the seed coat </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Scarification Techniques <ul><li>Sand paper </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling water – soak until water is room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Metal file </li></ul><ul><li>Nick with nail clippers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t damage the embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sow immediately, won’t store </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Lab 5 -Scarification <ul><li>Use a nail file to file some of the seed coat away. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to file until you can see the white starch in the seed. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a nail clipper to chip a bit of the seed coat away. </li></ul><ul><li>Clip the starch not the embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the embryo </li></ul>
    31. 31. Stratification <ul><li>Need a period of moist-pre chilling or moist-warm periods </li></ul><ul><li>Cold stratification (moist pre chilling) mix seeds with a volume of a moist medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand or perlite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store in refrigerator 40 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for moist but not wet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of time varies </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Stratification – Moist warm <ul><li>Similar to “moist – pre chill” except temperatures are kept at 68 to 86 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the species </li></ul><ul><li>A few species even need to be scarified and pre chilled </li></ul>
    33. 33. Paper Towel Germination Technique Lab 6 <ul><li>Cheap paper towels </li></ul><ul><li>Small plastic bags </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Labels </li></ul><ul><li>Basil seeds </li></ul>
    34. 34. Germination Lab – Paper Towel Technique <ul><li>Paper towel folded in half three times </li></ul>1 3 2
    35. 35. Soak Paper Towel <ul><li>Soak paper towel and squeeze out the excess water </li></ul>1 2
    36. 36. Place Seeds <ul><li>If “Light” is required place the seeds on top of the still folded towel </li></ul><ul><li>If “Light” is not required, open the towel once and place the seeds inside </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not sure, put a few inside and a few outside </li></ul>
    37. 37. Bag <ul><li>Place label with seed name and date on the plastic bag </li></ul><ul><li>Place towel with seeds into the bag </li></ul><ul><li>Lightly close plastic bag – do not seal </li></ul>
    38. 38. Germination Lab At Home <ul><li>Basil should germinate 3-7 days at 70 degrees with light or dark </li></ul><ul><li>Nicked seeds should germinate 7-14 days at 70 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Add a small amount of water if towel is dry </li></ul><ul><li>Open bag to ventilate if moisture inside </li></ul><ul><li>If you need to pre chill or stratify, put in the refrigerator </li></ul>
    39. 39. Tools and Equipment – Seedlings <ul><li>Heating cable </li></ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Containers </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile potting soil </li></ul><ul><li>Plant labels </li></ul><ul><li>Watering can with a fine rose </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead lighting </li></ul>
    40. 40. When Seeds Germinate <ul><li>Plant in soil when seeds leaves are visible </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful not to break off the root when taking the seedling out of the paper towel </li></ul>
    41. 41. Plant into Soil <ul><li>Be sure the crown is at the soil surface </li></ul>
    42. 42. Overhead light <ul><li>Give the seedlings 12 – 16 hours of artificial light </li></ul><ul><li>4-6 inches above the seedlings </li></ul>
    43. 43. Seed Starting Rack
    44. 44. Winter Sow Outdoors Technique – Trudi Davidoff <ul><li>Good candidates – look for these terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre chilling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Sows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sow outdoors in Early Autumn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sow outdoors in early Spring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardy seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be direct sown early </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Winter Sow Outdoors Technique <ul><li>Make slits in the top and bottom of the container for air and drainage </li></ul>
    46. 46. Add Soil <ul><li>Fill with soil to about half inch from the top </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the lid </li></ul><ul><li>Water well and let drain </li></ul>
    47. 47. Sow seeds and pat them down <ul><li>If “light” is not required, add soil to get the correct germination depth </li></ul>
    48. 48. Label <ul><li>Put a label on the bottom so the label won’t bleach out from the sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezer tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laundry marker or sharpie </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Winter Sow Outdoors <ul><li>Put the flat out somewhere safe </li></ul><ul><li>The freeze and thawing helps break dormancy </li></ul><ul><li>In early spring when the seedlings emerge, check the moisture in the flats </li></ul><ul><li>As they grow widen the slits in the covers getting bigger and bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant to the garden and they are hardened off </li></ul>
    50. 50. Timing <ul><li>Seeds will take different amounts of time to germinate and to grow to a size to plant out </li></ul><ul><li>Our last spring frost are in early May </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t start too soon or your plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>will be leggy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take up too much room in the house or greenhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a lot of babysitting time in the winter/early spring </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Where to Get More Information <ul><li>Seed Sowing and Saving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carole B. Turner 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Horticultural Society Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alan Toogood Editor in Chief </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Seed Site – great pictures of seeds and cotyledons </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    52. 52. Where to Get More Information <ul><li>A Basic Guide to Savings Seeds for Home Gardeners – </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting seeds from Oregon State: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    53. 53. Internet Seed Germination Databases <ul><li>Tom Clothier – intense databases </li></ul><ul><li>Thompson and Morgan –genus only </li></ul><ul><li>General Gardening info: </li></ul>
    54. 54. Internet Seed Exchanges <ul><li>North American Rock Garden Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li> / </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Seed Saving Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Summary <ul><li>Observe your flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Look for seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Share with friends </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the timing to know when to start new plants from seed </li></ul><ul><li>Have fun </li></ul>