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  • 1. Chemical Class Chart Volume VIII Greenhouse and Nursery Production Insecticides/Acaricides Fungicides Herbicides Plant Growth Regulators
  • 2. REFERENCE GUIDE for ORNAMENTAL PRODUCTION INSECTICIDES / ACARICIDES RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT When applying insecticides / acaricides, always focus on resistance management. Do not rely on one insecticide / acaricide, combination of insecticides / acaricides or related insecticide / acaricide classes. When labels permit, make 2 or 3 applications of an insecticide / acaricide in sequence, then rotate to products with different modes of action. Try to avoid applying the same insecticide / acaricide to more than one generation of the pest. NOTE: THIS IS ONE OF THE MAIN REASONS WHY IT IS VITALLY IMPORTANT TO PROPERLY DETECT THE PROBLEM PEST AND KEEP GOOD SPRAY RECORDS. Using insecticides / acaricides correctly also includes proper timing, understanding the pest life cycle, and the stage that each insecticide / acaricide controls. The appropriate and labeled (legal) method of application is also a very important fac- tor to consider. Low volume (L.V.) applications (smoke generator, thermal fog, cold fog, aerosol, and electrostatic) are commonly used in greenhouses. Low volume sprays generally are more effective against adults than immature stages. Use high volume sprays, directed under the leaves for best results against eggs, nymphs and pupae. Always read the label and check with local authorities for further information regarding resistance management. GH = Greenhouse; N = Nursery **Use Site(s) KEY: Insecticides / Acaricides (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Orthene® TT&O 1 Organophosphate Acephate 24 GH/N Valent USA Corp. Orthene® TR 24 N Whitmire Micro-Gen Tame/Orthene™ TR* 24 GH Whitmire Micro-Gen *Also contains Fenpropathrin DuraGuard™ Chlorpyrifos 24 GH/N Whitmire Micro-Gen Dursban® 50 WP 24 N Dow AgroSciences LLC DuraPlex ® TR* 24 GH Whitmire Micro-Gen *Also contains cyfluthrin Diazinon Diazinon 50 WP 12 N Micro Flo Company LLC AllPro® Diazinon AG 500 12 N Value Garden Supply Dichlorvos Fulex DDVP Fumigator * GH Fuller System, Inc Dimethoate Dimethoate 267 48 N Micro Flo Company LLC Cygon 2E 48 N Value Garden Supply Malathion Malathion 57% 12 N Value Garden Supply * Depends on greenhouse ventilation © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 1
  • 3. Insecticides / Acaricides continued (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Supracide® Methidathion 48 N Gowan Company (to 14 days) MSR® Spray Oxydemeton-methyl 48-72 N Gowan Company Concentrate Imidan® 70W Phosmet 24 N Gowan Company Sevin® Carbamate Carbaryl 12 N Bayer Environmental Science Mesurol® Methiocarb 24 GH/N Gowan Company 2 Cyclodiene organochlorine Endosulfan Fulex Thiodan Insecticidal * GH Fuller System, Inc Smoke Thionex® 24 N Makhteshim Agan, Inc. Talstar® 3 Pyrethroid Bifenthrin 12 GH/N** FMC Corp. ** Greenhouse and/or nursery uses depend on the formulation. Check labels for uses. Attain® TR 12 GH Whitmire Micro-Gen Decathlon® Cyfluthrin 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. Tame® Fenpropathrin 24 GH/N Valent USA Corp. Mavrik® Fluvalinate 12 GH Wellmark International Scimitar ® GC Lambda-Cyhalothrin 24 GH/N Syngenta Astro® Permethrin 12 GH FMC Corp. Perm-Up 12 GH/N United Phosphorus Permethrin 3.2 EC 12 GH/N*** Loveland Products Helena Chemical Co. ***Greenhouses roses only Pyrethrum® TR Botanical Pyrethrins 12 GH Whitmire Micro-Gen Pyreth-It™ 12 GH/N Whitmire Micro-Gen TriStar® 4 Neonicotinoid Acetamiprid 12 GH/N Cleary Chemical Corp. Celero™ 16 WSG Clothianidin 12 GH/N Arysta Life Sciences Safari™ 12 GH/N Valent USA Corp. Dinotefuran Discus®* Imidacloprid 12 N OHP, Inc. * Discus is a combination of imidacloprid and cyfluthrin Marathon® 0-12 GH/N OHP, Inc. Flagship™ 25 WG Thiamethoxam 12 GH/N Syngenta 4 B Botanical Nicotine Fulex Nicotine Fumigator * GH Fuller System, Inc Nicotine Smoke * GH Value Garden Supply Generator * Depends on greenhouse ventilation ** Greenhouse and/or nursery uses depend on the formulation. Check labels for uses. © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 2
  • 4. Insecticides / Acaricides continued (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Conserve® 5 Spinosyn Spinosad 4 GH/N Dow AgroSciences LLC Avid® 6 Glycoside Abamectin 12 GH/N Syngenta Preclude® TR 7 Carbamate Insect Fenoxycarb 12 GH Whitmire Micro-Gen Growth Regulator Distance® Pyridine Insect Pyriproxyfen 12 GH/N Valent USA Corp. Growth Regulator Enstar ® II Biopesticide Insect s-Kinporene 4 GH Wellmark International Growth Regulator Endeavor™ 9 Pyridine azomethine Pymetrozine 12 GH/N Syngenta Aria™ 12 GH FMC Corp. Pyridine carboxamide Flonicamid Ovation™ 10 A Tetrazine Clofentezine 12 GH/N Scotts Company Hexygon® DF Thiazolidinone Hexythiazox 12 GH/N Gowan Company TetraSan™ 10 B 2, 4 - Diphenyloxzoline Etoxazole 12 GH/N Valent USA Corp. Derivative DiPel® 11 Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis 12 GH/N Valent USA Corp. Kurstaki Deliver® 12 GH/N Certis USA, LLC. Gnatrol® Bacillus thuringiensis 4 GH/N Valent USA Corp. Israelensis Vendex® 12 Organotin Fenbutatin-oxide 48 GH/N SePRO Corp. Pylon® 13 Pyrrole Chlorfenapyr 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. Adept® 15 Benzoyl Urea Insect Diflubenzuron 12 GH Chemtura Corp. Growth Regulator Pedestal™ Novaluron 12 GH/N Chemtura Corp. Talus® 16 Buprofezin 12 GH/N SePRO Corp. Citation® 17 Triazine Insect Cyromazine 12 GH/N Syngenta Growth Regulator Azatin® XL 18 Biopesticide Insect Azadirachtin 4 GH/N OHP, Inc. Growth Regulator Ornazin® 12 GH/N SePRO Corp. Shuttle™ 20 Napthoquinone derivative Acequinocyl 12 GH/N Arysta Life Sciences Sanmite® 21 Pyridazinone Pyridaben 12 GH/N Scotts Company Akari™ Phenoxypyrazole Fenpyroximate 12 GH SePRO Corp. 12 GH/N Judo™ OHP, Inc. 23 Tetronic acid Spiromesifen * Depends on greenhouse ventilation © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 3
  • 5. Insecticides / Acaricides continued (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use roup* G Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Floramite® 25 Carbazate Bifenazate 4 GH/N Chemtura Corp. Kelthane® 50 WSP U Organochlorine - Dicofol 48 GH/N Dow AgroSciences diphenylaliphatics LLC Dicofol 3 Dust 12 GH/N Gowan Company Naturalis L® ** Biopesticide Beauveria bassiana 4 GH/N Troy Biosciences BotaniGard® 4 GH/N Bioworks, Inc. Triact® 70 Oils Clarified hydrophobic 4 GH/N OHP, Inc. extract of neem oil Paraffinic oil Ultra-Fine Spray Oil 4 GH/N Whitmire Micro-Gen Soaps Potassium salts of M-Pede 12 GH/N Dow AgroSciences fatty acids LLC *Insecticides / Acaricides Modes of Action 1. Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, interrupting the transmission of nerve impulses 2. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists: Interferes with GABA receptors of insect neurons, leading to repetitive nervous discharges 3. Sodium channel modulators: Acts as an axonic poison by interfering with the sodium channels of both the peripheral and central nervous system stimulating repetitive nervous discharges, leading to paralysis. 4. Acetylcholine receptor agonists/Antagonists: Binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor disrupting nerve transmission. 5. Nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonists (not group 4) 6. Chloride Channel Activators: Interferes with the GABA nerve receptor of insects. 7. Juvenile hormone mimics (Insect growth regulator): Mimic juvenile hormones, which prevent molting from the larval to the adult stage. 9. Compounds of unknown or non-specific mode of action (selective feeding blockers) 10. Compounds of unknown or non-specific target site of action (mite growth inhibitors) 11. Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes. 12. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation at the site of dinitrophenol uncoupling (Disrupt ATP formation) 13. Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (disrupt H proton gradient formation). 15. Inhibit chitin biosynthesis – type 0 16. Inhibit chitin biosynthesis – type 1 17. Molting disruptor 18. Ecdysone agonists/molting disruptors 20. Coupling site II electron transport inhibitors (Complex III) 21. Site I electron transport inhibitor 23. Inhibitors of lipid biosynthesis 25. Neuronal inhibitors (unknown mode of action) UN. Unknown mode of action ** No resistance likely to develop but it may be possible for some pests to develop resistance after long periods of exclusive use. This list is from the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). IRAC is a technical working group within the Global Crop Protection Federation (GCPF) http:www.gcpf.org. © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 4
  • 6. REFERENCE GUIDE for ORNAMENTAL PRODUCTION FUNGICIDES Most leading plant pathologists recommend the rotation of fungicides as an additional strategy against resistance devel- opment. To rotate from one product to another does not achieve the goal, rather one must rotate from class and mode of action to successfully fight the potential of resistance development. High volume sprays generally are most effective against foliar disease as well. Always read the label and check with local authorities for further information regarding resistance management. GH = Greenhouse; N = Nursery. **Use Site(s) Key: Fungicides (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company 3336™ 1 Benzimidazole Thiophanate-methyl 12 GH/N Cleary Chemical Corp. OHP 6672™ 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. AllBan® 12 GH/N Scotts Company Banrot®* 12 GH/N Scotts Company Resistance risk High * Banrot is a combination of thiophanate-methyl and etridiazole (See explanation of resistance risk following the mode of action listing) Zyban®** 24 GH/N Scotts Company * * Zyban is a combination of thiophanate-methyl and mancozeb Chipco® 26GT® 2 Dicarboximide Iprodione 12 GH/N Bayer Environmental Science OHP Chipco® 26019 WP 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. Resistance risk Medium to High Sextant™ 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. 26/36* 12 GH/N Cleary Chemical *26/36 is a combination of iprodione and thiophanate-methyl Corp. Terraguard® 3 Imidazole Triflumizole 12 GH/N Chemtura Corp. Rubigan® Pyrimidine Fenarimol 12 N Gowan Company Banner® MAXX® Triazole (includes conazole) Propiconazole 24 N Syngenta Strike® 50 WDG Triadimefon 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. Eagle® 20 EW Myclobutanil 24 GH/N Dow AgroSciences LLC Resistance risk Medium Systhane® 24 GH/N Dow AgroSciences LLC Subdue® MAXX® 4 Acylamine Mefenoxam 0 GH/N Syngenta Resistance risk High Pipron® 5 Piperadine Piperalin 12 GH/N SePRO Corp. Resistance risk Low to Medium © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 5
  • 7. Fungicides continued (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Contrast® 7 Anilide (Oxathiin) Flutolanil 12 GH/N Scotts Company ProStar® Resistance risk Medium 12 GH/N Bayer Environmental Science Azoxystrobin® Heritage® 11 Strobilurin 4 GH/N Syngenta Kresoxim-methyl® Cygnus® 12 GH/N Scotts Company Resistance risk High Compass™ O Trifloxystrobin 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. FenStop™ Imidazolinone Fenamidone 12 GH OHP, Inc. Medallion® 12 Phenylpyrrole Fludioxonil 12 GH/N Syngenta Resistance risk Low to Medium Terraclor® 14 Aromatic Hydrocarbon PCNB 12 GH/N Chemtura Corp. Truban® Thiadiazole Etridiazole 12 GH/N Scotts Company Terrazole® 12 GH/N Chemtura Corp. Resistance risk Low to Medium Decree® 17 Hydroxyanilide Fenhexamid 4 GH/N SePRO Corp. Resistance risk Low to Medium Banol® 28 Carbamate Propamocarb 24 GH/N Bayer Environmental Science Resistance risk Low to Medium Stature® DM 40 Cinnamic Acid Derivative Dimethomorph 12 GH/N SePRO Corp. Resistance risk Low to Medium Daconil® Ultrex® M Chloronitrile Chlorothalonil 12 GH/N Syngenta AllPro® * GH Value Garden Supply * Depends on greenhouse ventilation ConSyst® *** 48 GH/N Regal Chemical Co. * ** ConSyst is a combination of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil Spectro® 90 **** 12 GH/N Cleary Chemical Corp. * *** Spectro 90 is a combination of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil Camelot® Copper, Complex Copper sulfate 12 GH/N Whitmire Micro-Gen Phyton 27® 24 GH/N Phyton Corp. Kocide® 2000 Copper, Fixed Copper hydroxide 24 GH/N SePRO Corp. Dithane® Dithiocarbamate Mancozeb 24 GH/N Dow AgroSciences LLC Fore® 24 GH/N Dow AgroSciences LLC Junction™ 24 GH/N SePRO Corp. Resistance risk Low Pentathlon™ 24 GH/N SePRO Corp. Protect® T/O Manganese + zinc 24 GH/N Cleary Chemical Corp. AllPro® Captan 50W Phthalimide Captan 96 GH/N Value Garden Supply © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 6
  • 8. Fungicides continued (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Aliette® U Phosphonate Fosetyl-Al 12 GH/N OHP, Inc. [Also classified by EPA with plant host defense inducers] Alude™ Phosphite Phosphorous acid 4 GH/N Cleary Chemical Corp. Resistance risk Low PlantShield® HC ** Biopesticide Trichoderma 0 GH/N BioWorks, Inc. (RootShield®) harzianum T22 SoilGard® G Trichoderma virens GL21 4 GH/N Certis USA, LLC. Resistance risk Low Companion® Bacillus subtilis GB03 4 GH/N Growth Products Rhapsody® AS Bacillus subtilis QST713 4 GH/N AgraQuest, Inc. Actinovate® 4 GH/N Natural Industries, Inc Streptomyces lydicus WYEC108 Armicarb® 100 Bicarbonate Potassium bicarbonate 4 GH/N Helena Chemical Co. MilStop® 1 GH/N BioWorks, Inc. ZeroTol™ Hydrogen Dioxide 0 GH/N Biosafe Systems Triact® 70 Oil Clarified hydrophobic 4 GH/N OHP, Inc. extract of neem oil (also classified by EPA as a biopesticide) Qwel® Botanical Extract Macheaya extract 12 GH Camas Technologies Milsana® Raynoutria sachalinesis 24 GH Western Farm Service Inc. *Fungicides Modes of Action (by Mode of Action 1. Inhibition of tubulin formation in mitosis 2. Affect cell division, DNA and RNA synthesis and metabolism 3. DMI (Demethylation Inhibitor): Inhibition of sterol synthesis 4. Phenylamides-Affect RNA synthesis 5. Inhibition of an isomerase in sterol biosynthesis- Piperadines, Morpholines 7. Affect mitochondrial transport chain 11. Quinone outside inhibitors (QOI) 12. MAP protein kinase in osmotic signal transduction 14. Lipid peroxidation (proposed) 17. 3-keto reductase during C4 demethylation in sterol biosynthesis 28. Affect cell membrane permeability (proposed) 40. Phospholipid biosysthesis and cell wall deposition (proposed) M Multi-site activity. Chemicals that act at several sites, which may differ among the group members. U Mode of action unknown. The mode of action cannot be placed within any other grouping. ** No resistance likely to develop This list is from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC). FRAC is a technical working group within the Global Crop Protection Federation (GCPF) © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 7
  • 9. Explanation of Resistance Risk Resistance risk categories were developed by FRAC. They are a way to estimate the potential for resistance development. The resistance risk is generally based on whether the fungicide mode of action (MOA) is single or multi-site. Single site MOA products have a higher resistance risk than multi site MOA products. The pathogen types targeted by the fungicides also are factors. Fungicides should always be used by rotating MOA types. Users need to be especially careful not to rotate or alternate among fungicides in any one high resistance risk category. Follow resis- tance management instructions on product labels. © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 8
  • 10. REFERENCE GUIDE for ChEMICAL PLANT GROwTh REGULATORS ***Use Site(s) KEY: GH = Greenhouse; N = Nursery; T = Turf Chemical Plant Growth Regulators (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Activity Common Use roup* G Class Level** Name Trade Name REI Site(s)*** Company A-Rest® 1 Substituted Medium Ancymidol 12 GH/N SePRO Corp. pyrimidine Topflor® Flurprimidol 12 GH/N SePRO Corp. Cycocel ® Quaternary Low Chlormequat 12 GH OHP, Inc. ammonmium chloride B-Nine® Hydrazide Low Daminozide 24 GH/N Chemtura Corp. Bonzi ® Triazole High Paclobutrazol 12 GH/N Syngenta Paczol™ 12 GH/N Chemtura Corp. Piccolo™ 12 GH/N Fine Americas Inc. Sumagic ® High Uniconazole-p 12 GH Valent USA Corp. Atrimmec® 2 Unclassified High Dikegulac sodium 12 GH/N PBI Gordon 3 Fatty acid Medium methyl esters of Off-Shoot O GH/N Cochran Corp. fatty acids 4 Gibberellin (GA) High Gibberellic acid (A3) Florgib 4L 4 GH/T Fine Americas Inc. GibGro® 12 GH/N Nufarm Americas Inc. ProGibb® T&O 12 GH/N/T Valent USA Corp. Fascination™ Synthetic Cytokinin/ High Cytokinin/ 4 GH Valent USA Corp. Gibberellin Gibberellic acid 5 Acid Medium Ethephon Florel Brand 48-72 GH/N Monterey Chemical Southern Ag Hormodin® 6 Rooting Hormones IBA 0 GH/N OHP, Inc. Synthetic Auxin IBA + NAA Dip N Grow 0-24 GH/N Dip 'N Grow, Inc. ** Activity level is related to difficulty of use. The Higher the level the more difficult the product is to use. Some combinations of PGR's (e.g. B-Nine and Cycocel) have medium Activity. Thanks to Dr. Joyce Latimer, Virginia Tech, for help in preparing the PGR chart. *Chemical Plant Growth Regulators Modes of Action 1. Gibberellic Acid synthesis inhibitors 3. Chemical pincher 5. Ethylene generator 2. DNA synthesis inhibitor 4. Growth promoter 6. Rooting Hormones © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 9
  • 11. REFERENCE GUIDE for GREENhOUSE & NURSERY hERBICIDES Reference Guide for Ornamental Production Herbicides Rotation of herbicide classes is not necessary in field grown nursery crops to prevent weed resistance problems. Weed resistance to herbicides has not been a concern in the production of field grown nursery crops. Please read and follow all label directions and precautions. **Use Site(s) Key: PO = post emergence; PR = pre emergence; SF = soil fumigant; (GH) = registered for use in greenhouses; A = Annual Grasses; BW = Broadleaf Weeds; WO = Certain Woody Ornamentals; P = Perennials; MA = Most annuals; S = Sedges Greenhouse & Nursery herbicides (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use roup* G Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Acclaim® Extra 1 Aryloxyphenoxy fenoxaprop 12 PO; Bayer Environmental propionate 'FOPS' Science Fusilade ® II fluazifop-P-butyl 12 PO; Syngenta A, P Envoy ® Cyclohexanedione ‘DIMS’ clethodim 12 PO; A, Valent USA Corp. P (GH) Vantage ® sethoxydim 12 PO; BASF A, P Image® 2 Imidazolinone imazaquin 12 PR/PO; A BASF BW, S Dimension® 3 Pyridine dithiopyr 12 PR; Dow AgroSciences A, BW LLC Kerb® Benzamide pronamide 12 PR/PO; Dow AgroSciences A, BW LLC Pendulum® Dinitroaniline pendimethalin 24 PR; BASF A, BW Barricade® prodiamine 12 PR; Syngenta A, BW Regalkade® 12 PR; Regal Chemical Co. A, BW Surflan® oryzalin 12 PR; United Phosphorus A, BW trifluralin Treflan 12 PR; Dow AgroSciences A, BW LLC 3 + 3 Dintiroanaline + benefin + oryzalin XL 2G 12 PR; Helena Chemical Co. Dintiroanaline A, BW Lontrel™ 4 Picolinic acid clopyralid 12 PO; Dow AgroSciences WO LLC Princep® 5 Triazine simazine 12 PR; Syngenta A, BW © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 10
  • 12. Greenhouse & Nursery herbicides continued (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company Basagran® T/O 6 Benzothiadiazinone bentazon 12 PO; BW, BASF S Roundup PRO® 9 Glycine glyphosate 4 PO; A, P, Monsanto BW (GH) Finale® 10 Phosphinic acid glufosinate 12 PO; MA, Bayer Environmental P (GH) Science Predict® 12 Pyridazinone norflurazon 12 PR; Syngenta A, BW Goal® 14 Diphenylether oxyfluorfen 24 PR; Dow AgroSciences A, BW LLC Ronstar® Oxadiazole oxadiazon 12 PR; Bayer Environmental A, BW Science BroadStar® N-phenylphthalimides flumioxazin 12 PR; Valent USA Corp. A, BW SureGuard® 12 PR, PO: Valent USA Corp. A, BW Devrinol® 15 Acetamide napropamide 12 PR; United Phosphorous A, BW Pennant® Chloroacetamide metolachlor 24 PR; Syngenta A, BW Casoron® 20 Nitrile dichlobenil 12 PR; A, P, Chemtura Corp. Gallery™ 21 Benzamide isoxaben 12 PR; Dow AgroSciences A, BW LLC Gramoxone® Extra 22 Bipyridylium paraquat 12-24 PO; MA, Syngenta P, BW Reward® diquat 24 PO; MA, Syngenta P (GH) ® Granular 27 Other dazomet Basamid 24 SF; MA, P Certis USA, LLC Vapam® metham 48 SF; MA, P Amvac Chemical Corp. Scythe® pelargonic 24 PO; MA, Mycogen / P (GH) Dow AgroSciences LLC 14 + 3 Diphenylether + oxyfluorfen + Ornamental 24 PR; Scotts Company Herbicide II (OH2)® Dinitroaniline pendimethalin A, BW RegalStar® 14 + 3 Oxadiazole + oxadiazon + 12 PR; Regal Chemical Co. Dinitroaniline prodiamine A, BW Rout® 14 + 3 Diphenylether + oxyfluorfen + 24 PR; A Scotts Company Dinitroaniline oryzalin BW Kansel® 14 + 3 Oxadiazole+ oxadiazon+ 12 PR; A Scotts Company Dinitroanaline pendimethalin © Copyright 2006. OHP, Inc. 11
  • 13. Greenhouse & Nursery herbicides continued (by Mode of Action Group and Class) MOA Use G roup* Class Common Name Trade Name REI Site(s)** Company PrePair® 15 + 14 Acetamide + napropamide + 12 PR; UAP-Professional Oxadiazole oxadiazon A, BW Products Regal O-O® 15 + 4 Diphenylether + oxyfluorfen + 24 PR; Regal Chemical Co. Oxadiazole oxadiazon A, BW Snapshot™ TG 21 + 3 Benzamide + isoxaben + 12 PR; A, Dow AgroSciences Dinitroaniline trifluralin BW LLC Showcase™ 21 + 14 + 3 Benzammide + isoxaben + 12 PR; A, Dow AgroSciences Oxadiazole + oxyfluorfen + BW LLC Dinitroanaline trifluralin **Use Site(s) KEY: PO = post emergence; PR = pre emergence; SF = soil fumigant; (GH) = registered for use in greenhouses; A = Annual Grasses; BW = Broadleaf Weeds; WO = Certain Woody Ornamentals; P = Perennials; MA = Most annuals; S = Sedges *Greenhouse & Nursery Herbicides Modes of Action 1. Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) 2. Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS) 3. Microtubule assembly inhibition 4. Action like indole acetic acid (synthetic auxins) 5. Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II (C1)** 6. Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II (C3)** 7. Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II (C2)** 9. Inhibition of EPSP synthase 10. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase 12. Bleaching: inhibition of carotenoid biosysnthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS) 14. Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) 15. Inhibition of VLCFA’s (Inhibition of cell division) 20. Inhibition of cell wall (cellulose) synthesis 21. Inhibition of cell wall (cellulose) synthesis 22. Photosystem -I- electron diversion 27. Unknown **Subclasses with different binding behavior at the binding protein D1, or different classes *Mode of action numbers based on WSSA classification Thanks to Dr. Jeffrey Derr, Virginia Tech, for help in preparing the herbicide chart. 12
  • 14. Notes 13
  • 15. Notes 14
  • 16. ©2006. OHP, Inc. CCC 8/06 Technical Service 800-356-4647 ohp.com